Effect of leakage past aileron nose on aerodynamic characteristics of plain and internally balanced ailerons on NACA 66(...

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Title:
Effect of leakage past aileron nose on aerodynamic characteristics of plain and internally balanced ailerons on NACA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 airfoil
Series Title:
NACA WR
Alternate Title:
NACA wartime reports
Physical Description:
13 p., 30 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Bird, J. D
Langley Aeronautical Laboratory
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Place of Publication:
Langley Field, VA
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ailerons   ( lcsh )
Aerodynamics -- Research   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
technical report   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Summary:
Summary: An investigation has been made in two-dimensional flow to determine the effect of leakage past the aileron nose on the aerodynamic characteristics of ailerons. Plain and internally balanced ailerons of 0.20 airfoil chord were tested on an NACA 66(215)-216, a-1.0 airfoil. The effects of amount and type of leakage, aileron contour, and Mach number and Reynolds number were investigated. The results of the tests indicated that a small amount of leakage area changed the pressure distributions over the plain and internally balanced ailerons markedly. This change generally resulted in negative increments in the lift and hinge-moment parameters c subscript l subscript delta, c subscript h subscript alpha, and c subscript h subscript delta. A further increase in the leakage area produced smaller changes in these parameters for the internally balanced aileron.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references (p. 11).
Statement of Responsibility:
by J.D. Bird.
General Note:
"Originally issued July 1945 as Advance Confidential Report L5F13a."
General Note:
"NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were previously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not technically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 003807484
oclc - 126874458
System ID:
AA00009367:00001


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Full Text


ACR No. L5F13a


LI.

NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS






WA lRTI'MEl REPORT
ORIGINALLY ISSUED
July 1945 as
SAdvance Confidential Report L5Fl3a

EFFECT OF LEAKAGE PAST AILERON NOSE ON AERODYNAMIC

CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN AND INTERNALLY BALANCED

AILERONS ON NACA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 AIRFOIL

By J. D. Bird

Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory
Langley Field, Va.

Sii I -'C -FL .'
,'iNT
I ,_ I I -










NACA WARTIME REPORTS are reprints of papers originally issued to provide rapid distribution of
advance research results to an authorized group requiring them for the war effort. They were pre-
viously held under a security status but are now unclassified. Some of these reports were not tech-
nically edited. All have been reproduced without change in order to expedite general distribution.


L 172
























4'


.4










NtCA ACR No. L5F1la


ITATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


ADVANCE COilFIDENTIAL REPORT

EFFECT OF LEATTACE PAST AILERON NOSE ON AERODYIAl.;TC

CHARACTERISTICS OF PLAIN AND INTERNALLY BALANCED

ATLERONS ON NACA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 AIRFOIL

By J. D. Bird


SUMMARY


An investigation has been made in two-dimensional
fljw to determine the effect of leakage past the aileron
nose on the aerodynamic characteristics of ailerons.
Flalin ;~ A internally balanced ailerons of 0.20 airfoil
chor .. -e tested on an NACA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 air-
foi.. Te effects of amount and type of leakage, aileron
co ':.r and LI.ch number and. Reynolds number were investi-


The results of the tests indicated that a small
anou`_ of leakage area changed the pressure distributions
over the plain and internally balanced ailerons markedly.
This chALige generally resulted in negative increments in
the lift and hinge-moment parameters c16, ch,' and chs.
A further increase in the leakage area produced smaller
changes in these parameters for the internally balanced
al ler on.


INTRODUCTION


THumro1rous investigations have been made in an attempt
to develop ailerons with satisfactory hinge-moment char-
acteristics. One of the most promising types yet devised
and tested is the internally balanced aileron; however,
installing and maintaining a complete seal across the
entire aileron span, especially near the hinges, is rather
difficult. It was therefore advisable to investigate the










2 COIFFID?'FTIAL NACA ACR No. L5F13a


effect of leakage past the balance plate on the character-
istics of internally balanced ailerons. Several investi-
gations have already been made with the nose gap unsealed
and a correlation of some of the results is given in refer-
ence 1.

