Service and regulatory announcements

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Title:
Service and regulatory announcements
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Frequency:
irregular
completely irregular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural estimating and reporting -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 71 (Sept. 1922)-
General Note:
"S.R.A.--Agricultural economics ..."
General Note:
Title from caption.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004922015
oclc - 43519476
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ddc - 630.61 Un3a
System ID:
AA00009494:00012

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S. R. A.-P. M. A. 171 Issued September 1952


United States Department of Agriculture

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING ADMINISTRATION

SSERVICE.AND.REGULAT.ORY ANNOUNCEMENTS NO. 171


OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF
PORK CARCASSES (BARROW AND GILT)

(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.140-53.143 of the Code of Federal Regulations)


The following is a reprint of the official United States standards for the grades
of barrow and gilt carcasses promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture under
the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U. S. C. 1621 et seq.)
and the item for Marketing Services recurring in the annual appropriation act
for the United States Department of Agriculture and currently found in the
Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1953 (Pub. Law 451, 82d Cong.).
DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS
-. --J Tentative standards -for grades of pork carcasses and fresh pork cuts were
issued by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1931. These tentative
standards were slightly revised in 1933 and published in Circular No. 288.
New standards for grades of barrow and gilt carcasses were proposed by the
United States Department of Agriculture in 1949. These standards represented
the first application of objective measurements as guides to grades for pork
carcasses. Slight revisions were made in the proposed standards prior to pro-
mulgation, by the Secretary of Agriculture, as the official United States standards
for grades of barrow and gilt carcasses, effective September 12, 1952.

BASES FOR PORK CARCASS STANDARDS
The standards for pork carcasses developed by the United States Department
of Agriculture provide for segregation according to (a) class, as determined by
the apparent sex condition of the animal at the time of slaughter, and (b)
grade, which reflects quality of pork and the relative proportion of lean cuts to fat
cuts in the carcass.
PORK CARCASS CLASSES
The five classes of pork carcasses, comparable to the same five classes of
slaughter hogs, are barrow, gilt, sow, stag, and boar carcasses.

APPLICATION OF STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF BARROW AND GILT
CARCASSES
Differences in barrow and gilt carcasses due to sex condition are minor, and
the grade standards are equally applicable for grading both classes.
Barrow and gilt carcasses are graded primarily on the basis of (1) differences
in yields of lean cuts and of fat cuts, and (2) differences in quality of cuts.
These factors vary rather uniformly and consistently from one grade to another.
The Choice grade includes carcasses which are firm and have indications of ade-
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quate marbling, or fat interspersed within the lean, to produce the acceptable
palatability of Choice grade pork. Quality of the trimmed lean cuts is similar
in all Choice grade carcasses, but divisions of the grade reflect the decreased
ratio of lean cuts to fat cuts in carcasses with increased degrees of finish in excess
of the minimum required for the Choice grade. Medium grade carcasses are
underfinished and produce Medium grade pork, in which the lean and fat are
slightly soft and the lean has little or no marbling. The Cull grade includes those
carcasses which are decidedly underfinished, resulting in typical Cull grade pork
with soft, watery lean and no visible marbling. Only carcasses with firmness
appropriate to the degree of finish are included under these standards. However,
carcasses which are typically soft or oily as a result of feeds producing soft or
oily fat may be graded in accordance with these standards provided they are
specially identified as soft or oily along with the grade.
Measurements of average back fat thickness in relation to carcass weight or
length are closely related to yield of cuts and the quality of the cuts. The follow-
ing table of measurements provides an objective guide in determining the barrow
and gilt carcass grades.

Weight and Measurement Guides to Grades for Barrow and
Gilt Carcasses


Average back fat thickness,2 by grade
Carcass weight or carcass length
Choice No. 1 Choice No. 2 Choice No. 3 Medium Cull

Inches Inches Inches Inches Inches
Under 120 pounds or under 27 1.4 to 1.7 --. 1.7 to 2.0 ... 2.0 or more-- 1.0 to 1.4 -.. Less than 1.0.
inches.
120 to 164 pounds or 27 to 29.9 1.5 to 1.8--.. 1.8 to 2.1.... 2.1 or more.- 1.1 to 1.5 ... Less than 1.1.
inches.
165 to 209 pounds or 30 to 32.9 1.6 to 1.9.... 1.9 to 2.2.... 2.2 or more.- 1.2 to 1.6.... Lessthanl.2.
inches.
210 or more pounds or 33 or more 1.7 to 2.0.... 2.0 to 2.3.... 2.3 or more.- 1.3 to 1.7--.- Less than 1.3.
inches.

