Wind-tunnel investigation of control-surface characteristics

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Title:
Wind-tunnel investigation of control-surface characteristics
Series Title:
NACA WR
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
16 p., 41 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Garner, I. Elizabeth
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Airplanes -- Wings -- Testing   ( lcsh )
Flaps (Airplanes)   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: Force-test measurements have been made in the Langley 4- by 6-foot vertical tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of an NACA 0009 semispan tail surface of rectangular plan form equipped with flaps of various nose shapes and overhangs. The flap chord was 30 percent of the airfoil chord. A few tests were made to determine the effectiveness of a balancing tab on various flap arrangements. The test results indicated that the slope of the lift curve was affected little by the amount of overhang and the balance nose shape but was increased by sealing the gap at the flap nose. At zero angle of attack, the variation of lift with flap deflection for the sealed-gap condition was the same as or slightly greater than for the unsealed-gap condition. The change in the hinge-moment coefficient with angle of attack or with flap deflection generally was made more negative with sealing the gap. The effectiveness of the balancing tab in reducing the flap hinge-moment coefficients was approximately the same for both the sealed plain flap and the unsealed 35-percent-flap-chord elliptical overhang; also, the variation of lift coefficient with tab deflection was about equal for the plain flap and for the flap with aerodynamic balance.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 13).
Statement of Responsibility:
by I. Elizabeth Garner.
General Note:
"Originally issued October 1944 as Advance Restricted Report L4I11f."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003806610
oclc - 124092797
System ID:
AA00009398:00001


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Full Text

N/ftt LrBO& ARB No. LJIlflf




T NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WAlRTIMIE REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
October 1944 as
Advance Restricted Report L4Illf

WIND-TOMNEL INVESTIGATION OF CORTROL-SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS
XX PLAIN AND BALANCED FLAPS ON AN NACA 0009
RECTANGULAR SEMISPAN TAIL SURFACE
By I. Elizabeth Garner-

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT
120 MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY
P.O. BOX 117011
GAINESVILLE, FL 32611-7011 U(SA







WASHINGTON

..NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
Advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
l iously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
::. 'nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.

L 186







f/-! (7 -c *It


NACA ARR No. LIllf

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


ADVANCE RESTRICTED REPORT


WIND-TU1ThiEL INVESTIGATION OF CONTROL-SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS

XX PAIN AND BALANCED FLAPS 0:T Af[ NACA 0009

RECTANGULAR SEMISPAN TAIL SURFACE

By I. Elizabeth Garner


SUMMARY


Force-test measurements have bcen made in the Langley 4-
by 6-foot vertical tunnel to determine the aerodynamic
characteristics of an NACA 0009 se;i.iFpan tail surface of
rectangular plan form equipped with flaps of various nose
shapes and overhangs. The flap chor-,' was 50 percent of
the airfoil chord. A few tests were r.ade to determine
the effectiveness of a balancinri tab on various flap
arrangements.

The test results indicated that the slope of the
lift curve was affected little by the amount of overhang
and the balance nose shape but was increased by sealing
the gap at the flap nose. At zero angle of attack, the
variation of lift with flap deflection for the sealed-gap
condition was the same as or slightly greater than for
the unsealed-gap condition. The change in the hinge-
moment coefficient with angle of attack or with flap
deflection generally was made :iore negative with sealing
the gap. The effectiveness of the balancing tab in
reducing the flap hinge-moment coefficients was approxi-
mately the same for both the sealed plain flap and the
unsealed 55-percent-flap-chord elliptical overhang; also,
the variation of lift coefficient with tab deflection was
about equal for the plain flap and for the flap with aero-
dynamic balance.

In three-dimensional flow, the measured values of
the lift-curve slope were slightly lower and the measured
values of the hinge-moment parameters were more positive
than the values of the parameters calculated from the
data of previous investigations in two-dimensional flow
by lifting-line theory, modified by the edge-velocity
correction. Application of aspect-ratio corrections







TNACA ARR' No. L4111f


determined from a lifting-sur.face-t.heory solution for an
elliptical wing made Lce co:rpated values of the variation
of the hinge-moment coefficient with angle of attack very
closely approach the measured values.


I NTRO DUCTIONJ


The IhACA is conducting an cx- teisive i:vestiFation
of the aerodynamic characteristics of cntrl. suriac;s
in t';o-d iie r:ional and thrce-diiension.al i.'ic.w in order
to orovid"1 c.5sir-n data and to duterm.irn.Et fl.. arran:er-ents
suitable f. .- s -.L ol suF -.LI ces. A Jr-:es cf t: s ts
has b-En to :.- :. r .i the effect: ,f cvc r-.n-i no-e
shaoe, asn .--."1 .,:. :.f: *h'. o.;.,nas .tic chr..i' c o '.-tice of ;.n
NA'A u l, a ":'.il 1n t: .- di-.cnsiorrnl i'..ow: -e results
are preSented in ref'e'en.r.e 1 to i. arid su.u-rirized in
reference 5.