The present tests were made in an attempt to provide
additional information on the characteristics of inter-
nally balanced ailerons and to determine whether a suffi-
cient degree of balance can be maintained if the nose seal is
eliminated. Because of the poor correlation of prelimi-
nary test results with existing data, it was found desira-
ble to investigate the effects of Reynolds number end r.ach
number and the amount and type of leir:.: area on the
characteristics of the internally balanced aileron. Tests
were also made to determine the effect of an aileron-
contour modification on the characteristics of the unsealed
internally balanced aileron and the sealed and unsealed
plain ailerons.


SYMBOLS AND -DE1ITTIONS


The coefficients and symbols used herein are defined
as follows:

cL airfoil section lift coefficient (--
qc / h
ch aileron section hinge-moment coefficient (c--
Ca2)
I airfoil section lift

h aileron section hinge moment

c airfoil chord

ca chord of aileron behind hinge axis

cb chord of balance plate ahead of hinge axis

q free-stream dynamic pressure pV2)

V free-stream velocity

p mass density of air


COJUFIDTWIT AL










:ACA A.CR No. L5F15a


Co angle of attack of airfoil for infinite aspect
ratio

6 aileron angle with respect to airfoil



/6ch\
Ch = | measured at = 00

ChN = measured at 6 = 00
/'ao


c. = measured at 0 = 00



C = measured at 6 =00
6/ao

M Tach number (V/a)

a velocity of sound

P pressure coefficient q

p local static pressure on aileron or balance plate

p free-stream static pressure
The subscripts outside the parentheses of the para-
meters indicate the factors held constant.

The terms used herein are defined as follows:

Nose gap distance between nose of aileron or balance
plate and adjoining wing (figs. 1 to 3)

Vent gap distance between aileron nose and balance
shroud or cover plate (figs. 1 and 2)

End gap distance between end of balance plate and
adjacent tunnel wall (fig. 3)

CONIFIDEITTIAL


CONFIDEiiTIAL










NACA ACR No. L5Fl3a


Equivalent nose gap gap obtained by adding to nose gap
the quotient of area at ends of
balance plate divided by model
sp in

Hinge gap opening surrounding aileron hinge


APPARATUS AND TESTS


The tests were made in the two-dimensional test
section of the Langley stability tunnel; this section is
rectangular &anr is 6 feet high and 21 feet wide. Since the
2
model, which is an :TkCA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 airfoil
section of 2-foot chord, completely spanned the width of
the test section, two-dimensional flow was approximated.
Table I gives the airfoil ordinates.

The 0.20c plain and internally balanced ailerons
tested are shown in figures 1 to 3. A continuous flexible
seal of cloth imprr-gnated with plastic was used for the
tests in which the nose gap was sealed. In all of the
tests except that in which the aileron was completely
sealed, there were &Eps of approximately 0.031c between
the ends of the balance plate and the tunnel walls. (See
fig. 3.) For the completely sealed aileron, these end
gaps as well as the nose gap were sealed. The vent gaps
were unsealed for all tests. A concentrated leakage area
simulating a hinge gap was obtained by sealing the nose
gap completely and cutting a rectangular hole in the
balance plate.

The airfoil and the aileron were mounted between
two end disks that were rotated to change the angle of
attack of the airfoil. Aileron hinge moments were meas-
ured with a spring balance. Lift was measured by an
integrating manometer connected to orifices in the floor
and ceiling of the tunnel. Pressures were measured
through flush orifices installed'at the center of the
span of the aileron and balance plate. Table II gives
the chordwise locations of these orifices.

All of the tests except the tests to determine the
effect of varying the Reynolds number and Mach number
were made at a test Mach number of 0.36, which corresponds


COI:FTDE-fTIAL


CONFTDENITIAL










NACA ACR No. L5F15a. COTTFIDEIT'IAL 5


to a Reynolds number based on standard atmospheric con-
ditions of approximately 5.1 x 106. The relation between'
Reynolds number-for standard atmospheric conditions and
test Mach number is shown in figure ..


PRECISION OF TESTS


Angles .of attack were set within 0.10 and aileron
angles within 0.30. Check tests indicated that, at a
Mach number of 0.36, values of ch were accurate to
within 0.005; c7, within 0.01; and P, within 0.03.