1 Either carcass weight or length may be used with back fat thickness as a reliable guide to grade. The
table shows the normal length range for given weights. In extreme caseF where the use of length with back
fat thickness indicates a different grade than by using weight, final grade is determined subjectively as
provided in the standards. Carcass weight is based on a chilled, packer style carcass. Carcass length is
measured from the forward point of the aitch bone to the forward edge of the first rib.
2 Average of measurements made opposite the first and last ribs and last lumbar vertebra.

The standards for grades of barrow and gilt carcasses include carcass meas-
urements and descriptions of the characteristics of carcasses which indicate the
lean and fat yields and imply the quality of meat typical of the minimum degree
of finish of each grade. Visual estimates of fat thickness normally alleviate
the necessity for measuring carcasses. In ildlirion to the measurement guides
to grade differences, the standards also provide the basis for consideration of
other characteristics. While carcass measurements furnish a reliable general
guide to pork quality, for borderline carcasses between Choice and Medium and
between Medium and Cull grades, the final grade of the carcass may vary from
that indicated by carcass measurements because of other visual evidences of
quality. Similarly, within the Choice grade, the determination of the division
of the grade, that is, Choice No. 1, Choice No. 2, or Choice No. 3, may include,
in addition to consideration of carcass measurements, a consideration of such
characteristics as length in relation to weight, conformation of hams, loins,
bellies, and shoulders, and uniformity of width, depth, and fat covering. How-
ever, application of these additional factors is limited to borderline carcasses,
and in no case may the final grade division be more than one-half of the width of
a grade division different than that indicated by carcass measurements. The
st;indllards describe carcasses typical of each grade or major grade division, and
no attempt is made to describe the nearly limitless number of combinations of
characteristics that may qualify a carcass for a particular grade or division
thereof.




.*
," ~ '














SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF BARROW AND GILT CARCASSES
CHOICE NO. 1
Carcasses in this rande division have near the minimum d-gr-ee of finish re-
quired for the production of Choice grade cuts. Meatiness based on yield of
lean cuts in relation to carcass %vi-lit is :-lighlly high; yield of fat cuts is
correspolndingly low. The ratio of total lean and fat to bone is slightly high.
Carcasses i[,.pt.-s-ing the minimum finish for Choice No. 1 tend to be moderately
wide and Ing: in relation to weight. The back and loins are moderately full
and I hick with a uniformly full, well-rounded appearance. Hams are usually
moderately thick, plump, and smooth, and are slightly full in the lower part
toward the hocks. Bellies are moderately long, smooth, slightly thick, and mod-
erately uniform in thickness: the belly pocket is slightly thick. Shoulders are
fu'll-ti1b.led but usually blend smoothly into the sides. The carcass is moder-
ately well-balanced and smooth. There are moderate quantities of interior fats
in the region of the pelvis, a slightly thin but fairly extensive layer of fat lining
the inside surface of the ribs, and moderate feathering. The flesh is firm.
Both exterior and interior fats are firm, white, and of excellent quality.
Carcasses with other characteristics typical of the thinner one-half of Choice
No. 1, but with the firmness, belly thickness, and quantity and distribution of
interior fats typical of that in the Medium grade shall be graded Medium.
CHOICE NO. 2
Carcasses in this grade division have a higher degree of finish than the mini-
mum required for the production of Choice grade cuts. Meatiness based on yield
of lean cuts in relation to carcass weight is slightly low; yield of fat cuts is
correspondingly high. The ratio of total lean and fat to bone is moderately high.
Carcasses with the minimum finish for Choice No. 2 tend to be wide and slightly
short in relation to weight. The back and loins are full and thick and appear
fuller near the edges than at the center. Hams are usually thick, plump, and
smooth, and are moderately full in the lower part toward the hocks. Bellies
are thick, smooth, slightly short, and rather uniform in thickness; the belly
pocket is moderately thick. Shoulders are moderately thick and full but blend
smoothly into the sides. The carcass is well-balanced and smooth with uniform
development of the various parts. There are slightly large quantities of in-
terior fats in the region of the pelvis, a slightly thick and moderately extensive
layer of fat lining the inside surface of the ribs, and slightly abundant feather-
ing. The flesh is firm. Both exterior and interior fats are firm, white, and of
excellent quality.
CHOICE NO. 3
Carcasses in this grade division have a decidedly higher de-,rree of finish than
the minimum required for the production of Choice grade cuts. Meatiness based
on yield of lean cuts in relation to carcass weight is low; yield of fat cuts is cor-
respondingly high. The ratio of total lean and fat to bone is high. Carcasses
with the minimum finish for Choice No. 3 tend to be very wide and short in
relation to weight. The back and loins are very full and thick and appear espe-
cially full near the el-oes. Hams are usually thick, very plump, and smooth, and
are full in the lower part toward the hocks. Bellies are very thick, smooth, short,
and uniform in thickness; the belly pocket is thick. Shoulders are thickly fleshed
but blend smoothly into the sides. The carcass is well-balanced and smooth
with uniform development of the various parts. There are large quantities of
interior fats in the region of the pelvis, a moderately thick and nearly complete
layer of fat lining the inside surface of the ribs, and moderately abundant
feathering. The flesh is firm. Both exterior and interior fats are firm, white,
and of excellent quality.
MEDIUM
Carcasses in this grade have a slightly lower degree of finish than the minimum
required for the production of Choice grade cuts. Yield of lean cuts in relation
to carcass weight is moderately high; yield of fat cuts is correspondingly low.
The ratio of total lean and fat to bone is slightly low. Carcasses with the mini-




