A flight investigation of NACA aileron modifications for the improvement of the lateral control characterisitcs of a hig...

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Title:
A flight investigation of NACA aileron modifications for the improvement of the lateral control characterisitcs of a high-speed fighter airplance
Series Title:
NACA WR
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
12, 22 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Williams, Walter C
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ailerons   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: A flight investigation was made to improve the lateral control of a high-speed fighter airplane. Tests were made of the airplance with the original aileron installation and with a set of modified ailerons developed by the NACA. This modification consisted of an increased balance chord and increased nose radius. In order to determine the best aileron performance with the NACA modified aileron, tests were made with various aileron-deflection ranges and riggings with the original control assembly and with an experimental differential control unit developed by the manufacturer. The test program included the speed range from 150 to 400 miles per hour.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 12).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Walter C. Williams.
General Note:
"Originally issued December 1945 as Advance Confidential Report L5J29."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003804734
oclc - 123896095
System ID:
AA00009388:00001


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V


ACR No. L5J29


NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS





WAIRTIIME REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
December 1945 as
Advance Confidential Report L5J29

A FLIGHT INVESTIGATION OF NACA AILERON MODIFICATIONS FOR THE
IMPROVEMENT OF THE LATERAL CONTROL CHARACTERISTICS
OF A HIGH-SPEED FIGHTER AIRPLANE
By Walter C. Williams


Langley Memorial Aeronautical
Langley Field, Va.


Laboratory


WASHINGTON


NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
I viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.


L 194







































Digitized by Ihe Inlelmel Archive
in 2011 With Iunding Irom
University ol Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries wilh support from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


http://vwww.archive.org details llighinnviOOlang










NACA ACR No. L5J29

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


ADVANCE CONFIDETTIAL REPORT

A FLIGHT INVESTIGATION OF NACA AILERON MODIFICATIONS FOR THE

IMPROVEMENT OF THE LATERAL CONTROL CHARaCTERISTICS

OF A HIGH-SPEED FIGHTER AIRPLANE

By Walter C. Williams


SUMMARY


A flight investigation was made to improve the lateral
control of a high-speed fighter airplane.- Tests were made
of the airplane with the original aileron installation and
with a set of modified ailerons developed by the NACA.
This modification consisted of an increased balance chord
and increased hose radius. in order to determine the best
aileron performance .with the NACA modified aileron, tests
were made with various aileron-deflection ranges and
riggings with the original control assembly and with an
experimental differential control unit developed by the
manufacturer. The test program included the speed range
from 150 to 400 miles per hour.

The NACA modified ailerons with either of two
mechanical advantages were found to improve the aileron
performance over that obtained with the original ailerons.
The modified ailerons with a deflection range of 150 and
the differential control unit appreciably increased the
aileron effectiveness obtainable at level-flight speeds
with a 50-pound stick force, but showed a slight decrease
in the effectiveness obtainable at a speed of 400 miles
per hour with a 50-pound stick force.' On'the other hand,
the modified ailerons with a deflection range of 135.14
and the modified differential control unit gave only a
slight increase in the effectiveness obtainable at level-
flight speeds, but gave an appreciable increase in the
aileron effectiveness obtained at a speed of 400 miles
per hour with a 50-pound stick force. Indications were
that the aileron structure would need to be strengthened,
however, before the latter arrangement could be safely
used.








NACA ACR No. L5J29


INTRODUCTION


The original ailerons of a high-speed fighter air-
plane gave very light stick forces at small aileron
deflections, but because of separation about the very
sharp aileron leading edge, the forces near full deflec-
tion were very heavy. The sharp-nose balance on this
aileron was also considered to be the cause of aileron
overbalance and oscillation in extreme high-speed dives.
It appeared that a balance of increased nose radius would
eliminate the separation about the balance nose at high
aileron deflections and would also decrease the tendency
of the aileron to overbalance at extremely high speeds.
The NACA, therefore, undertook a flight investigation to
determine the control characteristics of modified ailerons
on the airplane. Tests were also made to determine the
characteristics of the original ailerons in order to have
comparable data.


