Service and regulatory announcements

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Title:
Service and regulatory announcements
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
irregular
completely irregular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural estimating and reporting -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 71 (Sept. 1922)-
General Note:
"S.R.A.--Agricultural economics ..."
General Note:
Title from caption.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004922015
oclc - 43519476
Classification:
ddc - 630.61 Un3a
System ID:
AA00009494:00019

Related Items

Preceded by:
Service and regulatory announcements

Full Text



S. R. A.-P. M. A. 123 Issued M.1.... I:,:
Reprinted, with amiendmnents, \1' 1:. .

United States Department of Agriculture 5
o a
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING ADMINISTRATION .

SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS NO. 123'


OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRA E
OF LAMB, YEARLING MUTTON, AND MUTTON CAR-
CASSES T

(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.114-53.118 of the Code of Federal Regulations)


The following is a reprint of the official United States standards for the grades
of lamb and mutton carcasses heretofore priim,'hl- ted by the Secretary of Agri-
culture under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1i'.14; (0i1 Stat. 1087: 7 U. S. C.
1621 et seq.) and the items for Market Inspection of Farm Products and M;irket-
ing Farm Pr'idivits recurring in the annual appropriation acts for the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. The standards are relprint-d as amended.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS

'- The official standards for grades of lamb and mutton carcasses were initially
w..O.,i.-ApWlWgated and made effective on February 16, 1931. Thei standards were
amended in October 1940 (Amendment No. 1 to S. R. A. 123) so as to cliai-f. the
grade designations Medium and Common to Commercial and Utility, re-,0'r. ri' ,.Iy.
In April 1951, the official standards were again amenitded (Amendment No. 2 to
S. R. A. 123). By this amendment, Prime and Chi,,n;.grades were combined and
designated as Prime. The Good grade was renamed Choice, which also became
the highest grade for carcasses of mutton older than yearlings. The top two-
thirds of the Commercial grade was designated as Good. The. lower one-third
of the Commercial grade was combined with the top two-thirds of the Utility
grade and designated as Utility, thereby elimiiiatin-m the Commercial grade
name. The lower one-third of the Utility grade was combined with the Cull
grade and designated as Cull. This amendment also provided for itfl..tiirg the
minimum requirements for each grade, specified the grade requirements for vary-
ing degrees of maturity, and clarified the method for differentiating between
lamb, yearling mutton, and mutton carcasses.

DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN LAMB, YEARLING MUTTON, AND
MUTTON CARCASSES

Ovine carcasses are classified as lamb, yearling mutton, or mutton on the
basis of characteristics of the bones, general conformation, and characteristics of
the flesh.
Lamb carcasses always have break joints on their front shanks and generally
have narrow rib bones, a rather regular contour, and a light red color and fine
texture of lean. They also have a considerable amount of red in the ribs and
a somewhat smaller amount in the shanks.
Yearling mutton carcasses may have either break joints or "spool" joints
on their front shanks and generally have moderately wide rib bones, a slightly
irregular contour, and a slightly dark red color and slightly coarse texture of
lean. They have only traces of red in the ribs and shanks.
Mutton carcasses always have "spool" joints on their front shanks and gen-
erally have wide rib bones, a rather irregular contour, and a dark red color and
coarse texture of lean. Ribs and shanks are devoid of red color.
SThis publication was last issued as Service and Regula tory Announcements No. 123
of the former Agricultural M.irkttin- Service. The work on which it is based is now a
part of the Production and Marketing Administration.
948537---51










