Report of the director of the Bureau of Safety to the Interstate Commerce Commission for the fiscal year ended ..

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Report of the director of the Bureau of Safety to the Interstate Commerce Commission for the fiscal year ended ..
Physical Description:
v. : ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Interstate Commerce Commission. -- Bureau of Safety
Publisher:
U.S.G.P.O.
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publication Date:
Frequency:
annual
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Railroads -- Safety appliances -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Railroad accidents -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Vols. for 1923-1937/38 include "Extracts from the 37th-52nd Annual report of the Interstate Commerce Commission pertaining to safety appliances, hours of service, investigation of accidents, and investigation of safety devices" (varies).
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1923-1952/53.
Numbering Peculiarities:
Fiscal year ends June 30.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004920706
oclc - 05120452
lccn - 17026073
Classification:
lcc - HE1762 .U36
System ID:
AA00009492:00001

Related Items

Preceded by:
Report of the chief of the Bureau of Safety to the Interstate Commerce Commission for the fiscal year ended ...
Succeeded by:
Report of the Section of Railroad Safety, Bureau of Safety and Service to the Interstate Commerce Commission

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Irk IN ERS1Aft eOMME'UCE COMMI ON **1
-r h j j. Ji Vii *i i i r %.Pic" I .f L 1 1a -1i:
z"w.. w ( II. 0 ,
i nnI" ir *'"p"" t" he'rewti* tistatistijdal 'tables sheowiag ithe
mspecfionk oft eafetyqappiaimd, equipment gain aailmrad Ifor

I' .sii6w theoinfmbet :of iEeighid oats, possdgerzcars, and
s imspecteiiep 1 the, riwahbet* T dtvith 'defedtei ovsafety
Sthe percentage defective, the number of defects under
E1assifiewtions, 1the number of defects per thousand cars
stach classification, and the:-number of defects per thou-
E 41l-^ '1 qltgiatizs;'' A total-of A1,3 0~3, fri 4
peqtq toqf.wB i 44,. orn3.22 per cent,, Ih ;fecti0y
c ie tote4 .if 566,4- defects. being- repldit,. 2V
.iAsAdger carsmispetedia, of whi rk 350 r 1L.2S p er ce fi
ith defective safety appliances, a total of 545 defects
jd tidtdtw'idfe ,2e$1 4b'eimnolvesi ,'were ?inspedtedr' of
&&A.r4Iper'oeri'n. ,had difettive. safety, appliainkes, .76I
"Wi" -dre '., h n.bere of .d1.febtb per, thouspnd' dars
ves. inspected was 40.02 as compared with 42.46 for the

esents separately for individual railroads on which
"ir' pap. iispected,-the number of defects reported fox,
Sationt s "oof safety appliance defects. -:Table: .P
S t e, .roeds on.which inspections of freight c4a
We yar; :together with, -he number of cars
r:and percenta ge found- defective;- simAi
roads, 'are also furnshed- for the four precedin-g
ps Jos. 2 aid 4: disclose .a representative' condition of
H 9isr d (flitfihdoStsw ft'it mnnpaieaive

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2 INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION .

with respect to the condition of air brakes on trains at the time: of
their arrival at terminals. During the year air-brake testWiswe
made on 2,462 trains made up for departure from terminals Ae "
trains consisting of 89,081 cars; air brakes were found operativeji
8.s208pof 4yse, &ar~ Oe ,ra p 1 n"i4yai ?
were c, tiE. kyq.ir. 4 ,w4 e, AI ,
were made on 1,022 trains upon their arrival at termmalS1 t64e
trains consisting f. 42(449 -cars-; 7Air brakes were found operadyi on
40,799 cars, the average percentage of cars in trained. es61i
arrival at terminals .hiAsving -oqaativd w.a+r.trakes being 0ift pva.s6
The following statement, affid;dbqpplAtunimtr far xowpari*M.0n
results of safety appliance inspedtitl ithsptrevriduwsjeadessf- h
been compiled from, thefigiues .contained in,)table Ni. t etiW W f1
years ended Amne 30, ,fronal :1922 to rtWa6, dtielugiv e ,r .......
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* ,' '.,,, ,,, t ,9, ',' ,i '" 1924A- :92' "26 j

right cars insppetqd .. 1, 040,964 ,17.355 1, 28,258 .1 ,9 ,'
et ce tdefechve ............ ..--.....-------- ----- 4.35' S.'4 4.4 ..
Passenger pars inp ;cted, .. ...... .03-, 3 21, 626,
Per cent defectfre_. ........ ... -._ .. T.97t -1.27 .t -
Loomt dves inspected ........... ..... 2 23 2,283 ,,
FP6 keH nt defeotivd ---- ----- ------2.89-- 'L---t -----
Number of defects per 1,Q00.ispected ...... 50.54 100.31 52.73, 4
1' 52 73i 'l 'P
,' ', ;1 '. f '
The following table represents the number of freight ma q
cars and locomotives :inspected, the Pnumber- uad to ,be cc"ej
and the.pereentage defective each year for. the jpAst ,IQLygeat a::':


Year Inspebled' bd r4 nr

: -.. -- -- .--- ---- -...-- -, .. ...-..- '..,-- -
1925 ---------:-:-:::: ::::: 214::j:::170 :::::::4 7..i ,
.n 1. .. f V j : .
1 24 -- ------ ----.-- -


19M----------------- -------------------------------------------
.19 --....-- ---.-----r--- .---- .-- --- ------
1921.............................--...... ---- --- -,-----
1920...--.--.......----- --. ....-------- .............-------------------------------
1919 -- .. ------ -,.- --
1918_. ...... ........ ::..-.. ..... : ....... --7 -- -------
19V -7 -.-........- ..._ ....---- '-- ----- --. ..--- ---,- ---


'I O,670
1 ,293
1,078,361
1,166,759
1 '


Following, the commission s power-brake. report of ,
conferences were held between this b-reau .wd the sai, gz4
committee of the .mechanical, division the, 4erx.gan wq0q
ciation, for the purpose of arriving at. a, agreement once jp
measures, to -be taken by th rl,,raS far. cary;ig..i", g
commission's findings in the, report ,abavye referred to. :
mission's report and,.the. subsequentt, epes.refe :
resulted in the employment, of, .dqirot&r ffe.g r iltS
Railway Association, under whVse /,visi..,cQnue,.. i
brake; tests are now being conducted' at Purdue University.`':








