Tensile tests of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets

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Material Information

Title:
Tensile tests of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets
Series Title:
NACA WR
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
6 p., 15 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Mandel, Merven W
Bartone, Leonard M
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Rivets and riveting, Aircraft   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results of the investigation are presented in the form of curves that show the variation of the tensile strength of the rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Merven W. Mandel and Leonard M. Bartone.
General Note:
"Originally issued October 1944 as Advance Restricted Report L4F06."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003807455
oclc - 126847627
System ID:
AA00009415:00001


This item is only available as the following downloads:


Full Text


ARR No. L4F06




NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS






WAil'RTIME REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
October 1944 as
Advance Restricted Report L4F06

TENSILE TESTS OF NACA AND CONVENTIONAL
MACHINE-COUNTERSUNK FLUSH RIVETS
By Merven W. Mandel and Leonard M. Bartone

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.














WASHINGTON

NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papersoriginally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.

L 176
L -176








12 '-




:TACTA A' 7- !'o. TI'FCr

NATIONAL ADVISORY CO .'ITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


.,DVA"CE RESTRICTED REPORT


TEI:SILE TE3TS OF NACA AND CC*fTVEnTIONAL

.:,'-CH1lE-CO-TTTETSUNK FLUSH RIVETS

By lierv-n W'.'. Mandel and Leonard M. Bartone


SU'!JARY


An investi-ation was conducted to determine and
compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional
machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-
head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results
of the investigation are presented in the form of curves
that show th-.-- vari-tion of the tensile strength of the
rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the
ri -: t diamra% ter.


INTRODUCTION


Cor.parative data on the tensile strength of machine-
count?rstmunk flush rivets are scarce, although it is
known that rivets are under tensile load in many applica-
tions. in investigation was therefore conducted to
determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA
machine-co.intersuri: flush rivets and of conventional
machii-e-coult.~-'.tmnk flush rivets. The effect of rivet-
head angle and depth of countersink on the tensile
strength of' both types of rivet was investigated.


?PEDEMIH'S AND RIVETI73C- PROCEDURE


Each specimen consisted of two sheets of 2lS-T alu-
minum alloy of equal thickness, assembled with one
A17S-T alumrinum-alloy rivet, as shown in figure 1.
Tables I and II give the rivet diameters and sheet
thicknesses for all specimens, the depths of counter-
sink for the NACA flush-rivet specimens, and the heights
of the rivet heads above the sheet surface before









2 NACA ARR No. L4F06


driving for the conventional countersurk-rivet specimens.
For the NACA flush rivets, the depth of countersink
(designated c and shown in fig. 2(a)) was measured
with a 400 conical spindle mounted on a dial gage
graduated in ten-thousandths of an inch. For the
conventional countersunk rivets, the height of the rivet
head above the sheet surface before driving (desig-
nated hb and shown in fig. 2(b)) was also measured
with a dial gage.

The NA.CA flush-riveting orocedure (method E of
reference 1) is shown in figure 2(a). The rivet hole
in the sheets of the specimen was machine-countersunk
with a 600, 820, or 1000 countersinking tool. An
ANiO round-head rivet was inserted P'rom the back of
the joint, and the manufactured head of the rivet was
then driven with a vibrating gun while the shank end
of the rivet was bucked into the countersunk hole with
a bar. The protruding portion of tji& riv.et head was
removed with a flush-rivet milling tool similar to
that described in reference 2.

The conventional riveting procedure for countersunk
rivets (method C of reference 1) is shown in figure 2(b).
The rivet hole in the sheets of the specimen was machine-
countersunk with an 820 countersinking tool for the
AN425 780 countersunk-head rivets, and with a 1000 counter-
sinking tool for the AN426 1000 countersunk-head rivets.
The rivet was inserted in the rivet hole and the
manufactured head was driven with a vibrating gun while
the shank end was bucked with a bar.


TEST PROCEDURE


The test procedure was the same as that described
in reference 3. The specimens were mounted in the
fixtures shown in figure 3. The small rods on each of
the fixtures pass through the holes in one of the
sheets of the specimen and bear against the other sheet.
When load is applied, the rods push the sheets of the
specimen apart. Loads were applied to the specimens in a
hydraulic testing machine accurate within one-half of
1 percent. Maximum load and type of failure were
recorded for each test.









TACA ARR No. L4F06


RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS


The results of the tests are given In tables I and
II, and typical specimens after failure are shown in
fi .ure L. The variation of he maximum tensile load
with tihe sheet thickness is shown in figures 5 to 9. It
may b.e noted in figures 8 and 9 that the tensile strength
of the 2--inch-diameter conventional countersunk rivets
52
was increased slightly for values of hb greater than
zero arid decreased slightly for values of hb less than
zero.

