Wind-tunnel tests of dual-rotating propellers with systematic differences in number of blades, blade setting, and rotati...

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Material Information

Title:
Wind-tunnel tests of dual-rotating propellers with systematic differences in number of blades, blade setting, and rotational speed of front and rear propellers
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
12, 39 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Gray, W. H
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Propellers, Aerial   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: The advent of dual-rotating propellers has created a need for information concerning the effect of the number of blades of the front and rear propellers, relative rotational speeds, and small changes in the blade angles of the rear propeller. Results of aerodynamic tests of seven-blade propellers, which were considered as a possible arrangement to avoid vibration difficulties, are presented herein. Variations of relative blade angle and rotational speeds of the front and rear components of a six-blade dual-rotating propeller were also investigated. The test program was an extension of previous work on dual-rotating propellers at the NACA propeller-research tunnel; the propeller blades and test body were those used in the previous tests. The results indicated that envelope efficiencies of a seven-blade propeller with three blades in the front hub and four in the rear were form 0 to 1 1/2 percent lower than envelope efficiencies for the six-blade dual-rotating propeller; four blades in the front hub and three in the rear resulted in efficiencies 1/2 to 3 1/2 percent lower than those obtained with the six-blade propeller. This conclusion applies to blade-angle settings of the front and rear propellers to absorb equal power at peak efficiency when the rotational speeds were held equal.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 11).
Statement of Responsibility:
by W.H. Gray.
General Note:
"Report no. L-80."
General Note:
"Originally issued May 1944 as Advance Restricted Report L4E22."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003638089
oclc - 71822754
System ID:
AA00009403:00001


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otA-L-SO


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WARTIME M REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
May 1944 as
Advance Restricted Report L4E22

WIND-TUINEL TESTS OF DUAL-ROTATING PROPELLERS WITH
SYSTEMATIC DIFFERENCES IN NUMBER OF BLADES
BLADE SETTING, AND ROTATIONAL SPEED OF
FRONT AND REAR PROPELLERS
By W. H. Gray

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.






NAC A7.


WASHINGTON
NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.


DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT


L 80


ARR No. L4E22






































Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2011 with funding from
University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries with support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


hllp: www.aichilve.org delails/windtunneltestsolang







1ACA ARP No. LL.E22 RESTRICTED
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


y.'- C .STF.T-D. l Fr^" ET

VTI i.D-TU' V-EL TESTS OF DUAL-70TATI 1: PROPELLERS VITH

SYSTE.ATIC 'DIFF ."E.CES I. "H'.IEVR OF BTLADS

ELADE SETTII, AL'D POT4TTOrAL SPEED OF
7,rOl'T T AD REAP PROPErLLRS

3y V. H. Gray





The advent of d' ua-rstatin, r crocaellers has created.
- need. for -nfo:"c- .t i n c,..:ni.e;rnir-i the effe: t of the
mn-,b=ie' of o -,des -of the front a.ndJ reirp ;-rrr oilers, rela-
live rotation-al ;:-eds. anid .rmell ihl--'-s- in the tblee
an~l .es of the= rel.r -r:,-,eller. Pe.uits of acrod',r".r''.ic
tests of seven-bil.,:1e .:to'pel.e1.rs, v;h;ich were con cid'er.ed
as a 'oss.-ble arr'n-rce-9,lernt to fvoid vib: -tion OiLfficul-
ties, ar-e ..resented h-erein. Varlirtio.-is of relative
bla.Je : ngl P and -, ot st.i onl .s-eds of the fr.nit arnd regr
cfl:,onent 3 f 9a six-bleAe dual-r't atin: :.roeller were
also inp.vest .P-te'. Tle te:t ora3ranm v. an exteLi,:ion
of' or-evi .u3 v':wor'" n ,al91-ro'tatinT_ rone lers at tlhe
!'ACA -nro 'ieer-r'e se r-.h. t-.inel; the propeller balad.es
snd t rst :od-, ,ere t.'-,o.e used in the re iou t- ts.

