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National Advisory Committej
National Advisory Comnmittee- qror ,Aeronautics
JANUARY 5, 1953
CURRENT NACA REPORTS
NACA Rept. 1041
EQUATIONS AND CHARTS FOR THE RAPID ESTI-
MATION OF HINGE-MOMENT AND EFFECTIVE-
NESS PARAMETERS FOR TRAILING-EDGE CON-
TROLS HAVING LEADING AND TRAILING EDGES
SWEPT AHEAD OF THE MACH LINES. Kennith
L. Goin. 1951. ii, 71p. diagrs., 9 tabs. (NACA
Rept. 1041. Formerly TN 2221)
Existing conical-flow solutions have been used to cal-
culate the characteristics of deflected trailing-edge
controls located either at the wing tip or far enough
inboard to prevent the outermost Mach lines from
the controls from crossing the wing tip. For either
location, the controls have been assumed to be lo-
cated far enough outboard to prevent the innermost
Mach lines from crossing the wing-root chord. The
method for determining control hinge moment result-
ing from wing angle-of-attack loading is restricted to
wings having leading edges swept ahead of the Mach
lines. Also included is an approximate method by
which the theoretical characteristics may be cor-
rected for airfoil-section thickness.
NACA Rept. 1058
INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ON
RUPTURE PROPERTIES AT 1200 F OF FORGED
CHROMIUM-COBALT-NICKEL-IRON BASE ALLOYS
IN SOLUTION-TREATED AND AGED CONDITION.
E. E. Reynolds, J. W. Freeman and A. E. White,
University of Michigan. 1951. ii, 60p. diagrs.,
photos., 11 tabs. (NACA Rept. 1058. Formerly
Use of careful control over processing conditions in
this investigation has shown that it is possible to
correlate stress-rupture properties of forged
chromium-cobalt-nickel-iron base alloys at 1200 F
with systematic variations in chemical composition
and that a wide range in properties can be obtained
by such variations. However, no alloy was obtained
which had properties which were outstanding com-
pared with those of the basic analysis.
NACA TN 2822
A SPECIAL INVESTIGATION TO DEVELOP A GEN-
ERAL METHOD FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL
PHOTOELASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS. M. M. Frocht
and R. Guernsey, Jr., Illinois Institute of
Technology. December 1952. 59p. diagrs.,
photos., 3 tabs. (NACA TN 2822)
The method of strain measurement after dainea-ling
is reviewed and found to be unsatisfactory for the
materials available in this country. A new, general
method is described for the photoelastic determina-
tion of the principal stresses at any point of a gen-
eral body subjected to arbitrary loads. The method
has been applied to a sphere subjected to diametral
compressive loads. The results show possibilities
of high accuracy.
NACA TN 2832
THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE TRANSONIC LIFT
OF A DOUBLE-WEDGE PROFILE WITH DETACHED
BOW WAVE. Walter G. Vincenti and Cleo B.
Wagoner. (Portions of this work were reported at
the eighth International Congress on Theoretical and
Applied Mechanics, Istanbul, Turkey, August 20-28,
1952). December 1952. 63p. diagrs., 2 tabs.
(NACA TN 2832)
Numerical calculations are described of the aerody-
namic characteristics at small angle of attack of a
thin, doubly symmetrical, double-wedge profile in
the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow
wave is detached. The analysis is carried out within
the framework of the transonic (nonlinear) small-
disturbance theory. The following results are pro-
vided as functions of the transonic similarity param-
eter: (1) chordwise lift distribution, (2) lift-curve
slope, and (3) position of center of lift.
NACA TN 2836
RADIANT-INTERCHANGE CONFIGURATION FAC-
TORS. D. C. Hamilton and W. R. Morgan, Purdue
University. December 1952. llOp. diagrs.,
photos., 14 tabs. (NACA TN 2836)
A study is presented of the geometric configuration
factors required for computing radiant heat transfer
between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing
medium and various methods of determining the con-
figuration factors are discussed. Configuration-
factor solutions available in the literature have been
checked and the more complicated equations are
presented as families of curves. Cases for point,
line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a
wide range of geometric proportions. These cases
include several new configuration involving rectan-
gles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which
are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is pre-
sented, in which configuration factors are employed,
of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a
typical gas turbine under different conditions of
temperature and pressure.
