Service and regulatory announcements

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Title:
Service and regulatory announcements
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Frequency:
irregular
completely irregular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural estimating and reporting -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 71 (Sept. 1922)-
General Note:
"S.R.A.--Agricultural economics ..."
General Note:
Title from caption.

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University of Florida
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aleph - 004922015
oclc - 43519476
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AA00009494:00005

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S. R. A.-A. M. S. 172 Issued September 1952
Reprinted, with amendment, July 1955

United States Department of Agriculture
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE

SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS NO. 172


OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF
SLAUGHTER SWINE (BARROWS AND GILTS)

(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.150-53.153 of the Code of Federal Regulations)


The following is a reprint of the official United States stninl.nrds for the
grades of slaughter barrows and gilts promiiulgated by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U. S. C. 1621
et seq.) and other authority. The standards are reprinted as amended effective
July 5, 1955.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS
A system of classifying and grading market hogs was formulated by the
United States Department of Agriculture in 1918 for use in the livestock market
reporting service. The system was developed with the cooperation and assist-
ance of many interested agencies and represented the most generally accepted
market groupings of the time. After iinl-tings with producers, animal hus-
bandmen, market representatives, and slaughterers in 1928 and 1929, revisions
were made, consistent with chlin-'tc in production and marketing conditions,
and tentative standards were issued in 1930. Further revisions were incor-
porated into the tentative standards in 1940 when they were published in
Circular No. 569.
The United States Department of Agriculture proposed new sta;ud.;rds for
grades of slaughter barrows and gilts in 1949. Field testing, discussion, and
demonstration of the standards resulted in slight revisions before promulga-
tion, by the Secretary of Agriculture, as the official United States standards for
grades of slaughter barrows and gilts, effective September 12, 1952.
The official standards were amended in July, 1955, by changing the grade des-
ignations Choice No. 1, Choice No. 2, and Choice No. 3 to U. S. No. 1, U. S. No. 2,
and U. S. No. 3, respectively. In addition, the degree of finish or fatness was
reduced for each grade and the de-lcc-ilti\e specifications were reworded slightly
to reflect the reduced degrees of finish and to facilitate more uniform interpre-
tation of the standards.

BASES FOR SWINE STANDARDS
The market standards for swine developed by the United States Department of
Agriculture provide for segregation according to (a) intended use, as slaughter
or feeder and stocker animals, (b) class, as determined by sex condition, and (c)
grade, or degree of excellence and suitability for a particular purpose.
SLAUGHTER SWINE CLASSES
There are five classes of slaughter swine-barrows, gilts, sows, stags, and
boars.
BARROW
A barrow is a male swine castrated when young and before de\ elupiimeut of
the secondary physical characteristics of a boar.
GILT
A gilt is a young female swine that has not produced yousig and has not reached
an advanced stage of pregnancy.
SOW
A sow is a mature female sp... Li4'a 'n reproduced or
has reacted an advanced stage f pregTh
350416*-55 FD rNUMErNT DEPL I










STAG
A stag is a male swine castrated after development or beginning of develop-
ment of the secondary physical characteristics of a boar. Typical stags are
somewhat coarse and lack balance-the head and shoulders are more fully
develleiil than the hindquarter parts, bones and joints are large, the skin is
thick and rough, and the hair is coarse.
BOAR
A boar is an uncastrated male swine.

APPLICATION OF STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF SLAUGHTER
BARROWS AND GILTS
In the barrow and gilt classes, sex condition has exerted little effect on sec-
ondary physical characteristics, and barrows and gilts are treated as a single
class in marketing and for standardization purposes. Therefore, the grade
standards are equally applicable to both slaughter barrows and gilts.
The standards are based on the standards for grades of barrow and gilt car-
casses. The two major factors forming the bases for the grades are (1) differ-
ences in yield of lean cuts and of fat cuts, and (2) differences in quality of cuts.
There are rather consistent variations in these characteristics from one grade
of barrows and gilts to another. U. S. No. 1 grade barrows and gilts have about
the minimum finish required to produce pork cuts of acceptable quality in which
the lean is firm and has sufficient marbling, or fat interspersed within the lean,
to result in the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor associated with desirable palata-
bility. U. S. No. 2 grade barrows and gilts are overfinished and U. S. No. 3
grade barrows and gilts are decidedly overfinished in relation to the minimum
finish required for the production of cuts of acceptable quality; yields of lean
are lower and yields of fat are higher in these grades than in U. S. No. 1 grade.
Medium grade barrows and gilts are underfinished, and although the ratio of
lean to fat is higher than in U. S. No. 1 grade, the lean is soft and has little or
no marbling. Cull grade barrows and gilts are decidedly underfinished and the
pork is soft and watery with no visible evidence of marbling in the lean.
Application of the standards requires an accurate appraisal of the live animal
characteristics which indicate the grade. The standards describe the character-
istics of typical animals having the minimum degree of finish for each grade. No
attempt is made to describe the numerous combinations of characteristics that
may qualify an animal for a specific grade, and making appropriate compensations
for varying combinations requires the use of sound judgment.
The general limits of grades for barrows and gilts are determined by degree
of finish, but other factors are considered in certain cases to accomplish further
refinement of the grades. Animals at the borderlines between grades with respect
to degree of finish are graded by consideration of meatiness as evidenced by
thickness and fullness (fat covering considered) of hams, loins, shoulders, and
bellies; apparent firmness of fesllinz; and distribution of fat covering. The
application of these comlpensatiiung factors is limited to borderline cases between
grades, and in no case is the final grade of an animal more than one-half the
width of a grade different than that indicated by apparent degree of finish.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF SLAUGHTER BARROWS AND GILTS
U. S. NO. 1
Slaughter barrows and gilts in this grade; have an intermediate degree of finish.
Hogs of the minimum finish for U. S. No. 1 are moderately wide over the top,
and width of body over the top alniears nearly equal to that at the underline.
The back. from side to side, is moderately full and thick and usually appears
well-rounded a;ii blends smoothly into the sides. Width through the hams is
usually nearly equal to width through the shoulders. The sides are moderately
li.iin, slightly thick, and usually smooth; the flanks are slii.htly thick and full.
Depth at the rear fluink may be slightly less than depth at the fore flank. Hams
tend to be moderately thick and full with a slightly thick covering of fat. Jowls
are moderately full and thick but are usually trim. Barrows and gilts in this
grade produce U. S. No. 1 carc;isses. Barruws and gilts with apparent degree of
finish typical of the fatter one-half of the U, S. No. 1 grade but with the evidences