Corrections for jet-boundary effects were applied
to the lift coefficients and angles of attack. The cor-
rected values were computed as follows:

c = 0.965 ci

ao = 1.023 aop

where cIT and 0OT are the uncorrected lift coeffi-
cient and angle of attack. No corrections were applied
to the hinge-moment coefficients.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Presentation of Data


Force-test data for the present report are given as
section lift and aileron section hinge-moment coefficients
plotted against aileron angle for a range of angle of
attack or Mach number. The data for the sealed and
unsealed true-contour plain ailerons are given in fig-
ure 5. Data for the internally balanced aileron with a
constant vent gap of 0.010c and with end and nose gaps
sealed are given in figure 6; with end gaps of 0.001c
and nose gap sealed, in figure'7 and with end gaps
of 0.001c and various nose gaps, in figure 8. Pressure
distributions over the aileron and balance plate are
given in figures 9 to 11. Results of tests of the inter-
nally balanced aileron with concentrated leakage area


CONFIDENTIAL










CONFIDENTIAL NACA ACR No. L5P13a


for determining the effect of limiting the spanwise dis-
tribution of leakage past the balance plate are given in
figure 12. Results of tests with reduced nose and vent
gaps for determining whether the leakage area or the ratio
of leakage area to vent area caused the greater part of
the effects of leakage are given in figure 13. Data for
the sealed and unsealed plain ailerons with straight sides
are given in figure 14; for the unsealed internally bal-
anced aileron with straight sides, in figure 15. The
effect of Mach number and Reynolds number on the hinge-
moment characteristics of the internally balanced aileron
with leakage past the balance plate is given in figures 16
and 17.


Effect of Increased Leakage

Small aileron angles.- The values of cL6, ch.,
and chg for the plain and internally balanced ailerons
are made more negative by increased leakage past the
aileron nose or balance plate; the greater part of the
change for the internally balanced aileron occurs for a
small equivalent nose gap (fig. 18). The equivalent nose gap
is obtained by adding to the nose gap the gap obtained
by dividing the area at the ends of the balance plate by
the span of the model. The value of cl, is little
affected by increased leakage. An equivalent nose gap
of 0.0002c, with the end gaps unsealed, caused the values
of ch6 to become appreciably more negative. A compari-
son of the pressure distributions on the unsealed inter-
nally balanced aileron with the pressure distributions
on the sealed internally balanced aileron (reference 2
and figs. 9 to 11) indicates that leakage past the balance
plate produces a marked change in the pressure distri-
bution on the aileron. This change in the pressure dis-
tribution,in addition to making the part of the aileron
behind the hinge axis heavier and thus moving the center
of pressure of the aileron nearer the aileron trailing
edge, decreases the induced balancing pressure of the
aileron. The curves of chg for various angles of
attack indicate that small amounts of leakage past the
balance plate are less critical at large angles of attack
than at small angles of attack (fig. 18). For large
amounts of leakage past the balance plate, the decrease
in balancing pressure and the increase in heaviness of
the part of the aileron behind the hinge axis become so


CONFIDENTIAL










NACA ACR No. L5F13a


great that the unsealed internally balanced aileron
becomes heavier that is, has a more negative value
of Ch5 than the plain sealed aileron.

The pressure .distributions behind the hinge axis of
the unsealed internally balanced aileron and the unsealed
plain aileron show a marked similarity. This similarity
is to be expected since the pressure distribution over
the aileron surface is a function of the amount of leakage
through the aileron as well as of angle of attack and
aileron angle. For the unsealed plain and internally
balanced ailerons compared in figures 9 and 10, the amount
of leakage should be of the same order of magnitude
because the nose gaps are -equal.

Part of the leakage effect shown in the tests
reported herein results from the existence of an extremely
adverse pressure gradient near the trailing edge of the
airfoil tested which, for a given amount of leakage,
tends to cause separation farther forward on the airfoil
than would be the case if a less adverse pressure gradient
existed. Unpublished data on airfoils with a less
adverse pressure gradient near the trailing edge have
proved such airfoils to be less sensitive to leakage than
the airfoil tested.