APPLICATION OF STANDARDS

Lamb, yearling mutton, and mutton carcasses are graded on a composite evalu-
ation of three general gr.df- factors--c.iif'iriatiihn, finish, and quality. These
f':iit''r are concerned with the proportions of the various wholesale cuts in the
,.airei-., the proportions of fat, lean, and bone, and the quality of the flesh. Car-
casses ,il.ilifying for any particular Lirmiul may vary with respect to their rela-
tive development of the three u ail., factors, and there will be carcasses which
,I ]ialify for a particular gradl. some of whose characteristics may be more nearly
typical of another grade. Because it is impracticable, to describe the nearly
limitless numbers of such r.-'iu,'izaiibh combinations of characteristics, the stand-
ards for each grade describe only carcasses that have a relativt-ly similar devel-
opment of conformation, finish, and quality and that are generally also
representative of the lower limits of each g'id-,. Examples of the extent to
which superiority in quality and finish may compensate for deficiencies in con-
formation, and vice ver.i., are indicated for each grade.
The standards are intended to apply to all ovine carcasses without regard to
the apparent sex condition of the animal at time of slaughter. However, car-
casses which have thick, heavy necks and shoulders typical of uncastrated males
are discounted in grade in accord with the extent to which these characteristics
are df.l.-l.,pid. Such discounts may vary from less than half a gr'td-l in carcasses
from young lambs in which such characteristics are barely noticeable to as much
as two full grades in carcasses from mature rams in which such characteristics
are very pl'i nt llt *i1.
The standards provide for the grading of lamb, yearling, mutton, and mutton
carcasses on separate standards. Although the age groups of the animals appear
to be rather narrow, each group actually represents a rather wide range in d,1.-re
of maturity because of the rapidity with which ovines mature. IR w'gniti,,n of
.r,,u variation is made in the standards for grades of lamb carcasses by
'-i,'yil yi' two different requirements for quality and finish, depending on the
degree of maturity. Although only one requirement for quality and finish is
specified in the standards for yearling mutton and for mutton carcasses, it should
be understood that in these groups, as well as in the lamb groups, carcasses
which have indications of approaching the minimum or maximum maturity limits
for their group will have somewhat less or greater evidences of quality and finish,
respectively, than those specified in the st; mnd; rds.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF LAMB CARCASSES
PRIME

Carcasses possessing the minimum qualifications for the Prime grade tend
to be compact and blocky, and tend to have plump, full legs; wide, thick backs;
tlii.-k, full, smooth shoulders; and short, thick necks.
Evilhelii.-. of quality and finish vary markedly with clih;.,.-' in maturity.
Carcasses from young lambs that have red, narrow rib bones and red, moist,
porous break joints have only moderately abundant kidney and crotch fat but
kidline-.v are completely covered. Tht-y have a moderate amount of feathering
between the ribs, a small amount of overflow fat over the inside of the ribs
adjacent to the backbone, a few fat streakings in the inside flank muscles and a
light piiik color of lean. Tli. exterior finish is firm and completely obscures the
muscles of the back ; however, muscles over the 1,"in' of the shoulders and outside
of the I"< may be viiile hIlinir iili a thin covering of fat. Fl;i nks are full and
firm.
Carcasses from more mature lambs that have light l.\ wide, moderately red
rib bones, and moderately red, rather dry and hard break joints, have abundant
kidney minI crotch fat, extensive and abundant f.ih;.heriig, moderately abundant
overflow fat over inside of ribs ad.id;,..t to the backbone, numerous .trelalkings
of fat in the inside flank muscles, and a dark pink color of lean. The exterior
finish is very firm, and extends over the entire exterior surface, except the lower
parts of tlie legs, obscuring the muscles of the i,;.. l, tops of the sh.,Iiulder, and
outside of legs. The flanks are very full and firm.
To qualify for the Prime grade a carcass must possess the minimum require-
ments for quality and finish regardless of the extent that its conformation may











exceed the minimum requirements for Prime. However, if a carcass has quality
and finish 'qli\ .:Ilcil to at least the av:i,'' of the I'rime grade, its confirmation
inly be iqiii% ;iliit to ;,\'rag% Choice and remain eligible for Prime.
CHOICE

