Aerodynamic tests of an AN-M-65-AZON 1000-pound radio-controlled bomb in the LMAL 16-foot high-speed tunnel

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Title:
Aerodynamic tests of an AN-M-65-AZON 1000-pound radio-controlled bomb in the LMAL 16-foot high-speed tunnel
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
10, 34 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Pearson, E. O
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mach number   ( lcsh )
Guided bombs   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: Tests were made in the LMAL 16-foot high-speed tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a 1000-pound AN-M-65-AZON radio-controlled bomb at Mach numbers ranging from 0.2 to 0.6. Over the Mach number range covered in the tests the hinge-moment coefficients, yawing-moment coefficients, and lateral-force coefficients exhibited no important changes with increasing speed. The drag coefficients increased gradually with increasing Mach number but no sudden increases were observed. The effect on the bomb aerodynamic characteristics of antenna struts mounted on the bomb tail was found to be small. The rudder and aileron operating mechanisms were found to be capable of supplying several times the required torques for maximum control deflections at a Mach number of 0.6 at sea level. The operating mechanism is also adequate for maximum control deflections at a Mach number of 1.0 provided that no appreciable increases in hinge-moment coefficient occur between M = 0.6 and M = 1.0. However, because of uncertainty as to the value of the hinge-moment coefficient at or near M = 1.0, the desirability of providing more powerful control mechanisms was indicated.
Statement of Responsibility:
E.O. Pearson, Jr.
General Note:
"Report no. L-131."
General Note:
"Originally issued June 1944 as Memorandum Report."
General Note:
"Report date June 1944."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003612700
oclc - 71193888
System ID:
AA00009418:00001


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Full Text
VA CA I--131


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WARTIME IR REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED


June 194 as
Memorandum Report


AERODYIAMIC TESTS OF AN AN-M-65-AZON 1000-POUND
RADIO-CONTROm ZD BOMB IN THE IMAL 16-FOOT
HICG-SPEED TUNNEL
By E. 0. Pearson, Jr.

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.







"J. NACA...


WASHINGTON
NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued tu provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.
L 131


DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT


J


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Digitized by Ihe Iniernei Archive
in 2011 wilh landing Irom
University ol Florida, George A. Smalhers Libraries withll support from LYRASIS and Ihe Sloan Foundation


































hilp: www.arcllive.org details aerodynamicchara00lang
II




-/ "-


IITIO:..'L ADVISOiRY CC:.:'!ITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


?Z.'" 2 A'").T' jr ,n? T

for: the

,rmv Air Forces, IMateriel Cotl.-and

.E':' T TA, IC TE.-TS -,F ATN A2--[ r-A- _OT i00-FcUTID

:ADTO-CONTnLLED BO?'3 IN TrEz Ld,!'.L 16-FOCT

HIG3-SF^:D TTU!I:TL

E. '. Pearson, Jr.





Tects w-,r -, :. .. In the L',.iL l1-foct hitih-speed
tunnel to determine th3 ..r.i na.iic ch ':icteristics
of a 1j00-pou-nd. *\'.::-.-A'-,-~.2 : cad io-cont,'-tlled tomb at
MIch nuMibers !-.ir.ing fror.a 0.2 to 0.(.

C07r- tihe r:s3ch nr.-br'or rti i C ,erie in the tests
the hinge--moment coeftf'cents, "1.:'ing-mi; .-nt coefficients,
and lateral-fnrrce ccefficients e:-:hlbite ,rio n[ ortant
changes with ircr.2as.!r sp3.-'l. Th, dr,., coefr'cients
increased graluall' ni;th incresi.3.,-: r:h number but no
sudden incrs-j-ces .-vr'e- o'bs.rvd. r?:.' effect on the -bcnb
aerodvnq,, rl :.r a ct-:s'sn:.3 ;:' n-.nc-erna ctrtuts mounted
on t.! "- or.b t,. -l .*,s f'.ur.', t3 !:.e 3s all.

Th& ruilder 'a d aillron n:;Frl.rtl mechanisms were
found to be c:-.n)sble of surnl-'ir several ties the
required tornues for nmaxi:.'. control d rlpCotions at a
'.TS.2h narmber oi 0:.. ?t -'sa lev-1. The oner-atinr' mecha-
nism is also e~iequite fo" t.:irrii: r.i rntrcl deflections
at a M'-:hzh n .unber of 1.j rr:'.'!:ie t:.~.t no asnreciable
increa'sus in -.in'r,--icimnt coe fficL'-:.t ocIcur btwean
M = 0.6 and r. = 1.C. Fow:'ever, b'ec. use ..f uncertainty
a3 to the vile orf the hr'nre-mc.r -ear. co: fflcient at or
near = 1.0, thr; desirabilit: of nrovidin: more
powerful control mechanisms was indicated.