4. '-- ults 1in.-. te.1 tha-t evelo-e *efficiencies
of : -cve .--biste i ro :-n l.er v:ith threat btls..es in tel
fron t h ub a- d fou-r S the re ar .ere i-er 0 t- -
1
I- percent t lower the. en've1o ,::, .-ftie ,-.ies for the
si x-b] Iat. d'al-rtstt 'I nrr .ooeil er : four bl ades irt the
fro:,nt. hub ,rd three 1in the rear resulted ii1 efficierin-
cies 1./2 to 5- erce:lt lower than those obtained, with
the s.-blede r:~nelIe"-. This corclsi on_ 9aor)lies to
1Made-sanQ1e settirgc's of the fr-nit aind rear prooeilers
to absorb equal ncrer-- a.t oeai1- e-fficie;nc. w'her the
rotational s'jeeds wcre held e u-al.


F EST I, M ,









TACA AIRR No. Ll.E22


Changes in rotational speed of the rear component
of a. six-blade dual-rotating propeller to maintain the
torque equal to that of the front component over the
entire range of advance-diameter ratio rather than only
at peak efficiency resulted in no appreciable effect on
efficiency for either the low- or high-speed condition.
The same conclusion was made for operation at constant
speed ratios differing from unity by as much as t15 per-
cent. Ihe reer blade angles were adjusted to provide
equal front and rear propeller torque for each ratio at
peak efficiency.

7Ihen the rear blade ",;'l es of the six-blade pro-
peller were adjusted to provide equal torque at values
of advance-diameter ratio other than that for peak
efficiency and when rotational speeds of front and rear
blades were equal, the effect on efficiency vas negli-
gible except at peak efficiency, at which a hi-.her rear
blade angle resulted in a higher efficiency.


T!'TFTYDOTIO?'


The use of dual-rotating propellers introduces
complications into the problem of propeller-performance
estimrationT. Proneller diameter and the number of blades
are the most I r-ortant parameters in the selection of a
dual-rotating propeller to meet specific operating con-
ditions. After the number of blades has been decided,
there still remain the differential blade angle and the
differential rotational speeds, which may ue varied over
the operating range. Experiments have shown that im-
provement in the vibration characteristics of dual-
rotating propellers would also be desirable (reference 1)
At present, dual-rotating propellers consist of two com-
ponents having e..,.al diameters and number of blades and
operating at equal rotational seeds. ii use of two
components having different numbers of blades and
unequal rotational speeds right materially reduce the
vibration. Aerodynamic effects of such a deviation
from. standard practice remain to be established. The
results of tests of systematic variations in blade
number, differential blade setting, and differential
rotational speed are presented herein. The effect of
unequal number of blades has been investigated by tests









YACA ARR No. LLE22


of seven-blade dual-rotating propellers with three blades
in te front and fOur in the rear and with f ur blades
in the front rnd three i: th- reas-.

The ooerstin- rode co-iten .ated for d al -rat-.tin,
prnoell -.=r' aR': t ose in 'rh. i t I" .-'ho t to er atin
ran-.e the s-, i :i the re r prop: ll r S --1 as :tiLnuousl-y
adjust-d to '..ee the torque of the t.io orcell.ers eu l ,
the z.see.t of the rear propeller .: h l. st a fi;ed ratio
to that of the front *:r:."llr, and tn-- blade c .ngte of
the re-.r o-ronl'- l er diff-re-d 'friom1r that of -th front jro-
oel l r y,- a fized 9mi'ou t. TIh- c,,O-ii t"' ons ihsve teenr
covered' in thit in'ves-ti,-ti n i or 9 siz-b-lsda dual-
rotatin, proo-eler. These 'otes of coe ration co-er the
most irportan.;t v;.rible s ralstingr the front and resr
parts of dual-rottn. propellers: ni-LOber -?f blades,
blade a,-, e snd r:.t ti n 1 'n l s'e d.