Carcasses p,.--Mini' the mininiumi qa1iliir:tions for the Choice grade are
slightly compact with slightly plump, full 1,.] ; slightly wide, thick bucks;
slightly wide, full shoulders; and -li,1il1h short, thick necks.
Evidences of quality and finish vary considerably with ,i.-lii.. in maturity.
Carcasses from yu lamnbs that have red, narrow rib bones and red, moist,
porous break joints have slightly abundant kidney and crotch fat but kidi '....
are slightly ex\ii,-c.d, there is a small amount of ftallatln-rir- between the ribs, a
few t'treakimng of fat in the inside flank muscles, and only very small quantities
of overflow fat over the inside of the ribs adjacent to the backbone. The color
of lean is slightly dark pink. '1T' exterior liniiili is moderately firm. However,
the muscles of the back are very '.i. lily visible tliiiin-hl a slightly thin fat cov-
eritng and those over the tops of the shoulders and outside of the legs have only
a very thin coverin:- of fat. Flank'; are -liulitly full and firm.
Carcasses from more mature lambs that have -liulitly wide, moderately red
rib bones with moderately re-d. rather dry and hard break joints, have moderately
abundant kidney and crotch fat, slightly abundant fe.:tlirrin,,. a small amount
of overflow fat over the inside of the ribs adjacent to the backbone, a small
quantity of fat .rt'r:lkii-.s in the inside flank muscles, and light red <,,1..r of
lean. The external finish is firm and completely obscures the muscles of the
back. IHiu" muscles over the top of the shoulders and the outside of the
legs are visible thcnti-li the fat. The flanks are moderately full and firm.
To qualify for the Choice n-r:t'l> a carcass must have the minimum require-
muents for quality and finish regardless of the extent that conformation may
exceed the minimum requirements for Choice. However, if a carcass has
quality and finish equivalent to at least the av,.r. of the C('Ii'i. grade, its
conformation may be equivalent to average Good and remain .libil,'1i for Choice.
GOOD

Carcasses pi ,- iex-, the minimum qualiti,-ati,,is for the Good grade are mod-
erately ran-.y and slightly angular with slightly thin, tapering legs; slightly
narrow, thin backs and shoulders; and moderately 1'n-. thin necks.
Evidences of quality and finish vary moderately with changes in maturity.
Carcasses from "111,1ng lambs that have red, narrow rib bones and red, porous
break joints have a small amount of kidney and crotch fat and kidLn'y3 are only
partially covered. There is no f,..itlh'.ing between the ribs, no overflow fat
over the inside of the ribs and no fat streakings in the inside flank muscles;
however, the lean is dark pink in color. The exterior finish is slightly soft: the
muscles of the back are plainly visible tl hi'nuii a very thin fat covering and those
over the tops of the shoulders and outside of the legs are practically devoid of
fat. Flanks are moderately thin and soft.
Carcasses from more mature lambs that have lightlyy wide, moderately red
rib bones and moderately red, rather dry and hard break joints have slightly
abundant kidney and crotch fat with kidl',y< slightly exposed. There is a slight
amount of feathering between the ribs but no overflow fat over the inside of the
ribs adjacent to the backbone, practically no streakings of fat in the inside flank
muscles, and a slightly dark red color of lean. The exterior finish is moderately
firm. However, the muscles of the back are visible through a thin fat (.. ,in
and those over the tops of the shoulders and outside of the legs have only a very
thin fat covering. Fliini,. are slightly thin and soft.
A carcass that has conformation equivalent to at least the avr:i-e of the
Good grade may have quality and finish equivalent to high Utility and remain
eli-ible for the Good -r.lde. Also, a carcass that has quality and finish equivalent
to at least the :,\ea; of the Good grade may have conformation equivalent to
high Utility and remain eligible for the Good grade.

UTILITY
Carcasses possessing the minimum qualifications for the Utility grade are
very ratngy afmd angular with thin, slightly concave l,'s; very narrow, sunken











hacks; narrow, sharp shoulders; and long, thin necks. Hips and shoulder
joints are plainly visible.
AlI1iiilli evidences of (iia;lity and finish vary slightly with changes in maturity,
the (lif.r,.iti- are so small as to make their separate descriptions impractical.
Carcasses have only a small amount of kidney and crotch fat, and the kidneys
are nearly entirely exposed. There is practically no other interior fat, and
the lean in the inside flank muscles and between the ribs is dark red in color.
External finish is soft and is limited to small deposits over the rump and out-
side of the shoulders and to thin patches over the back. Flanks are soft and
liulitly watery.
A carcass that has conformation equivalent to at least the average of the
Utility gurail.- may have quality and finish equivalent to high Cull and remain
eligible for the Utility grade. Also, a carcass that has quality and finish equiva-
lent to the average of the Utility grade may have conformation equivalent to
high Cull and remain eligible for the Utility grade.
CULL

Typical Cull grade carcasses are extremely rangy and angular and extremely
thin-fleshed throughout. Legs are extremely thin and concave, backs are ex-
tremely sunken and thin, shoulders are very thin and sharp, and necks are
extremely thin. Hip and shoulder joints, as well as ribs and bones of the
spinal column, are clearly outlined. There are practically no interior or exterior
fats, and the flesh is soft and watery and very dark red in color.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF YEARLING MUTTON CARCASSES
PRIME