Tests have be'en conducted in the L:..AL l6.-foct
high-spe-d tunnel to determine the aerod ,namic












characteristics of 10"0:-pound r:J-f,-65-AZOi: radio-
cnntrolled bomb'. I'.easure-ments of rudde. hinge moment,
y;awinVJ .ioment, lateirl force, end drag were made at a
number of tunnel speeds up to c i'ach number of about
0.6 which corresponds to a speed of 670 feet per second
at sea level.

Aerod-ynrmnic tlsts ,f a two-thirds scale model of
a similar boib we'-e conducted previously. at the Daniel
Guieenhe'irj irshio Institute at Akrcn, Ohio. These
tests, hcwe ver, .vere .made at i.., aiirspeeds and, there-
fore, Lncerta r e'xtrapoletio,;s of .he data to the high-
speed operattin conditions .1,-rCe necessaryy in the design
of the control mechanism asn in performances con.:putations.

In ti"rc- tests l:,f the bombs it '"as found that, while
sonsi of The ex-,peri::ment.l l- o:&ris per--f'ormd:d satisfactorily,
a l.arge ..erc--tita'. e ,f t;e ror uctlr-n version failed to
re3pond properly to tibre control. The present investiga-
tion vwas uind :-takan princiFall.7 to determine if the
lack of ront.nl of the nroducticn bombs was due to
adverse comrorerPssiilitr effe-ct' It Vwa also desired
to cbtain hiLah-spncd test data upon which to base per-
formiarnce calculations and the Cesign or the control
me chani shn.

The investitation *.'as iunderterta'en -a the request
of the .A4rmny ir F7'oTrces, [.iateriel Corrmmand.


3' ".ICL3 A T" DEFIPTT TI IO,


V free-strea'n "elocit:, iet per second

3 sped of so-in in air, feet rer second

1M !:ach n-n.ber (V/a)

p macs iensity of a!r, 'slugs per cubic foot

q dnir:ic rre3 ssuire, pounds per square foot (ipV2

MyI hinge .;oi..en; acting on one rudder, inch-pounds
Positive hinge moments tendr to change the
rudder ans;l-. in u positive direction. (See
sketch in figure 1 illustrating the sign
conventions.)











-I ijistn; nce nf'i:: ir.i.:e hin.e a-'.is to tr-il!ng edLe
of r.idder, L .J1 inc'i-s

S area of one rur'de,, ,.232 .n rc fcr-ot

CH hinge-moment coeff'cient (.- q.d)

TN y'wing-mrment, co'nd- fcot
csl tive ",aw.ing rwonmeints tend to clhan e the
an'le rf si es. in in La r itive directionn.
(See fjg. 1.)

F area of mr.xir'm. cross sec-tion of ';o!rb, I.91i square
feet

1 over-sll l n-th o' tomb, 5..:153 f t

C, n vawing-;nor'Lnt coeffici'ent (!/qp' )

7 Iriteral for:I r.unds

Cy ldteral-force c.oeflicIlt ( 'qF

D 'irag, nrcind3

CDr drag ccn ffici7nt (,1'7)

\/ r.ngrle of cilslio, ce ;r'r-:s
'cr rFositive ,l- ne' s t1. .. o::b nose is to the
r -i lt of t .- l. .'_ 1' L ,i -t.

6C ruddej r ':r.-! -;."-t' C es ptE;ct t the neutral pc.siticn,
(?eg r'oe as
For -osit've ::-* ngles t' e tr..i lln ed .3i to the
left.

The dimi nniens -iven above, to~. tnrr with other
dimensions w.-ich ..ight ;'ove useful, .re shc-vn In fig-
ure &.


D C RIPTION OF BO:[.'? P ArF,." TIJ


The AN-M-l'5--n1T or.it consists of a st-ainard
M-6o bomb case to -.:.ic n L fitted a spr'cial tail unit
equipped with movable control u',rfaces and housing .
control mechanism capabl-, of heinJ operated rerr.ot-l.











by r-.adio. The bomb rcen e cro Lroll ;d onil in the lft
and right or aziT.ut'-. direction, hc-nce, th des ion
AT-01 an bbre vi c.tiicni of "'z i:mn.th orn l". '*, g'iyrcscopic
control mechanism operates. the hoiriCzntAl control cur-
f3ces liftfr-entiall-' as a.ailenrons to 'prevent the bomb
fraomn roll-.ng in fllcht.