*awrsalsdd t4 4egateemnkgbetweenweea 4inby WeautendU h&
s elpressftingi tQ*rfealhainig AifIs:on V SL.:-e nAWoexia m
sjiiti.ont ic4qrtgte ised ileguiftions for, th; marnin t i a-n,
h Indl .ai.%i9gna& equipment on .locomntives, a .d, crms.
;,leafwli adqp$bdrA atasdaid, 'by the Ameripan
6iatioul andtababaatneeff atv,,,in January last,. They
ijdmovelD@|ntjioiw ,the? rules opqrerilyJin,,,effept,e- andi are
tfs Ecatuate. standaFrde of ,.niatepanoe. ,whlch this bureau
Bnjed f~fPln8>t-only :o soetuwcompliapce.with..the J.4$
ip Tuperisafetyriwntiatn %leraiof,at' ... .. ... .
eS*sabi4ai lry$e.tures. iataining t tphe.egpotiations
^.n ltdingp ft-lehe, .rom.fldghbOpi p of thesee revised,.regulaa4
W i c d i~,ndablerl spiriL ,of helptulne*i displayed, by. the
.; rhan$atijries. yi ,L& ata all.,tiimes d incedi .,a,..desire. ;tQ
lWifully ,with this. bureau in the adoptiq onfo',nmapuresu.,,tQ
indrags) andr. S,ugg'p.iQota: o& fthe.. epponmissiqn.,.: And.it is
ifgintegl-he able aes tate tft.t-this spirit of,hes fqi4Jness
apnvfdid net; a wi-th adion andproaMilgatin
t e1$io ibnis has, aIwirtirngie&d to,.opQrate, jal4qsti Swi how
their enforcement. As a result!,itisAc.aow universallyy
$h-at. air-brake conditions throughout the country are the
il qry ,,er known, both with respect, to law compliance
i.ry traid operation.
ratg ,ely few. exceptions this spirit of c-ooperation'
4B|3|if .a.... all p.oiits-of contaot- between this, bureau. and
fl" of' the carriers, with the result, that'more -effective
,heit.bfr are-being taken to secure 0pmpliance with
iEqurpneyt-s coming within- the. purview of; this, bureau
1 pti'i. to:"this' -rule, however, must be stated with re-
.e.rnhal Railroad.Association of St. Louis. This .arrer
:rcedd upon thie-theory that, it is less expensive- to'jpay
....o.. ;proper measures- to. secure: compligne. with
190 ith neyer contested a case- m court, conqfessmg
ppig! :he prescribed penalty in-all,. oases,:but in
S rcftice]s. This carrier paid $13,000 m
past. year, witHot contesting a single case.
i .s8u1it against a carTier is. to secure such

-1-1S01. 1 i7 '- t he

S 11eA S .,U.) o e c s.., e.. "o.il of 4 ,7



P,..:.. el s fe1.i^efes service, an increase of 4,703:. ':""""'
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.. N..:. l, .: '. 1
4 n4PflgsTX:TE' fMlkflf crW ssiAt1'z

instances' as"compared with' their previous year .1h1he msM-iain
roads filed reports showing that no service in etcess'-o.4thati
ized by 'the law was performed by their.enployeesv ibo'1itAi
-The 42,200, instances lof excess seirrine reportedci
employees who remained on duty- liergr tha n16 -cons
1,264 employees who continued on duty 'after .having ,'hbe
16 hours in the aggregate in' a' 24-hour period; '292' emeI B 4 iu (6
having beeh bon duty 16 consecutive hours, were refti
with less than 10 conseciitive hours oeff duty; 49;'empilpk eJ-$
having been on duty longer than 16 hours in -the'aggret7
24-hour period, were. returned to duty with less- than ti
hours off duty; 22,358 employees at continuously operate
who remained on duty longer'than 9 hours, and 715,
offices operated only during the daytime who remained 6l
longer than 13 hours. '" I .
The causes of instances in which train-service employees -.
on duty longer than 16 consecutive hours, as shown by thle.
Analysis of Carriers' Monthly Hours of Service Reportsi, &r
five fiscal years, have been arranged in the following iqt awb
purpose of comparison: v i

Cause 1922 1923 1924:1 q

Collisions..-..--.---..-......-..--...........................-----------------------------..........--.-- 322 889 58 435 3 W1
Derailments--..-..--------.....---. ---------------------------- 5,'670 9,203 7,5 'U I
Track defects and obstructions--------.. --------.-----..-------- 224 391 ;299
Landslides, high water, fire ---.............-----------.---. --------------.................. 552 633' .560 1 231 .- .
Adverse weather conditions-.---...-......................----------- ..........------------- 2,096 .3,299 2,164' 7lt i ,
Congestion of traffic....-.........--.--.......................----------------.----- 325 '1,071 402 '1 'i'l
Station work,-waiting for orders and meeting trains.----........-------- 532 1,373 ^t' i
Coupler and drawbar defects.---------------------------- 1.890 3,760 '1l,'881 1" i.i$
Miscellaneous car.defects--------------------------------1,405 2,939; 1,,473.'t: "iibi
Hot boxes.................----------------------- ---------------------54 246 114' -
Air trubles---.......................--....-----....---....---------------..---. 480 1,301 632
Taking or running for water...---.----------..................---.............--------------- 170 289 2( .
Cleaning fires ......................---- .... .. 15 32
Low steam:
Poor coal 26-- --....- 26- 94., -tl-i
Bad water.. .. ..--------------------------.....---
Leaking ...........................------------------- ................. ----------------. 97 640
Miscellaneous locomotive mechanical defects........------.---.......--------- 720 2, 885 7
Wire troubles.......-- ..........-- ----- ----------... ...............---------------.--.. .. :. 32 11.'
Sickness, death, personal injury---------------------------- 25 24 St
Wrecking and relief service..............---- ----... ,---.......... 4,298 5, 4&0,| 4,
Miscellaneous---------........-........--------.......----..........--........... 714 2,826 0.l
7 --------- ---7-- ----
Total ...............................................----..--- 19, 701 37,387

The foregoing table shows a decrease ot 8,90 .ist'A'gt
employees remained on duty longer .than 1 consecutive
compared with the number reported for, the precedmg 'eja
While the grand total of all instances of, excess saiv %
year ended June 30, 1926, shows an increase of 4,703 ov'ie-7
vious year, there was a decrease oft 778 instances of ejiess::
performed by train-service, employees.and a an mi e '
instances f excess service perratfor., b .'O t.
. : "'- '' + '. .' ." "i *; .- Ijt j ,







.i .increase iin the~mauber "ofo instances 'ofi excess service
: by "operators occurred on lyrduedtodabor. trouble. .. -... : :
4i4qnafysis-cof carriers'Wiihoathlyi hours of service reports is
ii.e bureau and published as a separate documentss& 0,
&*A* : !, INVESTIGATION .OF ApCIDENTS.
l.f&y 6a4'1.04 tri i'i accidents' ere ivestigated, consigtiig
E(oi itd' 3 derai n nts. '"The cblisions resulted in'ithb
E i sons' and 'the injury of 945 persons; the derailmienis
0 eItheathl f 78 perg dis and the injury of 666 persois, a'
i.led'ad 1,611 iij:ured.' -
Wbk 'bf the collisioins bcurred on liries operated by the
..t.em1, 26 occurred' on lines operated' by the time-
.:train-order system, and 14 occurred under yard or 'mis'
-,ra if"g rules. -
$cb'llisio i. s occurring 'in block-signal territory, 16 occurred
ti: or interlocking signals we're in use, of which 5 were
6t:'*siohs, 6 were rearenhd collisionA, 3 were' side collisions,
r f a 'miscellanedous character.'
ii collisiohisn occurring in territory where automatic or
WEt^ignil were inT use, there were 9 instances, 'consisting
| I isibollisions, all 'of'th' rear-Sid collisions 'and 1 sidd
.ll'.i h" enginemren filed' properlyito 'observe or obey
a!*iis; iziiproper flagging wa's a factor m 3 of the rear-
*|hile ini'tl instance the. ehgiiaiaun "at' fault als'
rq te ithsi train under proper 'contridl within yard linjits,
i :th: 12 head end: c6llisiohs bothi eiigiemeni failed to
Ie IsigWaI 'indidatioiis. Of thy, temaiig. 7 colliskioris,
i-id collisions s was due to the failure of' arivtd rcbiV
iii opposing traii right 'to 'operate against fle .rbent
WI4iY-'e hfire d6 o& an' "engineman t o i.' authoibt to
M.i'Wdh t:.hdiicded iifiidr anadt' t6 a -fii.e.claar
t. Okoftid a visions waau to fiin : img
S ..th.epsain track without protection against fdllowitg
AbdoStedt>iIR inicd ign iitelitld


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INTO BSTAT.E 'GOWI.MIEREtiC1MMfMIBSIN


