The United States Public health service. What does it do for me?

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Material Information

Title:
The United States Public health service. What does it do for me? National sesquicentennial exposition, Philadelphia, 1926
Physical Description:
8 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Language:
English
Publisher:
U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Public health -- United States   ( lcsh )
Hospitals, Naval and marine -- United States   ( lcsh )
Public Health -- United States   ( mesh )
Health Services -- United States   ( mesh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004978599
oclc - 34228136
System ID:
AA00009491:00001


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Boarding a vessel at a United States quarantine station


THE UNITED STATES
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

WHAT DOES IT DO FOR ME?
HIPS and trade; railroads and travel; immigrants; clean ports;
infected ports; epidemics; bills of health. These spell duty for the
Public Health Service. You may have noticed soon after your
ship passed the Golden Gate or Sandy Hook she hoisted a yellow flag
and the quarantine officer (Public Health Service) came aboard to look
at you. And if you came from a port having cholera or bubonic plague
J. 103180-26 1





United States Public Health Service


A Marine Hospital ambulance meeting a ship at dock


or typhus or yellow fever, he looked at you twice. You may have seen
this same doctor in the Philippines, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Virgin Islands,
or the Canal Zone a dozen years ago, or in a consul's office in China or
Europe. He is moved from time to time and alternates in quarantine
and hospital or other duties.
When your ship docked, you saw the marine hospital ambulance there
to meet that freighter for a seaman who broke his leg the fourth day out.
The captain did a good first-aid job on him after talking it over by radio
with the nearest marine hospital. Yes, the marine hospitals are run by
the Public Health Service too-have been for 128 years. It used to be
called the Marine Hospital Service. In every port of the United States
and insular possessions where there is water enough to float a ship n. north
while there is a marine hospital or a contract with some other hospital,
and a place where sick and disabled seamen from American merchant
ships are cared for. Not the Devil Dogs-they go to the naval hospitals;
the marine hospitals are for merchant seamen and men from Coast Guard
cutters, life-saving stations, lightships, and lighthouses. An aid given to
merchant vessels since 1798, or since the Government was only nine
years old, has become, one might say, almost a habit. The sailors began
it. They paid, until 1882, money from their own pockets, at first 20
cents per month and later 40 cents, to support the marine hospitals.
That's why the old salts are proud of the places and say, "We built 'em."
But about forty years ago Uncle Sam decided he would support the
sailors' hospitals himself, and he also uses some of these hospital bedJs for
taking care of employees of his who get hurt while on duty. N\ lore than
3,000 hospital bcdJ are constantly occupied by old salts, show ing that in
bearing this expense, which, according to maritime laws, the ships them-
selves would otherwise have to bear, the United States Government is
giving its merchant marine no small assistance.





Un ited States Public Health Service 3


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Muster of immigrants for inspection by medical officers, U. S. Public Health Service
When you said good-bye to the captain he was mustering the steerage
passengers for the medical examination that all immigrants must pass,
either at Ellis Island or elsewhere. The medical officer examining these
immigrants wore the same kind of uniform that the quarantine officer
and ambulance doctor wore because he is also from the Public Health
Service. His buttons and cap bear the same corps device that you saw
on the ambulance and on the quarantine launch's flag-the fouled
anchor, sign of a ship in trouble. Yes, the Public Health Service
examines all immigrants entering the country, in order that the feeble-
minded, the insane, and the diseased may be sent back; and now these
medical officers are also stationed in Great Britain, Irish Free State,
Belgium, Holland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Poland, and
other foreign countries, to make examinations before the immigrant
sails.
The boatswain had a grievance? I know. Too bad! He is an able
man and wanted to become a pilot and then a licensed officer and maybe
some day a captain and have a ship of his own. But he could not pass
the vision and color vision tests. Sure they have to. A man who can
not tell a green light from a red one has no business at the wheel. He
must be able to see test signals through fog and smoke and call colors
right, or the doctor throws him. Yes, the Public Health Service makes
the examinations. There is not a licensed officer on any American ship
that sails the seven seas who did not first have to go to the marine





