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G. D.*KMXXIMUM SWANJ-.A S OF
- COTTON I .. .FLLSPERATING"
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WI.KAINDUM UN ilHMt ifKALIJAIRLlIX Ur ,i lliNhz
M1 M STANDARDS OF WORK IN COTTON MILLS
SEATING UNDER THE STRETCH OUT SYSTEM
fljwg information was obtained: from statements of 2
research organization, 1 textile labor leader, and I cotton-
t other. with facts obtained by the Women's Bureau.
~Wh6rities mentioned above agree that because of the tre-
yriations within a mill in the several elements of the job
difficult to set by law any general limit as to the number of
weaverr can operate in a cotton. mill. The variations in
Iout, ,machinery, and divisions of jobs differ in each plant.
sai, sme number of looms the task set might be fair in some
StIfar too hbavy in others. In order to, determine a fair
|i: blooms per weaver, a scientific measurement should be
lthe work to be done by the weavers in the individual mills
bi6al: fabrics they make, taking into consideration all the
SIh4t influei"e the job. A definitely set maximum number
1ihgh.t be perfectly fair where all the previous steps had been
:. taken and the same number far too many without prepara-
nAght .be drawn up by experienced textile engineers that
t'he proper standard of looms per weaver for the majority
constructions, but such a code should specify also standards
!t# arid of upkeep, as well as conditions and equipment in
tspreliminianry to weaving.
aggested that under the National Recovery Administration in
eire the stretch-out has been introduced and where such system
bied by the workers tod be unfair or to entail very heavy work,
int can be made directly to the Administrator, who may
(t--an investigation by. competent engineers.' The investi-
i gbe asked-for through an organization.o.,P rkers or by a
TORS INVOLVED IN DETEIqE UMl ER O
rten ,arn A :i t
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of'" ton. h : .
W.fte of' finishedd: goads de'- .
.' lied.. finisO f. :
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2 STANDARDS OF WORK UNDER THE STRETCH-OUT SYSTEM '
WORK OF A WEAVER .:
1. Piecing ends (including starting 5. Cleaning (generally. d .: by.
looms), cleaners). '
2. Walking. 6. Rest time.
3. Taking off cloth. 7. Miscellaneous. -
4. Filling batteries (sometimes done by .
a battery hand). .
CAUSES OF WORK VARIATION IN THE WEAVE ROOM'' iiP
1. Piecing ends. Number of loom 4. Filling batteries
stoppages is determined by- a. Whether the operatidntijMl ..
a. Conditions in the picking, formed by the weavef'ftra A
carding, and spinning de- battery hand. .... : .
apartments. b. Time the filling lasts in i
b. The cloth requirements, such shuttle.
as strength, elasticity, pat- c. Arrangement of filling iit ::
tern (plain, fancy, colored). d. Method of filling battery.!' ;,:
c. Weaving imperfections. e. Type of loom ."
d. Character of yarn.
e. Atmospheric conditions. 5. Cleaning :.
a. Cleaning is usually do be.ji i
2. Walking. The amount is deter- cleaners. :
mined by- b. If cleaning is done by. weap
era, the time depeids..:`..
a. The system of weaving. the character of thep
b. The length of the cycle or being woven. '
c. The average time allowed for 6. Rest time
piecing ends, taking off Generall 10 to 12 minutes :per
cloth, and other duties. General sold e m p
d. The rest time allowed. ..:
3. Taking off cloth. Time varies a. If no special hands, piik-u1t '
a. The character of the cloth, b. Examining cloth.
b. The size of the piece. c. Extras.
The problem of establishing a standard of the number of' gida .
spinner can operate without undue fatigue is similar to that oT
ting the correct number of looms for a weaver. No definite anii e-:
of sides..'can be- set that will apply with equal fairness in all inlls
because of the multiplicity of factors involved not only in the type iof:-..
yarn manufactured but in the machinery and method of operatipg;J:J;I
different mills. The amount of piecing, creeling, and cleaning.vari',s
between mills and on different numbers of yarn. The yam breakage
is affected not only by the quality of the yarn desired and the condi- .
tion of the spinning frames but by the type of machines used and ,it.;'
engineering skill exercised in the picking and carding operations. *
According to some authorities the greatest obstacle to overcome ia:n. f
order to obtain proper spinning-room operating is the presentation i.
an even roving of a reasonable twist, and this depends not: pn@ti b,
spinning room but on the carding.