The 5. collisions -whichi &ocofewries in'bnautematidci bdUtB
terfit&ry: consist& 'of 21. he-d+end collisions, .21. rane-ed bon,
and 1 collision of a miscellaneous chIr'kater.'. Oiler of .therlieA
collisions-was due to the-atteirptrof a ew to teaAtihe pdinJa rl
an opposing train had& been dijaedti& to: wait fo themi e
having sufficient time in which to make the movement, whi e:!
other was due to faihre to dobe6 a be dXt' otder. One of the rea-e
collisions.was due to the failure. of an nginnermnI to qopereate., 0i
under proper control. in an, occupied block; the other, .a1i
the. engineman. of the following train- failing to unders4aida
prder correctly,, to his failure, .proprly. tQ control. thespe
train, and to a misunderstanding fetfweed the: conductor aDp4
of. the first, train concerning, flagging instructions. TMe mj D
o.us collision was. due to a switch having, been opened.wit MIA
intent. -.j. '. .. h
The 26 collisions occurring in train-order. territory. QponiWitdp
head-end collisions,. 8 .rear-end, collioiqnpn 3 side collision,#
miscellaneous collision.. Qf the 14, head-end collisionsf,) e
handling or failure to obey train orders were involvedi 4.ip
. as follows: Seven were due to .failue to obey meet ord*e;s.2, t. i
failure of operators. to deliver .meet orders, and 1;9to the ifq
the operator at. the meeting-point .to take. proper .preeal i
insure delivery .of aq o4der;. the last-mentioned case. 1 ,l in3 t I
the! failure of an engineman to operate, his train uqder proper .if
in. yard limits, and.,an error.by a brakeman in calling th.,, ..l
of the train-order signal. The eleventh case was due, V ,
obey a wait prder, the fa .Iure of the 'qppqsing train, toh, b; 0e,
within yard limits prepared to stop,.and the failure .of -hea4djEi.,
to send a eopy of the order to th. ope actor at, thq, yait
Of the remaining 3 head-end, collisions,. was, duePt p
looking the schedule of an oqppqsingj ain, 1: to a site l ,
left. open, coupled with the failure, of the motorman to, alpr ,"
siding with h.is train under proper control, ,:nd. 1 to, akit
up-moyement, against a following .gain.,withou firsp
movement. ., ,, ,
All. of the 8 rear-en.d collisions .,pcriag in .tainpde
involved improper flagging., Ic..n .,se instancep,.the
of. tl; following train was jnvolyedj therpbeing 1 in whih, aqj
lookout was got maamtained, 1 .of .failur. to operate j4
con.tr.i, and I where:: the follo~ng,,train did not remain g
station until the time specified in theq cte.ar.ince :carl, Xl,,9
alo,,.being inyolyed in this, particular, imtn4ce, ;,Tw he V.
instance, in w .ch, an pjperaatQr failed4, t., nagfollo ig
as required by th.les,.. .

::.r;.,







M1 thes si4e colUisions wyjs due t ia 'laps order, a1to the failure
SBg aig itoStbphas train olearet the .main track, and il to
Fprof both.oeqgiuemien.to keep', proper lookout approaching
|dtcrobsing .. ,grade inm the; lastAmehtioned instance .:me of
^^gamet inyelyed als. ailed, tobbring his train to A stop before
ttiw the arpsmig : i.
t4im siaf If miscellmnaauc, ehaaicter resulted from the 'failure
ama~.- to comply i with.i the i oanduetorrs, instructions ,to
stAsiiati ftea' r, havignsatAff Wiad. prmeeded to that 'paint
l i pzoas aof 'providing .fig pafdtmcien ,against 'an- opposing

t 4oiisirns auijing in gards, air under operatig'nmethods pdt
j!t4| 9floak or itraia-arder systems,..iConsiated of 2 head-end
itreearend-colliiona, 4 side dollisions, and 2 collisions of :a
lhisatpAaracter. r One of the head-end collisions rqsukted
4nji-U PwibJ4,d'while the other was due to tlhe failure -of an
u-i. and yard foreman itp msari4tai'na proper lookeut. Thme
r-rrneadecblMdaions, ree odie to tbee Iailure of engineihei to
~thjiittrinsltider. proper control wit.lin yard limits, a con-
ase;in t~fem being the failure of a yard foreman to uas
irti$il~ itehiiiags tednain tra:.akafter a ;tai was iseen.to he
; 2.of thp tther mar-endecol sions were due to the -ailure
Wl.daitske.:.masal ;pVeWautions in tivef existing onditions,
sd.uh )n ithe allure o ia :aginemead to opereata under proper
Jnuheinew. hewim oseLy following another train, coupled
'failure of the crew of the first train to provide proper piobec-
tl aiiflmt last afaferred to; piisher angimeq afteri.cutting off
-.ffoloe the tnia.i gardlessof blet.k-iignal-indiniations,
:tiireL t*e railiaad4to provide isae oprnatingmethodsr was
a1tingrfactor in the accidey. Of the 4 side collisions, -i: w
QiAjj siiWtei,:t olthe of adicstlertobppiate aaigine
a )fa..., :tq. itbeq failic xf as engimenato sto sp .-his gt ain
aT lnd4tiank jstdt s iand 4 ad *iheXfailIOe. of ~ iCrefwaD
gqetiiinginthezasmtriffting 4down' asuligit' grade- adilroi'-
0Lthe tanis ^eiesusr allision'1was daedo-the
ioafii4sd:ase aasrite-and a .tk hacking-agdinit Ihb
'Iltrlfaffie without protection f any.kin -
i|apz uai lwadoin fin.5T .B theLS' xderaihnlnts:" fUn-
.4..ag.lthA. i.dwic..eumi ral mweq responsiubi:fhr 7
...is lf4 bMi a M n &efqtive 4eruidem, were iiunolrei.
piWSiumwwfr4pipipju4pboqte tihenir wrndioujsed -2'aosi-

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; > ".: ";::" :" ." : ." ". : ..'. :,. .. ':."." :. ".. A K:





INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION

were involved'in:6 of thetderailments; 4 had. been opened by, n 4D,
maintainer in connection with'his-work, I had been left open:afteai&
ing; been used, 1 had: been, opened for rthe purpose !of runnuiiki
.through a passing track while repairs we're ibeing-made" tofh .t4,
track, the- open switch not 'being protected'by flag, -in 1'' fwIl:4'$
cocked, having been damaged by dragging equipment, in.' R
'was cocked, the reason not being, definitely determined hJi M h
remaining 1 involving switches the accident was due to a'brept iV,64
armnof the switch stand. i. Of the other 11 derailnentsainvlol ig i
conditions, .4 were due to broken rails, while 1 was due tors'aibllh ;
been bent by a falling rock. Two derailments were due to obstrna$:
'having been placed on the! track, with malicious. intent; I,, U^.E,
falling close.enough to the track to be struck by an-engine!ai':i
arch brick fouling one of the' rails; 1 derailment Wass diue to djxtl
'been -pushed oh to the, track as a result of the failure- of-a'ro
to assign enough men to see.-that rails were kept olear, and.t t.cfl
,ing with wreckage from ani joining track. ": ,:.i
; Of. the 17 derailments'not involving .track ionditibas~ ,owlyr4*4a&;
-due to defective equipmentb, a broken -trncklhframe being',id!o :::
'that instance. Five were dud to !excessive' speed, 2 t1s thel
engineien- properly to observes or, obey signal indi'eatiodn atrt
,rmiaways, 1 was due to the .failure. of an. enginemdn" toir'ee#ol6i|W:.
general -order and also -his failure to. obey slow-speed vernings'~a: .
was due' to an. engine: being strauekby, anatitohMobileiats4'.ia[ t..
crossing,! .while. the -causes: of -5 derailments were: noatrl-filh
ascertained.., ..M : ., : :'.] a d'
. A. detailed' report concerning eabh of: these accident inwesffiga "o'i,
is:' issued' .immediately, upon completion oft : the.. investignai8 pi'M|
summaries i of these accident-investigation reports idrel
quarterly. .i .i .. ,i, ..a' .',in 'Oi
':.;The investigation: of fthe properties. df' steel, rails Pwhichldi] t -
transvei-se fissures has been the object: of further inquiry., i|
,especially centers upon the chemical composition and.strnmiu fel
of rails,.which display. this' type :of, fracture at an early.periodi
,service,.in the track.' Search is being -made td discoverwisal:p
traits, if there are such, aret responsible for, the prematire`'devM j'
of transverse fissures,- .. :, '. : ; i 0 i i IA '
Two influences tend -to dause interior fracturewin steel railvs
cooling strains acquired ,at the -time of fJbrimation' anoi lidi
.strains from- wheel lohds acquired when-the rails ''are in thi
Necessarily all rails atre: exposed' to .eeaih, of these. infl.ienee4i,
'differ in theii;ability to endure them suebessfully, .i SomeTilU f
-while others do.rioi under what are:held to be smilartrack. do.6
,It is, generally iconeeded that wheel leads "are esponsiil.e, 4
'aldne,.for the, development of transversbdissuregafter theirii
7 U-1
t '.. A: .
-- a L ; t. :'-;'