United States Public Health Service


A Marine Hospital where merchant seamen are treated


hospital office for his certificate. They must qualify in first aid to
the injured, too, and the doctors teach them what to do in all kinds of
emergencies before the Steamboat Inspection Service will issue their
licenses.
Railroads and travel? Maybe you drank water on your train. It's
all right, don't worry. The Public Health Service names the places
and the conditions where drinking water may be taken on trains just
as it does for ships engaged in interstate trade. You may have noticed
that nurse, too, in the Pullman. She had a patient in the drawing room
who had some communicable disease. She had to have her permits
from the Public Health Service and her instructions, and you may be
sure that compartment was well fumigated before it was used again.
The patient? Oh, it may have been a leper en route to the National
Home for Lepers (Marine Hospital No. 66) in Louisiana, where the Public
Health Service has nearly 300 such patients, and where it is gradually
rounding them up to wipe out the disease in this country.
Does it help the States? Yes, the Public Health Service assists State
and local health authorities in life saving, disease-preventing programs
which save more each year than the Service costs the tax payers.
Common colds? Nearly everybody has two or three a year. Forty
per cent of the time lost in industry is due to respiratory diseases. The
Public Health Service is studying these diseases, so that health officers can
better control them.





United States Public Health Service


Immigrants with contagious disease are excluded


What else does the Public Health Service do? It investigates the
pollution of rivers and a multitude of other conditions affecting the health
of the people, inspects and licenses establishments manufacturing anti-
toxins and vaccines, and in its Hygienic Laboratory at Washington tests
these products; it supplies medical officers for all cruising cutters of the
Coast Guard, suppresses epidemics, supervises sanitation in the national
parks, makes the physical examinations of civil-service applicants, and
treats civil employees of the Government who are injured or disabled as
the result of their employment. It examines claimants for pensions, too,
and decides whether persons employed by the Government suspected of
having communicable diseases are a menace to other employees or the
public. After the World War the Public Health Service was the principal
agency whereby World War veterans were cared for, and in 1922 it
turned over to the Veterans' Bureau 57 hospitals, with 17,500 beds, 900
doctors, 1,400 nurses, and 9,200 other employees.
And in time of war the Public Health Service becomes a part of the
military forces of the Government.
The story of over a hundred years of work can not be told in a few pages,
so only a few facts about the Service will be given.





United States Public Health Service


Drinking water on trains is certified by the U. S. Public Health Service


FACTS ABOUT THE UNITED STATES
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
Organized in 1798; formerly called the United States Marine Hospital
Service.
It is a bureau in the Treasury Department; has a Surgeon General and
a corps of medical officers commissioned by the President.
Conducts the national quarantine stations; yearly inspects more than
22,000 vessels and 2,000,000 persons.
Makes the medical examination of all immigrants. Much of this work
is done by its officers in foreign countries.
Investigates the diseases of man; publishes and distributes pamphlets on
various diseases. Publishes weekly reports of health officers at home and
abroad.
Conducts research at its great Hygienic Laboratory in Washington,
D. C., and at a number of field stations throughout the country.
Examines serums and vaccines for purity and potency; issues
licenses to approved manufacturers.






United States Public Health Service


Medical advice to ships at sea and public health talks are sent by radio
Medical advice to ships at sea and public health talks are sent by radio


Demonstrated that pellagra is due to improper diet, and curable.
Furnishes a standard unit to insure diphtheria antitoxin of
proper strength.
Discovered tularemia, a disease conveyed from wild rabbits
to persons.
Identified the American hookworm as a cause of anemia.
Prepared a standard milk ordinance, now adopted by ten States.
Studied pollution of the Great Lakes and the rivers, and the
methods of controlling it.
Controlled bubonic plague in our ports by destroying rats and ground
squirrels.
Freed New Orleans from yellow fever in 1905 by mosquito control.
Reduced the prevalence of malaria in the South.
Operates 25 marine hospitals and 150 relief stations for merchant
seamen.
Treats annually 200,000 beneficiaries, furnishes 1,342,000
hospital patient days and 493,000 out-patient treatments.
Beneficiaries include merchant seamen, Coast Guardsmen,
injured Federal employees, lighthouse keepers, and patients of
Army, Navy, and United States Veterans' Bureau.
Marine Hospital No. 9, at Fort Stanton, New Mexico, is for
tuberculous merchant seamen and Coast Guardsmen.
Conducts the National Leper Home with 300 patients at Car-
ville, Louisiana.






United States Public Health Service


Antitoxins and vaccines are tested at the Hygienic Laboratory, U. S. Public Health Service,
Washington, D. C.

Acts as a clearing house of information on health matters for labor and
the industries.
Prescribes conditions for use of tetraethyl lead in gasoline; investigates
health hazards in industry; value of sunlight; factory and office illumina-
tion; and many other things which benefit the worker.
Designates places where trains and vessels may take water supplies
and regulates the travel of diseased persons.
Assists the various States in establishing full-time county health de-
partments and in farm sanitation.
Cooperates with the States to control venereal infections.
Investigates the diseases of children and demonstrates child hygiene.







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