Carcasses 1p,-,.--fin_ the minimum qualifications for the Prime grade are
compact and blocky, and have plump, full legs; wide, thick backs; wide, full,
smooth shoulders; and short, thick necks. They have abundant but not exces-
sive kidney and crotch fat; extensive and abundant f-.;,atliriig; and moderately
abundant overflow fat over inside of ribs adjacent to the backbone, numerous
streakings of fat in the inside flank muscles, and a light red color of lean. The
exterior finish is very firm and uniform and extends over the entire exterior
surface, except the lower parts of the legs, obscuring the muscles of the back,
tops of the sliililtr-, and outside of the legs. The flanks are very full and firm.
To qualify for the Prime grade a carcass must possess the minimum qualifi-
cations for quality and finish r.i r'dlle~ of the extent that conformation may
exceed the minimum requirements for Prime. However, if a carcass has quality
and finish equivalent to at least the average of the Prime grade, its conforma-
tion may be equivalent to av,.r;t-e Choice and remain eligible for the Prime
grade.
CHOICE

Carcasses .i.---iiit the minimum requirements for the Choice grade are
moderately compact with rather short, plump, full legs; moderately wide, thick
backs; moderately wide, full shoulders; and rather short, thick necks. They
have moderately abundant kidney and crotch fat, slightly abundant feathering,
slightly abundant overflow fat over the inside of the ribs adjacent to the back-
bone, a small qi:ilntity of fat streakings in the inside flank muscles, and a
slightly dark red color of lean. The exterior finish is firm and completely
obscures the muscles of the back: however, muscles on the top of the shoulders
and the outside of the legs are visible tlhri'ugh the fat. The flanks are moderately
full and firm.
Carcasses which are not eligible for the Prime grade because they have
bunchy or iri'.,il:ar distribution of exterior finish or excessive quantities of
interior fat are also included in the Choice grade.
To qiimiify for the Choice grade a carcass must have the minimum require-
ments for quality and finish riirll.-s of the extent that conformation may
exceed the minimum requirements for Choice. However, if a carcass has quality
and finish equivalent to at least the average of the Choice grade, its conforma-
tion may be eqlii' aluit to average Good and remain eligible for Choice.










GOOD

Carcasses I>Me.,in" the minimum qualifications for the Good grade are sli- lIil
ra n'y and a:i-iil:ir, with slightly thin, tapering legs; slightly narrow, thin backs
and shoulders; and slightly long, thin necks. They have slightly abundant
kidney and crotch fat, with kidneys slightly exposed. There is a slight amount
of filathiring between the ribs, only very small quantities of overflow fat over
the inside of the ribs adjacent to the backbone, a few t reakin,- of fat in the
inside muscles of the flank, and a rather dark red color of lean. The exterior
finish is modt.ra:rely firm; however, the muscles of the back are visible thr'niigh
a thin colerinu- of fat and the tops of the shoulders and outside of the le'- have
only a very thin fat covering. Flanks are -lilIhtly thin and soft.
A carcass which has conforniation equivalent to at least the avwa._,- of
the Good grade may have quality and finish equivalent to high Utility and remain
eligible for the Good grade. Also, a carcass which has quality and finish equiva-
lent to at least the average of the Good grade may have conformation equivalent
to high Utility and remain eligible for the Good grade.
UTILITY

Carcasses pi ....in-i the minimum qualifications for the Utility r.,, are very
rangy and angular with thin, slightly concave legs; very narrow, sunken backs;
narrow, sharp shoulders; and l-,.- thin necks. Hips and shoulder joints are
plainly visible. They have only a small amount of kidney and crotch fat, and
the kidneys are nearly entirely exposed. There is practically no other interior
fat and the lean in the flanks and between the ribs is dark red in color. External
finish is soft, and is limited to small (1d,.iiti over the rump and outside of the
shoulders and to thin patches over the back. Flanks are soft and slightly
watery.
A carcass which has conformation equivalent to at least the average of the
Utility grade may have quality and finish equivalent to hi-ah Cull and remain
eligible for the Utility grade. Also, a carcass which has quality and finish
equivalent to the a ,vra'-"e of the Utility grade'may have conformation equivalent
to high Cull and remain eligible for the Utility grade.
CULL

