The status of sex education in high schools

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Title:
The status of sex education in high schools
Series Title:
Education bulletin
Physical Description:
12 p. : incl. tables. ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Public Health Service
United States -- Bureau of Education
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Govt. print. off.
Place of Publication:
Washington
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Subjects / Keywords:
Sex instruction   ( lcsh )
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non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Statement of Responsibility:
Issued by the United States Public health service and the United States Bureau of education, Washington, D.C.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 004978585
oclc - 30852359
lccn - 22026235
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Full Text

,ROLLIU. COLL"L.L Lob '"
WNTER- PARg F-LORIDA


I
I -
U-


ISSUED BY
THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
and THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF EDUCATION
WASHINGTON, D. C.

WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 19?2


3he

STATUS OF SEX

EDUCATION IN

HIGH SCHOOLS



















ADDITIONAL PAMPHLETS.


The following publications of special interest to high-school teach-
ers are available. They may be obtained free of charge upon
request.


V. D. B. No. 7.

V. D. B. No. 38.

V. D. B. No. 55.
V. D. B. No. 60.

V. D. B. No. 61.


" The Problem of Sex Education in Schools." A pamphlet for
teachers.
" The Need for Sex Education." A circular for teachers and
]iurents. Contains a list of carefully selected books.
"Keefping Fit." A pamphlet for boys of hiih1i-shool age.
"Healthy, IHappy Wonim rinbi i." A |I iiinihl'let for girls of high-
school ne.
" Sex Education in the Home." A pamphlet for parents.


The Manual for High School Teachers which was in course of
preparation for more.than a. year will be sent to high-school prin-
cipals and teacheNr' of biology, hygiene, domestic science, and other
courses dealing with various aspects of health and hygiene. It will
also be sent to English teachers. The supply is limited. Applica-
tions for the manual should therefore be uiibmitted at once.
Address requests for publications to

THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE,
16 Seventh Street Soutliwest,
Washirnton, D. C.


Edu'ation Bulletin, 1921.
No. 52.
V. D. B. No. 69.


S. B. of H.
F













THE STATUS OF SEX EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOLS.
NimwEL W. EDsoN, Assistant Director of Educational Work, United States Public Health
Service.


Few school principals or teachers of extended experience fail to
realize. the need among their pupils for some sort of instruction and
guidance in matters pertaining to sex. Undoubtedly this realiza-
tion has led to the many spontaneous attempts to introduce sex in-
struction into our high schools.
Experiments along this line have sprung up all over the country,
a few ineffective because undertaken by a teacher unsuited for the
task, but most of them so siioressful as to win approval of both school
officials and the public.
In January, 1920, the United States Bureau of Education and the
United States Public Health Service sent out a. questionnaire to
obtain information regarding the status of sex instruction in the
high schools of the United States. This questionnaire was sent to
12,025 accredited and partially accredited high schools and brought
6,488 (53.8 per cent) replies. Its purposes were threefold: (1) To
ascertain facts about the number and distribution of high schools
giving sex instruction through the regular subjects of the curriculum;
(2) to learn of the content and method of the parts of such school
subjects as relate to sex instruction and guidance; (3) to discover
the attitude of principals toward sex instruction in high schools.
The schools from which replies were received fall naturally into
three groups: (1) Those schools giving emergency sex education,
i. e., through lectures, occasional talks, sex hygiene exhibits, pam-
phlets, etc.; (2) those schools giving integrated sex education, i. e.,
incidentally in the subjects of the regular curriculum; (3) those
schools giving no sex education.
A summary of the returns indicates that there are 1,633 high
schools of group 1, 1,005 of group 2, and 3,850 of group 3. Thus
2,638 high schools, or 40.6 per cent of those replying, are giving sex
instruction of some sort. If the replies are representative, two-fifths
of the A and B high schools of the country are attempting sex edu-
cation. If, however, it be objected that most of the schools not re-
1 Some of the material included in this bulletin was printed in The School Review,
October, 1921.
80509-22 (3)







