Service and regulatory announcements

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Service and regulatory announcements
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v. : ; 23 cm.
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Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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Statement of Responsibility:
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
No. 71 (Sept. 1922)-
General Note:
"S.R.A.--Agricultural economics ..."
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Title from caption.

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University of Florida
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S. R. A.-P. M. A. 99 Issued June 1926
Reprinted, with amendments, December 1950

United States Department of Agriculture
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING ADMINISTRATION
SERVICE AND REGULATORY ANNOUNCEMENTS NO. 991


OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRADES
OF CARCASS BEEF

(Title 7, Ch. I, Pt. 53, Sections 53.102-53.106 of the Code of Federal Regulations)
The following is a reprint of the official United States standards for the
grades of carcass beef promulgated by the Secretary of Agriculture under the
Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 1087; 7 U. S. C. 1621 et seq.) and
the items for Market Inspection of Farm Products and Marketing Farm Products
recurring in the annual appropriation acts for the Department of Agriculture.
The standards are reprinted with amendments effective December 29, 1950.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE STANDARDS
The tentative U. S. standards for the Grades of Dressed Beef were formulated
in 1916. They provided the basis for uniformly reporting the dressed beef
markets according to grades, which work was inaugurated as a national service
early in 1917. The grade specifications were improved from time to time as
experience gained through their use indicated what changes were necessary.
They were published first in mimeographed form in June 1923. After slight
changes they were included in Department Bulletin No. 1246 "Market Classes
and Grades of Dressed Beef" which was published in August 1924.
Public hearings were held at Portland, Oreg., Chicago, Ill., and New York,
N. Y., in 1925 to give producers, slaughterers, wholesale and retail meat
dealers, agricultural college workers, and others interested in the marketing
of livestock and meat an opportunity to make suggestions for improving the
standards. The sentiment registered at those meetings was overwhelmingly
in favor of the grades as presented. The few suggestions and criticisms offered
were carefully considered in subsequent revisions of the standards.
The tentative standards, although designed primarily for meat market re-
porting purposes, were put to further practical test in numerous ways. During
World War I they were used in the selection of beef for the Army, Navy,
and Allies. Later they were included in the specifications of the Emergency
Fleet Corporation for the purchase of its beef supplies. Soon thereafter they
were incorporated in the specifications of many commercial concerns, including
steamship lines, restaurants, hotels, dining-car services, and hospitals.
The revised grade descriptions were promulgated by the Secretary of Agri-
culture, June 3, 1926, as the Official United States Standards for the Grades
of Carcass Beef and published in Service and Regulatory Announcements No.
99 (B. A. E.).
These standards provided the basis for grading when the voluntary beef grading
and stamping service was begun in May 1927.
The official standards were amended in July 1939 (Amendment No. 1 to S. R. A.
No. 99) so as to provide a single standard for the grading and labeling of steer,
heifer, and cow beef according to similar inherent quality characteristics. The
amendment also changed certain grade terms for steer, heifer, and cow beef
from "Medium," "Common," and "Low Cutter" to "Commercial," "Utility," and
"Canner," respectively. A second amendment (Amendment No. 2 to S. R. A. No.
99) issued in November 1941, made similar changes in the grade terms for bull
and stag beef and established the following grade terminology for all beef:
1 This announcement was issued originally as Service and Regulatory Announcements
No. 99 of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The work on which it is based is now a
part of the Production and Marketing Administration.
920692-51








Prime,2 Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility, Cutter. and Canner. A third amend-
ment (Amendment No. 3 to S. R. A. No. 99), in October 1949, eliminated all
references to color of fat.
In December 1950, the official standards for grades of steer, heifer, and
cow beef were amended (Amendment No. 4 to S. R. A. No. 99) by combining the
Prime and Choice grades and designating them as Prime, renaming the Good
grade as Choice, and dividing the Commercial grade into two grades by desig-
nating the beef produced from y..iung animals included in the top half of the
grade as Good while retaiiniii the Commercial grade de mainder of the beef in that grade. Other revisions in the standards for the
Prime, Choice, Good, and Commercial grades were made to clarify them and to
facilitate their interpretation. Standards for the Utility, Cutter, and Canner
grades were not affected. These changes in the standards were a modification
of a proposal by the Department to revise the standards in August 1949, and
were adopted after careful consideration of comments received in writing over
a period of months and those presented orally at a public hearing at Chicago,
on June 28, 19.50.
APPLICATION OF STANDARDS