*AVAILABLE ON LOAN ONLY.
ADDRESS REQUESTS FOR DOCUMENTS TO NACA, 1724 F ST., NW., WASHINGTON 25, D. C., CITING CODE NUMBER ABOVE EACH TITLE,
THE REPORT TITLE AND AUTHOR.
NACA TN 2838
CALORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CONSTANT-
PRESSURE SPECIFIC HEATS OF CARBON DIOXIDE
AT ELEVATED PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES.
Virgil E. Schrock, University of California.
December 1952. 46p. diagrs., 2 tabs. (NACA
The constant-pressure specific heat of carbon dioxide
has been measured over the i'i ,g of temperatures
and pressures from ambient conditions to 1000
pounds per square inch j.,t' and 1000 F using a
steady-flow calorimeter operated on an open cycle.
It appears that the apparatus as used in this determi-
nation will yield values with a probable error of 0. 5
percent at the hich.rt temperature level considered.
The results of these tests check the widely accepted
spectroscopic data within 1 percent. The values at
elevated pressure are in reasonable agreement with
those derived from the zero-pressure spectroscopic
values and the application of the Beattie-Bridgeman
equation of state. Only very limited calorimetric
data are available in the literature, but substantial
agreement exists with those considered reliable.
NACA TN 2842
THE PLANING CHARACTERISTICS OF A SURFACE
HAVING A BASIC ANGLE OF DEAD RISE OF 40
AND HORIZONTAL CHINE FLARE. Ulysse J.
Blanchard. December 1952. 26p. diagrs., photo.,
tab. (NACA TN 2842)
The principal planing characteristics of a surface
having an angle of dead rise of 40 and horizontal
chine flare are presented. The data indicate that at
a given trim the important planing characteristics
depend mainly on lift coefficient. The effects of in-
creasing the basic angle of dead rise from 20 (NACA
TN 2804) to 40 are to decrease the ratio of the
center-of-pressure location to the mean wetted
length, to decrease the extent of pile-up of water at
the keel, and to increase the friction drag.
NACA TN 2846
EFFECTIVE LUBRICATION RANGE FOR STEEL
SURFACES BOUNDARY LUBRICATED AT HIGH
SLIDING VELOCITIES BY VARIOUS CLASSES OF
SYNTHETIC FLUIDS. Robert L. Johnson, Max A.
Swikert and Edmond E. Bisson. December 1952.
23p. diagrs., photos., tab. (NACA TN 2846)
Synthetic lubricants are necessary in order to satisfy
the physical-property requirements for future lubri-
cants of aircraft turbine engines. Since boundary-
lubrication data on synthetic fluids are limited, the
effects of a wide range of sliding velocities on
boundary lubrication were studied. Friction data
and surface-failure properties showed that a silicone
diester blend, an alkyl silicate ester, and a com-
pounded diester (containing lubrication additives)
were more effective lubricants at high sliding veloci-
ties than the comparable diesters from which the
most widely accepted synthetic lubricants are made.
The diesters as well as polyethers, silicate ester,
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.35
and phcsphonate esters are more effective boundary
lubricants at high sliding velocities than petroleum
oils of comparable viscosity. In a preliminary study
of the mechanism of lubrication by diesters, it was
found that a diester failed to lubricate nonreactive
surfaces, possibly indicating that the mechanism
may involve chemical reaction of the diesters with
the lubricated surfaces.
NACA TN 2847
SECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A 10. 5-PERCENT-
THICK AIRFOIL WITH AREA SUCTION AS AFFECT-
ED BY CHORDWISE DISTRIBUTION OF PERMEA-
BILITY. Robert E. Dannenberg and James A.