of meatiness, firmness of fleshing. and distribution of finish more nearly typical
of the U. S. No. 2 grade shall he gr.;idch U. S. No. 2.
U. S. NO. 2
Slaughter barrows and gllk; in this -*lr;,l, have a moderately hi-h (dlri of
finish. Hogs of the minimum finish for U. S. No. 2 are wide over the top, and
width of body api'earsl slightly gra;lto'r over the top than at the undrlrliini.. The
back, from side to side, is full :nd thick and often appears slightly flat with a
noticeable break into the sides. Width may be slightly greater thrliogh the
shoulders than thruth the hams. The -id-s are slightly short, moderately
thick, and smooth; the flanks are moderately thick and full. Depth at the rear
flank is nearly equal to depth at the fore flank. Hams tend to be thick and full
with a imilOr.Itely thick covering of fat, especially over the lower part. Jowls
are usually full and thick, and the neck appears rather short. Barrows and gilts
in this grade ilro1lIe. U. S. No. 2 carcasses. Barrows and gilts with apparent
dw-ree of finish typical of the fatter one-half of the U. S. No. 2 grade hut with
the evidences of meatiness, firmness of fl(-hliig. and distribution of finish more
nearly typical of the U. S. No. 3 grade shall be graded U. S. No. 3. Those with
apparent degree of finish typical of the thinner one-half of the U. S. No. 2 grade
but with the evidences of meatiness, firmness of fleshing, and distribution of
finish more nearly typical of the U. S. No. 1 grade shall be graded U. S. No. 1.
U. S. NO. 3
Slaughter barrows and gilts in this grade have a high degree of finish. Hogs
possessing the minimum finish for U. S. No. 3 are very wide over the top, and
width of body appears somewhat greater over the top than at the underline.
The back, from side to side, is very full and thick and often appears nearly flat
with a pronounced break into the sides. Width may be greater through the
shoulders than through the hams. The sides are short, thick, and smooth; the
flanks are thick and full. Depth at the rear flank is equal to depth at the fore
flank. Hams tend to be very thick and full with a thick covering of fat, espe-
cially over the lower part. Jowls are very thick and full, and the neck appears
short. Barrows and gilts in this grade produce U. S. No. 3 carcasses. Barrows
and gilts with apparent degree of finish near the minimum for U. S. No. 3 grade
but with evidences of meatiness, firmness of fleshing, and distribution of finish
more nearly typical of the U. S. No. 2 grade shall be graded U. S. No. 2.
MEDIUM
Slaughter barrows and gilts in this grade have a low degree of finish. Hogs
of the minimum finish for the grade are moderately narrow over the top, and
width over the top appears less than at the underline. The back, from side to
side, is slightly thin and appears rather peaked at the center, especially at and
immediately behind the shoulders, with a distinct slope toward the sides. Hips
may appear slightly prominent. Width may be slightly less through the shoulders
than through the hams. The sides are long, moderately thin, and wrinkled; the
flanks are thin. Depth at the rear flank is less than depth at the fore flank.
Hams tend to be thin and flat with a slight taper toward the shanks. Jowls are
usually slightly thin and flat, and the neck appears rather long. Barrows and
gilts in this grade produce Medium grade carcasses.
CULL
Slaughter barrows and gilts in this grade have a very low degree of finish.
Hogs with the fleshing typical of the grade are narrow over the top, and width
of body appears somewhat less over the top than at the underline. The back,
from side to side, is thin, lacks fullness, and appears peaked at the center with
a decided slope toward the sides. The hips are prominent. Width may be
somewhat less through the shoulders than through the hams. The sides are
very long, thin, and wrinkled; the flanks are very thin. Depth at the rear flank
is considerably less than depth at the fore flank. Hams are very thin and flat
with a decided taper toward the shanks. Jowls are usually thin and flat, and
the neck appears long. Barrows and gilts in this grade produce Cull grade
carcasses.
U. S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1955




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
III 11111111601 1 11111
3 1262 08338 162 3




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