Typical Cull grade carcasses are extremely rangy and au-uilar and extremely
thin-fleshed throu'rh'i.uit. Legs are extremely thin and concave, backs are ex-
tremely sunken and thin, shoulders are very thin and sharp, and necks are
extremely thin. Hip and shoulder joints, as well as ribs and bones of the spinal
column, are clearly outlined. There are practically no interior or exterior fats
and the flesh is soft and watery and very dark red in color.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF MUTTON CARCASSES
CHOICE

Carcasses possessing the minimum qualifications for the C'hi.ce grade are
moderately compact, with slightly plump, full legs; wide, thick backs; wide, full
shoulders; and slightly short, thick necks. They have abundant kidney and
crotch fat, moderately abundant feathering between the ribs, moderately abundant
overflow fat over the inside of the ribs adjacent to the backbone, numerous fat
s.tr.v,kings in the inside flank muscles, and a dark red color of lean. The external
finish is firm and moderately uniform and completely obscures the muscles of
back and tops of the shoulders; however, the outsides of the legs are visible
through a thin covering of fat. Flanks are moderately full and firm.
To qualify for the Choice grade a carcass must have the minimum requirements
for quality and finish regardless of the extent that conformation may exceed
the minimum requirements for Choice. However, if a carcass has quality and
finish equivalent to at least the average of the Choice grade, its confirmation
may be equivalent to average Good and remain eligible for Choice.








6

GOOD

Carcasses [ii iw"'. the minimum qualifications for the Good grade are slightly
rangy and a iinlia r, with -li-ld ly thin, tapering l h-.; have slightly wide. but
slidlilly thin-fleshed backs and shoulders; and slightly lon., thin necks. Hip and
shoulder joints are visible. Tlvy have a moderate amount of kidney and crotch
fat but kidneys are completely covered. There is a small amount of feathering
between the ribs and a slight amount of overflow fat over the inside of the. ribs
adjacent to the 1,.klin..n, a few streaking of fat in the inside flank muscles, and
a dark red color of lean. The external finish is moderately firm; however, the
muscles of the back are slightly visible through a thin fat c('v.,riing and the tops
of the shoulders and outside of the legs have a very thin fat covering. Flanks
are slightly thin and soft.
Carcasses which are not eligible for the Choice grade because thy have bunchy
or irriilih r distribution of exterior fat or excessive quantities of interior fat are
also included in the Good grade.
A carcass which has conformation equivalent to at least the average of the
Good grade may have quality and finish cq.iiiAl ;ihi to high Utility and remain
eligible for the Good grade. Also, a carcass which has qii:zlily and finish
equivalent to at least the aveia,-, of the Good grade may have -iifi'ri;iation
equivalent to high Utility and remain ,-lizill,. for the Good grade.
UTILITY

Carcasses li" ..-ing the minimum qualifications for the Utility grade are very
rangy and ail, r, with thin, li' hl.% concave legs; very narrow, sunken backs;
narrow, sharp shoulders; and very long, thin necks. Hips and shoulder joints
are prominent. Tliy have only a small amount of kidney and crotch fat and
kidi-*yN are nearly entirely ex',.-.1. There are practically no other interior
iat, and the lean in the inside flank muscles and between the ribs is very dark
red in color. E:\iriinial finish is soft and is limited to small deposits over the
rump and outside of the shoulders and to thin patches over the back. Flanks
are soft and -lightly watery.
A carcass which has conformation equivalent to at least the average of the
Utility grade may have q(iiaiity and finish equivalent to high Cull and remain
< i-iK11, for the Utility grade. Also, a carcass which has quality and linili
equivalent to the average of the Utility; -i.il. may have conformation equivalent
to hi -h Cull and remain eligible for the Utility grade.
CULL

Typical Cull zr:idh carcasses are extremely r:lm y and anii-ular and extremely
thin-fleshed throughout. Legs are extremely thin and concave, backs are ex-
tremely sunken and thin, shoulders are very thin and sharp, and necks are ex-
tremely thin. Hip and shoulder joints, as well as ribs and bones of the spinal
column, are clearly outlined. Tlwir- are practically no interior or exterior fats,
and the flesh is soft and watery and very dark red in color.


U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1951
















































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