Weiberg December 1952. 52p. diagrs., photos.,
3 tabs. (NACA TN 2847)
Results are presented of an investigation of a two-
dimensional, 10. 51-percent-thick symmetrical air-
foil with area suction near the leading edge. Area
suction delayed leading-edge stall. Maximum lift
appeared to be limited by turbulent separation from
the trailing edge. The suction flow and power coef-
ficients required to maintain a given lift are shown
to be dependent on the chordwise extent and the
porosity and permeability arrangement of the surface
material. The flow-resistance characteristics of
several porous materials are presented.
NACA TN 2848
INVESTIGATION OF SPONTANEOUS IGNITION
TEMPERATURES OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH
PARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON LUBRICANTS.
Charles E. Frank, Angus U. Blackham and Donald
E. Swarts, University of Cincinnati. December
1952. 40p. diagrs., 6 tabs. (NACA TN 2848)
The study of spontaneous ignition characteristics of
organic compounds has been extended to include
various types of lubricants by using a spray-injection
as well as a dropwise-addition procedure. It has
been shown that certain nonvolatile compounds pre-
viously considered to have relatively high spon-
taneous ignition temperatures exhibit basically the
same ease of ignition as the lower-molecular-weight,
more-volatile compounds. Of the lubricants studies,
the polyisobutylenes were the only ones which gave
consistently high spontaneous ignition temperatures
(about 400 C) in all molecular-weight ranges. The
influence of additives and metal surfaces on spon-
taneous ignition temperatures and on the ignition be-
havior of selected two-component mixtures was also
NACA TN 2849
CORRECTIONS FOR LIFT, DRAG, AND MOMENT
OF AN AIRFOIL IN A SUPERSONIC TUNNEL HAV-
ING A GIVEN STATIC PRESSURE GRADIENT.
H. F. Ludloff and M. B. Friedman, New York
University. December 1952. 69p. diagrs. (NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.35
Corrections for lift, drag and moment of a two-
dimensional airfoil are analyzed assuming that the
airfoil is tested in a supersonic tunnel in which the
pressure field, instead of being uniform, is charac-
terized by gradients in the axial and transverse
directions. The tunnel gradients as well as the air-
foil effect are regarded as perturbations of the
original rectilinear flow field of given Mach number.
Therefore the velocity potential of the flow, the non-
linear differential equation of motion, and the
boundary conditions are expanded into double series
in powers of two parameters characterizing the air-
foil thickness and the inhomogeneity of the field.
The nonlinear problem is thus split into a system
of linear boundary-value problems which can be
solved analytically. The resulting expressions have
been derived for arbitrary given pressure gradients
and general profile form.
NACA TN 2851
THE AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF SUPERSONIC
PROPELLERS FROM STRUCTURAL CONSIDERA-
TION. Jerome B. Hammack. December 1952.
21p. diagrs. (NACA TN 2851)
A solution for radial distribution of cross-sectional
area of supersonic propellers so that blade sections
operate at maximum allowable centrifugal stress is
given. The aerodynamic characteristics of some
propellers designed by this method for Mach num-
bers from 0. 9 to 2. 4 for advance ratios of 2. 0 and
3. 0 are discussed.
NACA TN 2852
AN INVESTIGATION UTILIZING AN ELECTRICAL
ANALOGUE OF CYCLIC DE-ICING OF A HOLLOW
STEEL PROPELLER WITH AN EXTERNAL BLADE
SHOE. Carr B. Neel, Jr. December 1952. 54p.
diagrs., photos., 3 tabs. (NACA TN 2852)
A study of the heat requirements for cyclic de-icing
of hollow steel propellers fitted with external blade
shoes, utilizing an electrical analogue, showed how
energy requirements could be decreased by changes
in the method of operation of existing shoes and
through proper blade-shoe design. Savings in total
energy in the order of 60 percent would be possible
in each case. Energy requirements were shown to
increase with decreasing liquid-water content and
NACA TN 2855
GENERAL CORRELATION OF TEMPERATURE
PROFILES DOWNSTREAM OF A HEATED AIR JET
DIRECTED AT VARIOUS ANGLES TO AIR STREAM.