APPRAT''S AID i ,ETODS


The test setu: w:as that used in orev-,i oias. test: cf
dual-rota tin"? Pro~ellers in the IPACA or.m<,eller-reseerch
tunnel 'rEference 2'. A Phatc.-.ra-1 .-.f tl-e setuo with a
stng l--o:t s inr; roraceller is jiven i'n fi.7u.re and out-
line dim* nsion.s re -ven in figure 2. The s-rmrnetr-ical-
airfoil v.in;, shD';n in the ohotogr.-'oh and, the drawing,
was in ,lace for all the tests.

The nro-leller blade;, for, vhi.h tb1de-form curves
and the plan form are jiv'n in fi--.re 3, v ere Esmilton
Standard 5155-- for the rvint-h.id la.d' n- d Pami ton
Standard F15o-o for- the left-h, nd blade.s. ,oth si:--
and seven-blade ..,orCoellers:- 'ere ji.ute.d in t-', ro hrub
sopced 0': inches. The s.hrap of tie fr-nt s:iIner .Pss
identical '.wi the one ore.'i usly I sed reference 2.1,
but the re r- ?sc.inner rwas elon._gted ini hes because the
front huh as.' removed for':a'. to in;r. ?s.-s t~ he soacin from
10 to 15 inn-s. This changee z crqui ed a sllihtl; 9itered
spinr.ier ond f:rwari t dy st i .tion t :- give a faired body.

A clot oi the different in blada-angle settings
for ri..al-rotatinJ -ny7r s lers of ,four to eight blades
for Te conlitionit of equal torque Af front and rear
oroI:ellers at nes'< efficiency is .gien in figure L.









NACA ARR T-,. LLE22


Settings for the four-, six-, and eight-blade dual-
rotating propellers were those used in tests reported
in references 2 and 53

The rotational speed of the front and rear pro-
pellers was maintained equal for both the seven-blade
and six-blade propellers for the investigation of the
effect of changes in rear blade angles only. The speed-
ratio and equal-torque tests, however, required a varia-
tion of the front and rear propeller rotational speeds
that gave differences up to 50 percent.

The limiting conditions of tunnel speed (110 mph)
and propeller rotational soeed (550 rpm) resulted in a
tip seed below 300 feet per second and a Reynolds
number of about l,003,000 for the 0.75E section, where
R is the oroneller radius. No effects of compressi-
bility. therefore, wo-ald be expected.


FE SLTS AND DISCUSSION


The results are presented in nondimensional form.
Coefficients and symbols used are defined as follows:

CT thrust coefficient (T/pn2D,)

C, oower coefficient (P/pnD5)

T prooulsive efficiency )
CpnD


C speed-power coefficient / or
\VPn

V/nD advance-diameter ratio

whe re

T effective thrust, pounds

P power absorbed by propeller, foot-pounds per
second










I:ACA ARP I"'. LNEz22


V" aIrs,:eed, ife .t : :- e i

. *cr-'i' ller- rot'ti on ,i s':.ci, .,'.:,:

. .:,or,. ller. d'9 .i'ete ', e..-:-

p 'ass d.ens1 t;,: ,, sir, slt;' : ubic b :,ot








P
Sfr:.,-t "i t f.







S For le tl in .1,- th ': 7'f:,
o'v r .t fCi: f ; nt .:.t. ',ro: w r.

PF
Cr, -c,? i' .... l ..- .t-f ,-'. f',r r vi : :":.r e ll.: -.






















cp-
}-.- ef-i ._ t',.',. t:-ii.s.Vt t: '.:- re:.e r.l ',i : 1 tir.-st ,cf tl.-

wi, tiLo,.t a _,rno e1 1er.

Orr P e t s n ,'i i."t\ tr-;= *t ^i: L. r -.' ; t tf t;1 t

bss ,d or: t"'e r.pnt.tlortl,,. -,;_'a! t of t'F,_- front ?,!'?,l:el-er-












p n c

pnF
~r T

















P front-oo.lr rottionl s ,
frrtn e rottiona sl r





i r-ont-or-o~e] icr ro~tation-al speci'', ro:s









NACA ARR No. L4E22


nR rear-oropeller rotational speed, ros

Qp front-propeller torque, foot-pounds
QR rear-oropeller torque, foot-pounds

It will be seen that these coefficients reduce to the
usual ones for the condition of equal rotational speed
of front and rear components.

