Emergency measures for increasing the range of fighter airplanes


Material Information

Emergency measures for increasing the range of fighter airplanes
Series Title:
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
13 p., 5 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Jones, Robert T
Wetmore, Joseph W
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Fighter planes -- Research   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Summary: An analysis was made to show the relative effectiveness of streamline external fuel tanks, a fuel tank in the form of a wing mounted in a biplane position, and auxiliary wing panels attached at the wing tips to increase the span as temporary means for increasing the rang of a fighter-type airplane. The airplane considered is a representative of either an Army or Navy single-engine heavy fighter. Figures and charts for the various devices considered show the results of calculations of range, duration of flight, and take-off distance for both land-base and carrier operation.
Includes bibliographic references (p. 13).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert T. Jones and Joseph W. Wetmore.
General Note:
"Originally issued May 1943 as Restricted Bulletin 3E31."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003805126
oclc - 123912148
System ID:

Full Text

(ft L 26

I RB No. 3E31


May 1943 as
Restricted Bulletin 3E31

By Robert T. Jones and Joseph W. Wetmore

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.

-. .,.IO.L 1 F 170I 11
:,.iESVILLE. FL 32611-7011 USA
Wim^^^k^^--g^^R ^^*^^^^ --r~ Up-i

NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.

L 223

Digitized by ie Inieiner Archive
in 2011 wall luniding Irom
Universirl of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraiies with supporL from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundaiion

Imtp: www.archive.org details emergencymeasureOOlang




By Robert T. Jones anrd Joseph ,i. .'*:let r-


An ." na 1, 's zA r' tc s : '-'. tu; r F Vti- ei f: t i'.'e-
ne.C of store r. 1ine e x: ern:.l f-el e -r. a fl.ie t )n.: in
the form o'" a "-. m) 7: nt? ir. -, bi.l-!:n& :r-i+i: n, and
auxil i ,-. r, ,, r .1 t c t ci d at .. 'I.nr.,- *i+ t to in-
crense the s. "n -a te:, or-r,V i..e r.ns for ircre- ir, the
rar.4e of a fi. ntc- r-t;pr ai r lane. The irl -*ne c or.n-
sidered is repre-' nt L*iVe of eit.e.r an r-i ', O -" .
s ngle -en: i'. e hr- ,v f :r. t e Fi -'r e. :' a.- rt -, i the
variou.- dev zce- c ini". i h ', ten r r .ilt s of can c Pla-
tion_ of r ,n e, d- ation of i *. t -i t .,'. -3ff ,.i i :.nce
for bot 1 :nd-u -.e d c ar e r cre r. ti r..

The re ult i dicatel that +he i n -ti n exten ions
were the Lost promir ui<... of the d ev ic co.-i idei e. I+
wag est imated thar't 10l -fo.:t tin exte:.-?icn; that -i -n
increase in sran of 20 k'eot used in coi' ijjncticn with a
streamlin, eRxternal fuel tank ,c'ld ircre:i-.e t!n- r',n.-e
of the air lar.e 12 ? to 1,-0 ercen-t ,,j.th:ut an; in ren e
in the dist-Anc2 r-cuired to ta'e off from n ith an l n
base or a cprrior. .ith 5- f oo tip exten ior. s, the r n j e
would be incre-eed !C .o 70 percent, under t-!e s-'e limi-
tations. The tai:k Iirin: w -,s founi to c9us e Fo~:7 re i'n tion
in the efficiency of th lir linne in :e1i". of r il.- rer
-allon. The ad'.ed area wculd permit pren-ter fuel lnad
to be carri d, ho'-evr, fcr a ,;'i'en +ake-c.'f .1i.tnc- and
the range would d thereby be incrr ?e.1. For i'r:;n t.nt.:e-
off distance from a lrnd b.se, thp calculated inr;rF-'se in
range due to t'ie tank vinf7 was about 45 yo.rcpnt. The in-
crease for a -iven c.-irrier take-off ,roult be aboat ?20
percent t. Incre~ r. .hr ranr..e 50 percent -y carr:-i-..
extra fuel in a streamline external tank without an::
other modifications to the nir plne would reaui ne an

increa-, of 20 percent in tnke-ojf dist-nce from a )qni
n.n-P an- 3 percent fr-m a carrier.


Thei ri.rge of eight er-L;,pe airplane. is c rdir.arily
rplati-el-' i.ort "c c sai.ieF o:f high ar.? i o.1 d.i nr and. lim.itq-
tiors on tiF- ra e '- liable f-or f' el. Per oren r..o-ii-
ficrtions ii' t e d :i ;-n of +'.e -ir pl ne to cr. i e longer
rarnge-'0 uculL r. t b. a ce r.ibl :-cou0 e of the con e -uent
iv. :airment o- ctnI. co::re r t st c that ar.1 orl i ar il
of great t er i:. c--trnce. Undlr. c rt i r c i r e,;i s t .*n e h.w-
erer for .: s-: ale, f:: f a.r -;'i r : -urpo.-= it '..1t1 be
of gre.t ,raluc '.' i'n c "- e F "-.;.F e of f i .:ter irp nes
by tempora,;' de-' r o tc : cr 'fi c in other perform-
anri. e c..ara5 t.: 1 : 2 ,

"onsiier-:'.i ircros ir :'n-r :"a 'r cb :i.r 1 'b
c arr.I.' ,r:.' :-li:- x! rn-'1 ,j. I Lun' 1 b'. cnl,' -he
cost o' r p -i':i, n: : ti.ti .' in:r e-se in .-. e.-o f :". -
tarnce. Ce',-r i .:.* d, o l n: to i -c en-c tr.. 5 ran -e
without ir ..c~c ei ,- th.- aka--off tict ; nz>, h..e bc n -"i'--
-eet e C 'e of ieF-e .neth -.s c1-i s-s ential.; i n
a. kin.-; the ext e rn. 1 ta;.! in 1 he cLh oe of -n r irfo Il to
increa-e th t otal win- area. A.. : hc1 L oet oi con r*3st
in ai:inC a'e.. a. t he .nJ tip-, chi ', ha ..i .h h aiv.ntr,:e
of increa.=ing a t .nl: h c ie ir. rea f, r t.aL:e -o.f b it
also the so n .ffi -i .-rh. ;t i-, t'r t :r of
L.iles per gSa]lL:1 of fu._. Such area r.mirht bt nid -.d in
tne f orr, of' temporary. t tenczion- ; ttauhr i r p l.ice- of the
re lovable f irl .--- n '.:he or ic in '1 w i ,