SMABOLS


p rolling velocity, radians per second

b wing span,. feet


Vi indicated airspeed, miles per hour

(reference 1)


V true airspeed, feet per second (reference 1)

q dynamic pressure, pounds per square foot
fPV2 KPoVi 2) (reference 1)

cw average wing chord of portion of wing ahead of
aileron

"a average aileron chord

cb average aileron balance chord


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NACA ACR io. L'SJ29


AIRPLANE AND APPARATUS


The plan form of the airplane and the location of
the ailerons are shown in figure 1. Sections of the
original aileron and the NACA modified aileron are com-
pared in figure 2. Figure 3 is a schematic sketch showing
the original aileron control assembly and the experimental
differential control unit that was used in the latter part
of the tests. The dimensions pertinent to the aileron
installation are as follows:

Wing span, feet. . 0.776
Wing area, square feet ............ 300
Wing plan form ...... Elliptical
Aileron area, square feet ...... 9.54
Aileron chord, fraction cw ..... ... .1
Original aileron balance chord, fraction ca 0.375
NACA modified aileron balance chord,
fraction ca 0402
fraction. .. . . 0.402

Airspeed, rolling velocity, and aileron position and
stick force were measured by standard NACA flight instru-
ments. The control deflections were measured at the
ailerons in all of the tests except those of the produc-
tion ailerons,- and in this case they were measured at the
control stick..


TESTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION


The aileron characteristics were measured in abrupt
aileron rolls from laterally level flight with the rudder
held fixed. Records were taken of airspeed, rolling
velocity, control position, and stick force. From these
data, the variation of aileron effectiveness pb/2V and
aileron operating force with aileron deflection was deter-
mined. Aileron rolls were made at increments of approxi-
mately 50 miles per hour indicated airspeed from 150 to
400 miles per hour for most of the aileron arrangements
tested.

The aileron test program can be divided as follows:

(1) Tests of the original aileron installation


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


(2) Tests of the NACA modified ailerons, having
wooden leading edges with the following riggings:

(a) Deflection range from -160 to 120(original
aileron differential and mechanical
advantage)

(b) Deflection range of 11l

(c) Deflection range of 150

(d) Deflection range of 150 with original
differential control unit

(5) Tests of all-metal ailerons built by the
manufacturer to conform to measurements, made by
their personnel, of the NACA modified ailerons and
a modified differential control unit giving a deflec-
tion range of 13.40; tests were made with the fol-
lowing riggings:

(a) Normal rigging

(b) Rigging with --inch shim between the aileron
16
and hinge bracket, which in effect moved
the hinge line forward, and thus reduced
the aileron balance

(c) Rigging for 0.60 droop

(d) Rigging for 0.950 droop

For each aileron installation tested, results are
presented to show:

(1) The variation of right and left aileron
angle with stick position

(2) The variation of the helix angle pb/2V
with change in total aileron angle

(5) The change in aileron stick force with
change in total aileron angle

Tests were made with the original aileron installa-
tion, so that any tests made with the modified ailerons


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NACA ACR THo. L5J29


on the airplane would be directly comparable. The char-
acteristics of this aileron installation are given in
figures -, '5, and 6. Figure 4 gives the variation of
right and left aileron angle with stick position. The
variation of helix angle pb/2V with change in total
aileron angle for various indicated airspeeds is given in
figure 5, and figure 6 shows the change in aileron stick
force with change in total aileron angle for various air-
speeds. These data indicate that the aileron stick forces
were quite light for small aileron deflections, but that
they became very heavy before full deflection was reached,
as shown by the sharp rise in the force curves beyond half
the total aileron deflection. An aileron shake was also
present.