The internally balanced aileron tested is much more
sensitive to leakage past the balance plate than the
ailerons for which the correlation of reference 1 was
made (fig. 19). The values of the balance ratio are more
negative for the aileron tested than for the ailerons of
the correlation curve for the range of leakage area shown
in figure 19. It should be noted that most of the
increase in heaviness (more negative value of ch5) of
the aileron tested occurs for small amounts of leakage
area, whereas the increase in heaviness indicated by the
correlation curve (reference 1) varies gradually with
increase in leakage area. The sensitivity of the inter-
nally balanced aileron tested to small amounts of leakage
area would make close aileron balance difficult without
use of a complete nose seal.

Large aileron angles.- The slope of the curves of
aileron hinge-moment coefficient against aileron angle
for the unsealed internally balanced aileron (fig. 8)
becomes less negative at large aileron angles and thereby
indicates an increase in the degree of hinge-moment


CONFIDENTIAL


CO1JFIDENTIAL










NACA ACR iTo. L5F13a


balance. This trend is onc.site that obtained for the
usual aerof'ynaii, c balance. It should be noted that the
aileron angle at which this increase occurs is a function
of the angle of attack.

The change in the slope of the curves of hinge-
moment coefficient at large aileron angles is caused by
an abrupt increase in the rate of increase of balancing
pressure (and thus of hinge-moment coefficient of the
balance plate) with aileron angle as well as a positive
increase in the value of chg of the plain unsealed
aileron (fig. 20). The pressure distributions (figs. 9
to 11) indicate that the negative pressure causes the
abrupt change in the slope of the curve of hinge-norient
coefficient of the balance plate plotted against aileron
angle.


Effect of Type of Leakage

A comparison of the hinge-moment characteristics of
the aileron with concentrated leaka'- area at the mid-
span, of the aileron with the reduced nose and vent gaps,
and of the aileron with the 0.005c nose gap and O.010c
vent gap is given in figure 21. All of these ailerons
had approximately the same ratio of leakage area to vent
area. Figure 21 shows that the aileron with the reduced
nose and vent gaps has more closely balanced hinge-moment
coefficients than the other two ailerons at large positive
and negative aileron angles and has as close a degree of
balance as either of the other two ailerons at small
aileron angles. The aileron with the concentrated leakage
area has less balance than either of the other two
ailerons at both positive and negative aileron angles,
except at very large aileron angles for which its degree
of balance increases rapidly. This trend is similar to
that of a control surface with plain overhang and hinge
gaps as tested for reference 3. The hinge-moment chara-c-
teristics of the internally balanced aileron with leakage
past the balance plate generally were not changed radi-
cally by changing the leakage area from a narrow slit
spanning the aileron at the balance-plate nose to a
rectangular hole of about the same area located at the
model midspan. The values of balance" ratio for the
ailerons with the concentrated leakage area and with the
reduced nose and vent gaps are plotted in figure 19
against the ratio of leakage area to vent area.


CONFIDENTIAL


COHIFT DEPr'TAL











IIACA ACR Po. L5F15a


Effect of Aileron-Contour Modification

The curves of ch and cL plotted against 6 for
the straight-sided plain and internally balanced ailerons
(figs. IL and 15) show the results to be expected from
increasing the trailing-edge angle of the airfoil.

The value of balance ratio from the tests of the
strdight-sided aileron is plotted against the ratio of
leakage area to vent area in figure 19. This value of
the balance ratio was obtained by use of the values
of ch-5 for the straight-sided plain and internally
balanced ailerons as determined from tests and the esti-
mated value of ch5 for the .sealed straight-sided inter-
nally balanced aileron. The value of chg for the
sealed straight-sided internally balanced aileron was
estimated by correcting the data for the sealed true-
cont2Lr internally balanced aileron for the effect of
the change in trailing-edge angle.


Effect of Mach Number and Reynolds Number

A .cc.rr i.son of figure 22 with data from reference 4
indicaces th-t Mach number and Reynolds number have only
sllgl-tl; more effect on the values of ch6 for the
unsesleJ internally balanced aileron than for the sealed
inter nal: biianced aileron. The variation of che with
M.ach nri',-er and Reynolds number is in opposite directions
f:,r ths n.r-les of attack of 00 and 10.20. These results
indicate that, for the range of Mach number and Reynolds
nu!.tber tested (fig. L), the effect of Mach number and
IRey.nolds number on the values of chg was not appreciably
different for sealed and unsealed internally balanced
a ler ans .