The figures showing propeller characteristics and
efficiency comparisons are given in table T.

Seven-blade propeller.- The tests of seven-blade
propeT. r l.ere '7 -.t! the two possible combinations
of three blades in the front hub and four in the rear
(designated hereinafter the three-four combination) and
four blades in the front hub and three in the rear
(designated the four-three combination). Rotational
speeds of front and rear components were maintained
equal throughout the tests. The blade angles of the
front and rear procellers were set to absorb equal
power at peak efficiency.

The characteristic curves for the seven-blade
propellers are given in figures 5 to 1i. The curves
of CT and Cp (figs. 5, 6, 10, and 11) indicate a
more gradual stall for the three-four combination than
for the four-three combination. This stall is more
gradual probably because the larger number of blades
requires a lower rear blade angle, which results in a
lighter loading of the inboard sections of the rear
propeller for the three-four combination.

The efficiency envelopes for the two combinations
(fig. 15) are only from 0 to 1 percent lower than for
the six-blade dual-rotating propeller in the tractor
condition (from reference 2). The efficiency envelope
of the three-four combination varied from no higher at
a front blade angle of 200 to 1- percent hi-L .r at 600
than 't.ie envelope for the four-thrce combination
(fig. 15). A comparison of efficiencies on a basis of
constant Cp (fig. 16) indicated little or no con-
sistent relationship between the efficiency curves
except for the condition of peak efficiency shown by
the envelopes of fi jre 15.









IJACA A'R 'o. LLE22


E: .i a -t rq,..e t st s.- in pre':. us t st s o f si:- 1 -de
dr.-i.1-r, -t. nr.. f:rf lpe le:s 'frefere.-i e ), the rottio.na.1,
so.ee ,e-re m-i n t-lt in eq ij.'l. tPri'oi.-i. h t the test ard. tae
re'i r ;:'1 .- ,les ".re :-.d justed to :-. torq e
.t '.i 1:e ffi : Le n: :-. -n trt.e ,:.,_:es i'it I"-'." stit i ?t i, te t ,
_f t.h r.- cr -.n'leil' t to i'ra nt- i.. e u'] to:-..e thr.u :.h-
out t'- r-n::-e :"' .'"--, v'e ,'i i; c.t L.21 'f, i e/, '
the ,51 i,... =E l_ ] ere ,-i t ri the teLt V of re-f-
,ere.: e 2'. 'These c test r'.;, t herefr.e be- .: :n r it
the te:.ts of refer -.,t-- fr -: ''. eif it n Thie
V./'rD intere :.t ,f ti e t V r ... t --' "e. ,iust c,.l.-,_c ini





sovier-co i f i .- t '-.ir;-2 i 'i s. 1 -: 1 1 > : t ined
fr:r" ;rter' 1 tio_ n ...- r. n '.at the .s -i: thift
as i r,-. l v.t t at. r ffe t .if t t r, i l .1 t t -.

The in er' l"i .' 1 .o ::. r- M-: ffi f .t :e r-.- m o, t -c.- fro i '-'
t -t LEt. it-.-- 1.t -.it:- .n' ..l-ti-l : r!i.t:- i:, i- --


'-. effi oie : -" ? ,rvr for t-. :lar..: 1n .es f :t.
j.. t-





0':', r, :j"' r r coi.. te 1..""n. ol tt" i'ro:-t the -i..ti r-
.:ola t p te:,. i-. t t.:.: o_ er-.". : f ". 't :, ur' bl_ : o t'- i L
all effi -.n- 7 lot o T ire '?re ef- e.'t1i-'el thore
for th- i -re" :1:. v in'-- ,. ,e -nr le u. e:,r .i-i Lthe or. e 'ous
tes t 1 t: 'i i:i r.-.t e in e tL aie Iu to
SQjflstin the 1 r-o-';eller soe-i t- o _:.rV o-.oe e*:1c.c 1 tor te
C. r l,- r -2











con '. of te t i 1 the t :re"io S on-
rl .ii at re, ,- effi ,r,-n'; the elff -. ,i :- .. envel.-:.,e
tfr '' 'e t'.co eats of tests uld oi : e. Ti ere is