In order to permit comparison of the results for
the different types of rivet tested, the values of the
tensile strength of the rivet, expressed as a fraction
of the '-ensile strength of the rivet shank, were plotted
ag:-iist the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet
dii, te: in figures 10 and 11. The tensile strength
of the rivet shank was taken as an average of the maximum
loads for those specimens that *failed by tension of the
sh3inL. Curves were faired through the points so plotted,
as showvi in figures 10 and 11. These curves were used
in t}i- preparation of additional figures (figs. 12 to 15)
in v.r'_iiL the effects of the different variables are
re v a 1 d.

INtrA machine-countersunk flush rivets.- For a given
rivet-l'.ad angle the tensile strength increased with the
rati.c of countersunk depth to rivet diameter c/d. (see
fi-.- 12.) For c/d = 0.50 and rivet-head angles of
60, 12', and 100, the full tensile strength of the
rivet 3'"Lank was developed for values of the ratio of
sheet thickness to rivet diameter t/d greater than 0.7.

Fo,- a given value of c/d, the tensile strength
incre-ed with rivet-head angle, but at c/d = 0.50
t'e t:-. -ile strengths of the 100 rivets were only very
sliFhc l- greater than for the 820 rivets. (See fig. 13.)
F c.'-1 = 0.56 and 0.50, the tensile strength of the
60 riv-ts approached the tensile strength of 820 and
100-0 r-iets as t/d approached 0.7.

Conventional countersunk flush rivets.- For values
of t7.i greater than about 0.4 the tensile strength of
AH142 7.3 conventional rivets was higher than for
Ar.26 100O conventional rivets. (See fig. 14,)








NACA ARR No. LiF06


For t/d greater than about 0.7, the 780 rivets
developed more than nine-tenths and the 1000 rivets,
more than about eight-tenths of the tencile strength of
the rivet shank. Prom the tensile tests of the NACA
rivets, it is concluded that the greater tensile strengths
for the 780 rivets were caused by the higher c/d ratio
(c/d = 0.50 for the 780 conventional rivets; c/d = 0.33
to 0.38 for the 1000 conventional rivets).

Comparison of NACA and conventional machine-
countersunk rivets.- For the same rivet-head ancle -
or essentially the same rivet-head angle and for a
given value of c/d, the NACA rivets developed higher
tensile strength than the con.-.'ntional rivets. (See
fig. 15.)


Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
iTational Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Ian-ley Field, Va.







REFEREN "CES

1. Lundquist, Eugene E., and Gottlieb, Robert: A Study
of the Tightness and Flushness of Machine-
Countersunk Rivets for Aircraft. NACA RB, June
1942.
2. Gottlieb, Robert, and Mandel, TTerven W.: An Improved
Flush-Rivet Milling Tool. NACA RB No. 3E18, 1943.

3. Schuette, Evan H., Bartone, Leonard M., and Vandel,
Merven W.: Tensile Tests of Round-Head, Flat-Head,
and Brazier-Head Rivets. NACA TN WTo. 930, 1944.









IJACA AFP, No. L4F06



TABLE I

TENSILE STRENGTH OF NACA MACaINB-COUNERSBUNK FLUSH RIVETS


Sheet Depth of Rivet-head angle, 60 Rivet-head angle, 820 Rivet-head angle, 1000
thiknesa, t/d counterink, /4 Max. load Ri Type of Max. load R Type of Max. load R Type o
(in.) (In.) (Ib) (a) failure (lb) (a) failure (lb) (a) failure

Rivet diameter d = 35/52 in.

0.025 0.270 0.025 0.26 109 0.253 (b) 184 028 (b) i 02.65 (b)
.025 .270 .055 .5 139 .525 (b) 79 183 (b) 106 .24 (b)
.032 .542 .025 .267 147 .542 (b) 190 .4 (b) 9 .55 (b)
.052 42 .035 151 .51 (b) 213 .5 (b) 240 .558 (b)
.0:2 42 .045 0 191 (b) 280 .651 (b) 293 (a)
.oo .9 .025 .267 210 488 (b) 230 .555 (o) 2 .41 (b)
.040 .429 .035 .74 205 .477 (b) 24 567 (b) 284 .60 (c)
.040 .045 .480 255 .595 (b) 2 .605 (b) 551 .816 (b)
.051 .025 .267 250 .535 (b) 275 .5 c) 55 .82 (c)
.051 .5 .05 4 3 5 *756 (b) 567 .853 (b) 71 .86 ()
.051 .05 58 .786 (b) 95 .919 (c) 425 .( (
.04 .5 .025 .267 258 .600 (b) 284 .660 (c) 290 ..674 ()
.064 .685 .05 .374 60 .837 (b) 301 .700 (e) .900 c)
.06 .65 .45 80 409 .951 (b) 422 .981 (d) 1.019 (d)

Rivet diameter d = 1/8 in.