plying were unable to give a favorable answer, the statement is justi-
fied that at least one-fifth of the high schools of the country are
striving to meet this need. Probably the actual situation lies some-
where between these two estimates. These figures are surprisingly
large when one considers that content and method for sex instruction
have not yet approached anything like a standard form.
The returns from this questionnaire show that such instruction is
not confined to one State or section; on the contrary, it has developed
in every State, in cities and rural districts large and small, and in
high schools of all sizes. The principal with a school of 15 pupils
seems to have sensed and acted upon the need as keenly as the head
of a large city high school for boys. The proportion of schools
giving this instruction is somewhat larger in the West (Table I)
than in other sections, although the actual number of high schools
in the West is smaller than in either the Central States or the East.
While the ratio (Table II) of schools giving sex instruction to
those who report as giving none is 11 to 16, there are many
variations from this ratio and these are widely distributed. In
Utah all schools reporting offer such instruction. In Delaware,
Maryland, and New Hampshire relatively little attention is given
to the problem. The large percentage in some States is possibly in-
fluenced by the fact that the subjects in connection with which such
instruction is given are required by State syllabi, hence more widely
taught in the schools. Where, for example, biology is compulsory
in the freshman year, the figure, for that State are probably larger
than where no such course is required.
The schools of group 1 have been giving instruction largely through
talks by speakers from outside the school-physicians, nurses, State
health officers, Y. M. C. A. or Y. W. C. A. secretaries, social workers,
ministers, superintendents, or board members. Sometimes the prin-
cipal himself gives these talks, sometimes one or more teachers. In
number they range from one a year to one a week, in the latter case
approximat ing regular hygiene instruction. Usually the sexes are seg-
regated. According to the institution, the numlier attending such lec-
tures varies from a small group to the whole school. The exhibit for
boys ("Keeping Fit"), developed by the United States Public Health
Service and made available as a loan through the State boards of
health has lieen shown in many hundred schools to many tlou-anl
pupils. This exhibit has won marked approval, and is in constant
demanil by high-selhool principals. The United States Public IHe:iltl
Service pamphlet for boys, Keeping Fit," is frcl'uently cused as sup-
plementary iiatcrial after a lecture of the showing of the .exhibit.2
*Since the m-iii'- t in irv' was sent out, a similar p-inmphilt for girls. Healthy, lNI. ppy
Wuniinhioid." and a girls' exhibit, "Youth and Life," have been lisui'd. and are being
widely and sau,,.i.-ssfully used.








Returns from the second group, those schools giving integrated
sex education (through courses in the curriculum), indicate that the
following subjects are used as vehicles for sex education: The bio-
logical sciences (general biology, botany, zoology, general science,
agriculture, animal husbandry, and bacteriology), civics, the home-
making courses (domestic science, home economics, household arts
and home nursing), English, ethics, pedagogy, physical education,
physiology and hygiene, psychology, and sociology. The biological
sciences (for purposes of tabulation combined under one heading,
because the instruction referring to sex is similar in all the courses
having a biological content) provide over 50 per cent of the instruc-
tion. Next in order come physiology and hygiene with 23 per cent
of the instruction, and the social sciences with 17 per cent.
It is quite evident that experiments have been tried in many fields,
another strong indication that teachers realize the need for this
work. Rather than create new courses bearing on sex matters, there
has been a wholesome realization that it is unwise to emphasize sex
as a separate factor to the extent of making it a full course, but that,
on the other hand, sex instruction and guidance should be imparted
in a way that makes a pupil accept it as a normal part of life.
Casual references to sex matters rob sex of much of its disturbing
mystery for adolescents and give it a right setting.
Analysis of the figures for schools giving integrated sex educa-
tion shows (Table III) that it is given more frequently through
biology, sociology, and hygiene. This is probably because the ordi-
nary content of these subjects closely approaches the topics of this
instruction and more easily admits of adaptation to include it. For
example, biology can deal naturally with these sex topics among
others: Reproduction in plants and animals, including human repro-
duction; environmental factors in development; pregnancy in mam-
mals and evolution of care in infancy; internal secretions and their
relation to adolescence; secondary sexual characters and their mani-
festations; elementary principles of heredity and eugenics. So-
ciology may refer to the relation of venereal diseases to society's
detectives, the importance of the family in social evolution and the
factors tending to its disruption, cooperation in the household, the
influence upon sex relations of such factors as proper housing,
wholesome recreation, hours and variety of occupation, etc. Hygiene
may include the functions of cells and their conjugation, ductless
glands and hormones, differences between bony and muscular systems
of the two sexes, the reproductive system, bacteria and the venereal
diseases, the relation of conservation of health to prenatal care, etc.
The physical-education teacher, with regularly segregated groups,
may make use of the excellent opportunity to talk frankly about the
phenomena of menstruation, or, less frequently, of seminal emissions.