CONCLUSIONS


The effect of leakage past the aileron nose on the
aerodynamic characteristics of plain and internally bal-
anced ailerons on an NACA 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 airfoil
has been investigated in two-dimensional flow. From the
results of this investigation, the following conclusions
have been reached:


COIUFTIDEITIAL


CONFIDENTIAL










10 CONFIDENTIAL l'hCk ACR No. L5F15a


1. A small amount of leakage area changed the pres-
sure distributions over the plain and internally balanced
ailerons markedly. This change generally resulted in
negative increments in the lift and hinge-moment para-
meters cq, cha, and ch6. A further increase in the
leakage area produced smaller changes in these parameters
for the internally balanced aileron.

2. The sensitivity of the internally balanced
aileron tested to small amounts of leakage area would
make close aileron balance difficult without use of a
complete nose seal.

3. The hinge-moment characteristics of the internally
balanced aileron with leakage oast the balance plate
generally were not changed radically by changing the
leakage area from a narrow slit spanning the aileron at
the balance-plate nose to a rectangular hole of about
the same area located at the model midspan.

4. Reducing the amount of leakage area and vent
area so as to hold constant the ratio of leakage area to
vent area increased the degree of hinge-moment balance
at large aileron angles but caused no appreciable change
in the degree of balance at small aileron angles.

5. The sealed and unsealed internally balanced
ailerons had almost the same variation of ch6 with
Mach number and Reynolds number.


Langley V'emorial Aeronautical Laboratory
'itional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
L.:r.gley Field, Va.


CONFIDENTIAL










NACA ACR ITo. L5F13a CONFTDE!ITTAL 11


R IPRENCES


1. R-gallo, F. M., and Lowry, Jehn G.: Resume of Data
for Internally Balanced Ailerons. !-UnC RB, March


2. Letk.:, W., and Denaci, H. G.: Wind-Tunnel Tests of
Ailerons at Various Speeds. 7 Pressure Distri-
butions over the NACA 66,2-216 and !HCA 25012 Air-
foils with Various Balances on 0.20-Chord Ailerons.
I:ACA ACR No. 3K05, 1943.

i.'isn, J.: Effect of Hinge Gaps on Control Charac-
teristics. TN No. Aero 963 (Large Tunnel),
Eritish R.A.E., July 19I 2.

L. Denaci, H. G., and Bird, J. D.: Wind-Tunnel Tests of
Ailerons at Various Speeds. II Ailerons of
0.20 Airfoil Chord and True Contour with
0.60 Aileron-Chord Sealed Internal Balance on the
ilACA 66,2-216 Airfoil. NACA ACR No. 5F18, 19115.


CONFIDENTIAL









COYID*ENTIAL


NACA ACR No. L5153a


TABLE I
ORDINATES FOR iI.xCi 66(215)-216, a = 1.0 AIRFOIL
jBasic airfoil contour. Stations and ordinates in
percent airfoil chords

Upper surface Lower surface
Station Ordinate Station Ordinate
0 0 0 0
.Loi 1.250 .599 -1.130
.640 1.L14 .860 -1.544
1.128 1.88 1.572 -1.644
2.562 2.560 2.658 -2.188
4.81,6 5.604 5.154 -2.972
7.540 4.428 7.660 -2.580
9.858 5.1LO 10.162 -.106
14.8 5 6.276 15.155 -4-930
19.8o 0 7.1 6 20.10 -5.564
24.879 7.814 25.121 -6.054
29.00 8.566 o0.100 -6.422
54.924 8.76 55.076 -6.676
59949 8.980 40.05 -6.858
4.974 9.092 45.026 -6.902
50.000 9.o60 5c.ooo -6.854
55.025 8.875 54.975 -6.68
60.ok8 8.496 59.952 -6.554
65.067 7.862 6.95 -5802
70.081 6.9 1 60.919 -.997
75.087 .860 74.913 -4.070
80.085 4.644 7-.915 -3.052
85,075 5.395 8.925 -2.049
90.055 2.105 89.945 -1.069
95.028 .913 94.972 -.231
100.000 0 100.000 0
L.E. radius: 1.575. Slope of radius
through L.E.: 0.084


