Targeted membership programming : building the donor pyramid at the Florida Museum of Natural History

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Targeted membership programming : building the donor pyramid at the Florida Museum of Natural History
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Watkins, Jennifer L.
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College of Fine Arts, University of Florida
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Donors to nonprofit organizations range from large corporations to foundations to individuals. This paper deals only with gifts from individuals, which was the largest single source of financial contributions for a majority of nonprofits in 2010. I am specifically concerned with a subgroup of this population who contributes annually to an organization and receives specified benefits, which I term members. Not simply sources of earned income, members are important donors and form a solid foundational base for future major gifts. Members are not homogeneous, though. Nonprofits have tools at their disposal to modify the constituency of their membership, emphasizing characteristics desired by the organization. Organizations want to attract members who identify with their missions, since they are most likely to renew their memberships year after year as well as increase their donations. To make membership appealing and meaningful to this type of individual, museums need to implement exclusive programming that is in line with the museum’s mission and fosters relationships among members and with the museum and its staff. Through targeted membership programming, museums can even reach specific demographic targets the museum determines to be underrepresented. My thesis project was to assist the membership and volunteer coordinators at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) to research and develop a targeted program, a book club. Although open to all members, volunteers, and museum staff, the book club was created to fill a programming gap for professional adults. FLMNH has abundant programs for children and families, but the Membership Coordinator noticed that adults who had maintained family memberships were not renewing once their children reached the 8th grade. So that the Museum’s programming appealed to the demographics they were trying to attract and retain, the Membership Coordinator wanted to implement the adult-friendly book club. Traditionally, attendees of a book club meet monthly to discuss a specific work they have read. I researched other museum book club programs; book clubs not specific to museums; and separate programs like science cafes for the structure and content of the FLMNH program. I also created and evaluated surveys of the FLMNH’s staff, volunteers, and members; worked with sponsors; and drafted web content and promotional materials. The club met monthly on a weeknight evening determined to be convenient for the professionals, whom the program was targeted to reach. Attendees read a new work related to one of the Museum’s collecting areas each month. At the meetings, they listened to presentations by guest experts and engaged in lively discussions. Targeted membership programs are beneficial when a museum needs to reach a certain group in order to meet fundraising goals or increase diversity in members. For the FLMNH, the Book Club did not reach either of those goals. The program did not affect membership in the museum, but it did prove to have another kind of impact. Survey and informal feedback indicated that the program developed a loyal group of attendees who have a greater understanding of the museum’s collecting areas and have even changed the way they interact with plants and animals, the environment, and literature because of their book club experience.
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Museum studies terminal project

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TARGETED MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMMING : BUILDING THE DONOR PYRAMID AT THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY By JENNIFER L. WATKINS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE: PROF. GLENN WILLUMSON, CHAIR PROF. BARBARA BARLETTA, MEMBER A PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIFERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011

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! 2011 Jennifer L. Watkins

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! # To Anderso n, the best reason to delay this goal and the best reason to achieve it.

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! $ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: I would like to thank Dr. Willumson and Dr. Barletta, the chair and member of my supervisory committee for their guidance and assistance and Julie Crosby and Le slie Ladendorf for allowing me to work with them on this project. Thanks to Leslie, especially, for having the idea for the book club and for supplying essential answers and advice over the last year and a half. I appreciate the support of my family and p articularly my husband Kyle for constantly reading, discussing, debating, and offering invaluable suggestions and perspective on this document.

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! % TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEGEMENTS 4 ABSTRACT .. 6 INTRODUCTION .. 8 CHAPTER 1 MEMBERSHIP AS PART OF A FUNDRAISING PLAN .. 12 2 TARGETED MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMMING 21 3 FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOOK CLUB PLANNING AND EXECUTION ...32 4 CONCLUSION: REFLECTIONS ON FLMNH BOOK CLUB ...46 APPENDIX A THE DONOR PYRAMID .52 B SPONSOR SOLICITATION LETTER .53 C FLMNH BOOK CL UB LOGO.54 D FLMNH BOOK CLUB PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS ... 55 FIGURE 1: POST CARD COPY DRAFT ... 55 FIGURE 2: POST CARD FINAL 56 FIGURE 3: FLYER/RACK CARD COPY DRAFT 57 E POST BOOK CLUB SURVEY 58 F COMPLETE LIST OF BOOK CLUB TEXTS 59 REFERENCE LIST ... 60 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .6 3

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! & Abstract of Project in Lieu of Thesis presented to the College of Fine Arts of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts TARGETED MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMMING: BUILDING THE DONOR PYRAMID AT THE FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY By Jennifer L. Watkins December 2011 Chair: Glenn Willumson Major: Museology Donors to nonpro fit organizations range from large corporations to foundations to individual s This paper deals only with g ifts from individuals which was the largest sing l e source of financial contributions for a majority of nonprofit s in 2010. I am specifically concern ed with a subgroup of this population who contributes annually to an organization and receives specified benefits which I term members Not simply sources of earned income, members are important donors and form a solid foundational base for future major g ifts. Membe rs are not homogeneous, though. N onprofits have tools at their disposal to modify the constituency of their membership emphasizing characteristics desired by the organization Organizations want to attract members who identify with their missio ns, since they are most likely to renew their memberships year after year as well as increase their donations. To make membership appealing and meaningful to this type of individual museums need to implement exclusive programming that is in line with the museum's mission and foster s relationships among members and with the museum and its staff. T hrough targeted membership programming museums can even reach specific demographic targets the museum determines to be unde rrepresented

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! My thesis project was to assist the membership and volunteer c oordinators at t he Florida Mu seum of Natural History (FLMNH) to research and develop a targeted program, a book club Although open to all members, vo lunteers, and museum staff the book club was created to fill a prog ramming ga p for professional adults FLMNH has abundant programs for children and families, but the Membership Coordinator noticed that adults who had maintained family memberships were not re newing once their children reached the 8 th grade So that the Mu seum's programming appealed to the demographics they were trying to attract and retain the M embershi p Coordinator wanted to implement the adult friendly book club. Traditionally, attendees of a book club meet monthly to discuss a specific work they have r ead. I researched other museum book club programs; book clubs not specific to museums; and separate programs like science cafes for the structure and content of the FLMNH program. I also created and evaluated surveys of the FLMNH's staff, volunteers, and m embers; worked with sponsors; and drafted web content and promotional materials The club met monthly on a weeknight evening determined to be convenient for the professionals who m the program was targeted to reach. A ttendees read a new work related to one of the Museum's collecting areas each month. At the meeting s they listen ed to presentation s by guest expert s and engage d in lively discussion s Targeted membership programs are beneficial when a museum needs to reach a certain group in order to meet fund raising goals or increase diversity in members. For the FLMNH, the Book C lub did not reach either of those goals. The program did not affect membership in the museum but it did prove t o have another kind of impact. Survey and informal feedback indicated t hat t he program developed a loyal group of attendees who have a greater understanding of the museum's collecting areas and have even changed the way they interact with plants and animals, the environment, and literature because of their book club experienc e.

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! ( INTRODUCTION Donors to nonprofit organizations may be businesses government s foundations, or individual people. I ndividual donors, who give from their personal finances and not through another legal vehicle, were the largest single source of fina ncial contributions for a majority of nonprofits in 2010. 1 A n y individual who gives annually to an organization and receives specified benefits I term a member Museums, especially, employ membership programs With exhibits, events, and programs, museums c an offer rich benefits. Members in turn, contribute dues as well as time, advocate for t he institution in the community, and form a solid foundational base for future major gifts. Chapter one addresses membership as part of an overall fundraising plan. N ot simply sources of earned income, members are important donors. They are valuable for the funds they contribute annually for memberships but also serve as an important source of prospects for other types of giving. Members are not homogeneous though, a nd every donor has individual attitudes toward an institution and motivations for giving It is the fundraiser's responsibility to understand these variations and use the tools at their disposal to recruit and retain members who will remain loyal donors to the museum and increase their gifts over time. This kind of donor will identif y with the mission, or what the museum does and whom they serve. Mission oriented donors feel a connection to the organization unlike a member who joins different institutions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 The N onprofit Research Collaborative, The 2010 Nonprofit Fundraising Survey ," The Nonp rofit Research Collaborative March 2011, http://www2.guidestar.org/ViewCmsFile.aspx?ContentID=3266, 14. This figure refers to gifts given inter vivos by living individuals, and does not include bequests or planned gifts.

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! ) each year for one time benefit s, like special event ticket s or shopping bag s with museum logos 2 Research has shown most donors prefer a to have a relationship with an organization, and to have that relationship grow over time 3 When members have this kind of bond with the museum, they may upgrade their membership, give an additional donation, become advocates for the museum in the community, or even make a contribution via a bequest. To make membership appealing and meaningful to donors who identify with the museum's mission and are most likely to remain loyal fundraisers need to implement exclusive progr amming driven by that mission and designed to foster relationships among members and with the museum and its staff. These programs can also be designed t o reach specific demographics if the museum determines important groups are underrepresented in its membership. Women, young business leaders, or minorities, for example, are popular tar gets for cultivation. Targeted programs related to its mission can be the most effective at attracting the groups a museum wants to reach and retaining them as loyal members. This is the subject of chapter two My thesis project researched and helped to develop and implement such a targeted program at the Florida Mus eum of Natural History (FLMNH). The FLMNH sought to develop an exclusive program to attract mission oriented members, especially professional adults who were deemed an underrepresented demographic. The Museum has abundant programs for children and families, but the Membership Coordinator noticed that adults who had maintained family memberships were not re newing once their children reached the 8 th grade I assisted the Membership and Volunteer C oordinators in creating a book club to fill the programming ga p and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Margot A. Wallace, Museum Brand in g : How to Create and Maintain Image, Loyalt y, and Support ( Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2006 ), 43 3 Adrian Sargeant and Elaine Jay, Building Donor Loyalty: The Fundraiser's Gui de to Increasing Lifetime Value ( San Fra ncisco: John Wiley & Sons, 2004), xi.