From Table IV it appears that the biological sciences lend them-
selves most readily and logically to consideration of the topic of
human reproduction and that they, with the topics of sex instruction
included in them, are given more frequently in the second year.
There is a notably more even distribution over topics and years for
physiology and hygiene, many schools teaching through these courses
the four topics noted in the table. Sociology is used largely for the
topic of venereal di eases, although few schools state the year in which
the subject is taught. Prob ,ably the small number of schools dealing
with the topics of inen-truation and -eminal emissions is due partly to
lack of opportunity for segregation of sexes, but more to the difficulty
which many teachers experience in approaching these important
topics in a natural and impersonal way.
In a majority of schools this sex instruction is given in the first
two years of the school course. But this incidence seems to be due to
the fact that the media used for such instruction happen to fall in
these years rather than to a deliberate 'select ion of the subjects as
vehicles for instruction especially nec.l.d in early adolescence. For
examrnple, biology, botany, zoology, and general science are usually
freshman or sophomore subjects, while sociology is distinctly a
junior or senior subject. Furthermore, physiology and hygiene and
physical education are frequently taught in more than one year but
show little deviation in figures for the different years.
Questions regarding method brought out the fact that three-
fifths of the schools giving integrated sex instruction (592) use oral
presentation by a regular teacher as one of their methods. One-third
(3' 6)3 make use of supplementary readings from pamphlets and
books, the pupils being referred somewhat more frequently to pam-
phlets. One-quarter (244) give assistance. to pupils through indi-
vidual con ferences, and an almost equal number (236) use the lecture
method. That 241 schools have reached a point where general class-
room discussions on these topics can be held, is a most helpful indica-
tion that the subject may be sanely and judiciously ha ndlel.
Tabulations not given here show that only 32.3 per cent of those
schools which offer the biological sciences report that they utilize them
as a means for integrated sex education. In the same way only 16 per
cent of those offering physiology and hygiene and 5 per cent of those
offering home-making subjects g!-ive sex instruction through them.
Apparently a large majority of the teachers of these subjects fail to
realize that their subjects can inc'ludle this instruction, or they con-
sciously exclude or avoid it.
Space was provided on the questionnaire for principals to indicate
their attitude toward the introduction of sex instruction into the
Slii-ur.' not exclusive, since one school may be giving sex Instruction through more
than one course.