Determr i. at i n of the z..)ot .-pet e r. .7-hI.I ill le-
T-.ind o. a number :f fac tor otu '. de .': f eld 01 ': e
r.resent. i e -ti -a i on, su h as jil ot :n ur';.n, P, are.&
an.ail.-ble for I: n-ofu -C- q true LI c. ,d r .tit'on-,
T. : ow1 nr-. a 1 .fIo i s i nt e-n s t o c' e .- c:r.p- -
in on oa tr. s.g- ,-=sted .,et od- c t e T"-tcj. of r!-:i a u t-
tainaole r-in.:e, flyin o trI r'e a red, and ta.ke-ot1t *ij-
Lancoe fr:'. ei t'. r a 1 ndi "ob,.ee o: a a- '.-, .. 5he c l-
culations r"i re i-Tde for an .iir l.'-ne .'ie ch-,rc.ztecristics
of whici: m-..:' be cc.ii n idered re re .etnt tivre o.i' either an
Arr.y o.. r lHav; sin.le-.eng ine hnrIea f -'it er,

A:.AL-i Sir

Airtlne,- ThI chiracteristi-1.s of tLe ?ir.1n9e c:n-
si d er = d in t e anal: si are:

' ing, area, s.-, t ere feet . '1

Wir.g span, feo t . . 41

in i nn id e r. a 1 i r c . 2

Groun I a:.-1e ( cirit- i l i.-), .- r r qr .. 12

LBrr ty 's 3 i I e s C If0' 'i.t n I s

.- :.t, "- t l 1:Ur~ ) Cu. 11,,00 '

Z..gine displace.- 'nt', z.itic ir.n res . '

Si i erc.i -r.-e r . c.* .-". -.., .n.--:..- i .

-ro rcp ller . t .ce -: '-. c :- -' : -' I

Proreller t:ar r-tio . ?:1

Maxicu:. speed ct sc,; i- rl, 1. er ..our 317

Capacity, of intern' l f .-f I t a'.:, allcne '0

A s:-etcr of t}., airrliane '. t n.: '' in -.-; f -
gallecn car acit (4--ft Thord b;- 23-fL _?:.) i. s io"u:. in
figure 1. In fi -.r 2 t].e -ir 1 r .l r.n i v c'*,-n n -l -ff ot
i-.ing-t i extensio.s (a'ea i increase a ,:.o-. ?u n ft) and
a 300-.-;allon ctrear.linre eztea,'1 ;aA.'..

Calcul'itio-. o: ranr.e.- Thc rar..e '.n- cal,.1? l .
the Breguct "ormuj.a which ta':es nccou.nt ,f ,' ie c .. ir..-
ous reduction in pover ren'uirezA to c-er. te at -Ln-t ant
lift-drar ratio. The e-uation il

1 -.

whc .re

R r ?r.e..e, mIles

I aver .r opaisive uffiit;ncy 0urin f .l-ight

0 av rn:.; Ea peci'fic fu.l consumption durin..- flii ht,
*0..o,,. r. pC" it.or :- pocr-hour

L/D lift- 1 :".. rntio o_" ..ir.ln

Vt w i.rht of ?.irpl-"ne ,t t::kc-off

We ,- i.,-ht of 1irpl-.n- '..ith tqn':- cr-tj

C.. cul t' tio.1 cof .-: :r'iyn- n .'. 1 'fil -i ,:.y L/D.- The
v.. lu s 0 r'd.l-.'nL i c. f ic:. .i.'J I/D fo2 ,' e in the
r n,:n .c-uati..n r.:rc; comr.put, f'.:o- t Lhe re : i .n

97h ". o3'.'
p 3 + I.- ^ -

w h c r3

f pr..sito e arE.- of n :r I n **

W wui ght of v ir 1 r

p m:. Ss den ity n of i r

V true .irsp.c.c mnil,.3 ;..r hour

b ,:ff. ct 'L r. ..

For tlhc rifin i a r.ol i n th: v. lu- j.r f w.s cnlcu-
lated fro.. cn.-3i .:.rrtion of the mn::x i-.tum c-.d anr c rrc-
spmnding pow,',r cutout of t .e cr.ir.e. Ia,'ori ? P in *par--
site o re due to t h t :er ,:n t .:'1 3, t id tn rk V i. n,- .rd the
wi g. -tip rtcnzions 2 .:.:ro t.t.in--t.,i L:' ,t.-rmini.I.'g the wettid
areas of thes.E- r-ditions anc nultiply.ir, by -. zkicr-friction
coefficient of 0.005, rcprc-sc-tnt. -Lo of tu.;rbul- nt boundary
layur. Yor the str.al.iine o 'tcrna.l ..nt's, the -'.ettod area
was assumed to be- thet o. an t.llip.i id of re.oliution having
a fineness r .tio of 5 Zand providing the deoir2d volume. The

dra.' cf '. f- i r d t -.k h -is bc :n fouan i to b; si t 1y 1 c. .3
th in t-' ob c tained b; t. is rt..od.

