Service and regulatory announcements

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Title:
Service and regulatory announcements
Physical Description:
v. : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Agricultural Economics
Publisher:
G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
irregular
completely irregular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Agricultural estimating and reporting -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 71 (Sept. 1922)-
General Note:
"S.R.A.--Agricultural economics ..."
General Note:
Title from caption.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004922015
oclc - 43519476
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ddc - 630.61 Un3a
System ID:
AA00009494:00003

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Preceded by:
Service and regulatory announcements


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S. R. A.-P. M. A. 113 Issued September 1928
Reprinted, with amendment, March 1951



United States Department of Agriculture

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING ADMINISTRATION
SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS No. 113'


OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF
VEALERS AND SLAUGHTER CALVES

(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.120-53.124 of the Code of Federal Regulations)


The following is a reprint of the official United States standards for the grades
of vealers and slaughter calves heretofore promulgated by the Secretary of
Agriculture under the Agricultural .1Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. in',7; 7
U. S. C. 1621 et seq.) and the item for Ma1rket Inspection of Farm Products and
Markttii-i Farm Products recurring in the annual appropriation acts for the
Del apartment of Agriculture. The standards are reprinted with amendment effec-
tive March 10, 1951.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS
The official United States standards for grades of dealers and slaughter calves
were initially promulgated on July 16, 192S.
The official standards were a;iutil'd in AMnIrch 1951. The amendment specified
the minimum requirements for each grade and provided for the renaming of cer-
tain grades of vealers and calves to conform with the amended standards for veal
and calf carcasses which became effective at the same time. Major changes
brought about by this amendment were as follows: The Prime and Choice grades
were combined and redesignlted I'rimn., the Good grade was renamed Choice,
the top half of the Medium grade was renamed Good, the remaining portion of the
Medium grade was designated Commercial, and the Common grade was renamed
Utility. The Cull gralle reiiiained unchanged. Other minor ci(.han;" were made
to facilitate interpretation.

DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN VEALERS AND CALVES

Young bovine animals are segregated for market purposes as vealers or calves.
The basis for differentiation between vealers and calves is made primarily on
age and certain evidences of type of feeding. Typical vealers are less than 3
months of age and have subsisted largely on milk. Since vealers have consumed
little, if any, roughages, they have the characteristic triliness of middle issoci-
ated with limited paunch development. Calves are usually between 3 and 8
nmonthb of age, have subsisted partially or entirely on feeds other than milk for
a substantial period of time, and have developed the heavier middles and physical
characteristics associated with maturity beyond the vealer stage.

CLASSES OF VEALERS AND CALVES
There are three classes of vealers and calves, based on sex condition-steers.
heifers, and bulls. However, the influence of sex condition on physical character-
istics is not sufficient to merit separate grade standards for each class.

APPLICATION OF STANDARDS
Vealers and calves are graded largely on a composite evaluation of three
general factor---conformation, finish, and quality. Conformation refers to the
genera! beldy proportions of the animal and to the ratio of meat to bone. While
SThis publication was issued rri.inally as Service and Regulatory Announcements
No. 113 of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The work on which it is based is now
a part of the Production and Marketing Administration.
942116-51








primarily determined by the inherent muscular and skeletal system, it is also
influenced by degree of fatness. Finish refers to the fatness of the animal. The
quality, quantity, and distribution of finish are all closely associated with the
palatability and quality of the meat. Quality in the slaughter animal refers to
the refinement of hair, hide, and bone and to the smoothness and symmetry of
the body. Quality is also closely associated with carcass yield and the proportion
of meat to bone.
The determination of the carcass grade that the live animal will produce re-
quires the exercising of well-regulated judgimeit. Each animal presents a dif-
ferent combination of the grade determining factors. It is not unusual to find
an animal of one grade that has some of the characteristics associated with an-
other grade or grades. Therefore, a composite evaluation of the total inherent
physical characteristics of the animal is essential for accuracy in determining
grade.
The descriptions of the physical characteristics of the grades of vealers and
calves represent the lower limits of each grade. No attempt is made to describe
the numerous combinations of grade factors which may meet the minimum re-
quirements for a particular grade. Descriptions are limited largely to animals
c'iinidered as typical of the lower limits of the grade.
The grade descriptions of both vealers and calves apply to those of average age
or maturity. In order to qualify for a specific grade, more mature animals
should carry somewhat more finish, while very young animals may carry some-
what less finish than specified herein.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF VEALERS
PRIME

Vealers possessing the minimum qualifications for Prime grade are superior in
conformation, Iqu.lity, and finish. In conformation, Prime vealers tend to be
low-set, compact, short of neck and body, and relatively thick-fleshed. They are
wide over the back, loin, and rump. Shoulders and hips are moderately neat
and smoothly laid in. The twist is deep and full, and the rounds are thick and
moderately plump. There is a slight fullness or plumpness evident over the
crops, loin, and rump, which contributes to a rather well-rounded appearance.
Prime vealers have a thin fat covering over the crops, back, loin, rump, and
upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks, and cod or udder show distinct evidence of
fullness. Prime vealers exhibit evidences of high quality. The bones tend to
be proportionately small, joints smooth, the hide moderately thin and pliable,
and the body very trim, smooth, and symmetrical.
CHOICE

Vealers possessing the minimum qualifications for Choice grade tend to be
moderately low-set, short-necked and compact. They are slightly thick-fleshed
and moderately wide over the back and loin. Shoulders and hips are usually
moi'erntltly neat and smoothly laid in, with only a slight tendency toward prom-
inence. The loin, rump, and rounds may appear almost flat, with little evidence
of fullness. Choice vealers have a very thin fat covering over the back, loin, and
upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks, and cod or udder may show a very slight
fullness. Choice vealers usually present a moderately refined appearance.