tIsienl'fierenee semseinseltoPvIen 1itIee1 rails 1 i service are
bo "aeth d infi:ianeihan. wheel loask i The'hoot po.ilt "is
ewaes:uafrurei J jiHff.ijf)sa .nahufacturiag 'detail some trace
Il. e ..6und.iidihlrse.'ails iwhieh ',display -transveitse fissures.
i rvrieestrainsit iisi d'ou btfult wheth'er- any distinguishing
(iiAsI'ls betibuind, j HM ,es : }0i .A ;., 'Y t j f. !:< .+fi,:M i h ( l .ii..;, !,. 0 (. (: -. ., i. ii
cracks, the results of cooling strains formedimhiediately
btinil hvre 'beeh ;rbgav4Ied' by' semer as'the iecessary
(rqfrtimeirseofisskwe.;.'thf :tehnueclei: P:eissures are shiiski-
th Shrin.hakageiacks'berurT ildtl1o,) ih th ~eads:and the bades
ilplptit Wo'trhnsvdtse8 iAsumi have bben' founduin raill bases.

'lHikVneotpire ising mr'ecks'.s o h-! n 1 i'; t
,'yiEbiaeiteanIstrentiUfrfdlsl apeapeato' hbea* ,shkrialkbags
MWtIetseiMt do nbt 1iaSome t are I inatgedi oimtside tihe cen trie
iStondltetatIty'igi athim min 'he wblli f tsolid sthel betwehu
.vilI .ae &aoralss'dAth h ip.ierp topeay ofi itt head.: Also
d@bi ia* irhbeeifoia mdiim aits ia iiwhi.h 1n0o slhrinknage.
i'tnigh looked for, were detectedU t1 i. ,, JiV '. :ii ;:
.argilst -hiTeBf dispnlaytfisd*s'sfter h periodiof 1'0 ior 1'y ekrs
isfJan d 't.o~n .st ftwibe' those:: ges:.' to ~!thel other hand;
aim3Bft'o.f fisstAe'dails wfiich:have been' iri'srvioe less than
a&folMooi ,hwv4b fracttnedin less thah 4Wei erehr:; I I i
i4a,oki roadtaiisivessf'-fiTsurds are mnore'tnumerous in'ethb
B^rhd raflfitn, 'bhte prTdorninate :ithe low railt ofcurves
4,iI, iB po#lweighti pmryirdayire nDt.iin0nAine froml
4 tmitd im. respect tuCuhenical- compoitio'n thetihardesti
| idisposedt inidewijesdiezt^ratrd -coidiftirg L tu'idisplhyp
.t....i. df1 i. ed in-.. hI r'd- e ni .s i .i t'f i I' ..
E.i. i'inagaatres 'out'ite ar. e .bii.g 'dxani nedo !itd
an gfefi dintI.i.2at-ti 1t-per e Edicesnaging tfarhib
Mike&vaIwtedtditpmnueail inb this 'Migrfigamflan ganesN
lifbL z ibriti Willlid tAa'de t@he objetit bf nMareA iitiqiqiryi
|itdtresfihre bmhia itto ''h'te- puOsessed "byn oidirahry'
.... i fe!i".. R ....l.. .r- &'i"". i 3.. :i' hI:I. ...K":' .. .1' ^ .. ui"r :.
dkarssan$Efior>eityto 71.rereieb r ontifloe
fldt~iditeathtnhthnti bLdks xiduzgncey I A f' vrtII#
Seiteiil % 6$ 0tilatf extremee' tdiVetiehui
:et would probabi 6th:a entirely -,escaped notice.
i dLtti e -' Thi,9 o inference which can be
:. T': 'f +* :r .

6%i|gg'|e^| ^tiea
Sand tioaf premature fr .etuts t

,I.'.. .. .. ..
:' :E ... : .:.: : : :p. : :. : :.W. "A :.:..: .A'i '': x





10 INTERSTATE OGMMEBOE. COMMISSION
It is believed that the development. of .a transverse. flssM ii
matter of slow, growth, Not touching upon the poleirj4ni i
whether or not some antecedent condition is essential fosrfl#iti,-* -
tion of. a fissure, the evidence 'appears conclusive that' lth 'd**l
strains which are set up by. the -wheel' pressures eonstit t :ftl4 e
cause of !their extension, explaining also why they are-'ofAo.im
and why they attain such dimensions as are witnessed.J&1isqw .
plete rupture' of 'the rail occurs. .: ,-Abird::
.The discovery, macroscopically, of a transverse fissuredmTmizAdMi
track is a matter of extreme vigilance and may be- accompliabh"U
when the fissure has reached the surface. They appear as-,
or faint streaks of rust. At this state -the interior frattAurefw a .wtd.
comprises -the major part of the .,cross section ,of. the' %S&. iio 7
fractured faces of a fissure present asilvery muster until" thbei q
its development. reaches the periphery. of -the nail head.. WMh tiss
of air the faces are darkened. The majority of the fissuresidisdi l
when a rail breaks in the track have darkened surfacesr .l"'h i*-
cumstance, among others, confirms the belief that rails do nnAiu-
ture as beams, the intense impinging pressures of the wheehluMi
tuting the vital factor of the case.. J'i i i.i:
Efforts made to detect incipient -transverse fissures 'in tfeitaflIuby
magnetic and other means have not been successful. .Rejea.t-Cet
ments conducted by one high in authority in rresearch wi.Il4a
elicited the statement that an air :gap of limited are&ad:-ald t
detection by means of an electrical resistance device, leadiJthgo ahe
hope that transverse fissures may yet be detected in fthe.,'tnkfl
practical method. The silvery luster /acquired by the oppopi 4f*M I
of a transverse .fissure signify that an air gap does nat ai.tqtU.
times, but that one does exist when the upper part-ofr 4t l'A:i n
strained by tension. Havingtbhis'feature in *mind it wouldati 4Iof
to place the detecting apparatus between wheels :earyagr j it i
loads to strain the rail -in tensianQ above its .eutral ,i.iaes
an air gap -at the transverse fissure, in this mainer slightily,"al.gh .
ing the influence of the zone of metal in a; state of internal .al :I
next below the running surface of the head. The value oe.twr|ag .gi
fissure detector, applicable to rails in situ, is so great, biath- i[
of safety totravel and in the- avoidance of heavy -financialdto i:-
derailments caused by transverse fi,-sures, .that no mififoeita .I
spared to demonstrate the, feasibilityaf such a device. ; hoi..A
OTHER SAFETY 'DEVICES 3. 'S
During the year plans and specifications of 45' devicebd
signal and automatic -train-cniitrdl 'systems were' exfhi
opinions concerning thIem t!krisHftted 'to the :propiAtoNr~ i
devices included 1' air lih6e nipile'; V car uicoupl;' iPbM'
I 2 ~ -I'rJ qe q