The stick-force characteristics presented in fig-
ure 6 indicated that separation was occurring around the
sharp nose of the aileron balance. It was felt that an
increase in nose radius would eliminate separation within
the aileron-deflection range used. With an increase in
nose radius, however, a decrease of aerodynamic balance
would be expected in the range of small aileron deflec-
tions. In order to obtain the same amount of aerodynamic
balance with a well-rounded nose as was obtained with the
sharp nose, an increase in the chord of the balance was
considered desirable. An aileron balance of increased
nose radius and increased chord was then designed, and a
pair of ailerons was modified to incorporate this balance.
The leading edges of these ailerons were made of wood.
The nature of this change can be seen in figure 2, which
compares the original aileron and the NACA modified
aileron.

In the first installation of the modified ailerons,
the aileron differential and mechanical advantage of the
original installation were used. Figure 7 gives the
variation of right and left aileron angle with stick
position. The flight-test data are presented in figure 8
as t.he variation of pb/2V and change in aileron stick
for;-' with change in total aileron angle. It can be
see"- by comparing figure 8 with figure 5 that the effec-
tiveui.-.s per degree aileron deflection Is increased with
the nm dified ailerons, which indicates that separation
does not occur over the nose of the modified ailerons.
The aileron-stick-force data as given in figure 8 show
that, beyond half of the total aileron deflection, the
variation of aileron stick force with aileron deflection
reversed slope. This lightening in the stick force


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


indicated possible aileron overbalance. It is interesting
to note that, in the range of total aileron angle where
the force variation is linear, up and down aileron deflec-
tions are about equal (fig. 7); beyond the total aileron
deflection at which the slope reversal occurs there is
more up aileron than down. This result indicates that
the up aileron was providing more balance than was needed
to obtain a uniform variation of stick force with aileron
deflection. On the basis of these data tests were planned
of the NACA modified ailerons rigged to give equal up and
down aileron deflection throughout the deflection range.

Aileron bell cranks that would give an aileron-
deflection range of approximately 11 were available.
Although the use of these bell cranks would cause a
reduction in the available pb/2V because of the
restricted aileron travel, it was felt that the data
obtained from tests with this deflection range would
indicate whether or not equal up and down aileron travel
would eliminate the reversal in slope of the variation of
stick force with aileron deflection. The relation of the
motion of the right and left aileron with stick deflection
is given in figure 9. The data obtained in flight are
given in figures 10 and 11 in the same form as that for
the preceding-data. Inspection of the aileron-stick-
force curves given in figure 11 shows that the slope
reversal was eliminated.

Upon completion of the tests of the NACA modified
ailerons with the deflection range of 11, it was decided
to increase the total aileron-deflection range and thus to
increase the available pb/2V. Aileron bell cranks that
would give a deflection range of 150 were designed and
manufactured. The motion of'the right and left aileron
with stick deflection obtained with these bell cranks is
given-in figure 12. The stick travel to the right was
limited by the balance of-the downgoing left aileron
striking the face of the slot. The flight-test data for
this modification are presented in figures 13 and 14.
Figure 15 shows that a value of pb/2V of 0.097 was
obtained. It should also be noted that the slope of the
stick-force curves in figure 14 is greater than that of
the curves in figure 11, because of the decreased
mechanical advantage with the aileron deflection range
of 150.

From the data obtained in the tests described thus
far, figure 15 was constructed. This figure gives the


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


values of pb/2V obtained throughout the speed range
with a 50-pound stick-force limitation for the original
ailerons, the NACA modified ailerons with a deflection
range of 11, and the NACA modified ailerons having a
deflection range of 150. It can be seen from this fig-
ure that the NACA modified ailerons with a deflection
range of 150 caused an appreciable increase over the
original ailerons in the pb/2V obtained at level-flight
speeds, but the rolling obtained at diving speeds was
reduced.