GOOD
Vealers possessing the minimum qualifications for Good grade tend to be
slightly compact and slightly wide of back and loin. The neck may be slightly
long and thin. Good grade vealers tend to be slightly thin-fleshed, and the loin,
rump, and rounds are flat and may present a very slight sunken or hollowed-out
appearance. The shoulders and hips are slightly prominent. The fat cov-
ering is very limited and is discernible only over portions of the back and loin.
The brisket, rear flanks, and cod or udder may have small fat deposits but have
no apparent fullness. Good grade vealers are usually moderately smooth and
slightly rfliii d in appearance.

COMMERCIAL
Vealers possessing the minimum requirements for Commercial grade tend to
be rangy, Ilat;I riliii-, long and thin of neck, narrow over the hI:k, loin, and rump.







3

and shallow in the twist. They are thin-fleshed, and there is a distinctly sunken
or hollowed-out appearance over the back, loin, and rounds. Lips and shoulders
appear moderately prominent. There is an extremely thin fat ci\' ritln over por-
tions of the back and loin that is difficult to detect in the live animal. Such veal-
ers i;iy show the heavy bones, thick hidv. prominent hips and sli ,uldtr- asso-
ciated with coarseness, or they may show the small bones, tight hide, and
angularity denoting over-refinement.

UTILITY
Vealers possessing the minimum requirements for the Utility grade may tend
to be very rangy, angular, and long and thin of neck. They are very thinly
fleshed, narrow over the back, loin, and riminI. ;nd shallow in the twist. Hips
and shoulders are very prominent, and the crops, back, loin, rump, and rounds
present a very sunken or hollowed-out appearance. Utility vealers show no
visible evidence of any fat covering. Utility vealers tend to be of low quality.
The bones and joints are usually proportionately large and the hide either
thick or tight and inelastic.
CULL
The typical Cull grade vealer appears extremely rangy, angular, long- and
thin-necked, narrow, and shallow bodied. Shoulders and hips are extremely
prominent, and the crops, back, loin, rump, and rounds present an extremely
sunken or hollowed-out appearance. The general appearance denotes low
quality. The relative proportion of meat to bone is very low, joints appear large
and coarse, and the body is very unsymmetrical.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF SLAUGHTER CALVES
PRIME
Calves possessing the minimum qualifications for Prime grade are superior
in conformation, quality, and finish. In conformation, Prime calves tend to be
low-set, compact, and short of neck and body and thick-fleshed. They are wide
over the back, loin, and rump. Shoulders and hips are neat and smoothly laid
in. The twist is deep and full and the rounds are thick and moderately plump.
There is a fullness or plumpness evident over the crops, loin, and rump which
contributes to a well-rounded appearance. Prime calves have a slightly thick
fat covering over the crops, back, loin, rump, and upper ribs. The brisket, rear
flanks, and cod or udder show a marked fullness. Prime calves exhibit evidences
of high quality. The bones tend to be proportionately small, joints smooth, the
hide moderately thin and pliable, and the body very trim, smooth, and
symmetrical.
CHOICE
Calves possessing the minimum qualifications for Choice grade tend to. be
moderately low-set, short-necked, and compact. They tend to be moderately
thick-fleshed, and are moderately wide over the back and loin. Sholders and
hips are usually moderately neat and smoothly laid in. There is a slight full-
ness or plumpness over the crops, loin, rump, and rounds which contribute to
a rather well-rounded appearance. Choice calves have a moderately thin fat
covering over the back, loin, rump, and upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks,
and cod or udder are slightly full. Choice calves usually present a moderately
refined appearance.
GOOD
Calves possessing the minimum qualifications for Good grade tend to be
slightly compact and slightly wide of back and loin. The neck may be slightly
long and thin. Good grade calves tend to be only slightly thick-fleshed, and
the loin, rump, and rounds may appear almost flat with little or no evidence of
fullness. The shoulders and hips are usually moderately neat and smoothly
laid in but may appear slightly prominent. There is a very thin fat covering
over the back, loin, and upper ribs. The brisket, rear flanks, and cod or udder
may show a very slight fullness. Good grade calves are usually moderately
smooth and slightly refined in appe:arace.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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COMMERCIAL
Calves possessing the minimum requirements for Commercial grade tend to
be rangy, upstanding, long and thin of neck, narrow over the back, loin, and
runmp, and shallow in the twist. They tend to be thinly fleshed, and there is a
slightly sunken or hollowed-out appearance over the back, loin, and rounds.
Hips and shoulders appear somewhat prominent. There is a very thin fat
covering that is discernible only over portions of the back and loin. Such
calves may show the heavy bones, thick hide, prominent hips and shoulders
associated with coarseness; or they may show the small bones, tight hide, and
angularity dentin -r over-refinement.
UTILITY
Calves pisse-.-ilr the minimum requirements for the Utility grade tend to
be very ran'ly, angula;r, and long and thin of neck. They tend to be very thinly
fleshed, narrow over the back, loin, and rump, and shallow in the twist. Hips
and shoulders are very prominent, and the crops, back, loin, rump, and rounds
present a very sunken or hollowed-out appearance. There is an extremely
thin fat covering over the back and loin that is difficult to detect in the live
animal. Utility calves tend to be of low quality. The bones and joints are
usually proportionately lar '., and the hide either thick or tight and inelastic.
CULL
The typical Cull grade calf appears extremely rangy, angular, long and thin-
necked, narrow, and shallow-bodied. Shoulders and hips are extremely promi- -
nent, and the crops, back, loin, rump, and rounds present an extremely sunken
or hollowed-out alnlle rance. The general appearance denotes low quality.
The relative proportion of meat to bone is very low, joints appear large and
coarse, and the body is very unsymmetrical. ..





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U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1951




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