curriculum. From Table V it is seen that a large percentage of prin-
cipals favor integrated sex education, even among those in whose
schools instruction is not given. In fact, these principals who favor
but do not give integrated sex education represent 27.7 per cent of
the whole number of A and B schools of the United States. On the
part of those giving emergency sex education, the reason for this
attitude may be that while the card exhibit (" Keeping Fit") pub-
lished by the United States Public Health Service is conservative
and normal in its approach to sex matters, lectures and special talks
by local speakers may have emphasized the pathological and abnor-
mal, or that the isolation of sex facts in a single lecture or two, with
sexes separated for the occasion, too strongly emphasizes the matter
of sex and consequently the taboo ordinarily put upon it. On the
whole, therefore, emergency sex education has not won so many
sponsors as has instruction spread over a period of time and given
as a normal part of regular subjects.
There seems to be very general agreement among the principals as
to the need of sex education. With few exceptions, differences of
opinion are concerned with method to be used, rather than with need.
The following replies are typical: "I regard it as being of funda-
mental importance." The need is real and imminent." Should
be included in the curriculum of all high schools." "I think
that the public ought to demand that it be included." "Need is
great, as the ignorance of nature's laws exempts no human from pay-
ing the penalty in full." I think the school that does not provide
such instruction fails in its duty." I deem it an essential in every
respect. Too many youths know practically nothing along this
line."
Many principals state that the home has failed in its duty and
that few parents realize their obligations and opportunities in this
direction. For example: There is very emphatic need for such in-
struction, since the parents are so universally neglecting it." These
matters are usually left to home training, where natural reticence
leads to neglect." An Ohio principal favors introducing such in-
struction into the schools "because of failure of parents to acquaint
the child with the facts, and because of the ease with which these
facts can be linked with other subjects." "The students are exceed-
ingly ignorant; they don't get such training at home." "Such
courses are of real importance, as many children have no other oppor-
tunity to obtain such instruction."
Four hundred principals, 79.5 per cent of those answering this
question, state that the work has fully met their expectations. Most
of the reasons for the lack of success (Table VI) are the same as for
the unsuccess in other teaching and can be eliminated by proper ad-
ministration and further experience on the part of teachers. Occa-







sionally principals have overcome outside opposition by conferences
through which parents were convinced of the need for, and the
sound character of, the work. Some principals report success despite
opposition. While the number of reports is too small to be used as
a. basis for generalization, the reasons assigned for lack of success
are probably typical both in character and in proportion.
Throughout the great majority of these opinions runs the feeling
that sex instruction is a most important task, yet a difficult one, for
schools. Many principals deplore the lack of proper teachers for
the work and feel that it should not be undertaken except by the
right kind of instructor; in fact, several declare that without such
a teacher the work does more harm than good. This attitude indi-
cates wholesome caution. To give sex instruction requires mental
maturity, a personality that is always respected, poise, sanity, sym-
pathy with adolescent boys and girls, an accurate knowledge of facts
and the ability to present them impersonally, unimpeachable charac-
ter, and great tact. Few teachers have all these qualifications.
Probably, however, there are some now not conducting this work
who are well equipped to do so, but are holding back until suitable
methods are better developed.
Occasionally a principal indicated on his questionnaire return that
sex instruction can not be separated from guidance. However, there
was a notable lack of comment, showing a realization that sex educa-
tion should include not only the giving of information but also a
cC(nscious attempt to modify and control the school environment in
matters which affect sex and social relationships. Sex education
should not be restricted to a certain body of information given at a
special time and place, but rather should it be spread over a con-
siderable time and given in various relations. Since sex aspects are
so closely connected with human conduct, sex education should be
interwoven with character education and the creation of right atti-
tudes and ideals.
CO NC LUSIONS.
1. From the number of attempts in the field of sex education, ex-
perimental in character because of the absence of standard content or
methods, and from the expressed attitude of high-school principals,
there appears a rather widespread belief that sex education is needed.
2. Among the various States there is no uniformity in the ratio of
schools giving sex education to those not giving it.
3. The West has apparently progressed somewhat further in de-
veloping sex education than have other sections of the country.
4. Not all school subjects are equally adapted to serve as media
for sex facts. There are, however, some phases of sex education