When the tests that have been described were com-
pleted, the manufacturer became interested in the
NACA modified ailerons. A lateral control problem
peculiar to extremely high speeds had arisen; the original
ailerons were overbalancing and oscillating in high-speed
dives. The NACA modified aileron, which gave lower pres-
sure peaks with the round-nose balance than did the
original aileron with the sharp-nose balance,.was con-
sidered to be less susceptible to this overbalancing con-
dition. In addition to giving lower pressure peaks, the
NACA modified balance does not unport as early as the
original balance, which should delay any "snatch" in the
ailerons. It was felt, however, that the pb/2V available
with a 50-pound stick force at high speeds with the
NACA modified ailerons should be increased. In order to
accomplish this improvement in control at high speeds,
the manufacturer suggested a differential control unit;
this differential control unit is a device that gives
increased mechanical advantage at the smaller aileron
deflections and a resultant decrease in mechanical
advantage near full deflection. The control unit was
incorporated in the stick cradle. (See fig. 5(b).)

Figure 16 gives the variation of right and left
aileron angle with stick position obtained with the dif-
ferential control unit. The results presented in this
figure show that, in addition to the changes in mechanical
advantage described previously, an increase in the over-
all mechanical advantage of approximately 9 percent over
the NACA installation was obtained. This increase was
caused by the increased stick travel. The differential
control unit used 9.8 inches of stick travel to obtain
aileron deflections of 150, whereas the IACA installa-
tion used 9 inches, which is the army standard (refer-
ence 2), to obtain the same deflection range. The data
obtained from the flight tests are shown in figures 17
and 18. A comparison of figures 18 and 14 shows that the


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NACA-ACR No. L5J29


differential control unit changed the variation of stick
force with aileron deflection from linear to a curve with
lower forces at the small deflections and higher forces
at full deflections. 'For direct comparison, a curve
showing the values of pb/2V obtained throughout the
speed range with the NACA modified ailerons and the dif-
ferential control unit was plotted on figure 15. Inspec-
tion of this curve shows that, although the values
of pb/2V obtainable at level-flight speeds were some-
what reduced with the differential control unit, an
increase of approximately 20 percent was obtained in the
effectiveness for a 50-pound stick force at a speed of
400 miles per hour.

Upon completion of the tests described in the
preceding paragraph, the differential control unit was
modified by the manufacturer to obtain a greater increase
in mechanical advantage at the sacrifice of some aileron
deflection.. The manufacturer also constructed a set of
all-metal ailerons made to the same contour as that of
the NACA modified aileron. The modified differential
control unit gave an aileron-deflection range of approxi-
mately 13.4, with the same stick travel as that of the
Original differential control unit. The variation of
left and right aileron deflection with stick position is
shown in figure 19. The flight-test data are presented
in figures 20 and 21. A comparison of the force data
given in-figure 21 with that given in figure 18 shows
that, except for approximately the first 710 of aileron
2
deflection, the metal ailerons and modified differential
control unit had lighter stick forces than did the
NTACA aileron and original differential control unit.
Comparison of the aileron deflections obtainable at high
speeds with unpublished data on the loads on the ailerons,
however, showed that it was possible for the pilot to
obtain aileron deflections at which critical aileron
loads are incurred. Steps were then taken to increase
the aileron forces.

The first modification tested consisted of a ---inch
16
shim placed between the aileron and the hinge bracket,
which in effect moved the hinge line forward and thus
reduced the aileron balance. Figure 22 gives the varia-
tion of right and left aileron angle with stick position
with the 1--inch shim in place. Figures 25 and 24 give
16