The presentI investigation consisted of tests in
thr.-lcimenoiconal flowv cf an ITAA Co000 rectangular semi-
span tail surface. T-pe purpcse of this investtiation was
to 'hl!. establish a cc',rela ion b':t, cen aerodynamic char-
actartsticr in tcwo-dii. nsional a-d three-di,,.ensioral flow.
Throu.--, the use of a rurfjcc havinr constant ai-fcil,
flap, end balance chores only relatively si,.'.le plan-
form corrections were required "Thnen approxiirato correc-
tions were used.


SY"TBCLS


The coefficients and the symbols used in this paper
are declined as follows:

CL lift coefficient (L/'iS)

CD drag coefficient (DI/-)

Cm pr'tching-n:o:-..ent ccoefl-'cint about O.55c axis (M/qSc)

C-p flap hinge-mcment coefficient (Hf/qc2bf)







NACA ARR No. L4Tllf


where

L twice lift of semispan model

D twice drag of semispan model

M twice pitching moment of semispan model

Hf twice flap hinge moment of semispan model

q dynamic pressure lpV

S twice area of semispan model

bf twice flap span of semispan model

c chord of airfoil with flap and tab neutral

Cf root-mean-square chord of flap

p mass density of air

V velocity

and

A aspect ratio

b twice span of semispan model

Cf chord of flap

cb chord of overhang
a angle of attack of model

6f flap deflection relative to airfoil; positive when
trailing edge is deflected downward

6t tab deflection relative to flap; positive when
trailing edge is deflected downward

k constant used in determining jet-boundary hinge-
moment correction

E edge-velocity correction factor (see reference 6)







YACA ARR No. LUllf


(iCr
C -a = 6 a -
(CL)


a L









Chf) -( 6f
di*fI

m r',"



(othA



mf.L T. /cL




T'e sjibcrint cutside the rnrcntheFes indic-ates the factor
held ,n'rr..tant in dct rm,,! rlin: the rars.:eter.

AFF. P.TU3, r.'CD-L, A'. 7':SQTS

The testF .vere ri i-e in tre Lar.le,': !.- by 6-foot
ve-rtical tunnel rrefer.rce 7' .-.o:ified s -iscusced in
refe':-. : e 2. T'- 2-foot-,chord '"r 5-fcot-se: is-;.an rcd-l 1
'es ;;.:-n of irml.min ted i.:': l:;;'"ri: n '~ c onlC'P;:eJ to ti
di:lens.Lrns of fiure 1 ard' to the I CA 000 llofilc, the.
stations and ordinates of ,:-i:h a-o -i, Vrn in table J.
Since the tall surface & haS tie of revolution, tl]: tip
plan form: was the samie .s tihe ciont'our ofJ the .pper an]l
lower u-rfacps of the airfoil.. .e fl-,o chord was
30 percent of the airfoil chord ert each span-.iise station.
For the comc.lete tail surface reic: secned by the scmisplan
model, the aspect ratio w'as 3 ani [. .e tapE-r ratio, 1.








NACA ARR No. L11Illf


The plain unbalanced flap and the flaps with overhang
balance are shown in figure 1. The 0.35cf and
0.50cp overhangs were tested with blunt and elliptical
nose shapes. (See fig. 1 and table II.) The elliptical
nose was a true ellipse faired tangent to the airfoil
contour at the hinge axis. The gap was fixed at 0.005c
and for some tests was sealed with a sheet-rubber seal.

A linked balancing tab constructed of brass and
having a Cap of O.001c was tested on the plain sealed
flap and on the flap with 0.55cf elliptical overhang
with open gap. The tab had a chord of 0.20cf (fig. 1)
and a span 50 percent of the flap semispan. The ratio of
the tab deflection to the.flap deflection was -1:1.

The rectangular tail surface was tested as a semispan
model by mounting it horizontally in the tunnel with the
inboard end adjacent to the wall. of the tunnel, which
thereby acted as a reflection jls e (fi;. 2). The model
was supported entirely by the balance frame with a small
clearance at the tunnel wall so that all forces and moments
actin~ on the model could be measured. The flow over the
model simulated the flow over the r'.rlbt senispan of a
complete tail surface consisting of the test panel and
its reflection mounted in an 8- by 6-foot wind tunnel.
The flap hinge moments were obtained by measuring the
amount of tv.ist in a long flexible torque tube, one end
of which was attached to the flap by means of a linkage
arrangement and the other end of which extended outside
the tunnel to a calibrated dial.

The tests were made at a dynamic pressure of 15 pounds
per square foot, which corresponds to an air velocity of
about 76 miles per hour at standard sea-level conditions.
The test Reynolds number was 1,450,000 and the effective
Reynolds number of the tests was approximately 2,760,000.
(Effective Reynolds number = Test evynolds number x Turbu-
lence factor. For the Langley L- by 6-foot vertical
tunnel, the turbulence factor is l.q9.)

It is estimated that the angle of attack was set
within *0.10 and that the flap deflection was set
within *0.2.