Robert S. Ruggeri. December 1952. 59p. diagrs.,
tab. (NACA TN 2855)
An experimental investigation was conducted to de-
termine the temperature profile downstream of a
heated-air jet directed at various angles to an air
stream. The profiles were determined at two posi-
tions downstream of the jet as a function of jet
diameter, jet density, free-stream density, jet
velocity, free-stream velocity, jet total temperature,
orifice flow coefficient, and jet discharge angles.
A method is presented which yields a good approxi-
mation of the temperature profile in terms of dimen-
sionless parameters of the flow and geometric con-
NACA TN 2857
A THEORETICAL METHOD OF ANALYZING THE
EFFECTS OF YAW-DAMPER DYNAMICS ON THE
STABILITY OF AN AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH A
SECOND-ORDER YAW DAMPER. Albert A. Schy
and Ordway B. Gates, Jr. December 1952. 72p.
diagrs., 2 tabs. (NACA TN 2857)
A method is presented for analyzing the effects of
autopilot gain, natural frequency, and damping ratio
on the damping of an aircraft equipped with a second-
order autopilot. The method is illustrated by analyz-
ing the effects of a second-order yaw damper on the
lateral motion of an airplane. Constant-damping
curves which show the effect of varying autopilot
parameters on system damping are plotted and dis-
cussed. Greater damping is shown to be obtainable
from a second-order yaw damper than from a no-lag
yaw damper with the same gain. A method of design-
ing yaw dampers is discussed.
NACA TN 2858
SUPERSONIC WAVE DRAG OF NONLIFTING DELTA
WINGS WITH LINEARLY VARYING THICKNESS
RATIO. Arthur Henderson, Jr. December 1952.
51Ip. diagrs. (NACA TN 2858)
The supersonic wave drag of a nonlifting, symmetri-
cal, double-wedge-profile, delta wing the thickness
ratio of which varies linearly in the spanwise direc-
tion is calculated by means of linear theory. In gen-
eral it is found that a delta wing with linearly varying
thickness ratio can have less wave drag than a con-
stant thickness-ratio delta wing of the same plan
form when both wings have either the same projected
frontal area or the same internal volume. The
thickness distributions for minimum drag and the
corresponding values of the ratio of the drag of a
linearly varying thickness-ratio wing to a constant-
thickness-ratio wing are found.
NACA TN 2859
THE LANGLEY 2, 000-HORSEPOWER PROPELLER
DYNAMOMETER AND TESTS AT HIGH SPEED OF
AN NACA 10-(3)(08)-03 TWO-BLADE PROPELLER.
Blake W. Corson, Jr. and Julian D. Maynard.
December 1952. 75p. diagrs., photos., 3 tabs.
(NACA TN 2859. Formerly RM L7L29)
This paper contains a detailed description of a 2, 000-
horsepower propeller dynamometer used to make
wind-tunnel tests of a two-blade NACA 10-(3)(08)-03
propeller for a range of blade angles from 20 to 55
at airspeeds up to 500 miles per hour. The results
of these tests and comparisons with- results obtained
from a theoretical analysis and fromn previous tests
made in other wind tunnels are presented.
NACA TN 2860
INTERACTION BETWEEN A SUPERSONIC STREAM
AND A PARALLEL SUBSONIC STREAM BOUNDED
BY FLUID AT REST. Herbert S. Ribner and
E. Leonard Arnoff. December 1952. 45p. diagrs.,
2 tabs. (NACA TN 2860)
Tsien and Finston's simplified model of shock
boundary-layer interaction is modified to introduce
effects of the separated "dead-air" bubble, where
one exists. The boundary layer is simulated by an
inviscid uniform subsonic stream bounded below by
fluid at rest and impinged on above by a weak oblique
shock in an infinite supersonic stream. Linearized
analysis indicates that the simulated boundary layer
approximates the expansive corner turn that would
occur if the shock were incident directly on the dead-
air region; there are localized distortions top and
NACA TN 2862
INFLUENCE OF NONMARTENSITIC TRANSFORMA-
TION PRODUCTS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF TEMPERED MARTENSITE. J. M. Hodge and
W. T. Lankford, United Sitaes Steel Company.
December 1952. 13p. diagrs., 4 tabs. (NACA
The influence of nonmartensitic transformation pr-i-
ducts on the mechanical properties of tempered
martensite is presented for samples of an SAE 4340
steel, partially isothermally transformed to specific
high-temperature transformation products and
quenched and tempered to hardness values of from
25 to 40 Rockwell C. The effects of upper bainite
in amounts of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 percent, of 5 per-
cent ferrite, and of 5 percent pearlite on the tensile,
impact, and fatigue properties are evaluated.