For these tests r.art cf :i Le c)rO trol LlFa.aratus was
re:,mnved from the tail and strain-gz ge equipment for
measuring rud 'er hinre momer.ts Vwa3 installed Since
the aile-rons anI_ ruil.ers .ere identl c ,, hinge-momernt
data .r..l'' equally to both. For this. reason no provision
was made for rmeasuring aileron hinFr; moments dir-ectly
an t-he ailerons were ilocl -i n th.- neutral position
throug.ho.ut the tests.

In ori-d.r to f.-c'tlit-ate in-.tall :tion and testing
the b.irib w..s imo t.'nLd in t.he tuiriel in a onsi ton 900
in nr, l -rc.m its no':'ml fli.t rosicJ.on so that rudders
bear.:e a Vtors, -:wiin. mrrioents bncri:e nitcling moments,
etc. The results thirc u-i-ri.,t thel. r.r'ort, hor. : vr, aire
givenn in ter-.nJ 'coionsi te nc v.ii thi the fl' _c t orienl' station.

The hrcnb v-.s sl.pr'crter' on the 'iuiel center line
by, ,leans o.' s lin~ '-rtlcal strut :', inches n chord
ind cf iL..'. se:ticn Sc-O'0. The sti.t wv:s shielded by
a Iftirin' of te. s-. ie se.ti. n to ;.: thi1n s Lout 10 inches
cf the bomb case. In ad tion, four OC'.,0-inh wires
vere attached t th t' t o"ib to nro-id3 latsral support.
The wires rd si:o'.rt str: .-- 'ournted cr the balance
frar,ipe ,.nr '.,ere icr. c 1 3Je in t or--- me asurements. A
ph-toran-h cf tr-, bo b t.-st 11- in the tunn-l is shown
in figur-e .

There arl c-f s-,. s -i f :C 1-mb w.. variable
froji -Y03 to 21r'- thrio:,, n '3x_.' .rncrc nri nts b.7 mars of
an iTrtern:l inn.-',.in. rechani i hile the rudder angle
was Jontinucnsl" "ai.iiable firon -200 to 290 by means
of -, slotted nr:t.te arr.angemenc.

As received, the bo om taLl "was itt.-d with four
struts wN'icr, .inr addition to servi-n. as races for the
tail si.rf.;ces, ilso ser\-e5 t.3 tihe radio antenna. The
straits ma ,- be een in figure 5.











T7 T r. ,,- J. J -


The test o:'oced'ir-e consist,-.- of measuring r'uc-e"
h~nge ,7o,OI-nlt, yjwing mc.,nent, lat-ral force, and drag
at a ~1umI;o':Z' of jreed3 ur' to a :.lach number of asrroxi-
mately 0.6 for ea-h cc' nation of ri.-er r-l .and
.ngl cf s1cdesl'p. TI d.L-t...rr'inir. the bomb charac-
teristics rnl]i.' tl. n v tiv. rL-~ ~ of sideslip angles
(00 to -20) w':.3 inv. r t1 at-d in order to keep the bomb
tail. cutsi.,e th, Laf cr th: S.r-r-.'rt strut .r.J its
f3.irin 'The :a1n.Iulr i.'in=.- of 00 to 200 was employed
in d.r t rrnl i-'n.- t..- su-ncrt-strut tares. Ti., ri'.e of
rudder sin.;les to.t e3 .::; fCr: -150 to 200. T'ost of the
test ,'-' ns '.,ere '-i:de -"th the *antrl-na tail struts
installed '-ut a few n'ur.s 'ere made with the struts
remov.'-r fo' r.:urioses of c-nr.arison. This information
on t':r ef'et -,' the U .nt,-,]ina struts was a3n.:cfically
requ-stcd :,-' the Ar'n'r. Tho results throu-hout the report
are !.':en Y.,r t~h. str.uts-install',- configuration unless
otherwi.'s 3ecif icall. nott'.

Dnr1in.: t!he tist3 Ceflectionn of 'h'- bomb in the
direction of the ,lr flew -'/,ere measured .nJ corrections
to the va'ihiF~n mionent ar,-lidd to account for the change
in position. In ad.itticn, a caliration was later made
to determine th? aingulsr -o1flections of bomb and ruddeJ.rs
under tI.? influ-nce :f th- aerodJ.maniic lcadj.