(if ferenc- of 1 to 1-- *'p1r2'enit t: t 'e.. n t1e env 1.:-looes

'a -.. 21)' e en' ;el.-e .atta i.-er r i -. th e' .u lf-torqje
tes,. is lo .-er. This i-.ffer:ence _1 it-in the l i.i t of
e'gr- a".elt- that ,a-n e exce t. d. tel te:.i t a. i "ite.ue"ed to
re nr,:'ouce : :o'-di tions :f m'cih e r. ,'1 i. r tests.

Soe .: d.-'ati test, Adjustr,e nt "of the rotational
fe;sd of ine c.':oone it of a fd'.tal-rIot cin oroeller
,ithi". s .all, lirit o should .rovr: i.e ad:.equ- te i'e -ans for
control of front- end re*r--reo' C er F-eratin :on-
d i r- :.= hat e'u-l cower 9 ..so- t ion co ld
t-'r.,~ c T ::.- d t ._,'. I, ,c _]i.r t _-
...,e. ,j.._rg io r -:p D .',.v -.i: ,7, sh r'op Jl, ,U








NACA ARR No. L4E22


obtained for any of the various conditions of flight.
Tests at constant values of the speed ratio were made with
the six-blade dual-rotating propeller. The front blade
angle was set at LLO0 and the rear blade angle was adjusted
to provide equal torque at peak efficiency. The character-
istics for rotetional-speed ratios from 0.85 to 1.15
(figs. 22 and 23) indicated no appreciable effect on
efficiency.

Figure 2L is a cross plot of the characteristics
and indicates the manner in which the torque ratio
changes with speed ratio. At a V/nD of 0.7, decreasing
the speed of the rear propeller 30 percent decreased the
rear-propeller torque and increased the torque ratio
QF/R? by 9 percent.
Blade-angle tests.- The effect of a fairly large
difference in rear blade angle with equal front and rear
rotational speeds was investi.ated for a blade-angle
range of 200 to 60'. gures 25 to 54 present the char-
acteristic curves of these tests. As would be expected,
a decrease in rear blade angle, corresponding to an
increasing Inability to remove the rotation imparted to
the slipstream by the front propeller, resulted in
decreased efficiency; the higher the front blade anile,
the larger the difference.

For each value of front blade angle a value of rear
blade angle was selected such that equal torque would be
absorbed by front and rear propellers approximately at
a V/nD for break efficiency. Other rear blade angles
were then selected to rive equal power absorption at
values of V/nD below the value for peak efficiency
and down to values that would occur in the climb con-
dition. Within the experimental accuracy there was
app-arently no effect on the power absorption of the
front propeller due to a shift in blade angle of the
rear propeller. Tor each value of front blade angle,
therefore, only one faired avei ge curve of Cp for
the front propeller was used (figs. 26, 2', 30, 32,
and 34).

The three envelopes of figure 35 have been obtained
by fairing envelopes through the peaks of efficiency
curves obt-air.d from blade-angle settings giving equal
front and rear power absorption at 0.55, 0.b5, and 1.00
times the value of V/nD for peak efficiency. These









IACA ART I'o. LEE22


c-n e lo:, pe e;iph--s .ez the n,--'r-- sit- f- r- e-.d.i st 1in the
bld'ie ar.le-s to those i .ovrii n-:: e-qi.sl iv;-r- slD o'o:rt i n
st ./n, for real: e fficien:, 2whe: the pr::l-ler t
operate rng in the h bh-,,eed ringa. Except for tih hi.rh-
s-eed c,-nd it ic ere vs. little I:aearnt e iffe:t ,f!
bladie-n -le chance: f -ire 56 'CI t cor. t iit Cp)
shows little devintion e -tce:,t at "/nD for '--,k effi-
c enc7 f or *e r.n 1e at V /n D of r.r x. fo r
Cp = ).