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! *+ i ncrease offerings for current and potential members Although developed for and targeted to professional adults, the club was open to all other members as well as vo lunteers and museum staff. Traditionally, attendees of a book club meet monthly to discuss a specific work they have read. I researched other museum book club programs book clubs not specific to museums and separate programs like science cafŽ s for the structure and content of the FLMNH program. I also created and evaluated surveys of the FLMNH 's staff, volunteers, and members; worked with sponsors; and drafted web content and promotional materials The club met monthly on a weeknight evening determined to be convenient for the professionals coming from work, whom the program was targeted to rea ch. A ttendees read a new work related to one of the Museum's collecting areas each month. At the meetings, they listen ed to presentations by guest experts and engage d in lively discussion s Chapter three details the development process and implementation o f the Book C lub Targeted membership programs are beneficial when a museum needs to reach a certain group in order to meet fundraising goals or increase diver sity in members. For the FLMNH the Book C lub did not achieve either Membership in the M useum di d not incr ease as a result of the program, and there was no noticeable change in the attrition of professional adults whose children aged out of other programs. The club lasted only fifteen months and memberships expire annually, so trends were difficult t o measure accurately after such a short time Consistent marketing and advertising could have helped the book club be a successful targeted program but any museum can use similar techniques to effect positive changes on the constitution of their membershi p. While the FLMNH's club did not alter membership trends, s urvey and informal feedback indicated t he program developed a loyal group of attendees who have a greater understanding of the museum's collecting areas and have changed the way they interact with

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! ** plants and animals, the environment, and literature because of their book club experience. Chapter four summarizes the results of the program and makes recommendations for improving outcomes of similar programs at other institutions.

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! *" CHAPTER 1 : MEMBERSHI P AS PART OF A FUNDRAISING PLAN Giving USA reports that, in 2010, Americans gave 2% of their incomes to nonprofit organizations. That equates to $211.77 billion, or 73% of total giving. 4 The Nonprofit Research Collaborative has found that actual figures vary widely among individual organizations, but living individuals 5 are the largest single source of gifts to a majority of nonprofits. 6 These donors give through a broad range of methods: in kind gifts sponsorships, online donations payroll deduction s attendance at special events and benefits, direct mail or phone call s major gift s and collection boxes. 7 Becoming a member, contributing a certain amount to an organization and receiving specified benefits in return, is another type of individual givin g, used especially by museums. 8 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 4 Giving USA Foundation, Giving USA 2011: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 2010: Executive Summary accessed July 10, 2011, http://www.givingusareports.org/products/GivingUSA_2011_ExecSummary_Print.pdf, i. 5 Living individuals give from thei r personal finances and not a legal vehicle for giving. In contrast are individuals who make donations through their wills who would no longer be living at the time the gift is made. Bequests a lso called plan ned giving, are gifts made through a will. 6 T he N onprofit Research Collaborative, "The 2010 Nonprofit Fundraising Survey," 14. This study represents a convenience sample only. Other sources of gifts include foundations; local, state, and federal governments; and businesses 7 GuideStar .org defines in kind gifts as contributions of goods and services that are of value to a nonprofit organization. A sponsorship is a monetary or in kind donation given in return for commercial benefit, i.e. logo placement. Major gifts are very subjective, depending on the organization and the donor, but are generally those that could strengthen the organization and bolste r its presence in the community, according to the A ssociation of F undraising P rofessionals. 8 The Internal Revenue Service has regulations specifying what deductions a donor may claim when he receives things of value in return, called goods and services. The amount of a member's claim must be adjusted, subtracting the fair market value of the benefits included with membership, when his gift is over $75. It is the responsibility of the museum to disclose the amount of applicable goods and services. For more information, see IRS Publication 1771: Charitable Contributions Substantiation and Disclosure Requirements

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! *# One of the conventional ways to represent fundraising is a donor pyramid. 9 In this model, the base of the pyramid stands for the greatest number of donors, who individually give the smallest gifts. The majority of first ti me members fall into this category. At the top of the pyramid are the largest donors, like t hose making bequests who are the fewest. In between, levels like renewed or upgraded members, capital donors, and major gift donors are arranged to represent the d ecreasing populations in those groups and the increasing amounts of their gifts The pyramid illustrates the process donors usually follow, moving from casual involvement in a nonprofit organization to annual giving to a planned gift or bequest. 10 Fundraise rs then, seek to build the broad foundation of support and then cultivate relationships with select donors, who increase their activity in the organization and give larger gifts. 11 Membership programs are a key way to recruit donors at the base level. When members feel a connection with t he organization and its mis sion, fundraisers are more able to renew and upgrade their gifts, moving them up the donor pyramid. The Benefits and Requirements of Membership Programs Ninety percent of museums responding to the American Association of Museums (AAM) most recent financial survey have some form of membership program. 12 This is not surprising, considering all of the benefi ts members bring. Direct income from annual dues is only !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9 Appendix A. 10 Henry A. Rosso & Associates, H ank Rosso's Achieving Excellence in Fund Raising 2 nd ed. ed. Eugene R. Tempel (San Fancisco: Jossey Bass, 2003) 63. 11 Michael Seltzer, Securing Your Organization's Future: A Complete Guide to Fundraising Strategies (New York: The Foundation Center, 2001) 159. 12 American Association of Museums Information Center Fact Sheet: Membership Data, American Association of Museums 2010 http://www.aam us.org/museumresources/ic/fs/ei/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&PageID=192 57 1

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! *$ one return from a successful member ship program. Members also serve as a group from which major and planned g ift prospects can be cultivated. They may lend political clout, as a large number of supporters behind an institution. 13 As people who already have familiarity with and interest in a museum, they are also potential volunteers. Many fundraisers recogn ize these benefits but members are not consistently treated like the important donors they are. AAM considers memberships a source of earned income like ticket fees and museum store r evenue rather than gifts. 14 On their membership resources web page, five out of ten articles actually pertain to direct mail, not membership. 15 Development veteran Tony Poderis differentiates between "fee based" and "philanthropy driven" memberships When a member gives dues (a "fee") and receives benefits, he considers this earned income and actually best handled by the marketing department. Fundraisers should focus only on donors who give primarily for recognition, although they may still be given "perks," according to Poderis. 16 Members are much more than sources of earned income. As part of the foundation of the fundraising pyramid, any member has the potential to progress upward and become the next million dollar benefactor. Thus, no member should be dis missed as a donor and relegated to the marketing department. M ajor donors all begin a relationship with a museum in some way, and m embership programs provide an environment in which they can learn about the museum and its !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13 Joan Flanaga n, Memberships: How to Build Your Organization's Donor Base and Political Clout at the Sam e Time accessed August 1, 2011, http://www.tgci .com/magazine/Selling%20Memberships.pdf, 2. 14 "Membership," American Association of Museums accessed September 15, 20 11, http://www.aam us.org/museumresources/ic/fs/ei/members.cfm? 15 Ibid. *& Tony Poderis, "The Name is the Game: Memberships and Named Gift Opportunities," Raise Funds.com accessed September 15, 2011, http://www.raise funds.com/1998/the name is the game me mberships and named gift opportunities/.

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! *% mission. Fundraisers are also able to get to know the members and identify prospects for further cultivation. Certainly, members are not all the same Some have the ability and desire to upgrade their gifts, while others do not. E very donor has individual attitudes toward an institution a nd motivations for giving. It is the fundraiser's responsibility to understand these variations and how they are manifest ed among the museum's membership By interacting with members, the fundraiser can identify donors who relate to the mission and have t he potential to remain loyal to the museum and increase their gifts over time. These members too, have the opportunity to develop a bond with the museum and its staff an important precursor to upgraded gifts. Acquiring New Members "Membership" means b elonging to a group; it implies "belonging to a group that resembles one's own tastes and standards." 17 M embers with the potential for long term loyalty will believe in a museum's mission and feel comfortable visiting and interacting with museum staff, volu nteers, and other members. Acquiring members like this requires assertive selling and effective branding, so that strangers and casual visitors know what the museum stands for and what it means to be a member. 18 By definition, museums offer benefits to the ir members. People may join a museum because the benefits include something they desire, like discounted admission to a one time blockbuster exhibition, a special event invitation or museum logoed mugs or bags T he membership and attendance benefits of pr ograms like these are noteworthy If they are the only !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! *' Margot A. Wallace, Consumer Research for Museum Marketers: Au dience Insights Money Can't Buy ( L anham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2010) 51. 18 Wallace, Museum Branding 43.

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! *& reason a person joins, though, the result will be a short term member who will not renew or upgrade and will not move up the donor pyramid. This person does not necessarily feel a connection to the org anization, and may join different institutions each year solely based on the available benefits 19 He or she has made a value purchase, rather than acting philanthropically. One museum found its numbers decreased one year by almost the exact number attribut ed to a special show the previous year. 20 This is referred to as the "blockbuster effect." Mission oriented members will, instead, primarily appreciate the benefits of recognition by and association with the museum and fellow donors in addition to enjoying programming in line with the museum's purpose Recruitment m ethods that are more likely to result in new loyal members those with a genuine interest in supporting the museum's mission, abound. Frequent visitor cards offering, for example, a discount in the museum store after a certain number of visits, create loyal visitors who know what the institution stands for and who develop an desire to become members. "Bring a friend" specials, offered to current members, encourage those already familiar with the museum and its mission to share their experiences with a like minded friend. These guests should be acknowledged especially kindly by museum staff, using their name if possible and offering recommendations for their visit. T heir information should also be collected for follow up contact. 21 Direct mail campaigns may be waged, but the solicitation letter must be consistent with the museum's voice and its brand in order to attract individuals who will be loyal members. Membership benefits, too, can actually b e tailored to attract and retain mission oriented members. Benefits like meaningful lectures, educational gallery tours or research trips should !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! *) Wallace, Museum Branding 43 20 Victoria D. Ale xander, Museums and Money: The Impact of Funding on Exhibitio ns, Scholarship, and Management ( Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996) 51. 21 Wallace, Museum Branding, 48.