Yo r T j.c jiorm-1l airpl:1 re a ..I t he irj'.-r 't" '.- i:.-
t .i-, _: t&n iens, the e-ffect.ve sw...n z, ".- *i .d 9:.to b.
90 c: cC ; :0 t.u c tup,1 ?p.-n. For th... .'- "'_' t.-c
-ff ctivC -pa '. :is t: 1.en as t .i elf ct i'.- i t
cri. i:. -1 i rc li.. .'ult i pl i d bD; :u:.. :. f or t
v i.'tl.' of t 1 .- k tor i'o r e co. fi ur t. .: *' .l' (i ,-. )
utl:. t*.k:. from : r.c. -1 ; a .. th.. E. ?...ti... at. z '. t t'
lif t wlcll1 be ist:i ut el c t 'ec t t'.; i ir. pro.-
portion to th i r,.-,ct:". r s 'w us .r.

*Ib cu rv*: c'i ../J ::.- i.' ...t _. _-- -., '' ,: .e is

th-: irs)1- .. ;i 1 T.: .i.; .f. 1 l ] "i fd is -: tr-ac
airs'' c i nr. -:'it r' of 10,0 .t, r: l tt 1 i. fir--
u.ra 5(a) 'or th.. -:ri c -'. n di" i -- ti-.u- o th.:. .x.i-rr r.n ,-
The c-.r:' for -i r- irp n cc ..i i.r.rati:n is ii c.:n. .':nt
of 10o.:dis- ri jjl 1 -. ,c.d in1 t his r3','.1 i. .

C: lc:l. ti",T, nf .' -. 'r. ,),L2] J r :.:ffi,-' :n -' ,./ -.
V- luc; of I :,; i ',- f f ic i.r ... re : r .t .d fro:: 'ull-
. co ,al test ri t-L '.. L u 'l- .' p l r- .i- Ct i l c o-. b r. ti n.
SpF cific f:' l c:.:. u.tn t o:. C d te'r..i:.:d fr:. m i:'if2.c-
tur ar s perf r- m r, c. rtz for .3a i. .: o :.zi.or 1. It
%t; s ",S. f-l tv- t th? :. :. '2,- 3o 3 r- ".... : ir. : 1;.w r nd.
subj.:ct t. t .:.? ~ :it "..ic c.gn i;: s : .-:-., ",1. :- ..i .i
press ure a cia i i d r crui i t. ." c ,.. '.tic., .
value of C ''er i..6cre'.,.. 5 r..n rcan r to 1' -.rc 'e n of
oil c:r.Isu:.ition, Ti -nxi -uam ",r.I.ue u' tI. r ti.' 1C '
d et rr' inr d f c .-: c cr- V a ,?.. S br :.,: 'i r 't ': ?.h
of a ru-b-.r G i rn .- i ; 'n a tit 1 i '' C '.
a.ssu:..d. it :.is fo .nd th. t the maxi ri'.rr v .ve f 1' I .
a given airspe"e is -r act i ally r.nac f ctE c..fs s i -r ble
;ariati:cn in p'. r, t i i .he result t?'t i 'Ie c .-ve
of *n/C a ins. t.:'ua eirs ee.i, ,:;ive.,. in .1tire 5(b),
could e ed for r,.'. .t h. airp Inne .. if j. r.-" : .. id':red.

DIet i ati L o: l -:J. n --he. zh,- ';- o f f-" 1... .:rried
'as e timatcr i- o n. the -".sis f 6 n ee...s '' T-.. ', T:.i
.alue .s ir. cr~: .e r e .::t '., al." :-. .,r i :..r su : t i' :.
The wE. i ht cf t re 3 tr .Mc li e e,. ti'. rnL tufl I nk .'-*i.r -
weight of t. ':.ar.nk win, w r- assu. 1 o b'e 1 /3. of the
weight of t.he f'i-l t:.; .a1% k: ar.. c p t. ,f c.3 p 7r;'ir. ;, Ihe
weig. t of the 'r.a ,- t i ti t o t ns oz:. wa ta en .a pcu : c :i rer
square foot of area -.cid.d, Th. .1 i .p used ior the s:r-
eral modificat i n~r. of the airpl-'.ne tan. t 'sre co, si.1 er,-i i1 .

t'.ie cel 'l at ions arc' gi -er. i:. the f lo'l l .. t:! l i :

STotal fuel E L.ty 6-off
Ct tion C pat'ty wi i t i iht Wcii"
| ,i t t-i o ,
., .. c w(C i. '

-( !) (g l I 1'i j
.. .....-- r .-. ... .... -.-

?CL -r'.jC r : -tc: .3 1 i
tar..: :. : d c '0 11 C, IF ,0 3< 1. 33

S5- D t '.in i -. i

tfnj : .I .d ".. .,O.. 11 7 ... ? 15,, 4- 1..28

n -
IC-f-ot '.; i ti- I

" t-%k- adic. .CO 11,.19 ]35,.9.i 1.. I.

3'c "ti .] r ;'- di' ". T.1" -- .- n c a.
from bctn r t .I :> s $ r- c ar.Li r I:.? : r'.t..-i fo" tl.0
vario.is 1air.l. n nlit io: s. cFor th.- lan I-t-, se T kr: :' fs,
the i: t( an-i.- re : i1 -s c .' AL r % t0-' :- o -trco *"'.s i.'-
cl' i';,. I'. :?s P E '... 'Q t. t fl,.. wIl.1 'r b; .:' ,iEn
th'. rer; r. ..i c rr : r z..i-" :rn i' t riF n E -' .2
c c o p- t d by th. ; ctk.-.-1 f :E.2. ..ce 2, T- ,'.:.:- -off s aeCi
w,.s t 'ken F n-cr cnt ma :- ces3 of i I'e po't-r-c ;-:,:.. in.
speed arci t e r ollin.-fri ,;-' fo. 3 ref:'icie .~t, 0. 5, Air-
run lst --.nces w.- r ee ~ti- e cd f.'c t-e res 'I s .' : ,t-. y-
z te, n -':.._ o- r'.s a -ran f 1 ;t c"'.:. : be- ed c;.
the .c' .,rt i o.1 that t '- l ift co'z fi i e:nt :.'6 .-hic'. t air-
pl n ta-:. : off ,'o'ild bo nlintl-.i ned up to t:e 50C,-loot
hei ; h z or lie ca-ricer + a -e- 2 f :.ly : .' 1i'. i:a -- '. re-
ui- to r tt ai' t '..-.: f i S .. 2 s c l ula ted. ti action
cf t e-.ff s_-. d .r'a cased t.: the a suymtion .het the ta.il
whe ,l woulc. 'ct in zo..t t. it'i t. .he c1 a t a --c-off. The
airplaL'; rvas a'.'sumea t '.: ,i'p. -1 pa' rtri -c.21n
slotte d fi cs th:.lc .z'ould be dd :'l cted 300 for c rriter t..kc-
offs. ThE deck-wi'-1. velocity .'-s t.-.ken .:.s 25 knotz e'nd the
roll in g-f-icticn corjffici. t, s 0.02. The method. of refer-