Strut tare jrce- were meas-.ireJ with the aid of an
image strut rrmcun1ted :"- h o.'m in figure 4. "!ire tare
forces were cdeteroiine'd sim.-ly by r.akin. measurements
with the wires r'emovId..

Yawing ioi'c-ent, lateral fcorr:-, and drag data have
been corrected boti for t:.res and for the ani;ular
deflections of bom.b and ru:lO.crs under aerodryn, ,ic loa5s.

Corrections "cr c'-.e deflections have not been applied
to th-' hinge-nme.n.-nt data. As present?-d the hin.e-mnoment
coefficient is ab'u.tt 0 percent too low at the gre.-test
negative bomb, and rudler angle and at the highest tunnel
sqeed,ahlch is the extreme case.

'.ST.'LTS A'ND DISCUSSION

Curves of yawing--ioment coefficient, lateral-force
coefficient, and di'lg coefficient versus Mach number are
presented in fi u:.-es 5 t-rough I'-,. It should be pointed











cut thst the = -0.5J .nd Cp 00 c.irves shown in
fi:Ture3 5, 11, and I.7 air believed Lo be slightly in error
.1ue to friction in the ol.ancer, sister:' durr'ng chat pertic1i-
lar test run. This is i:',diated ; t"he scatter of the
test noirts narticularl r at bhe lowo.r sneeds.
De- .:-ed curves cf yvain' rciment,, lateral force, and
drag coeflicirnts versu:L 2ideslip argl arre given in fig-
urec 19, 20, ..ad 21. Fl;ure s2 s3ho'.s the lateral force
and dra. co.fficie.hts at tri.a as a frnctil n of the rudder
anrile. Tre el'fect r center-of-grrv tv iccatinn on the
stability anr trim .an-le of the bomb is chown in fig-
a 255e. hinge-.o..alnt d-J are r~?Jer.ted in figures 2C.
throuc uh fl. -icur: .2 s a 'ointcrirsph of a r ,cudr after
structural fa_.l':re has occurre&.

Ya"/irg ,'nre.,t.- Yt ',rir-;mrieni c csoefficient data are
r'resenT-1I in fiz--e c5 t}.rcugh 10. T'urin the tests
ywving i.mr,,ents I we, ,W neaTJreJ about ; point 22.78 inches
from the tcmi nose. In L e d.Ata n.'esenSed in the report
th'e mo:ne.nts vere t_'.-r.sf rred tc a no.int 2 .50 ir:n hes
frni, tile .ose of l'.= n' l..', WLi I w 1 thie centor-of-
gravit- Icocatirn -i' E ...:--ril 11-i bo:rs us3:d in the drop
tests, inle.ti.jned oarlir ir. 'ie report.

The f'.i:ureL z'_.:'w that the variation of the yawing-
momnent coefficir-nt wit.h .acni inrumber is small for all th3
rudder :il.les and an-les cf slieslip over the range of
soCeeds covered in Lhis lnvest'Ig3qation. Figures 9 and 10
show the variation of .w.Ing-.r: r.ent coefficient with
Msch nit.er .vith :the :lnt'rna str-utt removed. From a
crm,:arison of these fi 'i-.res '.vith figures 5 and 7 it
will b3 seen that the struts nve rracticallv no effect
on the yawinS-monenit coefi icieint.

Lateral force.- Curves of lateral-force coefficient
versus ll.:.ch nuraiti'; for the va :ic.-s r.udde angles and
angles of sids3lin are nresenrt:d in figures 11 through 16.
In general, t'.e co'eficieint increases negatively with
increasing MIIch rn.a.ier. The chIn.ge -'s slight, however.
Fi. ures 15 lsna ~6 s cw the vari-tion of lateral-force
co,.it'fici-nrt wi th ;-rich n,'mber with the antenna struts
removed. /.3 i n the case rf tne yaw n-g-.noment coefficients
the effect of the struts on tihe- l.teral-force ccsfficient
i3 small.