NACA TN 2863
LAMINAR NATURAL-CONVECTION FLOW AND
HEAT TRANSFER OF FLUIDS WITH AND WITHOUT
HEAT SOURCES IN CHANNELS WITH CONSTANT
WALL TEMPERATURES Simon Ostrach.
December 1952. 55p. diagrs. (NACA TN 2863)
An analysis of the natural-convection phenomenon
shows that the flow and heat transfer, in general, not
only are functions of the Prandtl and Grashof num-
bers but also depend on a new dimensionless param-
eter. If this parameter is not negligibly small, the
compression work and frictional heating may appre-
ciably affect this mode of heat transfer. Particular
consideration is given to the fully developed natural-
convection flow of fluids with and without heat
sources between two long parallel plane surfaces
whose temperatures are maintained constant but not
necessarily equal. Detailed velocity and tempera-
ture distributions are obtained from which the effects
of heat sources in the fluids and frictional heating on
the process can be seen. Frictional heating and heat
sources increase the velocities and temperatures.
Increasing the ratio of the two wall-temperature
differences (wall minus outside ambient) also leads to
UNIVE-RSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 09079 7605
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS N0.35
NACA RM E52122
VARIATION IN SMOKING TENDENCY AMONG LOW
MOLECULAR WEIGHT HYDROCARBONS. Rose L.
Schalla and Glen E. McDonald. December 1952.
16p. diagrs., 3 tabs. (NACA RM E52122)
An investigation was made of the variations in smok-
ing tendency among 38 gaseous and liquid pure hydro-
carbon compounds when burned as diffusion flames
in still air. The maximum rates at which the fuels
could be burned smoke-free varied as follows:
n-paraffins > isoparaffins > monoolefins > alkynes
> aromatics. Cyclic paraffins and olefins as well as
diolefins were also studied. Their position over-
lapped the trends of several of the series presented.
Variations in smoking tendencies within the given
homologous series were rather complex, but a tenta-
tive explanation is that the greater the strength of the
carbon bonds or skeleton of the hydrocarbon mole-
cule, the greater will be its tendency to form smoke
during combustion. From this suggested explanation
a possible mechanism based on dehydrogenation and
subsequent polymerization of the carbon nuclei was
proposed as the Initial step involved in the formation
NACA RM E52J06
PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ICING CONDITIONS
MEASURED DURING ROUTINE TRANSCONTINENT-
AL AIRLINE OPERATION. Porter J. Perkins.
December 1952. 27p. diagrs., photos., 3 tabs.
(NACA RM E52J06)
Icing data collected on routine operations by four
DC-4-type transport aircraft equipped with NACA
pressure-type icing-rate meters and flying over a
transcontinental route from January through May
1951 are presented. The four aircraft were in icing
conditions approximately 1-1/2 percent of the total
flying time. Nearly one-half of the icing conditions
were encountered over the Great Lakes area.
Average liquid-water-content measurements did not
exceed 1. 0 gram per cubic meter and 80 percent of
the measurements did not exceed 0. 4 gram per cubic
meter. The data are considered only preliminary
and the program is continuing to provide additional
data from world-wide air routes.
NACA RM E52B12
Errata No. 1 on "IMPINGEMENT OF WATER DROP-
LETS ON AN NACA 651-212 AIRFOIL AT AN ANGLE
OF ATTACK OF 4". Rinaldo J. Brun, John S.
Serafini and George J. Moshos. September 10, 1952.
NACA-Langley 1-5-53 4000
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