e ce C ..'rs uscd for the z.lcul'..tion of the t e-.-"f 1is-
t .' c .

For toth en i-t'ase -'nd carrier ta'-:-*c ff.;, t.-'j :rt
wa: tsken, *..s .ell as possible, of the -ffect- of I.-11 3 rear:
an pro:. ic. i ty of t 'e ground d Lift nc :r.en t s 3 to t: e
sB.i1strea ."' e: .e est ria3ta fr m the ":mrieupirizal foriul, :
,ivcr in. .refe ence h. he parasite : r f r. :. t: .f t?..
ai ,.lan. in ..,o slirs tre:' '.-as as 'm d to be '.cr .t -e ".e -
proportion t' the ir.:reare in y. : .. ic prc s'i"e in the 3lip-
stream, It ;'..3 asc.-- i _hLt e i:.. ced ~rac. a s.- s ci t d
wil t ': i f: incr :L.. nt &uce to :1 ips t rea. :., oul, be the
same as :- hF :.' t. l ift inc-r. eenot 'rer t! tain..' *.'ith a
fl p h.nvi ., ra *a j 1 to t.:c i-*ztr .. dii F t .. t -i
effects of o'. I i:te r :c n ca :z : lift-c-irve lotI : -'n.r.
in Tuce. c ar- -C cre ti. ed o the b i. c f 1'i : .1 ",r r. 1
a pt t L of ..- :' (r f cr, )

r r f r m u : L:f. *I -t- :r'. c-.'.aa:t rtom
which t.,-. r -.i :..: r l e r I tion : .ifht, .i -.I n1 -
off d i ;.rncL: : ron 1 b-i or c r. .er -: C .e : tiC -c t o
f r earn of fc ca-'; o :0.. i. e d ..F s b h *:.. tr ctr-. f. .
thc resv.t s of t ,- l .;:V tio; o 3 rnn .,' a..n t :..e-off dis-
tar.ce and. i ive:. -:3 e -:. ef i-
cierncv facto-r r: lo > r. ir ti :: e l. 7ft- .-
s 2tion .f tlc ch .'t n. ;ai-.st v iria"l o 1 u'lt
below. This i2-Iot -c. s irc ; of :onr sta.:L :. t;
slopin tc th-. left :'-i t i.:: e sr r,' J...- o i r.-. : .) of
t .,:e-oi'f .i .,ht t ..r'' -. .- ..t, -'-:. :f. %. -: t : .. al sc.,lo
to the r i ht, ani *t ere.':,- ta':e a* co .t :* t .. : ..at
t.ec sp fec. correso :' in g to a i'i" n pC int .,. t... r *- Durve

f a i en o: i ti on ncr se I th i nc : rnr ".i-.t
Inasmruch -..s t:c, v-.lus o:' ,/" (Li.-. .0 :c:r -. 'i ':. =-.c'i
is fou.i to be p ract i ca ly li .ey..nient :f t..d .f for the.
ongine-op r -t in con.i it ior T. aE a.-'i, t+. v- Iue c r-espondinz-
to ivcn val ':v o. 1/ -'i v1 '-.'- : .e'.,}' t "'it.. c;,tZAi- o
T :i variation, ha3 ...vi r, is -.Zal. rJ v.-.1Lu .. o_ ,2./C for
th airspeed corresponding t: t:i. 3 .rv ra-re of -' f lAl '.nJI
mnpty lc.c.din. fur er.ch ai r lr, .ie co..uition wj :e t.:-r .for;
used in det.-rcinin. .i:--- -- crv.e:-

In tLhe up)or riptt-h-r.d section of the chnrt, curves

defii-ir.a the reiol tion bet,-'ren L. :nd. tl'/' for con-

et .nrLt cr., ef r:-3nge are 1ottLu.: Th -"..r fvre of
the c' :rt ?hTrs th "-ariation -.'ith -, c/'J c f t-.c--ff
dist .ceo ron: lan -I bnse or 't crrri r fjr t ;-'.rio'.s
ai pl: ie i cj nfi ur t ions.

Rh- T:j' tho.. of us in the c ..-.rt is i r. ica.t e, in 'ig-
uro 4 by .h 1i' ih --.1 >i,:s r ra n bet I:...n tC. I',.. ..11 circles
on the cur.r-es ard sc-.les. The cas,; illu. trnat.d is th:-t of
t.st; ti ti :; t i -....xi:-':m r re nrl dur-'tion of fli.-ht of the
norun- air .. for '.. ic the t k -r'f i t nn- e ."ron a lnnd.
.p e3r3 is it to .' t. A. ine i-, ir .": v r ic-. ly
from th. o t '' .it ?n t. 1i --b,'. o t ;-- if c rv -
for t he ni : I'r .1 "ir .-e r oug th. .t 'o 32:.l n 1 tup
to th2. r n.-c ec t" A .t' .: r I ln i Jr -n horiz:cn...lly
from the 2:2k o '".-. ;rop:r ,- c'::--'c to it,',. rs: t the