0.032 0.256 0.035 0.280 224 0.299 (b) 261 0.348 (b) 289 0.85 (b)
.0:2 .256 .5 .560 221 .295 (b) 265 W5 (b) 315 .4O (b)
.320 .05 .280 284 .379 (b) 6 (b) 69 .492 (c)
.040 .520 .045 .560 281 .375 (b) 40 .453 (b) 417 .556 (b)
.051 .4o6 .045 .560 426 .569 (b) 451 .575 (b) 506 .676 (b)
.01 .4o06 .520 420 .60 (b) 8 45 (b) 552 .57 (b)
.0 .515 .04 560 51 (b) .855 () 508 (. a)
.o64 .515 .5 .520 57 .79 (b) 65 .887 (b) 790 1.0 (c)
.o81 .645 .045 .60 582 .7 () 652 .870 () 612 .86 (c)
.081 .645 .055 .440 59 .879 (c) 682 .909 () 719 .959 (d)
.081 64 .065 .0 72 .9 (d) 75 1.004 () 1.75 )

Rivet diameter d = 5/52 in.

o.04o 0.258 0.045 0.288 344 0.01 (b) 573 0.326 (b) 481 0.421 (b)
.o4 .258 055 55 529 .288 (b) 46 .55 (b) 415 .3 (b)
.051 .'25 .045 285 573 .326 (b) 66 .556 (b) 6 .58 (b)
.051 .25 .055 .555 43 9 66 (b) 570 .498 (b) 810 (b)
.064 .o10 .055 555 55 .469 (b) 88 .689 (b) 955 ()
.064 ..10 .075 481 747 .653 (b) 80 .770 (b) 970 .848 (b)
.081 .518 .055 .355 779 .10 (b) 995 .870 (c) 10 .10 (c)
.o81 .518 .075 *481 975 .852 (b) 1160 1. () 90 .840 ()
.102 .654 .055 .55 1110 .971 (d) 1000 .875 (b) 1100 .92 (o)
.102 .654 .065 .417 1150 .901 (d) 1060 .928 (d) 1170 1.02 (d)
.102 54 .075 .1 1159 1.012 (d) 1164 1.019 (d) I 10 1.059 (d)

Rivet diameter d = 3/16 in.

0.051o 0.271 0.055 6 59 O0.3? (b) 2780 0 b) 762 O.ka (b)
.01 .271 .065 422 .264 (b) 605 .578 (b) 780 .488 (b)

.081 451 055 .28 892 .558 (c) 1052 .645 () 1095 .69 ()
4 1 65 .46 950 .581 (b) 125 .800 () 0 .775 (c)
.102 .065 .346 112 .70 (b) 1 .892 () 0 .925 (c)
.125 .065 .46 11444 .905 (C) 1285 .804 (c) 1555 .972 Mo)
.125 .667 .075 .599 1574 .985 (e) 156 .960 (c) 1655 1.021 (d)
125 .667 .085 452 1565 .979 (d) 1599 1.000 (a) 1707 1.067 (c)


aR = Tensile strength of rivet
Tensile strength of rivet shank


NAMTON ARWWBY
COMMITrEE FOR ABMimUM


bCountereunk head of rivet pulled through sheet.
cCountersunk head of rivet sheared.
dTenslon failure of rivet shank.



































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
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Figure 3.- Fixtures and specimen
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Fig. 3








NACA ARR No. L4F06
4


(a) NACA rivet; countersunk
head pulled through sheet.






(b) NACA rivet; countersunk
head sheared.







(c) NACA rivet; rivet shank
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(d) Conventional rivet;
countersunk head pulled
through sheet.






(e) Conventional rivet;
countersunk head sheared.


Figure 4.- Typical ---inch-diameter rivet specimens of 1000 head
32
angle after failure.


Fig. 4







NACA ARR No. L4F06


d=3 inch


C, in.
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x .035
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i .075


1 .040 .080 .120


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

0 .040 .080 .120 .160


Sheet thickness in.


Figure 5. -Variation of maximum tensile load with
sheet thickness for NACA machine-countersunk
flush rivets ; rivet-head angle = 60.


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NACA ARR No. L4F06


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


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NACA ARR No. L4FO06


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
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