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! *' be driven by that mission In this way, members are attracted by programs that are closely tied to the museu m's purpose rather than by value purchases that will be a better deal elsewhere in another year They can learn about the museum, its collections, and its staff and their relationship s and loyalty will have the opportunity to deepen through participation in these benefits Mission consistency may be communicated not just in programming but also through creatively naming giving levels like names of historical figures at a history museum or animal species at a zoo 22 Retaining Members Retaining current mem bers requires continual remind ing on the part of the fundraiser They must let individuals know when memberships are expiring allowing ample time for renewal and additional reminders, if necessary. C orrespondence must emphasize the previous year's exhibit s and programs, what members enjoy most at the institution and the museum's brand. A brand is the logo, design, style of communication and any other factor that defines an organization in the mind of the public. In this case, branding will reinforce the recipients' connection with the museum and the museum's mission Organizations may maintain or add exclusive member activities and programs for which members receive a special discount. One popular trend is a "behind the scenes" tour or opportunity to ob serve museum employees, like conservators, at work. A low cost way to increase the engagement of donors, these programs add another dimension to the membership !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22 Ibid.

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! *( experience by increasing interaction with staff and allowing access to areas projects, or peopl e that are usually off limits 23 Membership 's Effect on Donor Retention and Loyalty It costs an average of five times more to recruit a new donor than to keep a current one. 24 Retaining members is essential for the continuous stream of revenue they bring but also for the savings museums accrue by decreasing the amount they spend recruiting new individuals. Minor increases in loyalty, or decreases in attrition, may result in dram atically higher lifetime values from each donor, considering both revenues and savings. 25 Long term donors, including members are also significantly more likely than single time donors to increase their gift levels, volunteer, and make a planned gi ft. Re search has shown donors prefer to have a relationship with an organization, and to have that relationship grow over time. 26 Members are specially poised to develop these connections receiving frequent communications from the museum and development staff as well as having the opportunity to participate in exclusive programs, unlike a t ypical donor. The extent to which donors ultimately give is often reflective of the extent of their involvement in the organization. 27 In order to ensure all members at the FLMNH were able to become involved in mission driven programm ing, we created the boo k club. This targeted membership program was !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23 Stacy Palmer Letting Donors See What's Behind the Scenes ," The Ch ronicle of Philanthropy last modified February 12, 2009, http://philanthropy.com/blogs/prospecting/letting donors see whats behind the scenes/19158 "$ Adrian Sargeant. "Managing Donor Defection: Why Should Donors Stop Giving?" in Understanding Donor Dynam ics: The Organizational Side of Charitable Giving ed. Eugene R. Tempel, N o. 32 (Summer 2001): 59. This statistic is e xtrapolated from research in the commercial sector. 25 Sargeant Building Donor Loyalty 4 26 Sargeant Building Donor Loyalty xi. 27 Ross o, Fund Raising 466.

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! *) p rimarily designed to minimize attrition of professional adult s thereby reducing the costs of recruiting new members and maximizing the benefits of the l o ng term donors. When a membership program retains missio n oriented donors, it nurtures a group of individuals who will continually renew their gifts and move up the donor pyramid as well as saving the organization money on recruiting. Membership at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) The FLMNH oper ates an exemplary membership program one it has maintained for over forty years. They regard membershi p dues as gifts, not earned income. They value each individual equally, no matter where they fall within the donor pyramid, and acknowledge that any memb er could become a high level donor. Most organizations separate members into levels, based on the amount of their annual contribution and the benefits they receive F or fiscal year 2010 2011, FLMNH's eight membership levels ranged from $50 to $300. In fisc al year 2010 2011 regular membership income reached approximately $99 ,000 not including gifts through a n additional special program Giving was slightly up, totaling just $96,000 and $94,000 in 2009 2010 and 2008 2009, respectively. The Museum averaged 8 9 7 members in 2010 2011, distributed among all twelve levels (eight regular and four in the special program) actually a decrease from 944 and 901 the two previous years The core benefits, offered to every member regardless of level and as advertised on the Museum's web site, include: free admission to temporary exhibits and discounted admission to the Butterfly Rainforest live exhibit, a 10% discount at the museum gift shops, reciprocal memberships at affiliated science and children's museums worldwide, and invitations to

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! "+ exclusive Members Previews of new exhibits. 28 Additional dues earn additional benefits, like early enrollment in and discounts on Museum classes, invitations to a collections open house, gallery tours with curatorial staff, and credit in the annual report. The Museum also offer s the special recognition based program the Curator's Society, with additional levels for d onors who give $500 to over $5000. These members receive all above benefits as well as acknowledgment on the annual giving wall, and may receive private tours and invitations to the Director's dinner based on their donation. The book club that was my thesis project is not listed as an official benefit, because the Museum did not want to obligate itself to providing it always O fficial benefits are guaranteed. Not only did the club not meet in December (due to holidays) it was a new and unproven program. The Museum could change or discontinue it without notice because it was treated as a perk, in addition to the regular members hip benefits. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 28 "Membership Levels," Florida Museum of Natural History accessed June 10, 2011, http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/membership/levels.htm.

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! "* CHAPTER 2 : TARGETED MEMBERSHIP PROGRAMMING Targeting Demographic Groups Organizations frequently identify specific groups of people they want to reach. For profit companies advertise to audiences they hope will buy their product. Nonpro fits want to identify and engage individuals who are most likely to give to their institution. Establishing criteria for the constituents of these groups and working to engage them is called targeting A museum may target individuals already known to them but not engaged as donors, such as special event attendees or parents of summer campers. It may also appeal to new types of groups whose demographics are not represented in its current donor base in order to diversify or expand it In either case, a muse um must determine whom it want s to target, and why those groups are important to include in the donor, and member, community. Criteria used to establish a target group can be one or many demographic identifiers: age, gender, race, religion, education, fami ly size or type, geographic area, socioeconomic group, or income. Donors and prospects may be categorized based on one or all of these variables. Seniors, young professionals, women, and minorities are groups often identified by fundraisers. 29 In the nonpr ofit sector, a large proportion of gifts come from the older segments of the population. 30 People are retiring with more wealth than any previous generation, are highly brand loyal, and have interest and time to devote to the museum. Thus, they have great p otential for being good members and that makes them an important demographic for museums. Young professionals, ranging in age from mid twenties to early forties, are a robust group. Made up of a broad range of individuals, young professionals are often e nergetic donors !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 29 Jessica Theaman, Know Your Donors : The NonProfit's Guide to Successful Individual Giving" (master's t hesis, University of Florida, 2005), 13. 30 Sargeant, Building Donor Loyalty 77.

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! "" with disposable income and extra time, looking to get involved. They are likely to volunteer, join committees, and appreciate the benefits of membership. The typical schedule of this group, though, means that museums must create opportuniti es for them to be involved beyond work hours. Two arts groups in New York have succes sfully reached this demographic. The Battery Dance Company used lunch hour previews brought to financial district office buildings and outdoor plazas to expand their payin g audience and mailing list, and the Soho Repertory Theatre advertised Thursday evening specials only in the Lower Manhattan Cultural Council newsletter. 31 A rts and cultural groups around the country are courting younger patrons th r ough a variety of efforts : recruiting younger trustees, creating special programming, and implementing membership programs with special targeted social events. One arts institution wanted to make it very clear that those young professionals who attend these events will be joining a group of like minded individuals. 32 Women's giving habits are different from those of men and, currently, they donate more than men do Women often seek involvement with the organization to which they give, so maintaining an active membership program i s beneficial to attracting female donors. 33 They tend to give smaller amounts to greater numbers of nonprofits, though; long term loyalty and upgrading gifts are areas to focus on with this demographic. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 31 Alvin H. Reiss, Cash In! Funding and Promoting the Arts: A Compendium of Imaginative Concepts, Tested Ideas and Case Histories of Programs and Promotions That Make Money ( Ne w York: The atre Communications Group, 1986) 52. 32 Mary E. Medland What Arts Organizations Are Doing to Attract Younger Patrons ," The Chronicle of Philanthropy last modified April 22, 2002, http://philanthropy.com/article/What Arts Organizations Are/525 09/ 33 Suzanne E. Coffman, "Women and Philanthropy," National Council of Jewish Women last modified March 1999, http://www.ncjw.org/media/PDFs/ConventionWorkshops/Women%20and%20Philanthropy.pdf, 2.

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! "# The giving habits of minority cultures are highly var ied, but some generalizations can be made. Many individuals are becoming involved with and giving to non traditional organizations, outside their home church and own racial and ethnic communities. Due to rising wealth and opportunities, minorities are more aware of and interested in supporting museums than in the past Institutions must consider their marketing plans to assure promotions are reaching targeted groups, who may live outside zip codes with outdoor advertising or direct mail. 34 Criteria for crea ting target groups may be whatever a museum chooses, and t hese are by no means all group s that a museum may consider Men influence families' purchasing decisions, even if they do not make the actual purchase. Teenagers involved with institutions will reme mber them as adults. Artists, photographers, and academics all look for something different from the general public in a museum; relationships with these groups can be nurtured with set aside areas and after hours programs for creative projects or research A s long as the specified audience exhibits characteristics the museum determines are lacking and desires to cultivate targeting is an effective tool of fundraisers Targeted Programming Exclusive activities are an important asset to a membership prog ram Those activities can be customized to reach specific target audiences diversifying and expand ing the membership base while achieving fundraising goals The day and time, length, and location of the activity can be tailored to meet the needs of a vari ety of groups. A program geared toward retirees could take place on a weekday, since work schedule is not a concern, but would ideally be during the daytime to accommodate those who prefer not to drive at night or stay out late. Alternately, an !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 34 Wallace, Museum Branding 46.

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! "$ activity de signed to draw young professionals might be scheduled later in the evening and take place at a hip, downtown location. A program at 10:00 a.m. on a Tuesday would attract few young professionals, and one at 9:00 p.m. in the middle of a city could expect a s mall turnout of retirees. How the program is marketed can also have a significant effect on the demographics that attend. Traditional advertising does not commonly reach diverse groups, so museums must identify new methods of reaching out beyond the publi c radio station, city shopping magazine, and usual direct mail list. 35 For African American and Hispanic markets, for example, museums should consider publicizing programs through local churches since they are sources of social and weekend activities for so me members of those communities When trying to attract any target demographic, advertising in publications the group read s or on the radio stations to which they listen, encouraging people to bring along friends to events, and developing joint initiatives with organizations already popular in that market are all effective. Successful Targeted Programs Museums across the country are implementing programs specially designed to connect with certain demographics groups in their members hip Below are three ex amples Each museum chose a different target group but they all realized a need to increase that population among their members. The programs have all achieved their goals of increasing the targeted groups' memberships and strengthening their involvement i n the museum. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! #% Wallace, Museum Brandin g 46.

