Effects of radiation exposure on the cells of the peripheral blood


Material Information

Effects of radiation exposure on the cells of the peripheral blood
Series Title:
United States. Atomic Energy Commission. MDDC ;
Physical Description:
3 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Marks, Edna K
Argonne National Laboratory
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Technical Information Division, Oak Ridge Operations
Place of Publication:
Oak Ridge, Tenn
Publication Date:


federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
by Edna K. Marks.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 005023670
oclc - 277230248
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MDDC 912


Sjil:';":.. ... .

Edna K. Marks

Argonne National Laboratory

! r.i i: This document consists of pages.
,':/iHiM ii-.. i: ...Date of Manuscript: March 1947
S. Date Declassified: March 10, 1947

This donmeat is issued for official use.
Its ismuanee does not constitute authority
Si to declassify copies or versions of the
......::....:. same or similar content and title
.. : by the same author(a)

l *':. .. :. Al 1Dforination Divistan, Oak Ridge Directed Operations

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S*: ttb b1Atlit POSia &*Ut'bf N THE bELLS O4 E PE iPHERAL iA i "
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By Edna K. Marks .

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re it isr c eotoFapeS's itbsphorus, iodine, etc. are being made available to the medical
SV 'WM and theraihj:' t 'i.ms peirtinInt that the medical technologist, especially those
Wl :Ii f:l+.. ikk; bE kpt tiast with recent developmentss in this field. The laboratories
Si:r miskhofidtd! the regular ilhhersity and industrial laboratories iow
ip aeldita's p lt ita rddiations ic teeases by thousands the nudrinie of individuals exposed
,tkt1S, yidB&Ry technictans are or will shortly be concerned with the medical or
a.i:iEsar spEts thereof. It is imp6otant, therefore, that the technicians should be familiar ith' those
i :'y.:h a9Pw -t1p ge ktl p Uie peerip4eral blood following exposure to externally .-liginat-

*- tid'ti f aUo their nemopoitic organs of animals Iollowing X irradiation.
e bi wed'wre' ILe of "tbe cells fund in the blod'forming tissue.
..'; .f RIA Ap'+a fl i"e g&mdia' ays, fadt neutrons, and radioactive substances on
B gitsNth e~'tidiede"ktensively. These'histological changes ot-
Hle i LFai j ~t eqiKetiali paralleled wi the peripheral-blood of experimental
ati.it WO IEhMMlP ft..0e-heap. p with mradiaetive materials.

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Y Vtt'rt b'r e i e ted fdll owing acute aid chronic toial
*b.i h bt i~WIIrfiilsn cddy irradiation iw animals maybe
.dep, jd 1e Ii .eof the accumulated dose and the
L6ihirked anisocytosis frequently
wEI-ttoniaWfer rardiri activee ph sphorns
i i yc fter sell eth'alactri e 'e iaf', #t ministrition of strontium and other
radioactivteisotes. After semi-lethal aute t od iiton in animals, and to a lesser extent
iafttm sdlftn u rw AlMu iBom t lft-IWe aunasdaithe peripheral blood in increased num-
*!i+ .:k:i: i jbig gmuh.lotw Afd4ienb tatohe teanty-fifth day after radiation exposure,
ri gwgl bagwp I) ll il v ietIrAn.inheV peripheral blood and the.maximum regeneration
4QtW:: gR .. .a IltdiCtromaphillam d.anisocytosis depends largely on the type and
7 .t:"leMni...gM:ml*lalpyknoti degenerative changesare:seen in the nucleated
i|:,...i.lllrerrliig :l O~~ecas-iomn ly a fe stippled-red cells -are 'seen -during
(Sillm'd'.I Ii ii;: 'iif iI JL ,':lEii# .... .. ,
g 4:Ftee*ed i.. .e &'e ytid Is reiluced allowing radiation exposure, depending upon
-.t.- hAa~ottiof tUie .etiduloetes' staine, with biilliantrcresyl blue, h),-
1 rathi A6Qt b i&Iai dAaiactr of theretiiulum fflo rng a irradiatipnor
uni: .. iLu. slon x- owis. j6o D 1tisi t w. ~ 5, -
pil;:,-.:'' ~ > -- Lla"'+t+ ", b id *U o,,tsn .,-.i<-,-+ ... i ,, : *.. .. ..... '' .... ** :
Degenerative morphological alterations in the thrombocytes are found in the.ppeipheral ti ed at
smatalI following semi-lethal or even higher doses of tot4l body X irradiation or exposure to radioactive
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2 ] MDDC -912