*'-rtical lio., (It 'ill h-. n,' d ti:-t t';2 --- ,lu of at
L 3
is bt-'O ., t. .. k'-s f a'. *:c--... t:. i--r1. '.',:- ::j. the fC -'
gall or-' t L rn-..-ta'.. cur' .'z t: t"e o. +nt o" +--.: '. -.: i
th-. ,.n i. t c i~ L ex ri-:-. ;. i r .:ir 1 ir
t:- c us'.,s: i.i -.Y-. '.r .o ~,;, ) ,' i T. r r c- t ion o
th horiz:nt l ri .. l '.rti l i.. t'. -*-.'. 1."
ma inxJum r :. Cb c t J i :i. .- : I -. ,; ...
Ord rL'o to t ti dtO t ". A' v .C. it, *- t i '-.: is

drawn do'::, fro:. t pinr. cor .:-po. t c of 1
0 D
uT.od in dc termiT.in n h z- .:;o. .. o ir t :r t t
of .this 1ire with .oCr izoant a li :., ra ri f'ref: the a oc' 1- ously
Est-blish. d p .r t on the t /... sh .. -'. .. *: s a.-d.
of +. : flXi ht 1ourL 203 ril -r I., r C'.1 .t o I 1..--l-.:
The durationn of th- fli ht i ,i L;, d 1 .in.- thi rnnr..o
by the .n'::ar sp d -t':. i? u.'ou.:1 t.o h :bou .. ho :.-.
n"2 same proa .d ure scul- I fo o* 0 fo f t.
of." :rom n c.*- rier, i, .i t. .L c rr. t ..:.-off cur-''.... .-
st -aJ. of the l- .;id- o-cc cure ,.

i '.2 e s .. .- .. n 7 :'e r. T. m ". :" t in
figure 4 to pro;,vid :-.. i:, rc direct c .r i scr. o I ha h a '-rious
mrt. Es for i:, o".sinv t r.nn,., Fi,.urd a sho' s th mininimum
takc-off oistancC- "nd ch. c'orr"-p-...iin.; dur:i...ion of flight
plotted a:,-ninIst rnnTe, Figu.'.: F .1ivt s tit: v-.r nation cf
t.:n-off ".istL ,.cos vith :'n:. w.:,cn The d-irnLation of fli,-ht
fo- ~ ri"cn r-.'jc. is tho o.r..: .for *ll c':-., 'tn that for the
orig,innl airplan-: opc-r.t i.g ct mazi. um f fici icy.

St r_.--.lin _n external tannkl.- In fi-ur: F it is sh :.vn
t t t, b' i:-.cr :-. in t ie fu :l ca' aei. ;' of t- e .*i ,pi-r... f-":
300 t.: 60': gall.rs t.rou;h '. 'a'- of a s e i e 2. .:t r ,' 1
tAnk, th-, -.exiLum. rt,.nf.e wouldd br.: i. er: ~ea fir .'c, ouat 14 K '
to OC niles or cbcut 30 per:zr.t. The t :e-o d' i.-t .-
frm : .- .,' j-se u.-)uld be incr as ei fr jnm '..'- f ct to
2940 f.t c r abcut .35 p-rcent. Fran m c..rri.: r, thi :-k.-
off dist&L:.ce -. ild 'r ine.rea ed fr:., J08 tu 50C. r. i or
about Ge p r re nt. '?ht. e::Le:it to uh'rich -r. i::.r 'as c :
ta:-,-off d'iot ...c from lw.- i c"s: r' cll be L'-'.pt"'lc.
de :'.d.s, of ?o'.:rs cr .., sizr of irficld ".i 1 b 2 .
For cerrie-r ojt rsti,,., D.'a cv r, n.; n .,.?t -' -: icre I.c in
tn.::--rff d CL t nice 'tii :cbnbly b'- 3s r d i .-.'-.nt 'nc.

?.:_ .... .i.- '.s ".i t :..-. :' '"7 s :" i- 1ily- .". t' u *r..r r.-
m.i".s o0 pr ,:*. "ir. dd d \-:i,.z -r :e:. o -ai..r t,-r.t thJ
i r;lann ..r 1.-- :-'f .-i.t}: a ,rf t.? fi.! 1o for c rt' in
i -..-r -... mi .:" i, .-t t...: C. t.i -, c 'r .'- t n::
so .-e fo: th i extra fu l. .,ic -- .ili r'y wi.:- ,o l.';
pro nably ,~ ..m ntel ,n :. e up~-r .;1::-. o0 a z, i ,ln -
s 'ow -n in 1fi ur'e i. :ut1 -61..-. ,r. a. 'rr .,s,-: ..t it *' o''. be
th ?or tic.l r e t.. ci:-.e '-I- *:re-. s t'. e f`eczie apan of
ta s ir l.ne to son.. e x .nt b +. t- .is. -.: ect ratio t.at
would be reqiirei o( t'e auJ-. i] ,ar-: -- --z l .1 ro '.ily
u: u,,.i'l,7 cc r.-. i "ate the s r cc L -. :.b2 .- Fcr tAe ;: r-
p: ces of t hi. pnal-z isa t "' a s '-:..ei t" .t t. t n'.: *'i -
of aspect ratic 5 *":t .an are-3 of 0 squ"q feet rn
a fuel a ..:. it;- o0" 'C 0 ..r-1 3.!.L '' u-i r _. : e:.. :.. re .s :'.L.biy
practic..Lble .: se. T'is rranr en: e.nt-il: re. u.'tion in
the effect -.- tp2 5 of %.:e comb :na ;ior o..' ? :..t p:: c .. in
comLparisen o witL t .. c ri ;in l pir l.-:r.e. The *- t.tel .r: a .:-,
:n" ce t'-.L o-ar,. ite-d r'- i-.crea.se .. tJ th t,.,': ir. -,
f -thern.ore, is aj'b -. wi e .-t of .. .. c f r. ';:." ..i",. of
eqr.l v clume. As a rc ult, tc- ".ir ln n i : t;: .n.: n ir
ia seo.'- lIb t 1- s i'f icieit t .--' r, t.6 .t. ir ] -. .' *:r1 ,: :- tr. am-
line o e- :r n 1 tan ,. (3 : ic s. :- nd 1-,)