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! "% Brooklyn Museum of Art: 1stfans The Brooklyn Mus eum of Art (BMA) in N ew York is one of the oldest and largest art museums in America. An encyclopedic museum, its collections represent a wide variety of cultures and range from ancient mast erpieces to contemporary art. According to its mission statement, the Museum aims to serve its diverse public as a dynamic, innovative, and welcoming center for learning through the visual arts. 36 With a history of avant garde exhibitions and unique and i maginative programs, the museum would be expected to develop a completely new type of membership: a socially networked membership, called 1stfans. BMA is targeting two primary demographics with this program. The first are web followers, who engage with th e Museum's online initiatives like blogs, podcasts, voting to affect exhibitions, or tagging online collection images as part of the BMA Posse, but have not typically connected in person. These followers may even live out of the lo cal area The second are visitors to the museum's popu lar Target First Saturday event: o nce a month, the museum offers extremely well attended free programs of art and entertainment from 5:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m., along with a cash bar, refreshments, and parking at a reduced rate. B oth groups, web followers and First Saturday attendees, have shown a repeated interes t in the museum, but neither ha d historically, joined as members. 37 The idea behind 1stfans was a new structure for membership that was low cost yet provided benefits in which these two groups would be interested. The goal was to grow the museum's base of support through personal rel ationships with 1stfans both in person and online. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 36 "Mission Statement, Brooklyn Museum of Art accessed July 31, 2011, http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/about/mission.php 37 Membership 2.0: A Socially Networked Museum Membership," Fundraising Success last modified February 18, 2009 http://www.fund raisingsuccessmag.com/article/membership 20 a socially networked museum membership 403238/1.

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! "& The membership fee is $20 annually. Benefits for 1stfans include exclusive events within th e Target First Saturday structure (where they may also skip movie and coat check lines), facilitating connections with other 1stfans members, Museum staff, and contemporar y artists. From the program's inception in 2008 through December 2010, 1stfans member s also receive d online updates with information on 1stfans events, Museum insider information, and art world news via Facebook, Flickr, or an e newsletter and interacted via the Museum's Twitter Art Feed 38 Tweets by artists and Museum staff disseminated i nformation, engaged members, encouraged discussions, and produced art projects. For example, an artist and museum membership manager in Dallas who was also a long distance, online only 1stfan initiated a project that posed questions and solicited responses from online followers on the topics of photography and food over the course of a month. Another artist noted the relationship between the brevity and acronym s utilized in tweets and Morse c ode, and encouraged 1stfans to tweet in that code. The Twitter Art Feed encouraged interaction among 1stfans, artists, and museum staff, and advanced art, creativity, and BMA's engagement with 1stfans online. Feedback from surveys about the 1stfans membership indicated people enjoy ed the concept of the membership, and that the Museum responded to the ways they engage with museums today. People also appreciated being able to interact with Museum staff and other 1stfans online twenty four hours a day, in the same way that they relate to their friends through social media. 39 Members had a great time at Target First Saturdays, and BMA saw a high !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 38 Will C arey, introducing 1stfans: a socially networked museum membership ," Community: bloggers@brooklynmuseum (blog), December 5, 2008 http://www.brooklynmuseum .org/community/blogosphere/2008/12/05/introducing 1stfans a socially networked museum membership/ 39 Will Carey, Survey and changes after the first year of 1stfans ," Community: bloggers@brooklynmuseum (blog), February 4, 2010

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! "' renewal rate from those who attended those events. People socialized and made new friends around museum related content. Most l ong distance members, on the other hand, were not taking advantage of the online only benefits, like Twitter Art Feed, and joined and renewed only out of general support for the Museum. 40 Museum communication and meet up announcements were lost among the daily glut of information on facebook and F lickr. As of De cember 2010, BMA shifted the focus and online presence of 1stfans to better accommodate in person interaction. They began utilizing Meetup.com for their online operations and exclusive event announcements. The 1stfans program responded to the issues in its membership and evolved to remain current and effective, while meeting its original goals and engaging non typical members around mission oriented programming. Museum of Latin American Art: En La Noche The Museum of Latin American Art in Long Beach, Cali fornia exclusively features contemporary Latin American fine art. In 2008, the fundraising staff noticed that the majority of its membership was seniors, and they were the only ones attending exclusive member opening events for new exhibitions. According t o the Membership Manager, they appreciated the essential support provided by seniors but recognized the need to cultivate a younger audience as well. 41 They brainstormed a creative program to appeal to young adults, twenty five to thirty five years old. Cal led En La Noche the event is held during extended evening museum hours and includes music, drinks, and art. The Museum markets it as a social activity and networking !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! http://www.brooklynmuseum.or g/community/blogosphere/2010/02/04/survey and changes after the first year of 1stfans/ $+ Shelley Bernste in, 1stfans: Shifting Focus and Moving to Meetup.com," Community: bloggers@brooklynmuseum (blog), November 3, 2010, http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/comm unity/blogosphere/2010/11/03/1stfans shifting focus and moving to meetupcom/. 41 Marcy Rodriguez, email message to the author, May 3, 2011.

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! "( opportunity, and the event is free to members and open to non members for a $10 fee. Alth ough they have not analyzed the membership numbers since the program's inception, the staff has noted that the Members' Openings, previously only attended by seniors, have had an increasingly young and diverse audience. They are encouraged and believe the membership's age and diversity is making the gains they wanted to achieve. Booth Western Art Museum: Photography and Artists' Guilds Opened August 2003, the Booth Western Art Museum is the largest permanent exhibition space for Western art in the countr y. It is located in Cartersville, Georgia, north of Atlanta, and features historic and contemporary Western American art, Civil War art, and Presidential portraits and letters. The second largest art museum in Georgia, it was named an Affiliate of the Smit hsonian Institution in 2006. 42 In 2010, the Booth Museum's Volunteer and Group Scheduling Coordinator suggested starting an a rtists' g uild at the museum. She was a member of an artists' guild in Northwest Georgia and thought a guild program would be a perf ect fit at the Booth Museum. Seven months later, a p hotography g uild grew out of the artists' group. It was inspired in part by t w o photo ex hibitions held around that time: Four Seasons in Yellowstone an exhibit by wild life photographer Tom Murphy, and Ansel Adams: A Legacy 43 Guild members must first be members of the Museum ( at any level ) and then pay an additional $24 annually. In both guilds, artists of all levels network, have access to ongoing art education and mentorship within the guilds and p articipate in exclusive biennial juried shows at !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42 "Museum Facts," Booth Western Art Museum, accessed April 19, 2011, http://www.boothmuseum.org/about/museum_facts.ht ml. $# Karen Mahoney email message to the author, May 4, 2011.

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! ") the Museum. 44 Members coordinate and run their own private guild meetings, but may use the Museum's art academy as a meet ing place free of charge. The Artists' Guild meets regularly each month ; the Photograph y Guild has a M eetu p.com web page they use to coordinate meetings and photo shoot trips. Both guild memberships are targeted at artists, rather than a specific cultural or age group. The Booth Museum has seen increases in its membership as a result of b oth guilds: total membership has increased by ten percent because of the Artists' Guild, and h alf of the Museum's approximately 100 members have joined in order to participate in the Photography Guild. Every month the program s continue to grow. The Museum relies on word of mouth advertising among current members as well as within the arts community. They also include a fl yer insert with membership renewal forms, advertise the guilds on their web site, and th e photography group utilizes Meetu p .com to captur e the interest of activity seekers. 45 Targeted Programming at The Florida Museum of Natural H istory For members and non members alike, t he Florida Museum of Natural History has bountiful programming for children and families. It frequently offer s one time or temporary exhibit centered lecture s, workshops, and performances that variously appeal to families, adults, and seniors. None of these activities take s place on a continuing, consistent basis, and none has been designed and marketed to attract a specif ic demographic group. The FLMNH did have one long term program targeted to adults, called Science Sundays. Ending March 2009, the Science Sundays series took place for nearly a decade and consisted of lectures and presentations given !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 44 "Join the Booth!" Booth Western Art Museum, accessed April 19, 2011, http://www.boothmuseum.org/involved/join.html. 45 Karen Mahoney email message to the author, May 4, 2011.

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! #+ by authors, artists, p rofessors, and museum staff. The meetings were geared for adults and simultaneous children's programming was even offered for a portion of the program's tenure so that parents would be more inclined to attend The series occurred in the fall and spring, a pproximately once per month but not on a regular schedule. The frequency dwindled and by 2008 there were just four meetings per year. Science Sundays was cancelled in 2009 due to poor attendance and the FLMNH was left without any ongoing adult programmin g In 2010, p rofessional adults with teenage children were identified by the FLMNH 's Membership Coordinator to be a group on whom they needed to focus membership recruitment and retention efforts Like the "young professional" demographic, these parents are involved in the social, business, education, and civic communities and may be important members, donors, and voices to spread the word about the institution. 46 They are slightly older than young professionals, though, po tentially married and with high school age children, so singles' cocktail parties and programs for young families appeal less to this group. Studies have shown giving is positively correlated with age (through retirement), education, and marital status, so th e s e middle aged white collar parents are an important demographic. 47 The Membership Coordinator determined that they were, unfortunately, underrepresented among members. While processing memberships and manually keying those that had expired she noticed a trend of families maintain ing memberships for many years until their children reached high school and could no longer take advantage of d ay or summer camps and when the children no longer considered visiting the Museum with their parents "cool." The parents then stopped renewing al together, since there was no programming of which they could take !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 46 Wallace, Consu mer Research 93. 47 Dennis R. Young, Financing Nonprofits: Putting Theory into Practice ( L anham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2007) 25.