Jet-boundary corrections, theoretically determined
according to the method given in reference 8, have been
applied to the data. No corrections have been made for







6 !ACA ARR Nio. LLTllf


the effect of gap between the root section and the tunnel
wall or the leal-age around the supporting torque tube.
The over-all corrections applicd (b- addition) to the
tunnel data are as follows:


Aa =2.15341L


(in deg)


AC = -G.017 C
AOL = L.?Ltunnel


ACD = 0.0520L

im = 0.0072CL

AChf = CL


where 'k is a constant JependeneLt on the chord of the
overhang as follows


DISCUSS IS ?.

Lift


Sealing the gap at the flep nose increased the slope
of the lift curve La. (See `i -s. 5 to 12 an table TT.)
Wilh the gap either sealed or unsealed, the balance nose
shape and the ar:ouit of overhar,. a-pear to have negligible
ef'fct ui-'n the values of .
-a

A summary of ch!e lift efftctiveress r.-raieters af
for the various flap configuations is 1 iven in table III.
Tfn lift eff-ctivenr-ss : C:rs greatest for the unsealed flaps
with blunt-nose overhangc; however, stall occurred at







NA'3A ARR To. L)J.43lf


lower flap deflections on the blunt nose than on the
elliptical nose. 'lith gap sealed, the values of the lift
effectiveness parameters were aproximately the same for
all flaps except for the 0.50cf elliptical-nose over-
hang, which had a value sor.mewhat smaller. At zero angle
of attack, the change of lift wijth flap deflection for
the sealed-gap condition was the sa-,ie as or slightly
greater than for the unsealed-sap condition.


Hinge 'onl-nt

The curves of section hinge-.no:.ier.t coefficient were
shown in reference 5 to be liner:r ove-r an approximate
range of angle of attack of t5 and for flap deflections
up to 150; whereas the curves for t'-' finite-span tail
surface (figs. 5 to 12) were, in general, nonlinear.

'lap oscillations (noted on the hin:re-mo.nent-
coefficient curves by dashed lines) occ'irred on somne
balance arrangements as a result of buffeting due to an
alternately stalled flow condit-on.. The oscillations
increased with flap deflection, overhn-r-n and ursealing
the gap. The elli.tical-nose flap C'avs oscillations over
a larger range of angle of attack a:-ni fiLp deflection
than the blunt-nose flap. Since a flexible torque tube
was used in measuring the flan hinre i'.oments, the ozcil-
lations depend partly on the toroquc tube and partly on
the mass balance of the flap. .-eclluse of the heaviness
of the model, the oscillations 1.iay :.e more severe in the
wind tunnel than in flight.

The hinge-moment paramet';rs for the various arrange-
ments tested are given in table III. The parameter Chf,
was measured at a = 6f = 0 and Chi. between
6f = 00 and 50. Although measured nt only one point or
over a sniall range, the values of the )arameters are
useful in comparing some relative merits of the various
balance arrangements tested.

Sealing the gap at the flap nose, except on the plain
flap, made the value of Chfa move in a negative direc-
tion; sealing the cap made the value of Chff move in a
negative direction, except on te blunt overhang.
negative direction, except on the O.SOfc blunt overhang.







8 NACA ARR No. L4Tilf


The O.50cf overhang produced overbalance through
a part of the range of flap deflection regardless of the
nose shape and gap. (See figs. 9 to 12 and table III.)
Overbalance occurred over a wider range of angle of
attach and flap deflection in the section data presented
in reference 5 than in the finite-span data of the
present investigation.


Drag

Altho.fgh the drag coefficients cannot be considered
absolute because of an unknown tunnel correction, the
relative values mnay be independent of tunnel effects.
The draft coefficients as functions of angle of attack at
various flap deflections are shown in figures 5 to 12.
"he min-ir.um drag coefficient was h-.-:tained with the plain
sealed flap end had tne value, of 0.0110. At large flap
deflections for positive angles of attack, the drag coef-
ficients generally increased with increase in overhang
and were higher for the blunt nose than for the elliptical
nose.

The drag coeff'icients arce ,plotted in figure 15
against the lift coefficients for the 0.5cf blunt and
elliptical overhangs, seal3ed and unsealed, with a = 00
and 5, ranging from 0 to 5.00. For all these arrange-
ments, the drag coeffic-ients '...,re the same at E.:nall lift
coefficients and .flap deflections. At. lar-3 fla- deflec-
tions, the elliptical n'oe ;ave ....ce lift than the blunt
nose -w.:th approximately the ca:.e za.cunt of drag.