Beef is grade-d on a composite evaluation of three general grade factors-
ciifirmi;ti oi. finish, and quality. These factors are concerned with the pro-
portions of the various wholesale cuts in the carcass, the proportions of fat,
lean, and bone, and the quality of the meat. Carcasses qualifying for any
particular grade may vary with respect to their relative development of the
three grade factors, and there will be carcasses which qualify for a particular
grade, some of whose characteristics may be more nearly typical of another
grade. Because it is impractical to describe the nearly limitless numbers of
such recognizable combinations of characteristics, the standards for each grade
describe only beef which has a relatively similar degree of development of
conformation, finish, and quality and which is also generally representative of
the midpoint of each grade. A few minimum requirements are included in some
of the specifications.
As an aid in the correct interpretation of the stan'lards, the Department
uses color photographs of carcasses illustrating combinations of characteristics
which qualify the carcasses for the lower limits of each grade.
The grade descriptions are defined primarily in terms of carcass beef. How-
ever, they are applicable also to wholesale cuts. It is recognized that some of
the wholesale cuts prolu.ced from a carcass which may be near the limits of a
grade may not be of the same grade as that of the carcass from which they
were produced. The correct grade for wholesale cuts shall be determined by
an evaluation of the lt-gri,-;< of conformation, finish, and quality of the wholesale
cuts and not the carcass from which they are derived.
Beef includes meat from animals that vary widely with respect, to maturity.
Some of the grades for carcass beef differ with respect to the maximum
maturity permitted. In those grades in which the greatest range of maturity
is permitted two .,1'iaife requirements for certain of the grade factors have
been specified, depending ulpon evidences of the maturity attained by the animals
from which the beef was produced. Advauciing maturity is associated with a
aenerail decline in thickness of muscling, increased roughness and irregularity
in conformation and finili. and the gradual o(:silication of bones and cartilages
most easily noted in the split chine bones. Within any specified grade the
dleg',ree of finish and marblinie required increases Iprogresively with advancing
maturity.
The standards plr'iviile for the gir:ling and stamping of beef from steers.
heifers, and cows according to its characteristics as beef without sex identifi-
cation. Such beef placed within each respective grade, therefore, shall possess
the characteristics specified for that grade, irrespective of the sex of the animal
from which it was derived. Beef produced from bulls and .sta.gs shall be graded

2The use of the zrn.1o specified as "Prime" for beef carcasses and wholesale cuts was
siu.mi il'.1] for 1the 1.'riil S'or -ml.or 18, 1942, to December 3, 1.9'4-1. puir-ii.- t to amendment
5. Maximum. Price R1.-'uliti,'n 1l'.[ of the Office of Price Administration. Diurinc that
period all carcass he.t' :nl. wh\,d1..*ile cuts that met the specifications of the "Prime" grade
were identified with and graded as "Choice."









according to its characteristics as bull beef and as s-t:'. beef in accordance
with the standards. When .r'ded and identified according to grade, such
beef shall be identified also for class as "Bull" beef or "St.ng" beef as the case
may be. No desiglnted grade of bull beef or of stag beef is comparable in
quality with a similarly designated grade of beef derived from steers, heifers,
or cows. Neither is the quality in a des.-igiti-i1 grade of bull beef comparable
with a similarly designated quality of stag beef.

STANDARD GRADES FOR CARCASS BEEF

There are seven grades for beef from steers and li,,ifer.-, and six grades for
beef from cows, bulls, and stags. Tliese are listed in the follwi-ug schedule of
grades:

SCHEDULE-Standard market classes and grli s for dressed beef

Class Grade Class Grade

Steer, heifer, and cow I ------ Prime. Bull and stag ...-....... .
Choice. Good.
Good. Commercial.
Commercial. Utility.
Utility. Cutter.
Cutter. Canner.
Canner.