itw1 M failfasi ners, ties, arid other track appliances; 7 grade7
eices; 9' putt~_4he i~ for use in connection with lodom)-n
grsp;, 2. bidg; sigs;;' 1 semaphore; 1 block signal;
aid 2 'triit df ivering'and receiving devices.. Of
isevicei It 'd, .4 re commended as practical devices
,:kof.t-the w a rk~i~l1ir and rail joint, '1 a switch device,
*her a s at. .. ...ie

S:.INSPECTORS .
.o W *2,- *, .' .. a
peetrs of this' f.ola,. i:r addition to the regular .i.ispection
gt-he past -eary, T e ledeted 3,653. days to.spei4 t.wot,
A..-ay"W' r .f!tteg j lin&rinestigation of accidents. ..The
k1i L4d i 4ti.tslet of complaints, tests *,of, o af. 4
.0g l -gal g ticf&, 6f violations of law, and,,,.dttie
t it.b'-i*if. furmni Ig A stiKiony for the prosecuttion.'of ces.
fifep- of the inspectors of Lis bureau were assigned. to th6
in. q,.g,r,.rgeration charges in southern and ,southeastern
..- 4rmne.r g,, ,,,ganI," and varied duti' Ia ssigred to
,ae.pectors 1gg. l hgh degree of ability d fidelity
j.ereflectsezdie hi elves and the. btre. '. ..,,

W. P. B n, ....
;% ". -.Director Bureat '$Safe ty,,,
efectiapp 4Ht and passenger cars ahd locomp ives
'' .p.,' .* ti, y gthe fiscal year 1926
;lir LOCK BLOCK-C-ontinuiedi .
.iT oken ................. 189 leck lift bent or broken -----...------- .. S
i g .:ia _. .., 10 ih .ok lift disconnected or missing ;...au.. '. fl&
.. ------............ ..-- 1,055 Lock lift wrong or incorectllyanplied&.a.. : I;,'B
.. 1, 5 .-. .. i .
.............47. Total..- .. ... -- ....:..:.. .. --;. 5
121.....4 ,. Uncoupli leverbeiti. 1........ 5
:px WI.. -,

rr"JL IUncoupling lever ben, ......... 50&
.1. .....J.1.------ -4-. Uncoupling leyer broken --. --..-, 4
..... .. .. UncouplinFt 't ilfi_'--.-.----- ---... .
.:.- coupling. lever wrong or imcorrectl,
1 ......... 143. coupling lever disconnected.....:, ,
.-2-: ... ........ .. l T~icoiipling lever inoperative..-. .. '.'
t neoup.ing iievr h "ndle'tb l e.'
--- -i. 'l:hcotupling- lever- stop'-o1 fgn ]ls 4 '
,,. ... .. .. ... ~.. correctly applied .... .. ..---------- ----- g
In ::. : Unoigever stop missing ------------121
| .,eouiip gcshain smiig......... L. '1 .
.. ..... i.. .touilingchain in k d .....--.--- : ...;-:; j.
%' *- I.. ,bupling chain too long -....... .... 4
L T-,V"..r'nboupling.chain too short ....J .. ..
,c.. O I. Tota..A. S.u l...uil....a.u.... '..S

$474; 7r;t M .f:.i W id lockor..caating bont.;........ua i-a L-: f!'t8..2
rc SOL'- ( orAestilakone.... 1S 4 +AU


. .. .. .:"L..
,.,?"i: .. :.,..:" 4.,. .' .'' '.., i..


dIock Xorcastingf mloSe.h4J, L f. i.i 70b W

W ft
T.:t.t.l........................... T .


ae l ^*; :. :::....:..#. a .*
i .!&.sli .l l .;,:., .},. = ..>.;'.4 ., i": :.::. '' .. #,;;'"' ':. '';m ,.. ,







12 INTERSTATE CQMMI

KEEPER .
Keeper bent....--.---..--..........-------,------ '10
Keeper, bloken.. ------- --------------- 41.
Keeper'loose '-------------------- 158
Keeper missing----------- -----, 19
Kedper wrong-------------................-------------. 4
STotal- ------ -------. 232

VISIBLE PARTS OF AIR BRAKE
Air-brake cut-out--------- ------------- -.. 3,498
Cylindr and triple not cleaned within 12
mohths..---------------------------- 5, 111
Cylinder and triple cleaned; no date ...... 201
Air hose missing------------------------- 127
Air bore defective .......------.----...------ 8
Angle cock missing--------------------- 34
Angle cock defectlve.--. ....--------- 7
Angle dock handle broken---.---------' 64
Angle cock handle missing--------------- ,,44
Brake pipe broken --.... 71
Brake pipe loose---......-----....---........--------- 1,3-22
Angle cock bracket defective-....----.----......... 27
Conducting pipe defective---------.............. 4
Branch pipe defective.........-----------..-----. 98
Cut-put cock defective..,. -------------- 118
Cut-out bock missing ..... ... 1
Cylinder casting defective- ---........------..... 6.
Cylinder loose-----------... --- ----------.. 25
Reservoir casting defective-------------. 12
Reservoir loose.............--------------.........------.... 40
Triple valve defective----...------............... 8
Triple valve missing.-----......----------......... 1
Release valve defective ---------------- 105
Release valve .issing..---...--------..--- 10"
Releaserod defective ...------------ '. 181:
Release tod missing----------------....... ---- 2,343
Release rod disconnected ...-... 187,
Retaining valve defective or loose----......- '504
Retaining valve missing or incorrectly
applied.-- ..---------------------- 64
Retaining pipe defective .-.............----... 2,288
Retaining pipe missing -..---........-------------..... 50
Piston travel excessive ---....-------......--. 326
Push rod defective-_ --.-----. ---------- 5
Push rod missing......----------------------- 4
Air brake inoperative .........---....----------..--.... 1,822
Total...----------------..- ..- 18, 756
HANDHOLDS
Handhold bent-.---. --- --- 1,457
Handhold broken----.----------- ----- 180
Handhold loose-----............------....------------ 706
Handhold issing.... ----------- ...........----. 756
Handhold wrong dimensions ------------ 288
Handhold not having proper clearance..- 865
Handhold incorrectly.applied -.......---.... 602
Total..---. ------- ---------.. 4,854
HANDRAIL ,
%andrail bent or not havin proper clear- ..
.ance.-. ...--_----,--- .--- ..78
anee.drail bokn. .
andrail bfroken-----' -.---------------
Handrail loose ----- -- -7-------- 27
Handrail missing...... ---- ....---------...... 44
Handrail wrong dimensions., -.----- 2,
Handrail incorrectly applied,......---- .. 33
Total-. --- -------- 212
LADDER-':. '. 2'
Ladder tread bent-........------- ....------- : 832
Ladder tread broken- -i,.. -'A. 1. 07'
Ladder tread loose- -----......... -. ---- 367,
Ladder tread missing.. '--....--...-. 7910
Ladder tread without foot guard ------........ 150
Ladder tread not having proper clear-: .
ance.------------------------------ 351
Ladder treads incorrectly'spaced........ 79
Ladder stile bent...-- .... ...----------------- 50
Ladder stile broken ........- a .-'.. '...- -,.'
Ladder stile loose --- '---- ... -..... 55.
Ladder missing or loose-- -..-.--'-- "42'
Ladder incorrectly applied:.-.- LJZL--. 189,
LEadder i ncorrectly-located-. --i.- : .Bi
End ladder clearance inadequate ----....... 81
SI Total: ... .....------------ 3,225