Pitching; i.o....-nt

Thr pit.i]inarig-i.mimint parara tcrs (C', \ and (Cnn)
r 4) I CL
cablej III) inljicaLt the .ositco.- of Lte aerod-nwnic center
of th-e nirfoil withl respect to th. 0'.3-c point. ,'hen
the lift. .as vcri-rd ty ch&aninr ':-?: an-le of attack with
the flap neutral, the aerodynr,-ic cen-er- .'was Iccated at
the 0.2%'c t O.l0c station for t':ic v.riov, fla.p arrangs-
ments tested. The aerodv.namic cen,:cr of lift dcue to flap
deflection was located at the O.',lc 1 0.0 station, but
there was no s-,st?-imtic "ariatiron .ith cL:nges in balance
ariannge meent; the point :.-ovcd rear-...ard aa-'oximately
13 percent with a decrease front infinite aspocL ratio to
an aspect ratio of F.










IIACA ARR Io. L4Tllf


Tab Characteristics

Previous investigations have shown that th- tab
characteristics of a balanced flap are similar to those
for a tab on a plain flap and are generally in-lependent
of flap nose shape; hence, only a limited investigation
of tab characteristics has besn i.ade. This investigation
Mt
consisted of tests of a balancin"- tab with -1
66.
on the plain sealed flap (fig. i1.) and the unsealed
0.55cf elliptical overhang (fig 15).

The value of Chf. which shows the effectiveness

of the tab in reducing the flap hin e-iroment coefficients,
was ajirox:imately the same icr both flaps tested; the
value w.as -0.003 for the seal,-rl plaj.n flap and -0.00 for
the unsealed 0.55cf overhang. As was expected, the use
of the balancing tab resulted in s.naller increments of
lift 'hen the flap wias d3flectud. -.e variation of lift
coffic5ient with tab deflection :',as approximately the
same for bnth the plain flap a'id t'-e O.5 5c overhang.

The overbalan2e of the flao with O.5 cf overhang,
which has been previously discussed, could be overcome
by the use of a differentially operated unrbalancin! tab
deflected in the sane direction ,s2 the flap.


Comparison with Data in 'wroi-Di:'enrsional Flow

The lift and hinp-e-:ioiient Iarietc-r of the airfoil
and flap were computed from data in two-dimensional flow
according to the method of the lifting-line theory pre-
sented in reference 5. Ldcg-velocit, corrections to the
liftinC-line theory for the effect of the chord (refer-
ence 6) were applied in the comn!.utation of CL with the
substitution of values for E for the elliptical plan
form of the same aspect ratio, where E is the ratio of
the se:niperimeter to the span. Corrections for streamline
curvature for an elliptical plan form were applied to Chf

(reference 9). These methods of co:miuting CL and Chfa

are believed to be the most accurat-e methods available at
the present time.









HACA ARR No. LJIllf


The lift and hinge-imoment parameters, both the
measured values and the v-lues cctiouted from section data,
are given in table TII. The -nedium-nose overhang referred
to in reference 5 had the same nose shape as the elliptical-
nose overhang tested in the present investigation. Tunnel
corrections, theoretically determined in a manner similar
to the method presented in reference 8, were applied to
the section hinge-moment coefficients of reference 5
before the parameters were calculated.

The calculated slope of the lift curve generally was
slightly higher than the M asurcd slope. The values of
the section lift effectiveness parh;neter af for the
plain flap and for the flap with 0.55cf overhang agreed
reasonably well with the finite-span values, but the
section values for the flap with 0.50cy overhang were
more negative than the finite-span values. Because the
flap chord was a constant percentage of the airfoil chord,
no corrections were necessary for aspect ratio.

The computed and measured flap hinge-moment parameters
are compared in figure lb. The values of Chfa and Chf6

computed by use of lifting-line theory wcre more negative
than the measured values. A-nlicaton of additional
aspect-ratio corrections, determined from a lifting-
surface-theory solution for an elliptical wing (reference 9),
made the computed values of Chf more positive so as to
approach rore nearly the measured values of Chf. Aspect-
ratio corrections determined by lifting-surface theory are
not yet available for Ch *



CONCLTUS I O0iS


Tests have been made in thrce-di:.ensional flow of
an 'ACA 0009 rectangular semispan tail surface equipped
with a plain flap and with balanced flaps of blunt and
elliptical nose shapes. The flap chord was 50 percent
of the airfoil chord. The results of the present tests
and a comparison with previously published results of
tests of the same airfoil in two-diiiensional flow indi-
cated the following conclusions:






?NACA ART ',o. L).11If


1. Sealing the rap at the flap nose increased the
slope of the lift curve, but the balance nose shape and
the amount of overhang had little effect on the Flope.

2. The effectiveness cf the flap was
SCL
greatest for the unsealed blant-n)se overhangs, but stall
over the flap occurred at lower flap electionss on the
blunt-nose than on the ellipt cal-nose flaps. At zero
anglc of attack, the variation of lift with flap defleo-
tion re-.;,ined the came or increased with sealing the gap
at the flar nose.

,. Sealing the gap at trhe flan: nose made the varia-
tion of the flap hinge-moment ccefficient with angle of
attack or with flao deflection g-enerally Iiove in a nega-
tive direction.

)4. The 50-percent-flap-chord overhang was over-
balanced ever a part of the flap deflection range regard-
less of the nose shape and the at the flap nose.