The extension or stretch-out of the work has been less geiterallyi : ;..
introduced in the spinning room than in the weaving room.' Thisi
probably due to two reasons: First, the wages of a spinner ark'ci.i
than those of a weaver, so the extension of the work involves .....
saving in the spinning than in the weaving room; second, the
much. increased;' and as the spinners generally are women this
'Luses considerable dissatisfaction, especially among the clean-
PVa-lk more and earn less than d'o the spifners.'
suggested that a spinning code might be dIrawn up by experi-
B-tife engineers giving an approximate number of spindles for
ltfWorking under different methods on certain counts of yarn
eigegrl outline of duties of the spinner. Any such code would
fSgty allow for revision and adjustments.
!ACTORS INVOLVED IN DETERMINING: THE NUMBER OF
SIDES PER SPINNER
t'f Grade of cotton.
'' p"mber of yarn desired.
4snality of yarn desired.
i4.Fiiaingsor warp yarn.
M hine r
DiOrganization of draft.
e Speed and twist.
SSize' of spindle. 4. W
..ob (spinning room)
.A'erage number of end break-
S:.tage, ppr side per hour.
ii',R,, .. ,. ..:' WORK OF A SP
i s.metmesdone by n assistant).
1pg ^sometimes done by an assistant).
b. Spinning system.
c. Responsibility regarding up-
keep, cleaning, creeling, et
d. Method of patrol.
h. Rest periods.-
b. Air conditions.
ERsOF WORK VARIATION IN THE SPINNING
end Number to be pieced 2. Creeling-Continued
rim ied by- d. Whether spinner carri
t lity of cttoh.o and empty bobbins
tf yarn. f ya from the frames.
STar' requirements-drafts, .
1 ,pepds, twists. .... 3. Cleaning:
>Zj.,dtions in the picking and Quality of cotton.
>l ingrooms. b. Count of yarn.
iig ,frames, condition c. 'Leigth of diaft.
land 'Operatifon. : :d.. Division: of the work.
40,T e and..,specification. of ...Wak
,4es. 4. Walking
g,''Bild'of bobbin. a. Count of yarn.
flbi dzidity to.ditio. b6; Size of frame.
S. c.. Method of patrol.
rn ',ting .
4. ount o,yar .-of,. R ....... ...
,7 lie.of bac rovi : : a. CarefW planning of wo:
btbbbi1-cleitgm ,nachinesup- 6b. Method of' phtol.
i plied. : .. ..... Division, of work:.
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4 STANDARDS OF WORK UNDER THE STRETCH-OUT' SYSTlCi
"End breakage is one of the most useful and measurable fiiJr'
the determining of any load and would have a part in any loat1 et
standard. It would, however, be impossible on this basis .M0 _0io
lay down a tabulated requirement as to a machine assiiw*]%
cause of the many other factors that contribute to the hard,.shi
A few of the many facts that should be known before a task is ii.':
are, whether a weaver must fill his own batteries, remove the fini.4@
cloth, draw in without help after smashes, and clean the looms; a -
the method of patrol. For almost all of these there are degr9 cf
variation, and not merely yes or no. A
Even though the new system is developed under engi.ei:s hiti
workers should be consulted and informed, as far as possibje, :i0tia'
aim and the methods used to achieve it. One engineer shid, "?he
most important and lasting results come from the develop ':ae, -
suitable processes of association and not from imposed rulings.. :i.
more useful and a far better use of human forces to set up standard
setting processes by which those affected get a hand or voiceui'the
findings which are to guide them."
1. The job should be laid out as scientifically as possible by comrn-
petent engineers, with a careful measurement made of work to hb done
in the individual mills, taking into consideration all the elemenxti4hat
influence the job. When the stretch-out follows a standard .,.;'.i.
of looms or spindles set for a certain product, type of machi e,i4.
method of work, the operations in preceding departments hii'
follow the procedure outlined by the best engineering practice.. d7 "
2. The job should be laid out on the basis of time required'to'~~.
work; but as it takes time and some experimenting to reac'lh:1
standard, a sliding scale should be laid out until the final .tatd-.i?
has been achieved.
3. The type and quality of the management should be coi lTI,
in the setting of any job standard. The ability to carry on-,a af"".
after a standard has been set is of vital importance to the success i a
failure of any plan.
4. As in most cases the engineers are hired by the management iA.,a
represent it, there should be some machinery set up wheti* .V di '
plaints of the workers may be submitted to an outside impartl :4:'
having a thorough knowledge of the textile industry.' The i."i*V
tance of having the worker understand the change and of obtin I '.*.
cooperation cannot be overestimated.
5. The task should be set to allow for a reasonable amount: '. "...
time, probably an average minimum of 12 minutes an houia. -:!:
rest time cannot, of course, be taken in a single period, but WtWe'bl
should be planned to allow for at least that amount of free tiie.%il:)
amount of rest time is not final, as further research may Ea l
different scale in order to prevent undue fatigue.
6. The duties included in the new system should be in writ
minimize misunderstandings and as a basis for future adjust"Fie 3I
4 .. 4
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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