T:i. effect. :f :-- r .: 1tc d :f ic i nc. .- o ... :'i-air 5
2s a re..uctic. n i n '-- z. s 'rc-i 2CO9 "o 2--'0 '<'. 'f>. *. 0-
gallon fuel loc.i :h- t..k '.,rn. K ces. ..ev ?r, r -ivc -V .
increase i:' rcrnz n "or -J-i-: nr ta.. -cIf jt. t -.ce, o.-C' 2 cf
the t.rc.t r f':.-el c?d. t- '; i.n b 2.r i r: d. ror ir:.d- ,':-e.
op r-.t lor., tinc tan' 'a i -i i,.: c,,s i e ran reo.2 1443 -oc
2100 mile o:r pba:: 45 p rcc; t fo: t i- r-z' t ;-:- 'f ir-
t.ance a: for t r orii i-r.l ai -'l, 'Iit': th ..ormal f:l fuel
load of 300 grllins. o- c.rr. r c pC'- t io., th r,'n e '.would
be increased to 17. C, miis 0:* naooD .t 20 percent. ".-' .f ,ec-
tivcness of the t-nk -.ing o" cna'rir o[- rat; or i c :.::. ri o.

with th-1.t focr lpnd-bE se oper-.tion i" rrduicedi :.cuso t'
flap cn the or i-in -.l wi:n is used for the carrier .'e-* ff3
a i th.e a ,,dal wing area due to the ta.nk win voices net, in
t:'-.s cJ e, ,- ort onately increase the take-off lift,

Wi. ) eY te sion s, Increasing t e sP-nm' r,' an air-
p-l'2e, o~Ler z inga3 remaining equal, will prooortio..ately
increase T :..: xi uni! ranigc att.inable riti a :i ?r- u- l
lacl, T'.is fact =u-gest the use of auailiary ,-nel;
a -.cahe to t e wina- t -'.z, in '-lace of the renovablr e tip
fair'ngc (3s. tig. i), a: a rJror..is r.2 m-.rana for i.,creas in
the r a.:1e.

Inacrmu Ps t + j *te t ra ;1 i ,t tan n d at r. o rat
sp.-eds it o. b1 a t ,t c; os e tr.rrporar- + ej :ti t* onsi ns
co.ld d b o c-on fd ir1. 1 i-:.-t '*ooa or JpliRstic F r-
t orro':, be .' :. e -;re-! of a 1 i; tor rirpl :ne i, r a eit ;ncd
tfo l :in_.r-:. ruch ;e,- : u1. tL o .-. On:on-crcd in in. ,:v l
flit-ht, major c? 9n.ls r. th L.riI w.ng t rr.c Lure m r-n.? rt not
be r.:acas;ary0 It i_ s *y-. ::.t i th.ht cy u-in? o Frr ater
tanor ian tn:2 tip :to .; ..b'' .:r r m 'j. .. xi arc- 2 -*n- a.t
tn :a i: .: cui ;. .,' i r ::.i: t ..J c m'e-. of th e. ; C :.'-
foil section ., tna .. ust 1.o .m :.rd o. t oj n in '*ir
:ct -:', by t t" cncP.' r.- :*.. to con: h,. abl"y rr;dice:'d
v; thoat .ac'.ri:l af cc in :- ':. t ; o'r t'h t :Cc-cff
d I t an: e.

.i'-. It i c t "L -.- C J. co :1_ .. -. r- c, c -,c
latera.L mane'--crab it cf th.. i-Jla.le. Fcr t ir -lan>
consi *i 'ed, it i3 est i.atel tlit tip e-:',ensi O 10-foot
span (over-ln I p-an in c. :-es el fro- 41. to 61 ft) 0.'o -d d -
crease the z-,::im-j.n val-i of zhe tip heii;. ,le .- /'.
attainable wi tJ th' a lero o ,t :' p..rc ,;at. It .
elie c. t- -.,t th_ los: in ont.ro.:. cffeti-v; :* .. r1 i ct.
be too Eerious fo: the mP.na e'r r w .ich ni j t A ;' e eu r.a ''
i:1 a l:)on,-r .- e fli rh'; Fli :hi tt.sst havo : '.' t -. t the
moment f i'-.'ti:. ." an airn'an ri .L ut Its i. :. itc. irna
a::i can be a. t i ~:.t on:o-.t.i rl ; it'-. 't mAtI:. ..;. affc tin.'
latc ral r'.a.. n 'ver ab ii c'; a : ?ori t. y a -- 2- t L :-' d :.mc.i ::t of
inertia Lua to ti'n: t. e:ten-ion :h:.ul -rc o notic .t le
effect o.n t oh reso on '- *' i.ero.- control.

The re ..t iv l;- I tab'l it; 'cat i:. ar.irnally cha racter-
iatic of fighhter-t pe alrplines -oul-, tri. to increase pilot
fatimu. on a long-rrnge flight. The temptrarp d.4vicS uCed.
for incrosi- nE th2 ran.e shnual t nere foro b0 d.esi-.-nci, in-
sofar as possible, to impro i thU stability, Increas .1
long itudinal stability could te obtcin-id. by proridLng sw'.cp-

baL:k in the wine--tip extensi-onc or by properly disposing
the fuel loaa carried in external tanks. Wiing-tip exten-
sions Ai-ht be designed with sufficient dihedral angle to
improve siral stability, if necessary, in order that the
pilot co-ull fly with ruiadlr alone in smooth air.