Drag.- The v- r-~'aton of -ir.g .oeffic'ent with T.lach
nunbe-r F shown in figure 17 or- various angles of side-
slip and rudder angles. T'o ,sudden increases in the drag










coefficient oc 1.n red I th.- zc;,. ria: c of the tests.
Curves for- a fe"v of 1 .e 3 e.sl. ._, -ad rudder ..i.-jges have
r.ot been nT.otte.1 "in flu'ir- 17 to cv-.id excessive con-
gest un .r:C c.velaon1'n .-.urrv.s of the Jr-..F coefficient
verz'_-i Ma.'1. nu-ibeil r ,i- h : 3nlr-u. i'-r tall struts removed
are iven in figure 12. A ccnorI' s :. of this fijiure with
fi:iure 17 slw-.o3 t.-t- f"cr sile.lip 9 jrn.le of -0.50 5 nd a
rudder AncLe of Go i LcviLv. c f' 3P 5 iAts results in a
decrease .r the cdrt;g cc f "ici .L of 0.009 or about 5 per-
cent cr chE- .inim n 1rt .

Bc-no c-Lar-cter'.jic.-3 :.s a 'it.ncOor of sideslip
anglc.- Curves of ;aw.'.-,n.r.e.t cO-* _icie t, Lic ral-
for, coeffict nt, r.l r-s co -. :'LJ~tr.nt versus tl.e angle
of si3es3lip are rre.: lLtjd in. f'2~re? 19, 2 and 21,
respect ivl. The-3 c.rv- .r;-. crcs plots of the faired
yawing-r..''irt, Iter'-foce, n. dL'g coefficient curves
pre vo.usl" ri-esertel. I'I-e tue 4'i'Tation of thl- coeffi-
cients '.:ih ,'ai.h r.LT. u r *:,i.: not ar rcciable except for
the dr=g unn '.f.rlent Crl- --. ,!r .r'.os for a Mach number
cf 0.' s:-. r.. I: '.i' I ..t- I roai figure 19 that
the bc.mb statb lit',- ccrjils 3li .btlv as the ain.le of
sidrasli aprroace'3 ':,--ro. AIt l'., lj er negative side-
slip -nr.les an' posit-:ve ;ru'-.i' -r-ries there is also
some decr'.:se In .tahilitr lvith ii incr in, annle, 1 of
sideslip.

Tri.i conr.itic.:s.- .ei,;ure 2< shws t::e lateral-force
ard drars 'oeff I7ci-nt S. obtni r.inr At trir for various
ruddc:r def'lections. Tt .'il'l be .-n that for the maxi-
mun .'ud.-l=: election of D0o .n r.nd : '~ch, number of 0.6
the bc!-rb r;riir3 'n i;i :tti uce '..r /h-ich the lateral-force
coefficient is -u0._2 -nd i..e jr-.. coefficient is 0.560.
Reference to fi-,re l11 3-'cv tl.-it ti:e correspon.ding ..r.g le
of sTdesl1i for trim 5s -1'-.5'.

Bc.nb Taneuve .ab1it7.- Th., fclljwinz tabl3 is ore-
sented. to illustr tc r'ugh']. t'he rn.a-ii.tude of the lateral
deviations possible *.:hLen tne b'Cbt is crc'r-oea from dif-
ferrent altltude-. I' is ts.u'n;- that the bombing air-
plane is fldin :.t a constant indicated airspeou of
175 :,iiles rnr hour and thati the rmcxir.u b comb riuddrer
deflection cf 2.30 is r.aintained over the entire flight
path. The left-hland cclumu, iv.s the height sbove sea
level which is also considered to: b: ,roun-n level and
th-e right-hanl d column gives the apFpro:in.ate value of
the maximum lateral 'deviati.onr ooEible when the bomb is
released at the correspon-linS altitude.










Altu of r ,. Aooroxim.:ite maxiinmun lateral
Altitude of release
t Lide via ton
(ft)

5, 000 6.0
1u,000 1600
)c$O 0
15,000 2300
20, 000 4. r0
25,000 5 00

lifet .of bhanges _n the center-of-gravity
lc.tiorn.- Figurs 5 3 w tjw e ffect -non trinm ngle
and st~b'ilit", of a change in the center-of-gravity,
?1 ytion 2 inches bU.cr2v-rd or Ior::-.rd from the 26.o-inch
po nt. more rear-.:ird location ct. the center of gravity
results in a reduction in st'-tilit./ and .an increase in the
angle of sidcslip for. r'-m v,, Ltb a conse.quent increase in
the lateral-force coefficient. A .ccation forward of the
23.6-in!ch point results, of course, in the opposite
effect .