ERCE COMMISSION '




Running board missing. ..
Running board wong dimensions
Running .oard brno propern.. se.e;...- :.
Running-board brace broken...- ._i sA
Ruiining-bbard brace loose-"_.. i:..
Running-board brace missing.. i.
Rdiinning-board cleat brdkeni -.-----l--'l?
Running-board cleat lose .. L.
Running-board cleat ulissing-.--- -- .,
Total -------- -.----- .-- .----:._
BRAKE SHAFT *,"'
Brake shaft bent. --....---- t, -
'Brake shaft broken--.---.. .--i
Brake shaft loose.......---------........----
Brak6e'shft missig......... -------------
Brake shaft Wro densinso 4 s- 4-
Brake shaft welded .... -.'. -
Brake shaft inCorrectly applied.---,^-4rt .
Brake-shaft top nut missing .-.h......--
Brake-shaft .cotter key at .bottom gam w :ri..
or brake shaft not properly' secu "tbo"' '
p. prevent .being raised out. plpept" 1 .'yiu'
position .................. ........ ...
osto- ---.------------ .---7---.------- --- ..* Z
Total ..........................
*- *'AK rt'EEw t
"Brake WhWeeIWkitl isbeiedt 0earane!. 1W0
.Brakewhpel hent---------. J.
Brake wheel broke----....-..- ..--.-----.
Brake wheeL loose-, -.... rr- lh
Brake wheel missing........-- --.......--
Brake wheel incorrectlv applied-,. ..ak. "
Brake wheel wrong dimensions. .--'- -_. ""
Total --------------------------
RATCHET WHEEL
Ratchet wheel brqken-... -.--'u.-. r r' :
R'atchlet wheel loose.----------. .:----
Ratchet *beelm'issing. i:-'._-- .......- .
Ratchet wheel incorrectly applied...... -- -
Ratchet wheel wrong dimensions or in-
sufficient teeth....-------------------- .
T ot .al ].------------- .------. '.. i i.- .

"., RAK E PAWLijl
Brake pawl broken....... ----------..
Briak pawl 146lse,,.,-----..... -....
Brake pawl missing ........----.----,
Brake pawl inoperative-----------...... ----.......
Brake pawl incorrectly applied ..- -- 4 ,;I :
Total ..--...-. ..
BRAKE STEP 4'h
B ake step broken.-...-'- ---....- A
B rake step loose.....- ---......... --- -.
Brake step missing.--------------4-.t. .
Brake step incorrectly appiiei-.,lt.* f
Brake step wrong dimensions
Brake-step brace blbntr.. ..
Brake-step'brace brbkedn .--';---_' "t,. o-pit4,n :,l::^
Btake-step.biaceo ldseo'.'_- ----- .:----.- *
Brake-step brace incorrectly applied. 2
wrong dimensio- .. ..----------------


BRAKE-SHAFT ST
S- .. ..oilt-
ljtake-shaft stirrup bent---.----
l ake-shaft stirrup broken-_,,e "A:i.
I Brake-shaft stirrup loose---'_..-
13rak-shaft stirrup issi n -igi
'BMke-shaft stirrup wrong-..
Total .... ....- : ti










'i:.- .. ... .,S.FBO

sbuL.braaket.broken.a... .-'._ _. ...:. 9'
i .... .raekelJoose..... ..._.. ''. 8: [8
bl icket.missing '-.. .' ..7
a.rtloose- -
oirt missingg_ .' 23.
tort incorrectly applied :.- .r. .j
Xi.L 188

R:ATCET BRAKR *
L.
.......n.....-- --------- ..- 6 .
*.m....A. G .. .
;Ai e :;----------- ---- 1'"
...... ... .. .. .



-. _..... __.----------
-^^ -i i A E S- U- --- - -' *
n .. ----- -- 1-' 2 -.2 ; ,'.' M:.
a: .... .... .... 4.. 1 '
:dlnensions T... ..s.L'i.I .305]
ae.tilsecuredl to.shaft .389
t." Appliyarped or. too. ,'.. *
.. 90' ,



NTGr BDIrKE E.ICOD i.
E. 0ete icted ...-........... .. i1.'5I
bt i i l...... d...... --,, ',
iitg ---- .......----.. .
.4 ...... .... 1 u


J'..:iA'. O' __-J-.RUCK 3,0D :
....o.on ee. d,--... ,. .,




w. .ATOtM TRUCK BOD

dis nect.... ... d' -" .
n ---- ''-a------- -4.
Se......... ....' ,W


----'--r- i




g___t_*__ Lf. 1 8
S oplen gthl...... 34
---..... ..........-- .... 58

m Ie olDEU R ROD


%~irnnoted---... .. --.-



i n s "' I m" I 1
i p per length : ..
.i::., -' X ^ -s. ":.-- .-- ,.. 1.

444o* :- :... ,; ::,





:. .... '.... *.. .4: 44 4 : 4 .. .... ...


2


CYLINDER LEVER -
Oulinder lever Aisconnected.. ... 5' "5
Cylinder lever broken ....... 2.... "': 2'
Pylinder-lever guide deitive....-------- :
Total ---------------------------66.
; Total............................. 66.
FLOATING LEVER
Floating lever disconnected-------.........------.. 2
Floating lever broken..--........ -- .. ,,-.2-1
Floating lever miss.ing.--------. ........- .. 2
Fl6ating-levei giide defective-. M.... ... .
: '' '-,li 4,,. 4
Total ..... ... .. .......-..-.. ... J65
.R. UCK LEVER
ick live lever disconnected......- -.... 7
Truck lise lever missing------------------ 5
Truck dead lever disconnected ......... 242
'ruck dead lever broken ...... .. 4 .
nlruck dead-lever missing.-.-.-- --- "' '"4
I Total--.- .-. .... 62.
.. BERAKEl BEAMO'1 *I' 4;; *'Bi'
.Brake beam na attachments defective... 451
3trake-beam fulcrum defective. -------- 2
Brake shoe mssing ..- ....;----. -'-.. 116
Brake-shoe key missing--.........---------.... 107
Total--..........-----...........----------------........ 676

- -- BRAEE HANGER
Brake hanger bent-._--1--.----------- 15
Brake hanger broken..q ..-___.,.--... ;.. ,. 4,
Brake hanger missing-.. ..._ -J....'... i, 5
Brake hanger wrong.. ._ _-._-- ._---- 5
Bsake-hanger support defective---------- 12
Brake-banger cb'ineting'pinfniis ig..--. 25
,B;ke,-hanger connecting pin wrong......, 5


----- --l- -,- __ i r
C I. S A UflZy 4 .,E' :t, d .. (

Bralkehanger.pin.cotter key-.missingj.. .45
Floating-lever. connecting-p nJ.ettrkey ..
SMissing---------------- JiL -:.m-;':_:.,'; :.3.:1
Cylinder-lever connecting-pin cotter.'key
missing------------..... ------------------ 139
Dead-lever connecting-pin cotter key
Smissing-------................................ 707
Live-lever connectingrpin cotterkey miss-
ing..--... ----- -------------- 8
Total-----.....------....--.---.------- .....1,042
HAND BRAKE