NATIONAL ADVISORY
CGTr;l ~TTE_- FOR AERONAUTICS


CO1IFIDEr TRIAL










NACA ACR No. L5F15a


TABLE II

CHO.:RDA'T:E LOCATIONS OF ORIFICES FOR U:TEALED IN TERlINLLY

EBLa.ICED AILERON OF TRUE AIRFOIL CONTOUR

[Locations in percent aileron chord]

Location forward of Location behind hinge
hinge axis axis

72.3 4.2
66.8 11.5

56.7 32.3

45.7 68.8
23.0 89.6

12.5

1L ---


NATIONAL ADVISORY
CC..1 MITTTEE FOR AERONAUTICS


CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL








NACA ACR No. L5F13a


CONFIDENTIAL



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NACA ACR No. L5F13a


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CONFIDENTIAL


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NATIONAL ADVISORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS.
CONFIDENTIAL

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NACA ACR No. L5F!3a


CONFIDENTIAL


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CONFIDENTIAL
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COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

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NACA ACR No. L5F13a


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NACA ACR No. L5F13a

























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&8-------


4





Qj
'C,.
r.-
U,
('2 4


-ZO -/6 -/2 -6 -4 0 4 8 /a /6 20
A/leron angle 6, deg
'yaure 7. -Var/at/on of Jct/on /ft aond hi/ge -moment coeffic/ents with c//eron
ang/e FrrJe-cn/tour 0. 75cy internally balanced aileron i vent gaps O.0/Oc
end gap 6.OO/ c, j nore gayp sealed 3 M= 0.36.


Fig. 7




94






74






15
i-.


g9P









NACA ACR No. L5F13a



III




b-







/.6
1.6------------


1.4


1.2- ---------

1.0


.8


Y .6














-4 ---- -
60


-.4


/.6



--
I .0^


S l -o/vose gap =uuuoc ; ch = .oc AIO-NAL AuVIS o.
\ ,, O I| mTTEE FrO AERONA.UTICS

-20 -/6 -/ -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 ?.0
Ai/ern oang/e, 5 deg
FP/ure 8. Var/iaon of ect//on //ft anzd h//ng -moment coe/Tcicents with a/leron
ongq.e True-c ;r.fjr 0.75ca /nteroa//y balanced a/leron ven'gaps 0.0/Pc -
ena' g 0os, C0/c MA = OJ& .


?ig. 8a




.08


.04 2








\-o





f


^ ^^^'- ^ "'








NACA ACR No. L5F13a Fig. 8b


S"-- CONFIDENTIAL I
+< 0 A X v D
or,, ae, -5 -2.6 0 2.6 5. 7.7 10.2 -

r /r


0 u















rA 77
I -X I /... I
(deg)'4 r"/ i I I / | |
-IL










626


-'.." .3









[0.-0/c ve__t_ d;p
_3' ._ ,o" /











LI).
--we contour

CONI DENTIAL
-10b)/ose gop =0.00T c; cb = 0.76/. NATDONL OVSORY
COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

-20 -/6 -/Z -8 -4 0 4 8 /Z /6 ZO
Alr.-e 8.-g, 6 dCo ued.









NACA ACR No. L5F13a Fig. 8c



II j CONFIDENTIAL I I
+ 0 0 4 z v 0
,c deg, -&/ -2.6 0 2.6 5/ 7.7 /0.2 ,2



.04






o1.4

















--X
deg') ___I_ I |

ID FDENToAL. NATIONAL ADISORY


















.0. 910 0 Vent qap
F___ __re___ ,n
16 -- -- ,' ^ -^ '--'- e'














'.-I












COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

-, 0 --/ -Z 0 4 8 1, 16 2 0

A/leron ong/l 6 d0g
F qure d.- Contnued.









NACA ACR No. L5F13a


*1"


8

U






(I.





' 6'


-& -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8
Ai/eron ong/e 6, eg
F,.gre 8.- Coc'tlnued.


/2 /6' 0o


Fig. 8d








NACA ACR No. L5F13a
















6 --- -

4--



/D







.6

.4 -T7




pr
.2



-6


-.