1 Cow beef is not elicibli- for Prime grade.

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR
GRADES OF CARCASS BEEF (STEER, HEIFER, AND COW)
PRIME

Prime grade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts are blocky and compact
and very thickly fleshed throughout. Loins and ribs are thick and full. The
rounds are plump and the pluni[impne extn,1.s well down toward the hocks. The
chucks are thick and the nck-< and shanks short. The fat c(.,vrilig is fairly
smooth and uniformly distributed over the exterior surface of the carcass. The
interior fat is abundant in the pelvic cavity and over the ki'ln,-y. The protrusion
of fat between the chine bones is liberal and the overflow of fat over tie inside
of the ribs is abundant and fairly evenly distributed. The intrmni'zlinz of fat
with the lean in evidence between the ribs, called featfi-ring. is extensive. Both
the interior and exterior fats are firm, brittle, and somewhat waxy, but the inte-
rior fat may be slightly wavy or rough. The cut surface of the rib eye muscle is
firm and has a smooth, velvety appearance. It has abundant marbling and the
marbling is extensive, especially in the heavier carcasses. The color may range
from a pale red to a deep blood red but shall be uiifiirm and liright. The chine
bones are usually soft and red, terminating in soft, pearly white cartilages.
Carcasses showing evidence of maximum maturity permitted in the Prime
grade have chine bones tinged with white and cartilages on the end of the chine
bones are slightly ossified. Carcasses must also be symmetrical and uniform in
contour and the rib eye muscle must be fine in texture.
Regardless of the extent to which other ,'r;.le factors may exceed the minimum
requirements for the grade, a carcass must have certain evidences of quality to
be eligible for the Prime grade. The cut surface of the muscle must be firm, fine
in texture, and bright in color. Slightly abundant iiiarbline must be evident in
the rib eye muscle of carcasses with soft, red chine bones terinitinnr in soft
pearly white cartilages. Progr"eiuvely more marbling is required in carcasses
with evidences of more adlva nced maturity. Carcasses which are only moder-
ately compact and blocky with only moderately plump rounds and moderately
thick fleshing may meet the minimum requirements for the Prime grade provided
they have finish and evidences of quality equivalent to the midpoint of the Prime
grade.
Only beef produced from steers and heifers will qualify for the Prime grade.








CHOICE

Choice grade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts are moderately blocky and
compact and moderately thick-fleshed throughout. Loins and ribs are moder-
ately thick and full and the rounds are moderately plump. The chucks are
moderately thick and the necks and shanks are moderately short. The fat cover-
ing of beef within the grade will vary within moderate limits depending on evi-
dences of the maturity attained by the animal from whii.h it was produced.
Carcasses whose chine bones are soft and red and which terminate in soft, pearly
white cartilages may have a slightly thin covering of exterior fat and a moderate
quantity of interior fat. In such beef there will be a modest protrusion of fat
between the chine bones and moderate overflow fat and feathering. Carcasses
whose chine bones are tinr-"id with white and which terminate in cartilages in
which ossification is plainly evident will usually possess a moderately thick exte-
rior fat covei ing that extends over nearly the entire surface of the carcass and
shall have fairly heavy deposits of interior fat. In such beef there will be a
moderate protrusion of fat between the chine bones and moderately abundant
overflow fat and feathering. Interior and exterior fats are fairly firm and
brittle. Characteristics of the cut surface of the rib eye muscle will vary, de-
pending on evidences of the maturity attained by the animal from which it was
produced. In carcasses whose chine bones are soft and red and which terminate
in soft, pearly white cartilaes, the rib eye has a moderate amount of marbling
and is usually slightly soft but fine in texture. In carcasses whose chine bones
are tinged with white and which terminate in cartilages in which some ossifica-
tion is evident, the rib eye has moderately abundant marbling and is usually
moderately firm and fine in texture. The color of the muscle usually ranges from
a light red to slightly dark*red. It is usually uniform and bright in color but
may be slightly two-toned or slightly shady.
Carcasses showing evidences of maximum maturity permitted in the Choice
grade have chine bones which are tinged with white and cartilages on the end
of the chine bones which are partially ossified. However, the carcasses must also
be at least moderately symmetrical and uniform in contour and the rib eye
muscle must be fine in texture.
Regardless of the extent to which other grade factors may exceed the mini-
mum requirements for the grade, carcasses whose flesh is moderately soft and
slightly watery are not eligible for the Choice grade. The minimum marbling
permitted will vary from a small amount in very red-boned, light-weight car-
casses to a moderate amount in carcasses approa-bing the maximum maturity
permitted. Carcasses which are slightly compact and blocky and with slightly
plump rounds and slightly thick fleshing may meet the minimum requirements
for the grade provided they have finish and evidences of quality equivalent to
the midpoint of the Choice grade.
Beef produced from steers, heifers, and young cows niny qualify for the
Choice grade.
GOOD
Good grade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts are slightly compact and blocky
in coinforniation and the fleshing tends to be slightly thick tlhri1ghout. Loins and
ribs are slightly full and the rounds are only slightly plump. Chucks are slightly
thick and full and the neck and fore shanks tend to be slightly long and thin.
The fat covering of beef within the grade will vary within moderate limits,
depending on the evidences of niatiirity of the cattle from which it was produced.
Carcasses whose chine bones are soft and red and whieh terminate in soft, pearly
white cartilages have a thin exterior fat covering over loins and ribs and over
portions of the rounds and chucks. In such beef there will be only a slight
protrusion of fat between the chine bones, only a small overflow of fat over the
inside of the ribs, and only a small quantity of featherine between the ribs.
Carcasses whose chine bones are tinged with white and which terminate in carti-
Inge.i in which some ossification is evident will usually possess a slightly thick
exterior fat c'vMring which extends over most of the rounds aind chucks. They
will have slight protrusions of fat between the chine bones and slightly abundant
overflow fat and feathering. The fat may be somewhat soft or slightly oily.
Characteristics of the cut surface of the rib eye muscle will vary depending
on evidences of maturity attained by the animal from which it was produced.
In carcasses whose chine bones are soft and red and which terminate in soft,