isotopes. Concomitant with the reduction in platelet values, giant thrombocytes are frequently found.
These thrombocytes are occasionally larger than normocytes. The hyalomere is extremely abundant :
and the granules in the chromomere are unusually prominent and large. Except for the size and the :i
clear distiptive Colorf i.granular degeqeratio,; no further .prp p C alq J a cted..
On very rare occasions a megakaryocyte is found in the peripheral blood following exposure to senmi-
lethal or lethal total body X irradiation.

That radiation exposure produces a marked decrease in the total number of leukocytes, depending
on the size of the dose, is well known. In acute exposure there is an initial, translen&tdi&Syts6i "IT
which precedes the rapid decline in theleukocyte values, TTe ~ ogsiSeisvli,,. |rr.,itbipt of .
the peripheral blood appears, to be the lymphocyte a4.. tj Fedqctip in its vaiifiL lyly .parajll .t1 t
of the total number of leukocytes per cNrmm. The morp~pological chage. $ .~j ..Ppct.es 91p.e,.,
peripheral blood aftqr acute total body X irradiation agreq essent4y w ,nf ,eel. uponhis: p al
examination of the lymphatic tissue in sacrificed animna4L. With seipi-i g F dosp, andatoassae, s ,.,
extent after iloees below this value, mitosis ceases within an hour, and d.strton and plgcytos~is
lympitic cells, ma y small and medium lympho y"s, pfoceecp 4 i ..: .. r .
The same general kind.of, destructive changes sen'iistologidatly I apparent hi*theiptriphetinefl
blood of animals and humans. With increasing amounts of radiatle*a acdes -t~hte tiufiberot. 1~aipha_-
cytes in the circulating blood with abnormal mprphological c.h.a ,t 4iWniv..nacreas. 1,cOlumpi~g of
nuclear chromatin nay be seen early. As it becomes more proquppd, qle nill lq fearq iaM
encountered. In addition, lymphocytes are seen with rounded chr'ati 4e ..sTee qiny free wt~4
the nuclear border or free within the cell, with an apparet isappe.r'a. n .Qgt. 1 tmei (.ne. ,
"Blast-like" cells are occasionally seen with, nmiuclewhich'appear to M'fSsbifrnt e; Uniohfitint
with the point of maximum lymphocyte reduction, many lytyphbleyttyesl l abwl hbsophllH6-aSrnuiteli:ire
often prominent. These latter cells are indistinguishable from "blast" forms. Other lymphocytes
appear to have split nuclei and nuclei with considerable fragmentation. With semi-le~da'IrdW &I"t e
total body irradiation in animals these destructive change are more prono4qce, Rqen.qan.ts nuclear
fragments without nuclear outline appear rhich cannot be distingpishe, as bel.nginK tg tJi e,. g .
myeloid or lymphoid series. Many lymphocytes are bilobed, still phers ~eqme diflt0 tQditiqsh
from monocytes. During the peak of lymphocyle destrcUtion, pbagoFytip. qt wp~,I. nq gle a ui ear
debris are found in the peripheral blood smears. Often, thpse .clls are biJobed ,fwit,;ch Q qmiB pAs.eps
in one 'art of the nucleus while the other portion c' the nuclet apeaas niprm .,,pbi.ta~qhip g~~yt' p-
erty of certain cells was described by Heineke in 1905. .. vt ....
.During the phase of regeneration in the bone marrow tiV htehrophfths lwthh eirctlaUt btYi il I ft
rabbits show a shift to the leftfollowing arute total bo*y X irradflntifb.l'DbtluithelUfifZ i~id't-bledc-
tion of heterophil-values, degenerating granulocytes are Iseen.S ties peripiP eItBlft4Od.1TN ed 6b1Li**
Sating leukocytes show nuclear deformity and disintegration tbd1ie'te he ait'l SI ife iifoshtlbfl'4d~
mine at which stage of maturity the cells are damag 4. The'nudleartmemffYariitthib i t es~Mdj-ai&nd
in most instances bluish non-specific granules of uneven:ebhtold fll'the'.4ti~v~bi t9iWldfftg th z'it~lus
and cytoplasm to such an extent that it is impossible to identify the cell other than. 4Wt itis'a oAiik ed
leucocyte. Other bizarre forms are also seen which are difficult to descrl4e, b~e lhypplas[ ( heterophil may undergo degeneration following irradiation. Occasionlgly itc taein~Jy(qqqleat i a
mottled'appearance. In some instances the granules of the hetorophils appear to, be dgp rag s.i
cells are found in which the.few granules which remained are hugging the nucle~~ rr er e, wl the
remainder of the cytoplasm remains clear. Another type of degenerative cell seen after semi-lethal
doses of total body irradiation in rabbits is one which resembles a basket cell, but differg."Ii~qa BAi
having one or two distinct chromatin masses which are deep blue against a network of destroyed peri-
chromatin and cytoplasmic disintegration. .. .... ..;.. .ia? i
Eosinophilic degeneration is occasionally seen, especially in the peripheral blood smears of the dog,
following semi-lethal and lethal doses of total'body irradiation. This degeneration is characterized by