which can be handled normally as part of a particular subject or of
several subjects. Moreover, a wide variety of subjects may serve
for presenting at least one phase of sex education.
5. The biological sciences, because of their frequent dealing with
sex and reproduction in plants and animals, furnish the readiest
vehicles for sex education. On the other hand, sociology, physiology
and hygiene (which in its fact content is mainly biological), and
physical education are possible avenues of approach, though few
teachers are taking advantage of these opportunities.
6. Sex instruction is probably given early in the high-school course
because the subjects including it happen to be taught then, rather
than because of a conscious plan to give such instruction when it
is most needed, in early adolescence.
7. There is marked approval of integrated sex education on the
part of principals and a feeling that what instruction has been given
has met with success.
8. Emergency sex education (i. e., special lectures, pamphlets,
exhibits, etc.) has less approval than sex instruction given as a part
of regular subjects in the curriculum.
9. There is apparently as yet no marked realization on the part
of principals that sex education should include both instruction and
guidance in matters pertaining to the relationships between the two
sexes.
10. An exchange of experience among the different schools would
undoubtedly allow many well-qualified teachers who are holding
back now for lack of knowledge of method to go ahead with sex
instruction and guidance.



Even though progress has been made in sex instruction in high
schools and there are large numbers of principals favoring and un-
dertaking it, it is well to continue to be cautious. Moreover, the
figures herein given should not perhaps be interpreted too literally.
The best of questionnaires are difficult of interpretation, and it is
possible that some principals did not actually mean to imply that
such definite instruction was being given as their answers would
indicate. The Bureau of Education and the Public Health Service
are therefore following up the replies to these questionnaires in order
to secure more exact information and further details about methods
used. In this way experience of schools succeeding in such pioneer
and difficult t work will be made available to others wishing to inaugu-
rate new efforts in this direction and will furnish a sound basis for
further developments in sex instruction.







10


TABLE I.-Sectional distribution of high schools giving sex instruction.


Schools Percentage
Total A giving giving
Geographic divisions. and B emergency emergency
Geographic divisions, high or inte- or inte-
schools, grated sex grated sex
education, education.

United States................................................. 12,025 2,638 21.9
New England States.............................................. 698 108 15.4
Middle Atlantic States............................................. 1,214 374 30.8
South Atlantic States............................................. 1,302 186 14.2
East North Central States...................................... 3,342 771 23.6
West North Central States ........................................ 2,528 553 21.8
East South Central States....................................... 706 93 13.1
West South Central States......................................... 1,108 138 12.4
Mountain States................................................... 484 124 25.6
Pacific States....................................................... 643 243 37.7
No State given................................................... ............. 48 ...........


TABLE II.-Distribution of replies by States andl by kind of sex instruction gir( n.


Total Emergency Integrated No sex number
repl sex sex e o of high
replies, education. education. education, of high


Total for United States ................ 6,488 1,633 1,005 3,850 12,025
Alabama.................................. 54 8 4 42 181
Arizona................................... 20 7 5 8 29
Arkansas.................................. 59 22 11 26 147
California ................................. 167 48 79 40 248
Colorado .................................. 54 12 9 33 88
Connecticut ............................... 33 11 3 19 57
Delaware.................................. 15 0 3 12 33
l' iti i. i of Columbia....................... 6 1 1 4 7
Florida ...................... ............. 28 7 1 20 61
Georgia ................................... 55 15 8' 32 176
Idaho.................................... 34 14 7 13 64
Illinois ............................. ...... 366 99 60 207 i;7
Indiana .................................. 363 65 46 252 709
Iowa ..................................... 390 132 44 214 804
Kansas................................... 215 65 32 118 425
Kentucky................................. 62 22 8 32 170
Louisiana ....... .......................... 81 14 5 62 207
Maine .................................... 114 22 6 86 219
Maryland............ 49 6 3 40 92
Massachusetts............................ 188 23 18 147 263
Michigan................................. 293 92 36 165 598
Minnesota................... 143 37 23 83 229
,il -. .- i[ i -................................ 55 23 5 27 165
Missouri.................... 217 81 36 100 540
Montana.................................. 76 12 15 49 141
N ebr.i ka .................................. 139 28 13 98 294
Nevada ................................... 13 4 1 8 23
New Hampshire ........................... 42 3 4 35 77
New Jersey....... ..... ......... 95 23 16 56 158
New Mexico.................. 20 1 4 15 43
New York ................................ 466 72 72 322 758
North Carolina............................ 169 37 15 117 486
North Dakota ............................. 83 29 11 43 142
Ohio ..................................... 476 137 114 225 981
Oklahoma................................. 50 9 13 28 179
Orr iij.................................... 119 51 14 54 188
P.:nj- -vlrinia ............................. 587 105 86 396 298
RIthoie Island .............................. 16 2 3 11 23
South Carolina ............................ 40 8 3 29 143
South Dakota ............................. 46 17 5 24 94
Tennessee................................. 71 14 9 48 190
Texas .................................... 173 37 27 109 575
Utah ..................................... 21 4 17 0 47
Vermont.................................. 36 9 4 23 59
Vjriini ................................... 65 20 3 42 137
'\Wa' i gt1oni ti ............................. 120 27 24 69 207
W.st VirL.mul ............................. 88 29 26 33 167
W i-cnnsini................................. 248 91 31 126 376
Wvyiniling ................................. 26 9 3 14 49
N lu .1Lat,................................... 142 29 19 94 ...........