5. '.'Then the lift was varied b-. chanCing the angle
of attack: at a flap deflection of 00, the aerodynamic
center wa.s located rt approxi-:'.tel" the 22-percent-chord
station for all arrangements tested. The aerodynamic
center of lift due to flap deflection (the aspect ratio
beinc ) was located at or n.'ar t'-e 1-nercent-chord
station vnd showed slight but not systematic variation
with balance changes.

6. At large flap defletions for positive angles of
attack, the drag coefficients cin.erally increPsed with
an increase in overhang and were highEr for the blunt
nose thar for the elliptical nose; at lar-e flare deflec-
tions, the elliptical nore cP-av nore lift than the blunt
nose with approximately the srm- amount of drag.

7. The effectiveness of the tab in reducing the flap
hinge-noment coefficients was appro.:xi.ately Che same for
both the sealed plain flap and tih unsealed 55-percent-
flap-chord elliptical overhang; also, the variation of
lift coefficient with tab deflection was, approximately
the same for both these flap arrangements.

3. The calculation of the finite-span lift and hinge-
moment parameters from data in two-dimensional flow







12 !ACA ARR :I.. LLIllf


according to the method of lifting-line theory, modified
by ed.,e-vcl.ocf.t corrections, showal that the values of
the lift-crrv- slo-erewere slightly hg.Cher and the hirngie-
monont parameters .ver ornore negative than the v.lui.
.measrred in tihre-,Cn.riensioral i'?o;!. Application of
aspect--atio cor-recticns determined frc.n a liftin--ri.r.faco-
theory solution for an elliptical plan form .i;-,e Lh.
co:nIuted valLIus of LIe6 variatij.~ of' the hirgc.-.oecent
coeff icLriet wi.th' an,'Ie of att,.ri! 'm ore Coo itive ro as to
approach r.cre nearly the; ..reaslred va]u.s.


Lang.ley r'cmorial AMrcr._.; intic.i1. Lab.,ortr ory
'.at ncral dvisor, C,.,r"'it',:ee for 1.'A orn :utics
lan- y T'icl:-, "-.,










NACA ARR No. LEIllf


RE7PRLENCES


1. Sears, Richard I.: Wind-i-Tunrncl Investigation of
Control-Surface Characteristics. I Effect of
Cap on the Aerodynamic Charactcristics of an
;ACA 0009 Airfoil with a )O-Percent-Chord Flain
Flap. NACA ARR, June 1941.

2. Sears, Richard I., and FTog ar., H. Page, Jr.: Wind-
Tunnel Investigation of Control-Surface Character-
istics. II A Large Aorddyna,.lic Balance of Various
Nose Shapes with a 30-Percent-Chord Flap on an
NACA 0009 Airfoil. iIACA APR, ftug. 1941.

5. A:.ies, Milton B., Jr.: ;iindr-Turnel Investigation of
Control-Surface Characteristics. III A Small
Aerodynamic Balance of Vlag'iois iJose Shapes Used
with a 50-Percent-Chord ~ir.o on an IJACA 0000 Airfoil.
ITACA ARR, Aug. 1941.

4. Ames, "ilton ?., Jr., and Zast'an, Donald R., Jr.:
'n-ind-Tunnel Invest istion of Control-Surface Charac-
teristics. IV A 'ediurm Aerodynamic Balance of
VarirouF rose Shares Used with a O-Percent-Chord
Flap on an FACA 0009 klrfoil. ':ACA ATR, Sept. 1901.

5. Sears, Richard I.: Wind-Tunnel Data oa the Aerodynamic
Characteristics of Airplane Control Surfaces. ITACA
ACR No. 5LOS, 191;3.

6. Jones, Robert T.: Correction of the Lift inr-.ine
Theory for the Effect of the Chord. NACA TIT Ho. 817,
1941.

7. '.enzinger, Car] J., and Harris, Thomas A.: The Vertical
WVind Tunnel of the N1ational Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics. NTACA Rep. o. 567, 1951.

8. Swanson, Robert S.,and Toll, Thomas A.: Jet-Boundary
Corrections for Reflection-Plane i'-odels in Rectan-
gular Wind Tunnels. HIACA AF:R No. 5L22, 1943.

9. Swanson, Robert S., and Gillis, Clarence L.: Limita-
ticns of Lifting-Line Theory for Lstimation of
Aileron Hinge-M4omaent Characteristics. UiACL CB
.To. 5L02, 1943.