pearly-white cartilages the rib eye has a slight amount of inirbling and is usually
moderately soft but fine in texture. Carcasses whose chine bones are tinged
with white and which terminate in cartilages in which some ossification is evident
will have a modest amount of marbling and the muscle is usually slightly soft
but moderately fine in texture. The muscle will usually vary from a light red
to a slightly dark red in color but may be slightly two-toned or slightly shady.
Carcasses showing evidence of maximum maturity permitted in the Good
grade may have chine bones tinged with white and the cartilages on the end of
the chine bones may be moderately ossified. Carcasses must also be at least
moderately symmetrical and uniform in contour and the rib eye muscle must be
at least moderately fine in texture.
Red-boned, light-weight carcasses which have traces of marbling may meet
the minimum requirements for Good provided they have conformation equiva-
lent to at least the midpoint of the grade. However, carcasses which show
similar evidences of maturity but which are slightly rangy and angular are
required to show a slight amount of marbling. Carcasses near the maximum
limit for maturity with conformation equivalent to at least the midpoint of
this grade may qualify for Good with a small amount of marbling whereas car-
casses which show similar evidences of maturity and which are slightly rangy
and angular are required to have a modest amount of marbling.
COMMERCIAL
Beef qualifying for the Commercial grade is quite variable in conformation,
finish, and quality and in the evidences of maturity attained by the animal from
which it was produced. Young, red-boned carcasses are rangy, angular, and
slightly thin-fleshed throughout. Loins and ribs tend to be flat and are slightly
thin-fleshed. The rounds are moderately flat and tapering. Chucks are slightly
flat and thinly fleshed. Such beef will have only a thin covering of external
fat over the loins and ribs, practically no protrusion of fat between the chine
bones, and very scanty quantities of overflow fat and feathering. The cut surface
of the rib eye muscle of such beef is somewhat soft and watery but fine in texture
and will have little, if any, marbling. The fat is moderately soft or oily.
Carcasses that have hard, white chine bones are slightly thick-fleshed but rather
rough and irregular in contour. Rounds are slightly flat and tapering. Loins
are moderately wide but slightly sunken and the hips are rather prominent.
Ribs tend to be slightly thick and full. Chucks are slightly thin and plates and
briskets are wide and spreaddy" The neck and shanks are slightly long and
thin. Such beef will have a moderately thick exterior fat covering, a moderate
protrusion of fat between the chine bones, and moderately abundant overflow
fat and feathering. The external fat covering of such beef will be considerably
thicker over the loins and ribs than over the rounds and chucks and will fre-
quently be patchy or wasty. The fat is usually firm. The cut surface of the rib
eye muscle is firm but coarse in texture and the marbling is rather abundant
but is also rather coarse and prominent. The lean will usually vary from slightly
dark red to dark red in color but may be two-toned or shady.
Young, red-boned, light-weight carcasses with conformation equivalent to
the midpoint of the grade as described above may be devoid of marbling and
qualify for the commercial grade. However, regardless of the development of
other grade factors, older carcasses that have hard, white chine bones must have
at least a moderate amount of marbling in the rib eye muscle to qualify for the
grade. Carcasses from mature animals with conformation and evidences of
quality which only slightly exceed the minimum requirements of the grade are
not eligible for the Commercial grade if they are excessively patchy or uneven
in distribution of external fat.
UTILITY
Utility grade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts may be decidedly rangy,
angular, and irregular in conformation. The fleshing is usually thin. The loins
and ribs are flat and thinly fleshed. The rounds are long, flat, and tapering.
The chucks are flat and thinly fleshed. The neck and shanks are long and taper-
ing. The hip and shoulder joints are prominent. The degree of fat covering
varies from very thin in beef produced from young steers and heifers to a slightly
thick covering that may be somewhat uneven in beef produced from cattle that
are more or less advanced in age. The quantity of interior fat varies from very
little in beef that is produced from young and immature steers and heifers to a
moderate quantity in that produced from mature cattle. The fat is usually soft.