TABLE III.1-Number of high schools giving integrated sex education, in connec-
tion with certain subjects of instruction.


Biol- Soci- Physi- Hy- Zool- General Bot- Other
ogy. ology. ology. giene. ogy. science. any. jets.


Total for United States...........
Percentage for United States '....


Alabama............................. 3
Arizona ............................. 2
Arkansas............................. 6
California ........................... 44
Colorado............................. 6
Connecticut .......................... 3
Delaware ........................... 1
District of Columbia................. ........ .
Florida....................... ........ .. .
Georgia..................... ..... .
Idaho.............. ................ 3
Illinois............................... 8
Indiana ............................. 4
Iowa................................. 3
Kansas............................... 3
Kentucky ........................... 3
Louisiana........................ ........
Maine............................... 4.
Maryland ............................ 2
Massachusetts ....................... 6
Michigan........................... 7
Minnesota.....................- 6
Mississippi......................... ........
Missouri ............................ 2
Montana ............................ 7
Nebraska ........................... 1
Nevada.................................... .
New Hampshire..............................
New Jersey .......................... 9
New Mexico........................ 2
New York .......................... 60
North Carolina ...................... 8 .
North Dakota ........................ I
Ohio................ ................ -4
Oklahoma.......................... .........
Oregon............................... 9
Penn- lv.inia ............... ..... 57
R hbI'e I lanr a ....................... 1 .
South Carolina....................... 2
South Dakota....................... .......
Tennessee............................ 8
Texas...........-----....---......--... 13
Utah................................ 8
Vermont......... ............... 1
Virginia.......................... ......
Washington......................... 12
\-est Virginia........................ l1j
Wisconsin........................ 8
Wyoming......................... 1
No State........................... 7


432 202 158 147 78 72 59 193
32.2 15.0 11.8 11.0 5.8 5.4 4.4 14.4


1 1

10 10
4 1


1
2
29
1


....... i
1......
"i"
........


2
1
1
4


1
1
. ... ...


3
3
25
1


....... ......... I.------- .......- -..- ---i-
1........ ........ ........ ........ ..... ... .
.. ... 1 ........ ........ ........ ........ 1
.... ... .... .... ... 1 ........ i ........
2 .... ........ ........ .......
6 ........ ................... ........ 13
10 22 11 21 4 8 11
5 12 5 2 12 12 11
16 12 4 1 8 2 14
8 13 9 1 2 1 12
1 1 ........ ........ ........ 2 1
1 2 1 1 .............. 2
.............. ...... ...... 2 ........ ........
.......... ... .. .. ... 1 ........ ........ 1
1 2 ........ 1 1 3
3 12 1 5 3 1 1
7 4 1 4 7
2 ............ ... .. ...... 1 5
26 2 ....... 1 6
4 1 1 ........ 2 ........ 4
1 ....... 2 3