Hand brake inoperative.--- ..--------. ---
Hand brake inefficient ----.-------.------

Total--......................------------------


BsLL STEP


320
115
435


Bill step bent-----.......---...------......-----.......... 354
B Sill step broken---------------... ------------- 63
ilstp loose-----....--.........--------------- 250
,Sill step missing----......------------------...... 100
: Sill step .wrong dimensions. ---------..-.-- 123.
8111istep incorrectly applied..---...----....---.... 72
.i Total. ------------.. ... --.-----
:4.+ I.;T:O.M w : ST.P
Pt j im ill stdp bent- :----------.. 2
AsIatOform Sill step broen--..... -.......... 6
Stfornsill step loose..----....-- '...- .
Si tform sill step nisdi ......-.-- -. '5
i Bafforxtillstep wroMng d. ensflL.--.. : .
Si tm sill tepA prinectly appli. '.. ::
otal.------ .. .. ..------



I.. ": P

: : ... .. ...4... ,S.** ,44i 14,; 4!4
:::i:"W N : 5+::, ,: ,: u. ,:" : ",,,::ii,:,' '~ ,:i,
;('; ;':;:: 'i :, ,;; : 0!,- 4 : i. J':::" : : ,: ;, :,, ::; i';
...: ...,. ... F:. ::.'" :." .:E.i h :. : .. :" + "; "_ Y: A'" !,' 'i:E E{Ei: i :
Sil ) m: mm:: E XTI:Z Yj: )E im:m !Em: X:im A. : mjE(mmmkmm i ,mm mEE' ~ :m mm 2(im:Eq()~ mm X. ii i E






INTERSTATE CONMWBEE: COMMISSI1O2


SIDE-DOOR BILL STEP
Side-door sill step bent..--..........-----------. 2
Side-door sill step broken-................--------- 2
Side-door sW step loose -- ....- 1.
Side-door sill step incorrectly applied.... 1
Total-............----------------............... ..
FOOTBOARD SILL STEP,
Footboard sill step bent.......---- --- 10-
Footboard sill step broken--------------- 14
Footboard sill step loose.......------ ...---------- 4
Footboard sill step missing-------------- 4
Fbotboard sill step wrong dimensions-.... 12
Footboard sill step incorrectly applied... 40
Total......---..........--------- .....------- 84
PILOT SILL STEP
Pilot sill step bent--------.........------------ 1
Pilot sill step loose--.-------------------- 2
Pilot sill step missing--..........------.......---.--------- 3
Pilot sill step wrong dimensions......... 3
Pilot sill step incorrectly applied ........ 2
Total..--------------------------- 11
STEP FOR HEADLIGHT
Step for headlight missing...-------------- 2
Total--------------------......................----........- 2
POWER BRAKE
Power driving-wheel brake missing...... 1
Power driving-wheel brake defebtive..... 8
Total..-.--- ---- 9--------- 9
Grand total----...........----------......... 7
SUMMARY
Freight cars inspected.....------------- 1,390,936
Freight cars defective --------- 44;'37
Per cent defective ------------ 3.22
Defects reported-....................-----------... 56;484
Passenger cars inspected-------------. 27,391
Passenger cars.defective-----------------. 350























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SUMMATRY--continUA d ':,. 'i:.
Per cent defective--- .-...-,..- ....'I'
Defects reported............---........ ..
Locomotives inspected.. -...i.' ,ijd .i.
Locomotives defective ..... .J. i -. r'id.. j'
Pet cent defective .....-----..........- hL-i411
Defects reported.... ..... .i....- .;"rf
NUMBER OF DEFECTS PER. 1,000 i .' '
INSPECTED
Coupler.............-.................. -- -
Knuckle--. --.-- 2.5
Lock block....... ............... ., .. :
mec--an- Zm----------
Uncoupling mechanism...-....... -,
End lock--------- -----------.,,
Keeper.............-----------------......-..-.....
Visible parts of air brake---....... .-.,
Handhold ---------- --- --- .' .
Handrail -..............-----.------...............
Ladder.................-----------.............----------...-. .
Running board---------------------- .2.27
Brake shaft ----------...................---------...... -2
Brake wheel ---........----. .. J.---- .. .67
Ratchet wheel..........----------------------
Brake pawl----..........------............ '.i
Brake step .................-------... i. 'i:ig
Brake-shaft stirrup ... I -------- iL."d.4
Brake-shaft support.--.....--.... --l--.t .lt.
Ratchet brake.. -.---- .......-L^jL t
Brake chain.. -.... ..-..... -.-..'.,Li.s,..
Hand-brake rod......------..................----------. .
Top truck rod----................---------........... .
Bottom truck rod.------------- .--'-'h .04
Cylinder rod...................--....-------.....---------- .0
Dead-lever fulcrum- ----------- ------.0
Floating-lever fulcrum......--- ----- .-
Cylinder lever -----........,..... .....--
Floating lever........----.----
Truck lever...----------.-- ---....
Brake beam ------"----- ..,
Brake hanger.---- .------------u' -
Cotter keys for foundation brake rigging. r. .72. :
Hand brake-. -------- -------- .-SO
Sill step-.--- ----------------------- .
Platform sill step--.....--....- ..--- ...... .
Side-door sill step......................--------------------. ..
Footboard sill step.----------- .--- .i .e :i..)'.
Pilot sill step............-------...----. --- .i
Step for headlight.........-----....---- ......
Power brake-....---_--------.--- .-a -. i" i
All classes--.........------...............------- 4002: .

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itrff bbr0&tfintresndnafialdpoeb tt he Iuteastate GOuhddufiee ommintsIo
D, f IhiT .' ?"-7.1 if.)) r 0 12 1li k1i U i ., .'s. p .% 4.i 00i d
e as otherwise spqcfied the report her .ade is for the year