-10 .~ -
^ V-- -
"-'. L'^
/2 ?


Fig. 8e


-ZO -/6 -/ -8 -4 0 4 8 /Z /6 2O
Aileron ang/e, d deg
F-/gcre 6.- Conc/'dled.









NACA ACR No. L5F13a




cj





ep
to











Ldd



zq
0rr)
o
'0






1^b
/7






Sv/
u
K y

S/ (
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J i;

z-
0 -


Fig. 9a-c























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1
-
c-














z z




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-'C
2 .







NACA ACR No. L5F13a



f \


Fig. lOa-c


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. I
?b









NACA ACR No. L5F13a


K

o
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II
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Fig. lla,b


II
II
^zz


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a










NACA ACR No. L5F13a


u" .4-


too
ILI
I-,
'3
' 0
4-

Ci
.


1>-.
AJ -.4


Fig. 12a



'e
Sgop
.Iz


08 e





0 e


S-.04


- 0
8-
1 904 J


(a) Corcenlrated /eakrage area, 1.78 by 0.82 inch. I 1
-0 -/6 -/Z -8 -4 0 4 8 / /6 20
A//eron ong/e, 6, deg
Fiure .2 Var/at.,o of Jectfon l/ft and hingeq -moment coefficients wfth aleron angle
Tru contour 0.75ca internallyy ba/anceeo a/leron with concentrated leakage; vent gaps,
S0/0 C, end gaps 0,.00/'c M = O.J except where noted










NACA ACR No. L5F13a









x



----- -


























9 -----
1- -
14























-aa
10
.6 ---










U -- .- -
'_It









-6 -- -

^-a---7----






-1/0 -^-------


Fig. 12b



CONFIDENTIAL .6

78"X' / 87"oC/e
o.ooc venga'op ./Z


.08

7Tre contour 0
Seo/ .04






'04








I--


Fiqw-re /. -- Conrc/uded -










NACA ACR No. L5F13a













1- -





------_


rU




S-,



QJ
ic
? '^

$L .
D



I'U

()


A//ero7 ang/e, 5, deg
''gure /3 .- Variation of secftin lift and hinge -moment coefficient with
aileron angle True-contour 0.75ca internally balanced aileron vent
gaps 0.00oc ; end gapJ 0.00/c nooe gap V.OS00 c ; M =0.36.


Fig. 13






-12


-08 *i

-e





-.04




-.08 <



<








NACA ACR No. L5F13a










10 I




--------



/6


.4







0 -------
.? -------


10 .8












.- -- -------


Fig. 14a



.20


.08





01



.06







-20
I24
.24


-20 -,' -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 20
A//eron aI7//e 6 de.
Figure /4. Variation of section //f/ and hinge -/moment
coefficienfs wi/h Y//eron ang/e. Straight -s/ded pa/n
all'ron, nose goap sea/ed and 0.005 ) M = O.3J.










NACA ACR No. L5F13a


" .


S4



I)


Fig. 14b


CONFIDENTIAL
.-- 005c gop






\ ---t- ---".
S__ __S ra/of







--s/cs

























or









NATIONAL ADVISORY
CONITTEE FOlR AERONAUTICS


CONFIDENTIAL


-~C -/0 -Z,


-4 Li 4 8
A//eron ano/ej 5S, o'e


/I b /o 6 Oc


F T' u' e /4. Conc/uded -


/2



'3



04 o


: i


zo


Z4


-(







NACA ACR No. L5F13a Fig. 15

CONFIDENTIAL /O.0a-5C ga'p
0.0/c ve// fg7op,/2



4.04 K

0, Jde r 07 /0- 2














.Z.



x -
-


-20 -/6 -/2 -8 -4 0 4 8 /2 /6 20
Alle/ton // 6 ,de
Figure /. Varla/on of Jecl/on lift and hnPge -moment coefficientl
w/th a/Ieron angle f raight -J/ded 0.75cg /nterna//y b/anced
aileron vent gaps, 0.0/0c j end gqpa 0. 00/c o nose apo 0.005 c
M = 0.6.