The cut surface of the lean muscle is usually soft and watery in the beef pro-
duced from younger cattle but in that produced from more mature cattle it is
usually fairly firm but coarse. The beef in this grade will show practically no
marbling except in that produced from aged cattle, which may show a little
marbling in the thicker cuts. The color may be two-toned or shady and usually
ranges from a light red to a very dark red. The bone is usually hard and white.
The Utility grade of beef may be produced from steers, heifers, or cows.
CUTTER
Cutter zrade beef carcasses and wholesale cuts may be very rangy, angular,
and irregular in conformation and very thinly fleshed throughout. The loins
and ribs are very flat, thin, and shallow. The rounds are very long, flat, and
tapering. The chucks are very flat, thin, and shallow. The neck and shanks are
very long and tapering. The hip and shoulder joints are very prominent. The
degree of exterior fat covering may vary from a very thin covering that is con-
fined almost entirely to the ribs and loins in the beef produced from younger
cattle to a thin, more extensive covering in the beef produced from mature cattle.
The interior fat is confined largely to the pelvic cavity and the kidney and may
vary from a very small quantity, if any, in these parts in beef produced from
younger cattle to a limited quantity in that produced from mature cattle. The
cut surface of the lean muscle shows no marbling, is coarse, and is usually soft
and watery. The color may be two-toned or shady and usually ranges from a
slightly dark red to a very dark red. The bone is usually hard and white.
The Cutter grade of beef may be produced from steers, heifers, and cows.
That produced from cows constitutes a relatively ]arLe percentage of the beef
eligible for this grade.
CANNER
Canner grnde beef carcasses and wholesale cuts shall be extremely rangy,
angular, and irregular in conformation and extremely thinly fleshed throughout.
All cuts are extremely thinly fleshed. Loins and ribs are extremely thin, flat,
and shallow. The rounds are very long, flat, and t:ipering. and the chucks are
extremely thin, flat, and shallow. The neck and shanks are extremely long
and the hips and shoulder joints are extremely tapering. Beef of this grade is
practically devoid of both interior and exterior fat. The outside surface usually
has a very dark appearance. The cut surface of the lean muscle is usually
coarse and is soft and watery in appearance. It shows no marbling. The color
may be two-toned or shady and usually ranges from a moderately dark red to
an extremely dark red or brownish black. The bones are nearly always hard
and white.
A very large percentage of the beef of the canner grade is produced from
mature cows that are somewhat advanced in age.

GRADES OF BULL BEEF CARCASSES
There are six grades of bull carcasses: Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility,
Cutter, and Canner.
CHOICE
Choice grade bull beef carcasses have excellent quality, finish, and conforma-
tion for the class. Rounds, chucks, and neck are thick and are very heavily
muscled. Loins and ribs are broad but tend to shallowness and are relatively
small in proportion to the rest of the carcass. The exterior surface is well
covered with fat which, althuii-hi rough, is not g.ihby or excessively deep at any
point. Interior fats are plentiful but are somewhat lacking in firmness and
brittleness. Usually such carcasses are derived from yiuinvz, well-fed bulls,
althougli sometimes carcasses of older bulls meet the rtquir-neiiint< of this grade.
The flesh generally is of a medium dark red color, firn but comparatively dry.
GOOD
Goi,'l grade bull beef carcasses have good quality, tinish, and conformation
for the class. Roulds, chucks, ;aid neck are thick and heavily muscled. Loins
and ribs are rloItivel. small in proportion to the rest of the carcass and are
somewhat flat. The general outline is somewhat ronuli and irregular. Except
for the shanks, neck, lower rounds, and shoulders, exterior surfaces generally