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! #* advantage on their own. Some of these adults actually returned to membership as grandparents, when there were again programs in which to participate. This pattern did not apply to all profes sional adults, but it was a disturbing trend. In order to keep these members engaged, and to attract similar new members, the Museum decided to implement programming that appealed specifically to them. The Membership Coordinator 's idea was a book club des igned to remedy flaws she and the Volunteer Coordinator saw in the previous targeted adult program, Science Sundays. They wanted the club to meet on a regular and predictable basis, to avoid confusion over meeting days and to allow people to fit it into th eir routines. They also hoped to encourage interaction among attendees, so a discussion based book club was more suitable than the lecture style Science Sundays Additionally, the Volunte er Coordinator thought th ose lectures could have benefitted from refr eshments over which attendees could have lingered after the talk was over. She was instrumental in the inclusion of food and drink at the book club meetings, to foster a relaxed atmosphere and encourage the discussion and relationship building the Coordina tors wanted.

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! #" CHAPTER 3 : FLORIDA MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOOK CLUB PLANNING AND EXECUTION The Florida Museum of Natural History is the State of Florida's museum for natural science and anthropological collections. It is the largest collections based museum in the Southeast, with over 25 million objects. The Museum had expenditures of $15.9 million in fiscal year 2009 2010. That year, 188,544 visitors came to the museum, 9,092 people attended its public programs, and its membership numbered 944. The M embership Coordinator recognized the Museum was having trouble retaining adult members without young children and she inferred that the pattern was related to a dearth of programming for that demographic group. These members consistently renewed until the ir childre n reached high school age, and might return to membership after retirement or once they had grandchildren with an interest in different programming offerings. Prompted by accounts of her coworkers' book club, t he Membership Coordinator thought th at type of program meeting on weekday evenings to accommodate those coming after work, would appeal to adults and support demographic variety within membership Although the Book Club was primarily designed to reach professional adult members, t he members hip pool was small to support a new program like the club. The Membership Coordinator teamed with the Volunteer Coordinator to open the club to volunteers as well as to share the workload of the program They also invited staff to join primari ly so that t hey could meet the M useum's donors Goals of the Book Club Although the impetus for the book club's creation was retention of professional adult members, that was not one of the program's stated goals. I t became a joint project between the

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! ## Membership an d Volunteer Coordinators, and the goals they outlined applied to both of their departments. Most importantly and most simply the new program had to provide an adult activity for Museum members, volunteers, and staff. It also needed to strengthen the ir re lationship s with the M useum, by encouraging interaction among donors and with Museum development staff and curators and collections managers, who were guest experts present at each meeting. The y also wanted the club to promote and increase membership and v olunteerism; recognize members, volunteers, and staff with an exclusive event; and increase natural history literacy, especially as related to the FLMNH's collections. Planning for the Program The Coordinators agreed that the book club could be both effe ctive and interesting but neither had plentiful time or budget to devote to planning and implementation. They had done some pre planning, outlining goals as well as organization, sponsorship s and book possibilities. I became their assistant on the projec t for a semester and was charged with a series of tasks: surveying programs similar to what we wanted to create, including science cafŽs and museum and non museum book clubs, and evaluating their structure and organization; creating an online survey to ass ess members' interest in the budding program; working with potential sponsors for refreshments and books ; and helping craft promotional materials and online content Beyond establishing the aforementioned goals, the Membership and Volunteer Coordinators h ad done some additional planning before I joined the project. They had determined how to divide the workload between themselves : each would be responsible for reading the books in alternating months and for moderating those books' meetings. The Membership Coordinator would send monthly meeting reminders to the members, and the

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! #$ Volunteer Coordinator would do the same to volunteers. They would work together on scheduling guest experts and choosing books. They had compiled ideas for potential texts from a sur vey done at the volunteers' holiday party, a list from a local independent bookseller, and their own experiences. A printing sponsor was already committed and the Coordinators had ideas for oth er sponsorships we could pursue I began by researching book c lubs as well as programs called science cafŽs seeking information on meeting structure and hoping to find inspiration for a memorable name for our club. I quickly found that b ooks clubs managed by natural history museums are very rare I was able to find two: t he Utah Museum of Natural History (UMNH) at the Univer sity of Utah in Salt Lake City, and the Marion Natu ral History Museum in Marion, Maryland 48 The majority of museums runnin g book clubs are focused on art. S ome museums even partner with local libr aries to run the clubs. Some clubs are offered to everyone, and others open to the public for a fee while free to members. Few are exclusive programs, just for members or volunteers. I interviewed the administrat or of the UMNH program, since their book clu b was similar to how we envisioned ours Non museum book clubs interested me because they are so abundant Most potential pitfall s related to literature or conversation ha d already been encountered and solved by a group somewhere so they were good sourc es of basic meeting information Many book clubs post information like discussion questions, book lists, an d advice for moderators online. Like a book club, a science cafŽ is a meeting that revolves around an interesting topic of conversation Additionall y, it take s place at a casual location like a bar or restaurant. A scientist gives a brief presentation on the subject that is followed by discussion. The Franklin Institute !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $( The UMNH book club has been suspended since 2009, while the museum moves to a new location. It may resume in 2012

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! #% Science Museum in Philadelphia uses the science cafŽ model for its outreach progra m, 49 and others are organized by community groups, public television stations, and municipalities. 50 The structure of these meetings with expert moderators and insouciant discussion was something we wanted to foster in the FLMNH Book Club. To that end, e ach text read by our club would be paired with a curator or collections manager from the museum department most closely related to the subject matter. This guest expert different every month, would share some of his or her expertise with the group and she d a unique light on the literature. The person might bring pi eces from their collecting area tools of their work, YouTube videos, or PowerPoint presentations. In my research, I found that UMNH used experts as a part of t heir book clubs, but few other book clubs use this format. We were interested in the members' opinions of our potential program. Were they interested in this type of activity? What day and time would work best for them? I drafted four questions that we used to create an online survey that was emailed out to members, staff, and volunteers (a similar survey had already been administered to some volunteers). We also invited their comments on the project. The survey was sent to 966 email addresses. 305 people opened the email and 147 chose to p articipate in the survey a response rate of 15.22 percent. The majority of participants (77.9 percent) were Museum members Museum volunteers and staff responded at 31.4 percent and 8.6 percent, respectively. The results were positive: 69% of all responde nts said they would be interested in participating in an exclusive monthly book club. Although opinions on the best time period and day of the week were varied, the majority of votes !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! $) Erika Kies sner, "Drinking it Up: Museum Outreach Extends to the Pub," Museum May/June 2009, http://www.aam us.org/pubs/mn/pub.cfm. %+ "CafŽ Description Pages," ScienceCafes.org accessed February 10, 2010, http://www.sciencecafes.org/cafe_descriptions.html.

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! #& went to Tuesday and 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. Overall, respondents' comments indi cated that they liked the idea but were concerned about how our program would fit into their already full schedules. The survey results h aving determined the day and time, we created a schedule of meetings. We next defined the form of the meeting, includi ng the role of the moderator and structure of the discussion. From my correspondence with the UMNH book club administrator, I learned that it is difficult to engage large groups (of twenty or more attendees) in a single discussion. 51 Pairing her information with my research into other museum and non museum book clubs, w e decided on a structure We planned meeting s to last two hours. Signing in, socializing, getting refreshments, and making introductions would occupy the first twenty five minutes. The visitin g expert (curator or collections manager) would present for another twenty minutes, followed by questions posed by the moderator (Membership or Volunteer Coordinator) and discussion among the whole group for thirty minutes. These questions were both origin al and adapted from study questions found in the books and online. If the group was large enough, we then planned for it to break into smaller groups of four or five for further discussion, for as long as forty five minutes. The guest expert, as well as th e moderator, would circulate among the small groups for more in depth discussion and to bring out the quieter voices. The experts' role included providing background informa tion on the topics of the books; potentially showing some objects from their depa rtments' collections, objects they use in the field or in their research, or other illustrative media like videos, audio recordings, and PowerPoint presentations; participating in the group discussions ; and answering questions posed by club members and mod erators At UMNH, they instead asked the experts to pose provocative !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %* Janet Frasier, email to the author, February 22, 2010.

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! #' questions about the text to the audience as well as to share their reaction to and opinion of the books. 52 The books themselves were chosen to represent each of the Museum's collecting ar eas, including Archaeology and Ethnography, Botany, Invertebrates, and Vertebrates. Although they each related to a collecting area, we wanted no one to feel intimidated by an overly academic text. Books ran the gamut from fiction to non fiction, historic to contemporary, ichthyology to adventure. The wide variety in types of books was chosen to appeal to the greatest number of people and we also strove not to duplicate topics until all collecting areas had been represented We accepted book suggestions on the volunteer and member surveys, as well as on surveys distributed at the Book Club, but were concerned about avoiding books that could be controversial. We considered drafting a book selection policy. UMNH used their museum wide vision and ethic polic ies to guide the book selections, as well as the discussions, rather than writing any new policies. FLMNH followed that path, also Program Support There was little budget for implementing the book club program, so to ensure its success we needed spons orship support. We sought in kind help for refreshments and printing. We also looked for a bookstore partner who would agree to stock our reading selections and offer them at a discount to the club's members. When I joined the project a local Books A Mill ion location had already been contacted and was considering partnering with us. They agreed to allocate a shelf to display the books and our signage. This would meet our needs ensuring the books we chose were available locally and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 52 Ibid.