NACA ACR No. L5F13a Fig. 16


V

/6
CONFIDENTIAL

0.005cap o

x OO"/O vent gap
.1/2 08 .1/


.08 .16 --- .04 .12 o
True
\ \ con four


o- .o --04 04 ,1


- .0 + 4 \ 0I o0 .oe


B0.o o .0 0 -, 04.04


- -1Z -D4- .04-- 0 04 ~ -

-/"0 -46 0 -/Z -o04





S- -0/e ---4 -I_
2/


0 -2--- ----------------------------- \ A- -r


A///eron 7an79 /e <5 dey
Figure /6. -Effect of Mach number on the var/at/on of hinge -moment coefficient
w/ih aileron anq/e. True-contour 0.75ca /nfernally balanced ao/eron- vent gaps,
O.0/OC end gap, sealed nose gap 0.005c ; af = V0. (Note staogfered Ja/e.)









NACA ACR No. L5F13a




















.04 --





-o4 04 -12





-Z -.04 -04-
-'- -.04



-,'2 :04 ----------


--6 08-
--4
-/ -.'2 -.04------------


-6 -0O-----------


con tour


Fig. 17a






7t gap
V





78
. .

4 .1/-


7 *OQ 0 .


J4 .04 ./


s 0 .06


2 -04 .04


'6-08 O





--16 -6 O
7*VZ.0 -


-20 -16 -/2 -6 -4 0 4 8 /2 /5 20
Al/eron a7nyl/, odeg
.-j are /7. -Effect of Mach number on the var/af on of hinge-moment coeffi/cent wth a//eron
or.,e True contour 0.75ca /nternally balanced a/leron j vent galp 0.005c end gaps,
'. Oec j nose gap O.0025c. (A/oe staggered scales.)









NACA ACR No. L5F13a


0.0025Zc gap

a _- 0.005c vent g0ap




Con tor-
-j---------|-|- --O A


.04 .Z2

------- -0 .08


----------04-.04-IZ


----------8 0 0


-4 // -,-04-D

-3-- 8- --6 -G 0

.29 0- -.0-O



-- -r --- -/ 2..-=/


+ + 5, ..


Aileron ong/e, 65 deg


F/.ure /7.-Concl/uded -


Fig. 17b







NACA ACR No. L5F13a


CONFIDENTIAL
Leakoqe areQ, sq /n.
0 / 3 4


_P/Am sealed oa/eron en
P/o/n unseo/ed ---
.12 lJ ol/eron I_ II\, _/- .(
.08




0


.0

0.04



6= 00 0 S0





0 7 2 C 4\-
.094
-w ^-------- -------

^~6 o ^S ----------------
ec-===


-U/4 1P/01a2'711 117Yevl [v
le o ; /- 4,, o=,, n
0 ./ .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 /0
Eqwvalent nose gao percent c
Figure /8. Vanrahon of iftl and hge moment parameters with
/eakaqe area ; true-contour plain aleron and true- contour
0. 75cJg internally balanced aileron wi/h 0.0/0 c vent gaps;
4 = O.36' CONFIDENTIAL


Fig. 18








NACA ACR No. L5F13a


O



_.. Concentrated
/eakage ; ven / /ose yap, 0.0025c v r7n
gaps/ 0.0/0 o -p aps, 00050c

,4 | CONFIDENTIAL
0 .2 .4 .6 *8 /10
NATIONAL ADVISORY
SLeokage Ore'/ l//7/-f arf COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS
Figure /9. Var/atfon of ha/once raoto w/fh rafo of
/eakage area to vent area~ balance ratto
computed by using ch. of plan .r&/ed a//eron
/M = O.J6 ; cr =00.


Fig. 19







NACA ACR No. L5F13a


N


co


`i^










o Co

$1










'I
C\J
co




















K


Fig. 20


Y3 C ~d~U/J(d03 ~U~-~Y ~0~3~S






NACA ACR No. L5F13a


R.


Fig. 21


N

CIZ



P

A^




1Q

Ks







ISI




K
^1


N
L03t I







NACA ACR No. L5F13a Fig. 22


IWO
SS__



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S O






4 -13
4 .

0 X E3+ I


oo

N.. .
O 'O
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8 _L









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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 08106 519 4






... Y" ,. .
11


S ,;LLE, FL 32d11-711 USA




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