F-i.i.,r.- t7 ? ss Cro :-.i ntt-i *e- d, ta cf tlhr-ust-
Fo ures <7 to 7' rrpz -
F'-ovJer ratio a'sinst- C fr the c:iniLti ns 1l a =-C
1 ,7. E1 f
at '. 5- c ., s.id 1. ,'0 t I ia the val Le of ", 'i r for
neat- ef'f cienc,.- T e.. .rv 'e :.r *e : '; r_ L2.. a.?:-i..ars
to I e "oIs['' Ih-t in erI r c 3 r:rI i il :11.I iu [1 ure ,7 and,
should e lov:e-r. 'The rro.r .? ;x:rinr.ar h rever,
anir. co.ull not te f' r.1: out. F .'neCe 'r I ,on of th'es
plots a- in hr-' l t t at *' st" t I" Lir '/n
there .s little or no 2f.t -i 1 :'I e-.: -- le 1 d f d .rLce
on thI.ts t- ,o' r t f i" at t't I. I:'. ''r)
until The ht values :f -: r Y 'e-. he .


CICTLUT T iPT PFI'iAr.S


Te-sts were ., ,-e of a six- aol. a. seven-bl;'! e du1l-
rotatin-- on.? 11z ler of the s r-- "e siL = :- :. L1 :..-. esi ..
The seven-bl-:ide no':e]ler was tested ,I th tlr-i e cilb-es
rn ihe front h,'-b and foar i i the ra- I th e -f.ur cOA-
cinastion) t.nd ,itn f'ur bla-e 'n The fr'rt n)u :IC.d
th .e i the rear 'fou'-n-r.ire-: C.': r t ioD ).

1. The re-sults -f 'tsts &t eqIal rot tiar.9l speeds
with tnr i9Je i -.ies of th- firot :-d re'-r opener ts
of the se ven-l: a,. pro el ler -.1:i .us' t i-, .e .
po ..er b.sor'pti'.on it e'ak e ffdi ie:. r s0 i. f ized
as follows.

n' P.a'& ef-i_,iz.=n..-s ,.:-rP e fro'"' 0r to ? per-
cant s t : fo tht.An for .r' i-:. si: s -t IAde dual-
r tat i ; r-o 1 -l r, ".e J-ndin o l-Ad':-..en.: e
setting anr.d the tt e of r vc'>n-blad- combination.








NACA ARR Fo. L4E22


(b) Peak efficiencies of the three-four com-
bination were from 0 to 1- percent higher than
2
those of the four-three combination, depending on
the blade-angle setting.

(c) There was no appreciable difference in
efficiencies of the two combinations except in the
range of advance-diameter ratio near peal- efficiency.

2. For the six-blade dual-rotating propeller,
adjusting the seed of the rear component to maintain
its torque equal to that of the front component had no
significant effect on efficiency.

3. For the six-blade dual-rotating propeller at a
blade angle of L0, operating at fixed values of rotational-
speed ratio from 0.85 to 1.15 had no considerable effect
on efficiency vwhen the rear blades angle was set to give
a torque equal to that of the front propeller at peak
efficiency.

[L. For a six-blade dual-rotating propeller at equal
rotational speeds of front and rear components, changes
in rear blade angle did not affect the low-speed (take-
off and climb) operating efficiency but reducing the rear
blade angle did result in a lower high-speed efficiency.
The effect was greater at the higher front blade angles.


Langley Yemorial Aeronautical Laboratory,
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,
Langley Field, Va.,








I'ACA A3. U.. LLE22 11


R FE E!C ES


1 Filler, '?ason F.: "'nd-T'nnel Vibration Tests of
r,,uel- ot t t i- Prop ll.ers. P/..P AR. ,. $111 ,


2, Elermrann, javir', an:d artrF- sn, Edn.in P.: W l -nd-i'unneJ.
Tests .o Fo'r- anrd Si:_--Fle Zin.l- and Dual-
Potatirn Tract.or Prono lers, "AC =:-.- o. 7i4 7,
1L 2.

3. Biermrnn-, ,':, a-.d ,--r y, '', TI. : rjind-Tn l Tests
of E_. .t-?lde S n'.rle- .snid .u l-.otatirn Pro.eliers
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