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! #( help ing to advertise the prog ram. They also planned to give museum members, volunteers, and staff a twenty percent discount. Unfortunately, communication with the point perso n at the store was difficult, as he was hard to reach on the phone or in person. As a result, the books fr equently did not arrive in time for members to purchase and read before the mon thly meetings. The shelf featuring Museum Book Club texts and information was not maintained or kept up to date. This personnel issue caused t he relationship to break down. The Membership and Volunteer Coordinators came to view a bookstore partnership as more troublesome and time consuming than helpful. There was a push from the Museum's Gift Shop Manager to carry the books there, so that members could support the M useum with the ir book purchases. Financially, t he Gift Shop could only stock texts from a smaller regional publisher though, because they do not require bulk orders like larger publishers Also, t he low volume shop cannot compete with the discounted prices of the big c hain bookstores mainstream books I t was impractical to restrict so tightly our reading selections so the Gift Shop stocked the club's books only when it made fiscal sense to order the title A partnership was not forged with another bookstore, although a local Barnes and Noble unofficiall y kept upcoming books in stock and o ccasional selecti ons were available in the M useum's gift shop; otherwise, club members purchased them through their regular book or ebook seller. We also tried unsuccessfully to engag e a sponsor for food and beverages to serve at the meetings. I worked with Panera Bread communicating with their regional office and applying for a six or twelve month in kind donation of pastry and coffee 53 Our request was denied because of the company' s limited donation allocations and also probably because of the significant length of commitment for which we were looking After unsuccessfully pursuing !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %# Appendix B

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! #) similar proposals with several other local cafŽs, even requesting one time donations so as not to over burden small businesses, w e did secure a small monetary sponsorship from Toojay's Deli. B eyond that gift, refreshment funds had to co me out of the membership budget and no sponsor benefitted from advertising on the Museum's website or in Book Club reminder emails. A local printer Beechler's, did partner with the Museum and their logo appeared with all club information for its duration They printed postcards that were mailed out to members, alerting them to the beginning of the program and giving informa tion about the first meeting. They also created signage for the bookstore partner to display. Program Implementation The Coordinators had planned marketing for the Book Club from the beginning. Ideas included monthly e mails to members, volunteers, and s ta ff; signage for Museum restroom stall doors ; a slide to appear on the television in the lobby; a printed card to be displayed at the front desk, at the partner bookstore, and to be mailed to constituents; and a web page for the club, with links from the Membership and Volunteer web pages. We were never able to conceive a more memorable name for the program than "FLMNH Book Club." The only appealing id eas like "Mondays at the Museum were no longer appropriate once we had set the meeting schedule (the club met on a Tuesday) With the Museum's graphics department, we developed a logo for the program. We only asked that it include the name and a book related illustration. Graphics, for their part, did an excellent job developing three unique logos that ea ch had several versions They all met our requirements, as well as being consistent with the Museum's brand and its other logos. The Membership and

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! $+ Volunteer Coordinators chose their favorite a frog leaping out of a book above the name as the new graphic due to the clarity of its font and vibrant colors 54 Once the inception date and meeting schedule were decided, I drafted copy for promotional materials and for the Book Club page on the Museum web site. 55 We wanted to disseminate information to current m embers and non member museum visitors about the book club, getting them as excited as we were about this new program. Publicizing the club as an activity for members and volunteers, encouraging attendance, and promoting membership and volunteerism were the purposes of the materials The post card was mailed out to members but the p rinted card for the lobby rack was not ever cr eated. Signage for the restroom stall doors and a slide for the lobby television were also not executed The marketing department ha d to approve all items that were prod uced, and changed wording and format to conform to Museum standards. They did not assist with any of the creation or production of marketing materials, though, and that responsibility fell to the Membership and Voluntee r Coordinators. Because the club was a side project for the Coordinators and not part of their usual duties, the signs, slide, and rack cards were overlooked when many Book Club decisions had to be made at once. Reminder emails went to members and volunte ers each month before the Book Club meeting, although attendees occasionally complained that they had not received a message that month The web page was successful ly executed In the web site copy, I emphasized the approachability of the club and the vari ety of literature. The Book Club page included a schedule of meetings with corresponding book titles and names of the guest experts. The current month's book listing included a summary and cover image. After the first meeting, the site also listed past !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 54 Appendix C 55 Appendix D

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! $* rea dings. Both the Volunteer and Membership pages linked to the Book Club page to funnel traffic there. The initial book club was postponed for three months from our initial plan due to scheduling complications and the length of time needed to produce mark eting materials. Th is first meeting took place in September 2010. The discussion centered on The Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly O bsession in the Amazon by David Grann, the historical narrative of British explorer Percy Fawcett who disappeared in 1925 se arching for El Dorado, the "City of Gold," in Brazil. We had originally planned to read Making the Mummies Dance the memoir of Metropolitan Museum of Art former director Thomas Hoving. The bookstores were unable to stock it, though, and Grann's bo ok was a n equally compelling story with which to kick off the club matching well with the Museum's Latin A merican Ethnographic collection. Attendance was surprisingly high for the first meeting, with eighteen people, and everyone was asked to sign in and indicat e his or her museum affiliation (member, volunteer, or staff) when he or she arrived. We asked the Anthropology Registrar to be the first guest expert. She had expressed interest in presenting about the Hoving book and when we chose the Grann text instead we were happy that her expertise was still applicable. She brought several Amazonian objects from the Museum 's collection, discussing how they came to be at the Museum, as well as the pieces' rarity, importance, and the potential illegality of several ite ms if were they to be held by private individuals. She showed a video clip about the Amazon and its peoples, and played a recent public radio interview with a University of Florida archaeologist about his discoveries in the region. The moderator, the Vo lunteer Coordinator that month, followed up with questions regarding readers' general thoughts about the book and author's style, as well as how their

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! $" impressions of the Amazon had changed and what they might have learned. The guest expert joined the conve rsation, commenting on theories brought up by the text. The club then broke into smaller groups, moving from rows of chairs to small round tables seating four to five people. The moderator distributed a sheet of talking points and questions to aid their di scussions. The moderator, guest expert, and Membership Coordinator circulated among the tables to join in, answer questions, and help keep the conversation going. The attendees enjoyed lively conversation, and discussion about the book was gradually replac ed by related personal anecdotes as the meeting drew to a close. We distributed a survey for everyone to fill out before they left the meeting. I had created the initial version of the questionnaire, which collected information such as attendees' museum a ffiliation (member, volunteer, or staff), how they heard about the meeting, if they would come again, and if they were more likely to continue their involvement in the museum because of the book club program. 56 The responses were very positive. Of the eight een attendees, four were members, seven were volunteers, six were both members and volun t eers and one was museum staff. Everyone who responded indicated they would come again Comments included, "It was a great opportunity to connect with other museum mem bers and volunteers and s hare knowledge and opinions," "Great discussion, and "G ood learning experience." We were also interested in finding out if we could make changes to the meetings to encourage attendance or run them more smoothly. Responses indicat ed attendees were already dedicated to the Museum and it would not affect their decision to renew membersh ips or volunteer commitments: "W ould renew anyway" and "I was already hooked years ago!" Most respondents thanked us for starting the pro gram, said it was "stimulating" and "a great idea," and gave book suggestions, although some !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 56 Appendix E

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! $# complained it was difficult to see the video and PowerPoint because of the brightness of the room. This continued to be a minor issue, potentially remedied by meeting in a wind owless classroom rather than the bright central gallery. We did move the meeting once, when the guest expert had a photo heavy presentation, but generally avoided it so that the casual, discussion style atmosphere would not be lost in the formal feeling cl assroom. No survey respondent suggested anything drastic, and s ubsequent meetings followed a similar format. We did decide attendees no longer had to change seats to begin the small group discussion; instead it was more comfortable to seat them at the rou nd tables from the beginning. The survey we distributed did evolve slightly, and after three meetings we only asked people who had never attended before to give us responses. Attendance numbers varied from five to twenty five, with many months' in the mid teens. The distribution among members, volunteers, and staff remained about the same. On average, 2 5% of attendees were members, 40 % were volunteers and 30% were both. There was typically one staff member at the meetings, beyond the moderator and guest ex pert, which was often the Coordinator who was not moderating for the night. The guest experts each reacted differently. Some brought multimedia or visual aids, some brought nothing at all. Items from the Museum's collection were wonderful to see, but I b elieve the most impactful aids brought by guest experts were those that the club attendees could touch and inspect. One expert, actually a graduate student, brought nets, killing jars, and pinning boxes, along with photographs illustrating how he and his t eam used them to collect butterflies and moths in the Amazon. Not a topic I am usually interested in, I found these items (passed around the room) and his accompanying commentary compelling. Like this one, t he pres entations often centered on the experts' o wn collecting areas and research. Some, in fact, did not read the books.

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! $$ However, all of them gave the Book C lub a unique perspective and pertinent information that colored members' reading and interpretation. The guest experts' presentations usually serve d as a succinct introduction to the general topic, interesting to all club attendees but especially useful for those who had not read (or not finished reading) the month's book. We always encouraged an yone who was interested to attend the meetings, even if they had no knowledge of the text being discussed. Scheduling guest experts to coincide with the books proved challenging, often not allowing each month's guest to be publicized or even posted online until shortly before the meetings. Originally intended to be curators or collections managers, when none could be arranged graduate students stepped in (as above) to lend their expertise. Interestingly, they were among the most enthusiastic participants and engaging speakers. The scheduling issue arose, in pa rt because the Membership and Volunteer Coordinators were asking for the curators' and collections managers' cooperation rather than the request coming from higher up in the Museum's management. This was a symptom of the club not being an official duty of the Coordinators and the rest of the Museum staff not fully embracing it. The moderators continued to alternate monthly, as the Coordinators divided the duty between them based on their schedules. They introduced the book and guest expert and asked gener al questions of th e entire group after the expert had finished If necessary, they assisted the group in interacting with the expert by asking questions and encouraging responses. If attendance was large enough to warrant smaller breakout groups, the moder ator circulated among them to help facilitate that discussio n as well. Initially, the group questions posed by the moderator tended to be academic and the dynamic felt like that of a teacher and class. The meetings became more casual, though, as attendees got used to the structure and the moderators' questions also relaxed. One highlight of the club meetings occurred during a meeting where the guest expert

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! $% was not a museum employee: for the book Summer of the Dragon the author, Gainesville resident Don Good man gave a presentation and answered questions. That month, I actually acted as moderator but amended the format to allow for the most possible interaction between the author and attendees. I asked very few questions, only keeping the discussion moving, a nd attendees did not break into small discussion groups but feedback indicated that it was a unique and enjoyable meeting The Membership and Volunteer Coordinators believed that the Book Club could be a beneficial program for members, volunteers, staff, and the Museum as a whole. Because it was their brainchild and they were personally dedicated to its success, both were willing to borrow time from the rest of their workday to devote to club planning, organization, and promotion. The Coordinators had lit tle excess time (or assistance beyond the first semester) and the Book Club was not an official duty for either of them, so things like publicity were occasionally overlooked. The Volunteer Coordinator left the Museum nine months into the program, raising questions about her replacement and if she would be allowed to, or would want to, commit time to the club. Additionally, her supervisor had also been replaced, and the new manager had a different view about how programming should be executed. Ultimately, t hese developments affected the Book Club's future and led to its cancellation.