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



4 3 1262 8338 151 6


mum fiuish.rcequired for the Medium grade tend to be narrow and long in relation
to weight." The back and loins are slightly thin, deficient in fullness, and appear
to slope away from the center toward the sides. Hams are usually slightly thin,
'TVcking in plumpness, and taper slightly toward the hocks. Bellies are long,
slightly thin and wrinkled, and moderately uneven in thickness; the belly pocket
-is slightly thin. Shoulders are slightly thin and flat, but often show prominence
at the junction with the sides. The carcass tends to be uneven and rough with
slightly irregular development of the various parts. There are slightly small
quantities of interior fats in the region of the pelvis, a scanty and incomplete
layer of fat lining the inside surface of the ribs, and only a small quantity of
feathering. Both exterior and interior fats are moderately soft, white to creamy
white, and of slightly low quality. The flesh is moderately soft and has little
evidence of marbling.
Carcasses with other characteristics typical of the fatter one-half of the Me-
dium grade but with the firmness, belly thickness, and quantity and distribution
of interior fats comparable to that of Choice No. 1 shall be graded Choice No. 1.
Carcasses with other characteristics typical of the thinner one-half of the Medium
grade shall be graded Cull when quality indications are comparable to those of
the Cull grade.
CULL
Carcasses in this grade have a considerably lower degree of finish than the
minimum required for the production of Choice grade cuts, and most cuts are
suitable only for processing. Yield of lean cuts in relation to carcass weight is
high; yield of fat cuts is correspondingly low. The ratio of total lean and fat
to bone is low. Carcasses with typical Cull grade finish are narrow and long
in relation to weight. The back and loins are thin and decidedly lacking in
fullness with a definite slope away from the center toward the sides. Hams are
thin, flat, and wrinkled, and show a definite taper toward the hocks. Bellies
are very long, thin and wrinkled, and very uneven in thickness; the belly pocket
is very thin. Shoulders are thin and flat but prominent at the junction with
the sides. The carcass is uneven and rough with irregular development of the
various parts. There are small quantities of interior fats in the region of the
pelvis and little or no fat in the area of the inside surface of the ribs. Both
exterior and interior fats are soft, creamy white to white, and of very low quality.
The flesh is soft and watery and has no evidence of marbling.
Carcasses with other characteristics typical of nearly maximum degree of
finish for the Cull grade, but with the firmness, belly thickness, and quantity
and distribution of interior fats comparable to that of the Medium grade shall
be graded Medium.


* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICES 195t




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