NACA ARR No. L4Illf


TABLE I

ORDINATES FOR NACA 0009 AIRFOIL
(All dimensions in percent chord)


Ordinates
Station
Upper Lower

0 0 0
1.25 1.42 -1.142
2.5 1.96 -1.96
5.0 2.07 -2.67
7.5 5.15 -5.15
10 .51 -5.51
15 .oi -.01
20 -43 O
25 +.L6 -1 (.6
20 1.50 -1.50
50 .97 -5.Q7
60 3.h2 -?.2
70 2.75 -2.75
o 1.97 -1.97
90 1.on -1.09
95 .60 -.60
100 (.10) (-.10)
100 0 0

L.E. radius = 0.89


NATIONAL ADVISORY
CODDITTLE FOR AERONAUTICS







NACA ARR No. L4Illf


T.BEI II

ELLIPT CAL-OViT 4 C- P' CFILO '

(All dimensions in pcr :rint chord)



.. .. -- -- --- --r- --- ----
Station Ordinatc Staticn Cri; nat-
._ ____ _. ............ ... ...- .. .. .....

0 0 0 I
.15 i 5 c1 .2 ,
.0 .97 5 1.2;
1.00 1.35 3.5 1.63
2.00 i 1.79 2.32 1.
35.00 2.0 ".5 2.13
4.c'o 2 1 ;. 5 ,...
5. oo 2 .4!5 3.I .5 2.'
7.00 2.6 6. C5 2.5
9.00 2.71 '| 1. i 2.64
10.c5 I 2.70
I- ", 212. 5 27.-

L.E. radius = 1.05 L.U radio = 1.23


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NACA ARR No. L4111f


0
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b
i`
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NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 3a









5-
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V 20
.8 O-

.6














-.8





-20 -16 -12 -8 -4 0 8 /2 /6
Anl. e of a//ack, 6, deg
Figure 3.- Aerodynamic characteristics of a
rec/angu/lar semispan ai/ surface. Plain flap;
.... sealed gpi 6t-e O 0.30c f/ap; A=3.
.*6 v/0 A- -- -






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 3b




.I .08









--- ,,-
ti Lu i


.22- ---

.20- ,- lr-'-- -- 720


-20 -16 -12 -6 -4 0 6 12 /6
Ana/e of a/lacd, X, dog
Figure 3.-Confinbd.







NACA ARR No. L4Illf








20


.16 -


./2


.08


.04- --
--f-









-28 --
-36 -


-/6 -








.28 --





-36


.40


Fig. 3c


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4-
Angle of a/Hack, c, deg
Figure 3.- Concluded.


6 /2 /6


iii


;ip





IKEA





NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 4a




/4t
12 .1 --- ---- ------V ./-


.6f c O. I r
oro o


.0 Al -./ 'li (Ix ,7






6 ,0 /1


6 ,o,
S- --* -^/--


-1.0


-20 -16 -/2 -6 -4 0 4 8 12 /6
Angle of attach, 6r, deg
Figure I.- Aerodynamic chacracferisOics of a
recfangu/ar semispan fail surface. P/ain f/ap;
aO.5e gap i4 = O 0.30c f/ap ; A =3.






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 4b



I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
_.__ 0-n .0+

IrI

.26 A-w 1











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.6 "I.- t -,


A 5

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0 25
a 30





,'J
SoT








-20 -/6 -/Z -B -4 0 4 8 /2 /6
areAn t e of a/lackt, d 'eg
Figure -.- Con inued.
dto -






NACA ARR No. L4111f


20

.16

.12

.08

.04

S00

", -o






.16




-42






-56

-.40


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 /6
Angle of altack, c deg
Figure 1.- Concluded.


Fig. 4





NACA ARR No. L4111f Fig. 5a









/o0 (de9-) de


1-5 1
o .6 ----- --





0
Iioil/ A J
-4 .>









-20 -16 -12 -6 -4 0 + 8 /2 /6
Angle of allfack, 6r, deg
Figure 5.- Aerodynamic charac e ris lics of a
re-cangu/ar semispan fai/ surface. Flap wifA
0.35cr b/uni over/any; sealed gap ; St=03
0.30c flapi A= 3.
S ~ /,,:-^7 -- -




-20-6 -l -- --0 r 8 2/
-n.l of zt^ac ==== de






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


SI -1-------- -0
.2.,"- O ,




0.0 ,
,--------~~ -1 .04 .

.26 04- 5 / / / /

if3
20


/20 20 ^ 20
deg


/ 0
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.16
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n> o 15 i. a ., ., do
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-20 -/6 -/Z -6 -4- 0 + 8 /2 /6
i-20 -16-1,-8-4- 0 dt 1







A nqle of a lack, C, deq
Figure 5-.- Coilnued.


Fig. 5b







NACA ARR No. L4Illf










.20


.16






.04
Jt3 .--



3?
0 -04 -






u -



4::-





.20

_j 1C _J


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6
Angle of a/ac/rh,, O, de
F/qure 5.- Concluded.


Fig. 5c


_r






NACA ARR No. L4111f Fig. 6a








6- ,
1.4 (deg)


O/0
/.o v 20 de ,6
0 25
i'1




./ i A

S.6
,15.
S71.















i -16 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /Z /6

Angle of afoack, C, deg
Figure 6.- Aerodynamic characteristics of a
rectangu/ar semispan tail /surface. f/ap with
0.3Scf blunt overhang; 0005c gap i 46= 0
0.30c flap; A = 3 .
8 o affqck., Cry deg






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


-20 -16 -/2 -8


08


OQ
Ou

04
a


.-0


10
Ou
-72^
-0
a6

r/


-4 0 4 8 /2 /6


S Anqa/e of aHa/ck, x deg
Friyure 6.- Con 'nued.