.",ith the Cata I.resinted ;:awing-.om..-rt coefficients
mn.; be trrnsfel-ied fro.n th; 2J.,-inch noint to any new
po-.r.t b- the relation

C, = on C (Scos 0 + ('. sin


where :: is t':e ists, :e froi th,.- 2 .o-inch point to
the- new ,loint -.e suitedd alCn: dihe bomb lc ngitulinal axis.
The v- ?i-ae of x is r s-3 ti .ve L t.r':i- nev noint iS to the
r-ar c.f the 2, .1-inch point ind. n nativeve if to the front.

HingE m:,oment.- RuIlIcer hi..nge-inoment d&at are presented
in fi,'es _-_T r-T-Fough 51. Fi ur-es 21L through 27 show the
v-uriati n of rudder hiin-e-momurt coefficient with ':ach
n.iber for varicai3 r-.j.ier an-'les anrd sales of sideslio.
It r,::"- ic s-en that: fo t-e smn ller angles of sideslip
and. rujin'er a4gi-es acere is little variation of the hinge-
moment coefficLent v.ith ."ach nurrber. The change becomes
mo-e prnr.unzc-'3 for the lare' r snales bjt is not important
in any cse ou'er the ran.ye of speds3 covce.ed in the tests.
It is clear that Lanv los.- of control of the oomr. at Mach
numbn-ers of 0.6 and below cannot '03 attributed to radical
chrnres in hi:re moments cue to cornp res.1:ibility effects.
Figure 23 shows the variation of hinge-momrient coefficient
with rudder angle for various Langlos of sideslip and








r.


I'"%.ch numbers. Fr -iur 'e .*-n 5j0 l- ow L <- v.riation of
hinge-m:oce.,-t cces i '. c i r with ,.t.ch niu ber '.!th th;e zPnt'--nna
struts removed. riur-'r 31 3: c, s the v'arn atin .f l ti -.
rrmomient coefficient v wit ru. `ier .i: le for tihe iame ccn-
f:l duration. corm ari :n of t sc .fi -uire s faith fig-
ures ?U, 26, nnrd ? sr'.:s t.lt the stu.-s have no
Sopreci able effect n thC r'e.1 er hir' n? -rcr-i'n. ceffi.,ci nt.

From t.-e ts i.n the Tr:. Tnstrile-nrt les Tarc. visionin
on th rul.-I, r and ;i .l: -.n on-,) at!t .a ,i n iech-r n. s:-:. it h:as
be.n dc tE rm. n. d th 't t'-e 'r :n.-r n torque t a Va 'a ll Ior
holdin.r the rd-3 ','s in a ;. v..n Dpos tioni Is 2j0 inch-
noinds For' i r-.a :er d ...f'i-.-tcn of 20 arin the co'rra-3
spnondin anl l e .f s 3i- n :'or t'.i of 1C'.. the tctal
l'nge :orrment a-ictinl on botth rud in rs at a P.:ach1 nu-n'j r-
of 0.6 at s3 a l:v' s r-2 rn.l-ooiui .rs. If ir is asum.cid
that no chainrc i. t : .n :--.ior:.nt co f "icient occurs
between =- 0.6 .n' U: = r .0, the torque r.'quired at
a Mach niuriber cf '..0 is 1i45 lrch-pourn'd. Such an ..ISmp-
t on is so"erwha t :1oubtf Iho.:ev3r, and if' 'r'r, circl.ble
increases in f.e i'. e-': crei c oer'l ciit -o ocCcur, than
at or n'-r .i ;'.ac' nr.u-ber ot' 1.0 O-t cea level the torque
ma'-y be insuftici n: to maintainn tlhe .:,rl' ..rn ruode"
deflection of 20.

For the "!axi-um .':l rrn c e. le tio!I 'f _.,~ :,nd an
an-yle of sideslii of -0.' 0 chu to-ine r.eq:i r,:- for one
aileron *.t a !..ach nu b'. c '-." -t ._.a level is 11 inch-
pounds. Assur.i'. S s s: ::f."rre .i' t .10 c 'in e -i tre L .inZe-
moment c.oe f centet oc- u's 'n3 : tre-.n .' 0.' *Id : = 1.0
the torque r-ecqi. rd at -= 1.' is 0' Inch--eunds. The
'nax iimum silerr.rn t: .rC:e v' I l .L.1 a t the o .']f!ection .;as
d termiined to be '0 inch--rc n,. ., ltihour/h th.- 3asJ.mTiption
of no chrng? In t:h? -in -e-lO'ln:-nt ?ocfflc'ent betw.:;
M = 0.6 and ," = l.0 .o:-.- r-_scnabble. for the case
of the small aileron d--]fl.ecti c thani f'n th-: r lIr'r
rudder ."e flect .on, t-- "- r.-:'gin of rnlr'qu1 a', o liable over
torqie required at the higher stpees 13 not I ar.ie in any
case.