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! $& CHAPTER 4 : CONCLUSION: REFLECTIONS ON FLMNH BOOK CLUB Although the exclusive Book Club program at the Florida Museum of Natural History was ended after just over a year, th e feedback we received from member and volunteer attendees was overwhelmingly positive. When people came to a Book C lub meeting for the first time, they would tell us what a wonderful idea it was, ask how long it had been going on, and want more informatio n about futur e meetings. Although some visitors were occasional or did not return to multiple meetings, t he Book Club developed a loyal following. One couple commented when they arrived a few minutes late, "We were eating dinner when we remembered there wa s a meeting!" They promptly left the table and came to the M useum. After reading and discussing Mirage: Florida and the Vanishing Water of the Eastern US by Cynthia Barnett members proclaimed they would never drink bottled water again and would tell the ir friends. Every month, whether or not they had read the book, people at the club increased their understanding of the museum and its collections as well as the world around them. The small and intimate setting was an ideal situation in which to develop r elationships with loyal members who identify with the Museum's mission, are likely to renew and upgrade their gifts, and become advocates for the Museum in the community. We constantly received this positive feedback, both in person and on the post Book C lub surveys from club members. The enthusiasm did not translate into continually increa sing attendance numbers, though No new members or volunteers were gained, and adult attrition was not noticeably affected. Most attendees were not in the targeted grou p, adult professionals; they were generally seniors. Some months had so few people there was no differentiation made between large and small group discussion. Despite the great undeniable and under anticipated impact of the club on everyone in attendance myself in cluded, the Director of Education

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! $' determined the numbers were just not high enough to maintain her department's involvement in the program through the efforts of the Volunteer Coordinator The Membership Coordinator did not have the time to mana ge the club on her own, so it had to be discontinued. The meetings already scheduled were allowed to proceed, and then the club ended fifteen months after it began. The web page will be maintained, with book suggestions posted each month, to encourage memb ers and volunteers to continue reading natural history literature and keep the club in people's minds. The Museum may reinstitute the club in the future, if staff and budget deficiencies are remedied. Changes to the marketing and advertising of the Book Cl ub and a different view of the project within the institution could have made it more valuable to the Museum and helped it reach all of its goals They are discussed below and their implementation will be strongly considered if the book club is resumed. The most straightforward and potentially most valuable change to make would be following through on all of the marketing concepts that were strategized in the Book Club pre planning. The ideas were already developed: restroom signage a slide for the lobby television, and rack cards both for the front desk and for mail ing Some marketing was done (the initial postcard, email reminders, and website content) and there was no Book Club budget, so outside advertising was out of the question, but all of these id eas should have been executed to make museum visitors aware of the availability of the new program. The individuals learning a bout the Book Club through the three uncompleted methods (restroom and lobby signs and rack cards) would have already been at the museum, using the restroom, perusing the rack for other programs and cultural attractions of interest to them, and waiting at the front desk. They may already have been members unaware of the club, or individuals considering membership who felt there were no programs in which they could participate. In any case, there would have been high

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! $( potential for mission oriented museum visitors to view this Book Club information, piquing their interest in attending the club and becoming potentially loyal members. Fo r the same reasons, it would have been beneficial to name the Book Club as a benefit of membership. This was not done due to concerns about official guarantees, should the club end. Listed c ore member benefits, though, do not mention the availability of "s pecial programs" or "members only activities," which could have easily linked to currently available programming without committing to the Book Club specifically as a benefit. Similarly, front desk staff should have mentioned the club as something availabl e to members. They sell the majority of new memberships, so are integral in recruiting adult professionals (or any individual). Their ability to make visitors feel at ease and a part of the Museum make or break the effort that began with advertising and pr omotion. 57 The front desk staff's failure to communicate the existence of the Book Club to members and potential members is symptomatic of a larger p roblem at the Museum. The club's role as an exclusive benefit for members, volunteers, and staff was not re spected. It was suggested the club was a public program and should, therefore, be open to everyone. That change would have created a completely different program, with higher numbers of attendees necessitating a different meeting structure lacking the inti macy, in depth conversation, and relationship building of the original club. Always a side project for the Coordinators, they had to carve time out of their already full schedules to do any work for the club. When the Volunteer Coordinator left the Museum, her replacement's official duties did not include the program. If the Book Club was to remain under the management of the Membership Coordinator (and potentially the Volunteer Coordinator) and to function as a recruiting, retention, and development tool f or membership and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %' Wallace, Museum Branding 46.

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! $) volunteerism, the Coordinators needed to be allowed designated time or continued additional assistance, like an intern or volunteer, to promote and run it exclusively Although close ly tied to the Museum's mission and effective as a rela tionship building and educational tool one of the stated goals some fundamental changes to the book club's format may have helped it appeal to its original target demographic, professional adults. More cues could have been taken from sci ence cafŽs: l ess pedantic discussion questions and a more free flowing conversation would lessen the academic feel of the meeting and potentially increase individuals' desire to spend time at the Museum in the evening, rather than it feeling like an extension of their work day. Office and blue collar workers have been known to enjoy more popular forms of entertainment, 58 so a more informal setting than the Museum's central gallery or classroom, like th e pubs or restaurants used by science cafŽs, could have been more appealing Additionally, because the club met from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m., attendees had to reschedule their evening meal It may have been regarded as less of an intrusion into the "dinner hour" if the venue was a restaurant rather than the Museum. These changes may h ave helped increase numbers at the Book Club meetings and kept the program from being cancelled, but it is undeniable that it had an immensely positive impact on those who did attend. Their relationships with the Museum have been reinforced through persona l contact with staff they have become positive voices for the Museum in their circles of friends and the community, and they have an increased knowledge about the Museum's collections and the natural world. They have also made changes in their lives based on their experiences in the club. This was an unplanned and happily surprising outcome. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! %( Reiss, Cash In! 52.

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! %+ Membership programming may certainly have more than one objective, but when a program is designed to target a specific group the achievement of that goal contributes to the success or failure of the endeavor. Increasing the number of adult professional members was not a stated goal of the FLMNH Book Club, but it was the motivation behind its creation. It is important for other institutions seeking to attract this (or any) demographic through a new targeted program to consider the group's interests and motivations for involvement as well as the museum's mission, when designing the program. Adult professionals, by our definition, work during the day and have older chil dren at home. Late in middle school or in high school, these students may be involved in their own activities and with friends. They also are likely mature enough to stay home with out supervision. Their parents can participate in evening or weekend activit ies without the stress and complication of arranging for childcare. Daytime programs, conversely, are difficult for them to attend. Because they are at work all day, this demographic has an interest in participating in a different kind of activity at nigh t. They want a leisure activity that allows them to engage in stimulating, adult conversation in a relaxed environment. Expressing thoughts and opinions, exploring new ideas, and learning from and relating to others are important elements of this interacti on. They also may enjoy expanding their horizons and pursuing new interests. Some parents appreciate sharing these experience s with their spouse or significant other and will attend together as a kind of date night Conversely, some may also look for acti vities they feel comfortable attend ing alone or at which they can form relationships with new people. Family commitments in addition to work schedule, can interfere with adult professionals' ability to participate in programming. Their children may be in volved in sports or

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! %* lessons, to which they need transportation or at which they parents need to be. C hurch activities traditionally take place on Wednesday nights and are a consideration when scheduling any program for this demographic. More generally, som e families place a high importance on weekends or dinners together and are reluctant to commit to activities that interfere with that time. Membership, enhanced by mission oriented exclusive programming, is a key strategy for museum fundraisers. Members a re important donors, and they all should be treated equally and none relegated to the marketing department as simply sources of earned income. During programs, fundraisers have the opportunity to develop relationships essential to establishing a n engaged g roup of individuals who will continually renew their gifts, increase their giving over time, and move up the donor pyramid They may also become advocates for the museum or volunteers. Fundraisers have tools to affect the constituency of their members hip g roups and w hen an important demographic is missing in the donor community creating programs tailored to reach these targeted groups can be very effective. Although the Florida Museum of Natural History's Book Club did not affect change within the target g roup targeted programs at other institutions, executed in a slightly different way, have easily reach ed their goals in demographics, membership numbers, and loyalty.

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! %" APPENDIX A The Donor Pyramid First time members, one time gifts Renewed members, upgraded gifts Capital gifts Major gifts Bequests

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! %# APPENDIX B Sponsor Solicitation Letter April 12, 2010 Panera Bread Covelli Family Limited Partnership 4300 West Cypress Street, Suite 850 Tampa, FL 33607 To Whom It May Concern: The Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), Florida's state museum of natural history, seeks sponsorship from Panera Brea d to support refreshments at its monthly Museum Book Club meetings. FLMNH is dedicated to understanding, preserving and interpreting biological diversity and cultural heritage. The Museum Book Club program seeks to connect Museum members, volunteers and s taff with curators, as all participate in book discussions. The club will increase natural history literacy as its members read a wide variety of interesting books, including works of fiction and nonfiction, science, nature, Florida history, and biography. The books will be general interest with a twist, and not too technical for any reader to enjoy. Beginning in July, Book Club meetings will take place on the third Tuesday of each month, with the exception of December, from 6 to 8 pm. The meetings will be at the Florida Museum of Natural History's Powell Hall. FLMNH requests refreshments, including coffee and pastries, for 25 50+ people for one year (once monthly for 11 months, excluding December). In return for your donation, the Panera logo will appear on the advertising and e blasts about the event, as well as the Museum's website and volunteer newsletter. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Development Coordinator Florida Museum of Natural History

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! %$ APPENDIX C The Florida Museum of Natura l History Book Club logo