I


L
..i. .
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Fig. 6b




I! ," -N ...
.' C R No. 411


NACA ARR No. I4Illf


.20



.16



.12


.06







O


-04-










.16



-20


.36 i I -
-20 -16 -/Z -8 -4 0 4 6 /2 16

Angle of aHftck,, r, deg

Figure 6.- Concluded.


Fig. 6c


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ii
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.i :






:..NACA ARR No. L4Illf








L.
i.::_.
1:.4 1B


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( .2
u

I

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-6

-1.0


-20 -16 -IZ -6 -4 0 4 86 / /6
An/ge of attach, ai deg
Figure 7.-Aerodynamic characieris/f/c of a
rectangular semispan fail surface. Flap with
0.35cf ellipticaloverhang; sealed gap5 Se=0;
S0.30c flap A 3.

......


Fig. 7a






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 7b


S------- .06





__04 m
0__06 -





we
.0
^ic^^^^^smi-Zi -3

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^lE^^^izii~zy-ii'/


-8a -/6 -/Z -6 -4 0 4 6 / /6
Anol/e of aH/acA, ar, deg
Figure 7.- Confin ed.






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 70





:./6

I'.16 ---------------------------------- --- [-1
-------- 6f
.IdZ __ __ _)__
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zO
S15

v 20

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coMI rTE OR AE ONAu CSI
-20 -16 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 6 /2 /6

Angle of a//ackh e deg
Figure 7.- Conc/u ded.


p.7






NACA ARR No. L4111f Fig. 8a





1.4
-(der)
1 =---0 0

--- 5- --------^- F---\
-oo

> 15
Z 5






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-.- r. 2
0v -7- r -f- -


-20 -16b -2 -8 -4 0 4 6 /2 /6
Angle of a/lach, tOC deg
Figure 8.- Aerodynamic characteristics of a
rectangular semispan la/l surface. Flap with
0.35 c eliptical overhang; 0.005c gap; 6t = 0
0.30c flap A= 3.






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 8b



--------------------------------d --
(e o









.24 -- -- 120 0

.2Z deg ^- -/6 '

.20 C- .20

./8
./6

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INACA ARR No. L4Illf






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Fig. 8c


0 20
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1 30






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20-/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4
Angle of attack, c, deg
figure 8 .- Concluded.


8 /2 /6






NACA ARR No. L4111f


.6


0


4-
c7Z


6-
(deg) --


0 /0"
A/ 5
v 20












------1 Y
O'
-10-











,01 MIn' OR .RO I CS


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 /6
Angle of a//ack, j deg
Figure 9 .- Aerodynamic charac feris/'cs of a
rectangular semispan /ai/ surface. Flap with
O.50cf blunt overhang; sea/ed f ap; t=6
0.30c f/ap A=3.


Fig. 9a


t

i,'
li' .
'''




i
''






NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 9b




D8D
eg


--"-."------ ._
"0








2----
110 .




Z -


-20 -/6 -l/ -8 -4 0 4 8 /Z /6
Anile of. atfach C, deg
Figure 9 Continued.







NACA ARR No. L4Illf Fig. 9c


24





./6


1J2









.04


o8



.12
o












-24


O -9 42 -6 -4 0 4 6
Angle of aftack, c, de9
Figure 9.- Concluded.


(deg

0 0
A 5-
o/0


-








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----ap-s l7 on ran-/
- _- -_ __- -u _






OMMN I.E FO I AERI UM


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I
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r
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il







NACA ARR No. L4Illf
N, ACA ARR No. L41I1f


12
















S0
oa


-~ 2


-4


5
9


Fig. lOa


-20 -6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 / /6
Anyle of a//fch Ca, dey
Figure /0 .- Aerodynamic charact eris/ics of a
rectang/ lar scmispan iail surface. Flap with
0.50 cr blunf overhangf 0.005c gap 4 = 0
0.30 c flap j A=3.


p

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SAn/e .of attack, ae, deg
figure 1O.- Con ftl nue.


So
OQ
.04-
13


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o
06


:/2 I

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-20 *


IB






; NACA ARR No. L4111f





EI,


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w 06


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O
1i




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- -20

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Fig. lOc


-20 -16 -/Z -6 -4- 0 4 8
Angle of a/Hach, OC, deg
Figuse /O .- Concluded.


/X /6


c1





NACA ARR No. L411lf


-,J
0^
U
o
-*1.
u

u
0
u
t2*



'3


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6
Angle of atlacA, a, deg
Figure //.- Aerodynamic characteristics of a
rectangular scmispan fail surface. Flap with
0.50cf cll/ptical overhand 9 sealed gap; dL = 0-
0.30c flap ; A=3.