Tt woul.A th.!3s rt.-neair desirs5lle from the fnrgroirln
considerations to enmlo' bothl aile'-cn an-r rudder
operating mechanisms more con.?nervatj ve 'vith regard
to torque available.

Rudder failure.- Durlng a routine inspection of the
bomb upon completion of a test run it vwas fon.d that
failure of of o of the rudders had occurred along tLie












sp-ot-weldei slhin joint at the hinge axis. Up to the
time the fail'ur' was i'.scov2rcd 5 test runs, each of
about )5 nminjes J',ratir, i-n d been completed. The
failure pr-?ared co c. due to fatigue. Figure 52 is a
plhoto'jrapb of th3 t.roe:i; rudder.


Si:-: LrJ T; ON.r ;


Aorodynanic test cf a 1000-pound AZON bomb at
'lach rnmibet. ranrigrp -orr 0.2 to J.6 hae vindicated
the following conclusions:

1. Ther-? wee no r:rec~lble coimpressibility effects
on the ru.,dd-'r hic,-rrz-moeient creffic.ents, the yawing-
mnomenc coS i'-cients, or on tie l!teral-f.'crrce coefficients.
Tl.he drag cot'ficlints ricrjIt ed isrpdually bat no sudden
increases occurred.

2. Rei:,ovsl o' tihe :nteinr s'ruts from the taill had
only a slight effect on the .:.erod:,qeimic characteristics.

5. The tcrqare su-Dli-d by. the rudder and aileron
operating mechanisms ev: .e rni,..nd to be sc-veral times
the torquei- required at a lv;ck-. n'mnter of 0.r at sea
level for ..TIxii ccnt.'cl dole z ons. If no anoreciable
increases in thie :!inu -r.omenti coefficient occur between
M = 0o. adric = 1.0), th-e r .'silable torque will be
adequate at a a,!ac- nin'-,er of 1.0. Beearse Lof somE
.uncertaint'r reardin.g the i-nile-morent coef.icient at
I. = 1.0, however, it would arpea-:r desirabl, to employ
,rdder and Rilernri one'-etin4 mrechrnilSns haji.ngC greater
available torque.


Langley [Mem.orial Aeronrutical Laboratory
National A -loorv Conmittee for Aeronaitics
Larif7.e' Field, Va., June 16, 1i91.4




Ernest 0. Pearson, Jr.
Aeronautical Engineer
Approved-
Joihn Stack
Chief of Compressibility Resrarch Division








"I.TT. "I ? L-.S


Fi .ure 1.- C'-e'-cY shw:.vwn i.rn r o r,: :-nti.n: for -nl s,
force; a:, :d .cen .

Fi-'-,ie 2.- S-et', s:. iw cli ncr ] o.n cf \.;- .- :-..'_ L -nb.

Fl tre 5.- *'--"- 5- ."1I' 1.L -n.. .nr, ..r-.b In talked in the
!6-f'o:t hi _l-sp.-,. t'L.1el.

Firnue 4.- Set j- em.:,c,,- f.or" -"'.t .":. : su.'-.rt-.-trut
t: res.

Fr: uare S.- Va'i.ati 'f -.i : I.i --". -.. t c eff ic r- t :" th
S:-.ch !i' te i:r 'ever r u l ..e .les 3 = -

Fip"re ..- Vrr it 1-.n cf .i ': .. -.c .nn co o "ic'. ..t -.*lth
ach :turi er "or seven' r .i .er .I 0.'.

FL -ure 7.- V-i:-lat .c. rf -'An'l.- -.- : ..t co.!ef ic iel t .'th
J:ch n"...t r !'cr -ev r:l ru1 ier .-1-'3 It -15. c

Fi .-re .- V~r .-l t' L tf -. i -,i r-t *:.:.' fi.2 ES t v th
"'ch r.u ,ber "ocr sn '.'.I ".' ":: rfl3s U = -20. .'.

Fi '.re 0.- 'ir t '-: -' ,v.' o -. ; .t f: Tc .nt .'.th
Vi. -ch-' e .',* e 3 i'el, 1 .".' ,- l s = :
r.teiCn strVts c.rt3 ?c~ '.a d .