.. ... .. .4 ... ... .... .
1 1 1 ........ ..... ... 3
2 ........ 1 I ...... I
2 1 2 9 I ........ -' 5
1 ........ ........ 5 3
6 1 ...... .. ... 3
S 3 10 7 ... 9
4 3 2 2 1 1 6
...... 3 4 ... 1 4 3
7 3 7 1. 4 6 6
I........ ........ ....... ........
....... 1 ..... ... .. ... .. ..... ........ 1 .... ... ..
3. 1 1....... ........ .. i
1........ .... ..
5 7 3 2 1 ......... 3

......... ........ ..... ....... .......... 1
S2 ................ 1
62 ........ 1 6
6 .3 2 ........ ........ 7
6 5 4 4 3 2 7
2 ........ ........ ..... ..... ......21. 1
2 2 .. 2 2 1 4


1 An analysis of column 3 of Table II.
s Percentages are not exclusive, since a school may offer more than one subject.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1111I II 111 11111 111111 11111111 111111111
3 1262 08859 7751


TABLE IV.-Number of schools leaching integrated sex education in connection
with certain subjects of instruction.

Human reproduction. Venerealdiseases.

First Second Third Fourth Total.2 First Second Third Fourth Totalm
year.' year. year. year. year.' year. year. year.

Biological sciences .......... 185 261 114 59 584 41 63 21 16 131
Physiology and hygiene..... 56 53 68 61 182 58 49 59 64 175
Sociology...... ..... 1 ........ 9 25 29 ...... 14 12 11 154
Home-making subjects...... 14 12 9 6 29 1 3 7 1 15
Physical education.......... 5 6 7 5 11 10 11 11 10 26
Other subjects .............. 1 1 4 3 7 2 2 3 2 11

Menstruation. Seminal emissions.

First Second Third Fourth Total First Second Third Fourth Total.
year.' year. year. year. year. year. year. year.

Biologicalsciences........... 7 11 4 5 22 6 14 5 3 23
Physiology and hygiene..... 43 40 42 49 109 23 19 20 19 59
Sociology ...... ... ......
Home-making subjects...:. 13 13 11 8 26 ...... ...................... .....
Physical education.......... 12 10 11 10 23 6 6 5 5 15
Other subjects.............. 1 1 1 1 1 ...... ........ ...... ........ ........


1 Many schools did not indicate year.
2 Some schools offer subject more than one year.


* ~


TABLE V.-Attitude of pritcipials toward introduction of sex instruction.

Emergency sex Integrated sex No sex education. Total.
education. education.
Attitude of principal.
Number. Percent- Number. Percent- Number. Percent- Number. Percent-
age. age. age. age.

Favorable............ 1,073 80.9 841 92.5 2,262 85.3 4,176 85.4
Undecided (doubtful) 153 11.5 68 7.5 246 9.2 '467 9.5
Opposed ............. 101 7.6 .................... 143 5.5 244. 5.1
Not indicated........ 401 .......... 35 .......... 1,165 .......... 1,601 ..........
Total........... 1,728 .......... 944 .......... 3,816 .......... 6,488 ..........


TABLE VI.-Reasons for lack of success.
From within the school:
Teachers not trained-- ------------ --------------------- 21
Teachers of wrong personality or attitude-------------------------- 19
Teachers too few---------------------------- 6
Teacher opposition or lack of cooperation--------------------- 6
Svgre .ati",n of sexes difficult------------------- ------------------- 15
Complexity of groups--------------------------------------------- 1
Reaches too few------------------------------------------------- 1
M;Iterial lacking ------------------------------ ---- --- -------11
Instruction not prpi erly organized ------------------- --. ------ -.- 21
Instruction too irrIegular-----------------.----------- 8
Instruction overemphasized sex ---- ---------------- 4
Given no fair trial------------------------------------------- 8
From outside the school:
Parent o(ippsitin, disapproval. or indifference ----------------------29
P'u rents prefer home instruction------------------------------- 2

Board ol>ijs.ition 1-------- ---------------------------------------- 1

0