Th: use of wir6"-tip extensions, either alone or in
coz.,junction with streamline external fuel tanks, appears to
be the most effective of the means considered' for increasing
the ra-i. attainable with fighter airplanes. Not only is
tle efficiency of the airpl--ne increased, as shown in fig-
ures 3 a._d 4, -.rith the result that the r:-.n--e with a -iven
fucl lo:d is r-reater, but also the n.d.,d Ainr area will
givc a su::tantial im rcvement in take-off distance. In
fi 'uro 5, the maximum r:-n o, of the airpl :na with C00 gallons
o" fu,-.l is sho.rn to b: increased from 2600 to 3030 miles
with -foot tip extensions <.nd to 3.150 miles with 10-foot
tip oxt .sions. It is 1i.;o shown that, without excoeecing
take-off distance of the original airnplan from either a
l>ni 1. se or a carrier, the r..:L is incre. sed from 1440
to abcl.t :t*CO miles or tl:..cst 70 percent with 5-foot tip
extensions and. to about .3.'.LO miles or between 125 and 1-30
percent with 10-foot ti tensionsn. Thei wing-tip exten-
sions, in contrast with the tank win.., appearr equally
ef;:ctive in increasing th~. .nr.e for a given take-off
aistr.ce from either a liani bi-e or n carrier because the
in-r',:-. se d lift-curv .I. pzl. vith tho wi.-,-tip o:-:ten-ions
gi-.es a r,..l.ti-.'ely hi-h -r tail.--off lift .or t -he fixed
nngi, o' Lattaci: of th-3 c-.rrijr t ke.-offs than is obtain.ed
,!itl'. thu tr.nx -c ing.

In : S'c\ 1's "-. L .zrcr.se :n s._n redi rces the airzpeod
at '?ic t. ?.ximui. ifiici-.:cy ij attained, the timn' of
flight .)ver j. iiv p distanr-c will be *-'.ater 'ith the
wi.t:-tip cxtd.e s ions th. with the original airplane or
wit. the ta..k i::, if th, prima-ry consideration is the
a-tr iilment f a i- cn -r'n-a with the l'-"'e t p.)sible fuel
lo: d 3: ta.k:-off .-- tan"ec. This case ii repr'- sent ed in
fi -ur2 5. ,'hen t.: di -t.nc tn be flo'rn is so -:-a t as1
to t?.:.- t-h lot' ond:.rane., it my b de irab' le to fly
*:.t sp iecds higher t Ln those .:- t which h m.: occurs, o7ve: the P. a .-*restr fu e'el lo-I1J -.' ta'nk -off iis-
ta-r.c will '"0 reqvir ,l. Co p.-.ari onr. o:' figures 5 :.ni 6
shows th.t the f'l-ini -peed fcr the :irpl-.. equ.aprad with
wing-tip eX:tens Lr.s could be i.icroe. s-i to .h-. -tent that
the dirr ti. i'.. of fli.i.t for a i 'er. r-1nge is t he .tr'.e es for
the o igin:'l airpl:.ne 'i tnJ,'ut s )r iou, ly ini.reasing the take-
off distannces for a Ervern rrnie or, conversely, without greatly
redu:inrg thc range attainable for n given tnke-off distance.


Of tCi n.i.t'..ois ccnisic.,.ed for temnnrarily increasing
th.i r n ;o of fiJht rz-ty-o, nairplanes th,; use zi auxiliary
wi.'t--.tin ...rt nsio o. -to :1rs rhe most pro'-lising. For the
airpl-" co-s i-dered it w s ,stimat.d. th-L.t 10-foot rxten-
si.,,: that i. an inc:c'u.so i!. sp-'.n f -C f 'et ured in
co' tn f' t ion with :. rxturnvl fu.-l ta.nk wouldd increp.ae the
rar.,,e o the airpLr.!.-: 122- to 130 p-rcen' '1-lithout any in-
cr :a- e in the. dis tances rcquircd to tr':e o:'f from either a
l.-.-.d b'tL' or r. c'.rriE.r. With F-f ct .-,ip extensions, the
r2nL-e ovild. e in, rer.sei. 65 to 70 perc-ent, Un'.der the same

An ;u':i. ijnrv- win-; of -flet crord and 20-foot span
mounted ab 'zrc the 'r i.n ",'c'i n.i L poovidlinr tank capacity
for 100 c lor.s "., ezt:n f 'e *: .: El'o 'n to give sorme-.hat
ln:r.r I f i. e r r n er::.s .z : mile.j per !7allon than the
original airpl -, n' ii L t:, e: tra .. rel crrtaed. in a stream-
lii : e:.tera, l t C.k. W tank wi ig. wo.ild. p-.-r it a greater
fuel lord to be c-'rrie.f for -.. gji'-r. t.ltk -off distance
because 0o the cLoed rin.g a rea, .nd tne r.n nu wolild thereby
.be inrii .a se For :z -;'rcn t:.ke-off iia.tc-.ace from a land
unse, the ircr-'.-6 in r.nfg .'as rsti .l-t d to be boutt 45
p-rc iIt. The increase for a given c,.-' icr take-off worldd
be ebo' t 30 pn rc,.nt.

Increascinj; the r-'r.ge 50 p.orcent b:' carryinrr extrn
fuel in t oeamlin. e:t urnal tan'1s; '-it.icut any other rod.i-
licatiors to th- airpl.-:.ne *or i .rt.tail an increase of
20 p. recent in take-off di.it .ce from lhnud base and
32 p:rc.int' froi a carrier.

Selection -.f thn: most suitable etho" for a particular
rpolicetion will of course depe' .I on other factors besides
t:-e itt airna le r n -'3 .nd tnke-off e.-fcrr._,i.ce, u.ich ns
strutv ra'. Tproblers, 1.ilDt en..'tr.,- e, ani. re.a .vaileblea
ior :ae" ie- f, For e:..ample: if ir 3 civen cpse the duration
of f.i:h itbh 'e.t-rr', t il' .- alone it. equal tu the endurance
of tlc pilot an.'. if t2e !-'rea v'.' th.- :paa b-ailatle for take-
eff are ad.`quat ':hre i1 bWill little ad'i-7ata2e in the use
cf T ore6 o fi. i f..t !: ,hois.