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! %% APPENDIX D Book Club Promotional Materials Figure 1: Post Card Copy Draft Book Club Post Card Announcement [Front: 4 color, QW indicia, FLMNH logo, FLMNH return address, book club web address, UF logo] [Partici pate. Contribute. Understand, Preserve. Enrich. Grow. Enjoy.] [Back: 4 color] Announcing an exciting new Book Club exclusively for museum members, volunteers, and staff! We invite you to join us at the Florida Museum of Natural History for a monthly b ook club meeting, where you can discuss a wide variety of natural history topics with museum curators and experts. The books will be general interest with a twist, and not too technical for any reader to enjoy. Join us for our first meeting on June 22, f rom 6:00 8:00 pm. We will be discussing book by author For more information, future meeting dates, and a list of upcoming books, visit the book club website at www.flmnh.ufl.edu/bookclub Questions? Email members@flmnh.ufl.edu or call 352.273.2047 [in clude: Books A Million logo, (Panera) logo]

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! %& Figure 2: Final Book Club Post Card We invite you to our rst meeting on Tuesday, Sept 21 from 6 to 8 p.m. to discuss David Grann's The Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly Obsession in the Amazon Announcing an exciting new Book Club exclusively for Florida Museum of Natural History members, volunteers and staff! Thanks to our Partners: Florida Museum of Natural History University of Florida Cultural Plaza S.W. 34th Street and Hull Road P.O. Box 112710 Gainesville, Florida 32611-2710 www.mnh.u.edu/bookclub NONPROFIT ORG. U.S. POSTAGE !"#$ GAINESVILLE, FL PERMIT NO. 726 Join us at the Museum for a discussion of a wide variety of exciting subjects with Museum curators and experts. Book topics will include everything from science and nature to adventure and exploration and provide something of interest for every reader. For more information, meeting dates, upcoming books, and Books-A-Million discount code please visit www.mnh.u.edu/bookclub. Questions? Members may call 352.273.2047 or email members@mnh.u.edu Volunteers may call 352.273.2055 or email volunteers@mnh.u.edu

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! %' Figure 3 : Flyer/Rack Card Copy Draft Join us for the new Florida Museum of Natural History Book Club! Exclusively for museum members, volunteers and staff, the cl ub will meet monthly to discuss exciting natural history books with museum curators and experts! Available at Books A Million for 20% off, the books will range from Florida history to butterflies, from nature to biography, and are interesting enough for a ny reader to enjoy. What: Museum Book Club When: Third Tuesday of every month 6:00 8:00 pm You can find more information, future meeting dates, and our list of upcoming books on our website: [web address] Our sponsors: [Books A Million logo] [(Panera logo)] Want to join us for the Book Club but not a member or volunteer? Find out more about volunteering or membership! ( web addresses )

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! %( APPENDIX E Post Book Club Survey

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! %) APPENDIX F A complete list of Book Club texts, ordered by date read: September 21, 2010 The Lost City of Z: A Tale of Deadly Obsession in the Amazon by David Grann October 19 2010 The Philosopher Fish: Sturgeon, Caviar, and the Geography of Desire by Richard Adams Carey November 16, 2010 Mirage: Florida and the Vanishing Water of the Eastern US by Cynthia Barnett January 18, 2011 The Orchid Thief by Susan Orlean February 15, 2011 The Fossil Hunter: Dinosaurs, Evolution and the Woman Whose Discoveries Changed the World by Shelley Emling March 15, 2011 A Supremely Bad Idea: Three Mad Birders and Their Quest to See it All by Luke Dempsey April 19, 2011 A Land Remembered by Patrick Smith June 21, 2011 Mean and Lowly Things: Snakes, Science, and Survival in the Congo by Kate Jackson July 19, 2011 Summer of the Dragon by Don Goodman August 16, 2011 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles Mann September 20, 2011 Anthill by E. O. Wilson October 18, 2011 Dry Storeroom No. 1: The Secret Life of the Natural History Museum by Richard Fortey November 15, 2011 D evil's Teeth: A True Story of Obsession and Survival Among America's Great White Sharks by Susan Casey

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! &+ Reference List Alexander, Victoria D. Museums and Money: The Impact of Funding on Exhibitions, Scholarship, and Management Bloomington, IL: Indiana U niversity Press, 1996. American Association of Museums "Information Cen ter Fact Sheet: Membership Data. American Association of Museums 2010 http://www.aam us.org/museumresources/ic/fs/ei/loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/security/getfile.cfm&Page ID=19257 Alternative Revenue Sources: Prospects, Requirements, and Concerns for Nonprofits Dwight F. Burlingame and Warren F. Ilchman, ed. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, No. 12, Summer 1996. San Fransisco : Jossey Bass Publishers, Inc., 1996. "CafŽ Description Pages. ScienceCafes.org Accessed February 10, 2010. http://www.sciencecafes.org/cafe_descriptions.html. Carey, Will "Survey and changes after the first year of 1stfans Community: bloggers@brooklynmuseum (blog) February 4, 2010 http://ww w.brooklynmuseum.org/community/blogosphere/2010/02/04/survey and changes after the first year of 1stfans/. Coffman, Suzanne E. "Women and Philanthropy. National Council of Jewish Women Last modified March 1999. http://www.ncjw.org/media/PDFs/ConventionW orkshops/Women%20and%20Philanthro py.pdf Flanagan, Joan Memberships: How to Build Your Organization's Donor Base and Political Clout at the Same Time Accessed August 1, 2011. http://www.tgci.com/magazine/Selling%20Memberships.pdf Giving USA Foundation Giving USA 2011: The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 2010: Executive Summary Accessed July 10, 2011. http://www.givingusareports.org/products/GivingUSA_2011_ExecSummary_Print.pdf. Jeffri, Joan. The Emerging Arts: Management, Survival, and Growth. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980. "Join the B ooth!" Booth Western Art Museum. A ccessed April 19, 2011. http://www.boothmuseum.org/involved/join.html. Kiessner, Erika "Drinking it Up: Mus eum Outreach Extends to the Pub. Museum May/June 2009. http://www.aam us.org/pubs/mn/pub.cfm.

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! &* Medland, Mary E. What Arts Organizations Are D oing to Attract Younger Patrons. The Chronicle of Philanthropy L ast modified April 22, 2002. http://philanthropy.com/article/What Arts Organizations Are/52509/. Membership," American Association of Museums accessed September 15, 2011, http://www.aam us.org/museumresources/ic/fs/ei/members.cfm ? Membership 2.0: A Socia lly Networked Museum Membership. Fundraising Success L ast modified February 18, 2009. http:// www.fundraisingsuccessmag.com/article/membership 20 a socially networked museum membership 403238/1. "Membership Levels. Florida Museum of Natural History Accessed June 10, 2011. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/membership/levels.htm Meyer, Karl E. The Art Mu seum: Power, Money, Ethics. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1979. "Mission Statement. Brooklyn Museum of Art Accessed July 31, 2011. http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/about/mission.php. "Museum Facts. Booth Western Art Museum. Accessed April 1 9, 2011. http://www.boothmuseum.org/about/museum_facts.html. Newman, Diana S. Opening Doors: Pathways to Diverse Donors San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2002. The Nonprofit Research Collaborative. "The 20 10 Nonprofit Fundraising Survey. The Nonprofit Resea rch Collaborative March 2011. http://www2.guidestar.org/ViewCmsFile.aspx?ContentID=3266 Palmer, Stacy "Letting Dono rs See What's Behind the Scenes. The Chronicle of Philanthropy Last modified February 12, 2009. http://philanthropy.com/blogs/prospecti ng/letting donors see whats behind the scenes/19158. Petty, Janice Gow. Cultivating Diversity in Fundraising. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002. Poderis, Tony. "The Name is the Game: Membershi ps and Named Gift Opportunities. Raise Funds.com Acc essed September 15, 2011, http://www.raise funds.com/1998/the name is the game memberships and named gift opportunities/. Reiss, Alvin H. Cash In! Funding and Promoting the Arts New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1986.

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! &" ____. Don't Just Applaud, Se nd Money! The Most Successful Strategies for Funding and Marketing the Arts. New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1995. Richter, Kristina. "Homeschoolers are Always Late: What Every Museum Needs to Know About Alternative Learners." Museum News, March/A pril 2007. Robinson, Ellis M. M. The Nonprofit Membership Toolkit San Francisco: Josey Bass, 2003. Rosso Henry A. & Associates. Hank Rosso's Achieving Excellence in Fund Raising 2 nd ed. Edited by Eugene R. Tempel. San Fancisco: Jossey Bass, 2003. Sa rgeant, Adrian "Managing Donor Defection: Why Shoul d Donors Stop Giving?" I n Understanding Donor Dynamics: The Organizational Side of Charitable Giving edited by Eugene R. Tempel. No. 32 (Summer 2001): 59 74. Sargeant, Adrian and Elaine Jay. Building Do nor Loyalty: The Fundraiser's Guide to Increasing Lifetime Value. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Seltzer, Michael. Securing Your Organization's Future: A Complete Guide to Fundraising Strategies New York: The Foundation Center, 2001. Spitz, Jen nifer Amdur and Margaret Thom. Urban Network: Museums Embracing Communities Chicago: The Field Museum, 2003. Theaman, Jessica "Know Your Donors: The Nonp rofit's Guide to S uccessful Individual Giving." M aster's thes is, University of Florida, 2005. Youn g, Dennis R. Financing Nonprofits: Putting Theory Into Practice. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2007. Wallace, Margot A. Consumer Research for Museum Marketers: Audience Insights Money Can't Buy. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2010. _____. Museum Branding: How to Create and Maintain Image, Loyalty, and Support. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press, 2006.

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! &# BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jennifer Watkins was born in Ft. Meyers, Florida. After spending part of her childhood in Atlanta, Georgia, her family moved back to Central Flo rida. She earned her B.A. with honors in Classical Studies from the University of Florida in 2007 with minors in History, Art History, and Me dieval and Early Modern Studies In her undergraduate years, she interned with the Orlando Museum of Art and Albin Polasek Museum and Sculpture Garden. After studying abroad in Greece and interning in the development department of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2007, she decided to pursue a career in museum development. Jennifer returned to UF in 2008, entering the Museum Studies masters program She spent the summer of 2009 interning in the development department of the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art in Washington, DC, and finished her coursework the following year. Upon graduation, Jennifer plans to contin ue working in development for an art museum. She is especially interested in the dynamics of membership and the relationships that develop between donors and museums.