are covered with a rough but relatively thin layer of fat. Interior fats are
in moderate supply. All fats are somewhat soft and may be slightly oily.
Flesh generally is medium dark red in color, moderately firm, and dry.
COMMERCIAL
Commercial grade bull beef carcasses possess average quality, finish, and
conformation for the class. Rounds, chucks, and neck are thick and full. Loins
are relatively thin and flat or sunken. Ribs are moderately thin. Exterior
fats are scant and unevenly distributed and generally appear only in spots
over the back and rump. Interior fats are likewise scant, with small quantities
in the crotch and around the kidneys. The flesh is moderately firm, but usually
very dry. Its color varies from dark red to light brown.
UTILITY
Utility grade bull beef carcasses, although fairly well-developed in the rounds
and chucks, are deficient in these respects as compared with the higher grades.
Such a carcass generally is rough in conformation. Loins are very thin or
sunken and ribs are flat and thin. Exterior fats generally are lacking, although
small quantities may be found on the back and rump. As a rule, interior fats
are absent, although slight traces may be found around the kidneys. The flesh
is dry and very dark.
CUTTER
Cutter grade bull beef carcasses have poor quality and conformation with
practically no visible finish. The general outlines are very uneven. Loins and
ribs are very flat and thin. Hip and shoulder bones and ribs are very promi-
nent. Generally there are no exterior or interior fats. Flesh, though relatively
dry, is inclined to be soft. Its color is dark red to light brown.
CANNER
Canner grade bull beef carcasses have extremely poor quality and conforma-
tion. Visible finish is generally absent. A carcass of this grade is extremely
thin in all parts. Rounds and chucks are thin; loins and ribs are very thin and
flat or sunken. There are no exterior or interior fats. Flesh is soft and dark.

GRADES OF STAG BEEF CARCASSES

There are six grades of stag beef carcasses: Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility,
Cutter, and Canner.
CHOICE

Choice grade stag beef carcasses have excellent quality, finish, and conforma-
tion for the class. Rounds are thick, full, and bulging." Loins and ribs are
moderately thick, and chucks are thick and heavily fleshed. Necks are moder-
ately short and thick. The exterior fat covering of the carcass, although slightly
rough, generally extends well over the carcass. Interior fats are plentiful in
the crotch and on the breast, and the kidneys, as a rule, are well-covered. Flesh
is firm and fine-grained for the class and shows some intermixture of fat along
the muscle seams. Its color varies from medium to dark red.
GOOD

Good grade stag beef carcasses have good quality, finish, and conformation
for the class. Rounds are moderately thick and full; loins and ribs are fairly
well-proportioned and have moderate depth of flesh. Chucks are thick and
necks are moderately thick and short. Except on shanks, neck, lower rounds,
and shoulders, a carcass of this grade is fairly well-covered with a thin layer
of fat. Interior fats generally are in moderate supply but may be slightly
deficient. The flesh is firm, moderately fine-grained, and varies from medium
to dark red in color.
COMMERCIAL

Commercial grade stag beef carcasses have fair quality, finish, and conforma-
tion. Rounds, although somewhat full and thick, are inclined to be tapering.
Loins are flat and ribs are somewhat thin. Chucks are broad and relatively




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

II III III Il lIl 1l n iiU aI
3 1262 08729 0390
thin. Exterior fats are unevenly distributed and generally appear as a thin
layer over the back and in thin patches on the rump and shoulders. Interior
fats are somewhat scant and kidneys are generally only partially covered.
The flesh is usually slightly soft and moist. Its color varies from medium to
dark red.
UTILITY
Utility grade stag beef carcasses have poor quality, finish, and conformation.
Rounds are thin and tapering. Loins are thin, flat, or slightly sunken. Ribs
are thin and chucks are broad and thin. Both exterior and interior fats are
scant. Thin patches of fat are usually found along the back and on the shoulders.
Small quantities usually are found in the crotch and around the kidneys. Flesh
is soft, moist, and dark-colored.
CUTTER
Cutter grade stag beef carcasses are decidedly deficient in quality, finish,
and conformation. Rounds are thin, long, and tapering. Loins are very flat
or sunken, and ribs are flat and very thin. Chucks and plates are broad and
thin. All bones are prominent because of deficient flesh and fat covering. Except
for very small patches along the back and around the kidneys, visible fats are
absent. The flesh is soft, watery, and dark-colored. This grade is seldom found
on the markets.
CANNER

Canner grade stag beef carcasses are extremely deficient in quality, finish,
and conformation. All bones are very prominent. Rounds are extremely thin
and sharply tapering. Loins are also extremely thin and dished or sunken.
Ribs, chucks, and plates are very thin. No visible exterior or interior fats are
present. The flesh is dark, soft, and watery. This grade is rarely found on
the markets.



UNIV. OF FL LI.
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U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1951




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INGEST IEID EWK1QQRE3_QXODFN INGEST_TIME 2012-03-26T14:43:39Z PACKAGE AA00009494_00001
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC
FILES