Lao -ley Memorial A_ rcnaut ical Labjrator',
iUati.oral id.vi nry CoLritt..;e for Aeecnautics,
Lont-;ley 2j5.li, Va.


1. Di h I, Wa.1 '-r 3. Znr ineerin .. ro1;x imicr. '.i
-..r:li Prc.3 Coo, 1229, pp. .;'-43,

2. EIartm.n, Eds- in .: C :-. i." rat i n o,- t n. T.rkc- 'f:"f
Pr. l. .,m. T.I. To. 5.37, iHA3-., N '.A',

35. Sm : t. 'R -nd .vi ., ". :
Lift d.in to iio xe m.
*p *1

ES ir'tior of I r.c-n : in
R. & i ioC, 17:.' r :t i is

4. ',"i i ;. 1," -l r .r C .: '..' n c .: i c.nc n -. r th: i ro:n'l,
h. k e. 7r. 7 I;AC3, 122'.


Figs. 1.3


F '.


-/- M
/\ I

S a





. -.


, Ig
('-"'I 1 \ &




.r. 0
^- ( '0

-4 U
:: '-^ ^

I 0

N.7AC. Fi.. 3
20o -----------,--"-1----T t -
1 ^__ .--; o e:.:ternal t1 a.n'
---* --^4--=<-- -- \-- ... -.. -4- -q ...... -^-- -
,- 1 -- 300'-._al 1 ter ".al t'..J I

---- --- ~ -- -- -

------ .. --

.. t 1 7 I i


I ; I

R- o cf pi o -' -'0.' : :.toi
| s ci ic f ..l .... .l t :i...-ti, :'t.i o i
..... I '- -. t- .-- ..- .-'I-.- -.
L -ir pero.., oi

Figure 3.- Variation vith true cir.Lpci of lift-lr- r..io a i rti
of proulsiv e ficiL to specific '.col.sipio i for
various moif ica~tion.s of fihter 0ni^rl..e. Altit-.ie 10.000 fe.-t
.... -.- .. .. ..-.-_ 4 - ,,

oprulivefitcytopcfim2 cosmtolfr
....io....oifi a i of.... ~tc 'ir..... ....i.k = o oo f ..... .

N A. A

_ .' Gs.. ..

---- \:r 71lh airplane
S- J29'I tank winq aoded
5 f wing tips added_
.- *- f0 wing hps added
I' -


S' 50 C'00o
,. c", true airsj; eed. rrmph



I -

I -.

-- --- 0

1 4
-I- iW ---- ------ ----- i

.a/ t, .. ---- --- 4

In a

L kn -j r '
j7, ._ 5 C. -

* -- t----

: 1 : rn .l O
.'--/--k-J-. d

A ff __
I ---" 4 er- -t'-t--c, --
i .-- ^--"-.* : ....

.O_- --I------ ---------- -

/ O

?. ( .-

I ., 4 ,/ _-_^- o

! ffI-- ....--J I--4 ., .. -

) ___ .^ "". ,i" '&--.-- I 't3rrlia ra-t re --- -
--- ,.-, IJ- ---- 3... l F.ink .. ...d
I I -- 5ft .v'r'r ane-. ._ -

ot---- L--- I___ I n _......

F .'-re 4- C1oar/ for es makingo ran7e, 6 'dra/iorn otf //Ayb and'
'istance for wr/ois mod/f/ctaons of flgter a/rlploe.
Ver/ca./ manars o, raKe-off .. rves dente 300- n' 600;-.

1: *.; i)OA













I -

I 1 9
I -

- 5-:
- 1J-

7l-'. 5

I ,
_ _I
________ I -

I -
I -
I -. -' -
I--- ~tt

I ) --
F- -
I -

.- -t ..-. -



I. I

I- i
... .i : l i.... |

-,. -.. .. ,

,' -.,..". t :. c: fli -:. t
- F .. -i ... .. ... .. t -


-. I _

I- : T "

-I -

I -

"-., -e t- "_-off
vr .5-ft ostacle, .-
.L) 'tr. L)|

- .. I .


.., 1 ... .

P rri

-- L.-. -
*jt. wizi) j-.-- I
* .
* I

- I
-' ; .. ,- 4- -A

-IA 1 -.. '..i, ci -.-

t r- a., .e JL: I
f' ','1.. -ties. ailel ,

I _

2 C -I,, e4DC

Fignre 5.- Va riatio.:. ;.ih rn_-- of t.: ,-ofi di.stE..c 'ry.A a la-.d l aa anld
r. carrier end ii -itionr of "lii ft 'c.r -;a io i. -...J ii-': tion.s of
fighter airipa.-,E. Flignt at 10.000 fcet at pei cr n.".xi.:zi n/!C L/D f?r
each condition. Vertical marks on c.rvEs of ta.k:o-off iislcz.-e u-ainst
rango denote take-off distance and renre *,ith 300- ond 00-nallon fucl

-- .. .. .I

. -.. ... -_ ...- ... .. ,_ _

', I
-I "
S' I '
..o I i

0- ---t- --. .
S' --

S ... _.. .. -- ... ..... _......- r
9* .-- ,

--- i I .. p


I 1

- .-J-

IUAA C"1 6

SI 2urn.ticn cf flir-.t

4' I I. I I i
10 -'--.-.._ .'.. --. --_.-- -


I a La- -'3 IE taLc-off
I .. .(over 50-ft obstacle,
i no wind)
--1 -- _-

(.5 ...... .. .t v i '.

S 5-f 1. V I t d
o f1- -1 ,L -nC1D-

of n rr a .ir ...or l .co -. i .s. ..
4- .. .. .. .... I ... ..... _.. .... _- _--

S -._: r............. .....-. jj-.- "'i--- ..- a -.L a
*a k --"i: j irri ie.be-nj cT c
c'O h 4 Y ,, -1 3 ... ... L. a.... c .I ... d ...i .. .

01 n"rT.1 a~roa- for 5L-. co.--atitic: ..


3 1262 08106 530 1

RO BOX 117011


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: ::'M. Ji

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