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


the data obtained in flight for the ailerons with --inch
16
shims in place. Comparison of the aileron-stick-force
data presented in figure 24 with that of figure 21 shows
that the shims increased the stick forces somewhat. It
was felt, however, that drooping the ailerons would accom-
plish more in reducing the danger of exceeding tlte aileron
deflections for critical loads than would the shims. The
critical aileron deflections were up-aileron angles.
Drooping the ailerons would not only increase the stick
forces but would also, for the same change in total
aileron angle, result in lower up-aileron angles. Tests
were made with the ailerons drooped 0.60 and 0.950. The
data obtained with ailerons drooped 0.60 are given in-
figures 25, 26, and 27. These figures give, respectively,
the variation of right and left aileron angle with stick
position, the variation of helix angle pb/2V with change
in total aileron angle, and the change in aileron stick
force with change in total aileron angle. In like manner,
figures 23, 29, and 50 present the data obtained with the
ailerons drooped 0.950. Comparison of the force data
given in figures 27 and 50 for the drooped ailerons with
the force data of figure 21 for the ailerons rigged nor-
mally shows that drooping the ailerons not only increased
the stick forces but also made their variation with
aileron deflection more nearly linear.. Comparison of
these stick-force data with the unpublished data on
aileron loads showed that the ailerons with 0.950 droop
would make it impossible for the pilot to exceed the
critical aileron deflections. It should also be noted
that if the modified ailerons tended to overbalance at
extremely high speeds in a manner shnilar to the original
ailerons, the overbalance could be lessened by drooping
the ailerons.

In order to show more clearly the effects of the
small modifications tested,the results are summarized in
figure 31, which gives the values of pb/2V obtained
with a 50-pound stick force throughout the speed range
with the modified differential control unit and the all-
metal modified ailerons with normal rigging, ---inch
16
shim, 0.60 droop, and 0.950 droop. This figure shows
that highly balanced surfaces such as the ailerons tested
are very sensitive to small changes in rigging.

Figure 32 was prepared so that a selection could be
made of the mechanical advantage to be used with the


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


modified ailerons to produce the best all-round aileron
performance. The NACA modified ailerons with a deflec-
tion range of 150 and the original differential control
unit gave the best performance of the modified-aileron
configurations presented in figure 15. The best per-
formance of the configurations presented in figure 31 is
given by the metal modified ailerons with the normal
rigging and the modified differential control unit. It
must be remembered,'however, that the latter arrangement
can be used only if the ailerons are strengthened. Fig-
ure 32 gives the pb/2V values obtained with a 50-pound
stick force throughout the speed range with the two aileron
installations just described. Data for the original
ailerons are included on this figure as a reference.
Inspection of this figure shows that the modified ailerons
with either mechanical advantage show an appreciable
increase in effectiveness over that obtained with the
original ailerons with a 50-pound stick force. The
modified ailerons with a deflection range of 150 and the
original differential control unit offer an appreciable
increase in pb/2V obtainable with a 50-pound stick force
at level-flight speeds but give a slight decrease at a
speed of 400 miles per hour. The modified ailerons with
a deflection range of 13.4. and the modified differ-
ential control unit show an increase in pb/2V obtainable
with a 50-pound stick force throughout the speed range.
This increase is small at level-flight speeds but is
appreciable at a speed of .00 miles per hour.

No quantitative data are available on the modified
ailerons at extremely high speeds, but high-speed dives
are reported to have been made with these ailerons with-
out overbalance or aileron oscillations being encountered.
It is believed that the ailerons in this case had a
deflection range of 150 with the differential control
unit and were drooped about 10. With this arrangement
the values of pb/2V obtained with a 50-pound stick
force would be somewhat less than those obtained with
the similar arrangement without droop shown in figure 52.
The effects of droop are shown in figure 51.


CONCLUSIONS


From the results of flight tests made to improve
the lateral control of a high-speed fighter airplane,
the following conclusions were drawn:


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NACA hCR No. L5J29


1. The data demonstrate that the problem of aerody-
namically balancing control surfaces on high-speed air-
planes is complex, since the aerodynamic balance necessary
for satisfactory control-operating forces is very sensitive
to small changes in rigging and balance contour.