Fi .'.-re 10.- V:.r!.t',, P ," '--.W; '.l-T o I t cceffi cient t with
..ach r.u ':er cr 5s 've"l rn.u. :der. ..-les = -li 5.5 ;
nr!'terL.e s3tr'.'t3 retrr'3- 've' .

FM *ire 1 .- Vsriaticn .. l--te- 1- orce ceffl'cient :ith
"ch cn -run.ber fo" serve -.~! r'c'e' .rles -.

Figure 12.- Varistlonr. a1t::-.- 'c'-ce c .effi -:en t with
L..ach intumber I r-. sever% al rauiiler- .ainclr es I = -103.5C

FL.utre 15-.- '/ariatl.on f te:.1- '"Drce coeffici, er.t '.i th
[a.c' number for several rud.."er lngles = -'15.'

Figure 14.- Variation 3/ lat.ra;l-f -rce coefflcient '.ith


Figure l1.- Variation of I ste.al-fo-rce coefficient ,ithi
"ach nuT.be- for several r.idder r.ales 'ri = -.5;
antenna struts rem.ver.

Filure 16.- Var ition of Iteral-', rce co-efficient '."ith
Mach nrjnbcr for- sever al rudder -ncle3 = -1,.5
anrtefi.na sL uts r'Tmov d.








FrI3Til Lr'G"'TDS Conicluded


t1 ure 1.7.- Variation of diri ccef"icient 'iLth Eachl number
-cr :everail angles if si~=.lip nrd rJuder argles.

Figlre 1':'.- V. ii at'o. of dra; coeffici-ent with R.ach number;
.nten.a stf uts Pei..ov-d.

Figure 2.- "~'riation ri' :;-avin--.1! er.t coefficient with
anr i.:. f lciesli ; fr'r seves'r-. ri:.ader angles = 0..

-'iuLre 2'.- 'tt-iatio Of o late?'l- n.rce coefficient with
.zg, e of sIdeae l ]- fo. sev'.r': -'.'de ngles : ='J.6.

".L1ure ,1.- ''-ri.atcr rn drx. cofiici,:-nt witl- san le of
Si -.le.li "cf r s- ?'. ral rud- r .' .. 0. ..

P ;:ur* .2. Lar'sg .ind later ail-. cr ccaef, clients it triim
'r2Qu t't. ru -,';r ZL,.i-: f r s :erjil i ch n'.Tit-rs

e ..-ure 23.- 'nrt i ticn of V'avir c--",o., r -t ,oe f e' cient v:ith
-'I Le of -Ides' ir f-r t; c.'et-. C ,t; r-of- .-c .-i: t locations
S I I-

S ei.r e ;..- i t cr r I.. > .. io.ent coefficient
it. l.ac np'n.',-':' Or ev .'.1 r. c er :,.r.,les = -0.50.

7_'-.re ,.- ".ari.' cn 3:' rl.i er h:in.e- :.I-'ent ccL ef icient
wi tlh ch n.'u"n r 'or zv.;r',l oer .-.nr, l3 = -1 .50.

l'-U.ne.1 .- vrria. t'ion of rnuie.n'- h-r.n e-.iorment .oefficient
,itl r..ch rnu mber for, se v'e..l .ru;ie n l osc = -5I 50.

Fi.:ure 2 '.- '.sriaticn tf' ru-T e r :ir.Ge-m .rent coefficient
with ?ach nu:nber f' several n deI..:s =rngles 'r = -20.5.

"" -rre ,c '.- \Vri.itor o f r, ;ur .er -i 9--:oment coefficient
nit':i :rdier -lie r 'r s v.erl .i-.;les cf sideslip and
Item-n nu-bcvs.
I' 1.)il i q'U'DC. ,

Fiur 2 '.ri t n jf rue.er ite-Ei,"nent coefficient
v'ith ;"ach nuTmber for several 'ri.u-er .P n es '1 = -'.50;



.'ith l.-ch num-nbi r fo: sevzr:.l ildde: angles I = -13.5;
anboeTna struts removed.

Fi'L.re 31.- Vairiat.on of rudder hi:;ie-:!ornent coefficient
with i.uddr an-le ; itenna .t':t.s remove .


?: gure 32.- Tud. de fail re.









































.f 7r/pge ax/s




-R/cdder

NATIONAL ADVISORY
COIMIinl FOR AERGNAUTICS


figure 1.- lSetch showing sign ccwvento/ns for ona/es
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