Saualties on steam rati'ods in connection with it operation
duriina th calendar year 2 are summarize as ollow
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ain accidents in comparison with 402 killed and ,368i]tJi 2
... 8c.lf 4i h &. t$,.W icaI"d att r. 'i 2
!AWNdLF 64 eimplyees THfd ani h 3 injure.t m coplhn or
foddP omtiVkes and ca+rs as. compared 'wi fl 2' killed and
hrAlidi ur. :c1as~ ti Ji ilo dlue tto AOnlg
..i.t 4 ni fd ttukrk resiil' i 3Tilled and 7
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wer t f ile1 tan 6^li: ur.d .iuiun i
n 41ars n .loomo1tv ... .
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ie a enei a caun h th4 cases o' Vitla ionit
ne laws, comprising f0 'couts, were transit tte t
e es atto rneys, or pr ose tion; es comprisng,
4e &Wsseda aid % diSiilssed, while 5 counts wed re tried
tgmen ifothie Geovernmenti on 2 aniid adversely, ,
t 3. One, count diin far ot the Gayern-
d eale .y ne eTenan ani armed, y ,the cirCult
ls. i# oe count ,decited aversel to the 'em-
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or a new tr al has been oled anis. pendn
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10u aJtec 11 ,1ea1, 1- Awee .e Jl
.i e o.vernmei,. were dimisses woey. e urt asme
4..nI;_la. by tge, courw onA II cotsI, I c
favorr o: be.n rn ie noe a tver, a" w
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40 INTEpSTATE COWMERCHCQMM[SSIOII
,u' 2 ', :* e's,"
of the cars, and the two cars connected byL:chains in additioBna .
couplers. After being unloaded the cars were returned to the.t.
ring carrier, a distance of about 2 miles, for the purpose ofJli;
the chains removed and the uncoupling levers connected 'in th, '
manner, Suit was brought t dunder"the safety lpplianceiai''c i&~t
return movement based on the impossibility of uncoupling i M
without requiring men to go between the ends. The f)istrictt" -* :"
for the Southern District of Texas held.tbat the return movezixot
of the two cars to the delivering road under the circumstance sts
not violative of the safety appliance acts.
In United States v. T. & N. 0. R. R., 13 F. (2d) 429, the tes.,
offered at the trial was to the effect that a switch engine .in.t""iS '
were moved over the main-line track for a distance of about ,ille,
during which cars -were -set out about every 100 yards-to va.iai '
industries en route. Upon this testimony the District .Co..i. br
ili i- .' .' M o 1h.'. isi t of Te s ,, j .-','m o "m d.. ''' >" '..'.': & :, :"
hne Southern district o-f Texas. eld that tls. was not. atiaiM
ment within the meaningof the air-brake provisions of te
appliance acts. .'n'.....
The commission' and its inspectors who witnessed the: ;i 1
were not advised of the time of trial, and the only witness wa.ie.
of defendant's officials. His testimony was in' direct confli t 6'.:
that which the inspectors would have given if called to testify' :9 4
In United States v. Illinois Central Railroad Companv nAoti .
ported, a locomotive, tender, and 25 freight cars were moved E:,, t
Council Bluffs, Iowa, to the main yard of the defendant, railr .."
at Omaha., Nebr., the air brakes being used during this mpyei
Upon arrival in the Omaha yard 7 of the cars were switched : :t
from various parts of the train and the remaining 18 ,were.;l,* i
by the locomotive for an additional distance of 4,500 fe :. !
freight house without the air brakes being used. This latter
ment was over a lead track, -several city streets. and two 1 aWtr
of other carriers being crossed at grade, all within what ... ,: :.:4 :
road considered one yard, under the control of the yardmastier ,Rj
over tracks on which no regular schedule. of trains moved :
brought on this 4,500-foot'movement, and the District Cour 9b -
District of Nebraska held 'that this was a train movement.*
the purview of the air-brake provision of the safety appIiy "
and 'rendered judgment for the Governmeint. Upon wijt.
the Circuit'Court of Appeals for' the Eighth, Circuit a.W|
judgment of the district court. :
There were 37 cases of violation of .hours of .se..q A';
rising 163 county, transmittedd" to United States' attorn
prosecution; cases coprising 272 counts ,were confessed
missed, and 0 tried,' resltin' m judg gen fortt e to er
id and averseliy tho te G4 over meni on e mo or a







ilMtpipwhiehas was pendinghlastl year, har been ide di u tMd i
:t*i.j2Bitheem mIweie peuding:it theJ various' distiji courts 40
P|caiutpiithg it69 count^T; *'n > 'r ; d r *, ,( s< ': .. >cp ;:i, .. *('
.mSupreme Court in the Sanm if X"r.wdmat.we.uejasf. 9!2 UIS.
&ifedt ..in .oaur. pola kipot,_. 29t8 ___Fed. _9,._ .JF.2 1188re-
il' the lower courts, holding that the messages handled by the
stareunder the circumstances- were not orders, and hence in
e employds, te'i, not subj'4i to tjie hours of service law
tooperi its. ,,, ,.. .
sts of power-brake devices forecast in our last report--are
gcnquducted,, under the,. auspices ,pf, the American;edRailway
ion and witnessed by, representatives of our bureau of safety.
rifidately 1,445,000 cars and locomotives wefe inspected.
Sober of defects per 1,000 inspected was 40.02,.,. The cqorre-
S.reY l4o ,for' the preceing..-year was approximately 114,00
Awth....... s. ts.p. ,000.. -... --. -......
:s.-t service report s'were filed by 1,124 railroads, of which
Imported no instances of service of their employees in excess
itsppescibetl bety .wlaw. i,,~ r gem %ining-- ;42 railroads re-
.gaLtotal ofet 42,200(, instances pfi excess service ,-a: compared,
7. Z'.instaceS off excess ,service Xreportedf by ,360 railroads .
Mwpreredi year. -This represents :,. decrease of 2.2- per. cent
.pimbe diOf.roads,..portig .excess;.erivice, and. an .increase of
Wlf20per0 'entj in. theitotal number: eof instanres ,of,, eess
" P'":pr ted ".. : e; :;. f '' 1 : J';: .;
igafedd 14:tcainapceiden_ o of 'which 61 Srailments. ..tjlei collisions ;eslted in ithe .deat. pi, 14, and
... *4 .945s pAAtso.ns; 9e. raimentsi resultedd, in-,the deatW,- of
AAet jnj iu ryof lfW perAons, q A otal o f,:192 killed- and 1-,61i
..At .tqdiPI.. .. '.. .i.; ;.;'1! ;J, ; F
e .irtp nt pen.s g~g a.si iei itel..tigted.,is ayle
when completed, and summaries of4hese repAorts.r pubhihed
srly.
.inTvestigation in respect of the formation and development of
srei. fissures in steel rails, mentioned in previous reports, has
tntinued.; Railroads and rail manufacturers are actively coop-
giwi.th. us. .
ter last report we called attention to rapid increases during pre-
in the: number of accidents at highway grade crossings.
-:tie dcalendar- year 1925 there were! 5,479 accidents: at high-
ecrossngs which resulted in the death of .2,20 persons
m kijry Of 6,555. Automobiles figured in 4,576 of these eci-


]Jtgdth 1 45 persons and tha iflfl^ :t DO.]j :
... Ai....

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42 INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMIBSfK .

addition, there were 6 derailment, of, traincasinif esulta ouf collins
between'trains. and automobilesinut wfithrieitdewth oripetronalL inj .....
For purposes of comparison, corresponding'recordft for' the.past.aE''
years are summarized, as follows ': ;



S Num- Num-, Nu- Num- Num Nu
S Number r betf s o Number mr I e
killed injured killed inib I
.. : ,"
5;scrJi ".2. ,241 '2, b69' 'W 5' &149' 2 -19- 62 '2
Accidents at .l highway I I C
giiad crossings. m i .- )O
volvinrauomobiles. 4007, 00 759 5,4,l6 4,145 ,688 5 650 4 76, % l,7 A ,16
Deralmets' of trains' ..
. as a result 'or colli- .,,
sids bet we n trains'
and automDbiles.... 24 -, 77. 24, 16 69 ,30. .15
utok-ob--es-regi-teed 01 -k....17,591'.981 ........ .. 9,94,3 .
---ftfde ------ : ....-r & 0 ; 171 "2: ----- ------- t-----*-' -- -' 19 :' ,964 ',124 1' 4


MEDALS OF HONOR
*. ,O ,* .7
The act of Fi bruary 23; 1905, authorizes the President to' heito1 a
bronze metals-of honor upon persons who by extreme daridgpi.q
danger thei own lives in saving; or endeavoring to save, l' is' fdi,',
any wreck, disaster, or grave aiocident, or in preventing or endeivv
ing to prevent, such wreck; disaster, or: grave accident upon' an~
railroad within the United States engaged in interstate conmet*,el:
During the past fiscal year three applications for award of medWleh'
of honor as provided in this act have been filed'. Oner was a9pprtvd
orie denied, and the third isee;iving consideFation. v 1 '
Since the'passage of this- a'cl4lT applications for medals I&w i^
filed. Twenty-fivb have b'ei approvedi ad medals awai.d. .t$
denied, and, as stated above, one is pending.
O-' O June 21; 1926,' amended regulaiotions governing the asdafrdof:
medals'of honor were ishpied; *' '* *..ed:






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