A in the gran us b. with regard to $bte an5shape. Vacuoles in the cells become more
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T: I eSimilar shaeigs those desbed above are found in patients after total body X irradiation with
.:^.ol tge'u u:itS: adm aed linlided doses over periods of app r mately 30 days. The most
Wornho.o W& feraiStaiEi in the pIeriheral blood of thesyefatients is the appearance of the
4*.geia iing iei aos. his cel would eaSly be mistaken for a polymorphonuclear
asopi an r~ ~; p r early as 3 days after the first exposure and is
: present ,in ai4nti 1aa it throw tli out treatment and.may still be present 21
:months after ta iophoinclear netitrophile re frequently seen which appear
swo:lei aq coriii ul i ei eplew.ie:ave sapre a speofer the cytoplasm like globules with an ex-
i. tremely fine mad *Nt btn"tbiyct* Ie 'dt r' Iore lobes. Degenerating lymphyocytes are found
which show the tracn b a t eaciar chroniatin and general disintegration. Very occa-
sionally, such, eeto _cqaia a~!.td al d Bed bodies within t me Cytoplasm. Although they have the
appearance of Iynihoeyte irt pceibl e1tthey r oy ar typical and abnormal monocytes with ingested
S material which hi'a beip cti. i itie isotopes as plutonium, strontium and phosphorus
Give essentially the sih .k .ts3 iM t pn~iyg after treatment, the peripheral blood smears
of these patients .may 4 ri!dpformities which show disintegration, lympho-
cyles with split or ii t em ikal alterations previously described.
Studies on the supr l ing aA n trial red) of leukocytes were made on the
blood of humans and rabblia which hal rSecpiWd 0.Wii or internal irradiation.
Mitochondrial change 4g ,1W tral a4 appear in the lymphocytes concomitant
with the increase ni qnuie :.
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S Profound radiatiffte t are: i tet e-I,-the observation of the number and morphological
ranges of the cells In thle ripherpi l dt:b:h os't mpr itive cell appears to be the lymphocyte both
Storms of reduetln er- gplilmaia etoaldpahop o.
The platelets ate it tIier an i usually occurs. The severity of these changes
dependent upon t:ift accsi 'hte" .
This report Ki .lnder hle p i ea The Manhattan District at the Metallurgical
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