O-0 -- ---- --



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-<30


















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-^^^7 -- --




__ __ __ __ __ __ __ ( MMI1 EE K) ^EROI~ n _U _


Fig. lla







NACA ARR No. L4Illf


Fig. lib




9 -

04

0



U
30


6I
Jz


-20 -16 -/2 -6 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6
Angl/e of aftacA, ,o deg
Figure //.- Cof -nued.






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


24

.20

.16

.12




2.o-
0





I

1/6



.-20

-24


-20 -16 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /1 /6
Angle of al/achk, co deg
Figure //.- Conc/uded.


Fig. llc






NACA ARR No. L4Illf






14-
(d
12 o

10 0

.8


Fig. 12a


-20 -/6 -12 -6 -4 0 4 8 12 /6
Angle of af/ack, ox, deg
Figure /Z.- Aerodynamic charac/eris/ics of a
recfangu/ar semispan tai/ surface. F/lp with
0.50cf elliptical overhang 0.005c gap; 6t4.0f
0.30c flap A 3.


* I






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


.04

o




OQ
-D4







-/6

-20
-W^


-20 -/6 -/~ -6 -4 0 4- 6 /2 /6
iAng/e of allac, e dog
Figure /2.- Cont Inued.


Fig. 12b'






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


24

20

.16

./2


^ J04
.u




i-.04









20

-24-


-20 -16 -/2 -6 -4- 0 4 8 /2 16
Angle of aHackh, 6 deg
figure /I .- Concluded.


Fig. 12c





NACA ARR No. L4Illf


4ose shape Gap

.20 B/unt Sealed o
Blun t 0.005 c
El/ip ica/ Sealed ---e
ellipticall O.OOSc --
./1 6/



S.//


O .08





NATIONAL ADVISOR
0 COMMIT fEE FOI AERON UTICS

-Z. 0 ." .8

Lift coefficient CL

Figure /3.- Dray coefficient as
a function of //ft coefficient for
a rectang/lar semnispan tail surface with
a 0.30c f/lap having a 0.35qC overhans.
O = 00; A=3.


Fig. 13






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


-B

-10

-/9


oo
--(eg-------

--s "2 ------- /
0O / -
& 5
__5 z" o,0/
7-- z^ 20-7 -










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O Ir FOR r lPA IICS
iz'^^^z~zmzzz
7/.," ,,
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-d ^==m====
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---~, ---, -- H l IL A l.i
,,;' / / /ic rR/O~ic


-24 -20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4
Angle of afrack, or, deg
figure /1-.-Aerodynamic characters ics
rectangular semispan fail surface ..
sealed gap s a6t/1Sf = -/; 0.30c flap;


6 /2


of a
Plain flap
A-3.


Fig. 14a





NACA ARR No. L4Illf






4-- -^------


.26 --- d

,26 .





.22 /
-^,^ ^ 6f -
20 ( de/
(dgq0
./6 o o ---- -
A5
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An qe n dof lffack, ix dey
Figua,-e /---Co i e 0 a


Fig. 14b


0
-044




.12
-.04






-/6 ,

20 .


/2 /6






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


.24 f
(de,
------fdey)- -------
.20- 0 0
-fo O O

----- 7 5 0- ----- -
S50
.16 0 /0
> /5
7 zo--
./2 ----- OZ5





co
0. ---5----- --- --


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12




: 20


-24-

-28


-24 -20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8
Angle of altack, xc de
Figure /4--Conc/ude d.


/2 /6


Fig. 14c






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


.4
03

t4,
< rf
o .&

;
5 0-


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 6 /2 /6
Angle of aHtack, AC, deg
Figure /5.-Aerodynamic characferis hcs of a
rectangular semispan tail surface. Flap wifh
0.35cf e//iplical overhangs O.05c gapj a4/66 = -/;
0.30c f/lap A=3.


Fig. 15a







NACA ARR No. L4Illf













.2j


24-













./-
./




.14 -'--
./O ---






o/







02.
06

Q D



02
0 -


Fig. 15b


.08


.04-


0 )











16

-20
-46-


-20 -/6 -/2 -6 -4- 0 4 8 /2 /6
ure /S.- Aple of aiack, a dog
fiylure I5.- Con inued.






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


.24

.20

.16

.12




.04




S..









-20


-.24


-20 -/6 -12 -6 -4 0 4 8 12 /
Anqle of attack, OC, deg
Figure /5.- Corncluded.


Fig. 15c






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


-00O



-.006



.008



" .oo0



*b 0



-.001-



-.008


0 .1 .2 .3 5
Overhang, ch /cf
(a) Sealed gap.
Figure /6.- Variation of flap hinge-moment
para me ,ers with overhang for a rectangular
semispan tail surface 0.30c flap; 4 = 3.


Fig. 16a






NACA ARR No. L4Illf


0


:OOQ
00t



-008





.008



.00







-.004


-008


Fig ure


0 .z .3
Overhangs cb/cr
(b) 0.005c ganp.
/6.- Con c/uded.


Fig. 16b














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