2. NACA modified ailerons were developed with an
increased balance chord and increased nose radius and
were found, with either of two mechanical advantages, to
improve the aileron performance over that obtained with
the original ailerons. The modified ailerons with a
deflection range of 150 and a differential control unit
developed by the manufacturer appreciably increased the
aileron effectiveness obtainable at level-flight speeds
with a 50-pound stick force but showed a slight decrease
in the effectiveness obtainable at a speed of 400 miles
per hour with a 50-pound stick force. On the other hand,
the modified ailerons with a deflection range of 15.40
and a modified differential control unit gave only a
slight increase in the effectiveness obtainable at level-
flight speeds but gave an appreciable increase in the
aileron effectiveness obtained at a speed of 400 miles
per hour with a 50-pound stick force. Indications were
that the aileron structure would need to be strengthened,
however, before the latter arrangement could be safely
used.

3. The NACA modified ailerons appear to offer a
solution to the problem of aileron overbalance and oscil-
lation in high-speed dives with the airplane tested.


Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Langley Field, Va.


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12 CONFIDENTIAL NACA ACR No. L5J29


REFERENCES


1. Thompson, F. L., and Zalovcik, John A.: Airspeed
Measurements in Flight at High Speeds. NACA ARR,
Oct. 1942.

2. Anon.: Handbook of Instructions for Airplane Designers.
Vol. I, Materiel Div., Army Air Corps, 8th ed.,
Revision 6, Oct. 1, 191c2.


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CONFIDENTIAL


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
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NACA ACR No. L5J29


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


CONFIDENTIAL

it-t --- i I-_ _


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Original aileron installation
--- ACA modified ailerons; aileron-
deflection range, 11o
- AC modified alleronai aileron-
deflection range. 1lb5
ACA modified ailerons; original
differential control unit;
aileran-deflection range, *15


NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOI AERONAUTICS


490 3S30 1t 360 400
//,lcafed amsroJeead, V-, nph


440


Figure 15. Variation of helix angle pb/2V with lndioated airspeed
for a 50-pound stiok force. Original aileron installationl
N&CA modified ailerone with defleotlon range of l110;
LACA modified allerars with deflection range of 1150:
and SACA modified ailerons with deflection range of 115c
and original differential control unit.


I I
/-Le ft a//eron


S" -P ht1 Aileron





NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS







S/ CONFIDENTIAL
6 12! 8 4 0 4 8 Z2 /6
Down Up
Alero, anol/e, dcey

Figure 16. Variation of left and right aileron angle with stick position. NACA modified
aBlero,,s; original differential control unit; aleron-def'lection range, kl150


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NACA ACR No. L5J29


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Figs. 31,32


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1"

-- .60 droop
-- .950 droop


.04 ______ __ 55 -_-








NATIONAL ADVISORY
O COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


400 440


Figure 31. Variation of helix angle pb/2V with Indioated alrapee.i for '.-pounJ stick
foroe. Metal IACA modified ailerons and moliflei differential control
unit with various riggirgs.


0 L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I
/20 160 200 240 280 -?0 60
/nd1cate r/d a'rsped, Vi mph

Figure 32. variation of helir anGie Ft.*'2j with intueatel asrspee-.
for :lj-pound stick force. Criminal ailerao installation;
metal ltACA modijiled sileronE with electionn range of
tj13.4 and nmod!fild 1 afxerentira control unit; NlACA
modified aileron: faith defection rar.ne of *01' arnd
original dirferential control unit.


Orieirial aileron installition
Metai IJACA modified salerons;
mo-~ifieoa .iffersr,tal oontrol
unit; a leror,-daefietion
ran r-e, 213.4'
fIACA moidufed saieron ; original
differential control ,miti
allaron-erfi section rajnme, *150


400 440


/60 20 240 280 J2O 360
Indcacrfed a 'rpeed, V, mph


CONFIDENTIAL
|I |







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08106 474 2 i'




-T-l
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I N ,'/ t N T ,



7011
A SiE IE FSCUtE UBRARY

VLL FL 32611-7011 USA


















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