Research abstracts

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Title:
Research abstracts
Physical Description:
93 v. : ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Publisher:
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
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irregular
completely irregular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Aeronautics -- Abstracts -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Aeronautics -- Research -- Abstracts -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
abstract or summary   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Abstracts no. 1 (June 15, 1951)-no. 93 (Nov. 30, 1955).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001469326
notis - AGY1019
oclc - 01471285
lccn - 86657025
issn - 0499-9274
Classification:
lcc - TL501 .U5895
System ID:
AA00009235:00039

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National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics


Research Abstracts


NO./'"


JANUARY 11, 1955


CRiidkNT NACA REPORTS

NACA 1'. 1146

AERODYNgMIC FORCES AND LOADINGS ON
SYMMETRICA-CULAR -ARC AIRFOILS WITH
PLAIN LEADING-EDGE AND PLAIN TRAILING-
EDGE FLAPS. Jones F. Cahill, William J.
Underwood, Robert J. Nuber and Gail A. Cheesman.
1953. ii, 38p. diagrs., photos., 5 tabs. (NACA Rept.
1146. Formerly RM L6K22; RM L7H04; RM L50H 17a)
A two-dimensional wind-tunnel investigation has
been made of 6- and 10-percent-thick symmetrical
circular-arc airfoil sections equipped with 0.15-
chord plain leading-edge flaps and 0.20-chord plain
trailing-edge flaps. The tests consisted of measure-
ments of the aerodynamic forces and surface pres-
sures at low Mach numbers (about 0.15) and several
Reynolds numbers (0.7 x 106 to 18 x 106 based on the
airfoil chord). A generalized method is developed
that permits the determination of the chordwise
pressure distribution over sharp-edge airfoils with
plain leading- and trailing-edge flaps of arbitrary
size and deflection.

NACA Rept. 1149

ON TRANSONIC FLOW PAST A WAVE-SHAPED
WALL. Carl Kaplan. 1953. ii, 12p. (NACA
Rept. 1149. Formerly TN 2748)

The simplified nonlinear differential equation for
transonic flow past a wavy wall is solved by the meth-
od of integration in series. A general procedure for
the solution of the resulting recurrence formulas is
shown and illustrated by a number of examples. A
numerical test of convergence is applied to a key
power series in k, the transonic similarity param-
eter, and leads to the conclusion that smooth sym-
metrical potential flow past the wavy wall is no long-
er possible when the critical value of the stream
Mach number is exceeded.

NACA Rept. 1155

A COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SUB-
SONIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS ABOUT SEV-
ERAL BODIES OF REVOLUTION WITH PRESSURE
DISTRIBUTIONS COMPUTED BY MEANS OF THE
LINEARIZED THEORY. Clarence W. Matthews.
1953. ii, 29p. diagrs., tab. (NACA Rept. 1155.
Formerly TN 2519; RM L9F28)

A comparison is made of the theoretical and experi-
mental subsonic compressible pressure-coefficient
distributions about several bodies of revolution. The
results show that the liearized theory predicts the
subsonic pressure coefficients over the central por-
tion of the body. An extrapolation of the theory into
the supercritical range does not predict the rearward

'AVAILABLE ON LOAN ONLY


shift of the negative pressure peak which occurs after
the flow becomes critical. Two equations are pre-
senled for approximately determining the subsonic
compressible pressure -coefficient distributions from
the incompressible pressure-coefficient distributions.



NACA Rept. 1158

PREDICTION OF FLAME VELOCITIES OF
HYDROCARBON FLAMES. Gordon L. Dugger and
Dorothy M. Simon. 1954. ii. 10p. diagrs.. 4 tabs.
(NACA Rept. 1158. Formerly RM E52J13)

The effects of four combustible-mixture variables on
the laminar flame velocities of hydrocarbon-oxygen-
nitrogen mixtures are predicted by semitheoretical
methods based on (1) Semenov equation (thermal
mechanism), (2) Tanford-Pease equation (active-
particle-diffusion mechanism), and (3) Manson
equation (momentum-pressure-drop equation using
active-particle concentrations). A semiempirical
factor, calculated from flame velocity data, is re- *
quired by each of these equations. When these
factors are calculated for each variable separately,
mean deviations between calculated and measured
flame velocities are 2 to 15 percent for the variable
studied, namely, hydrocarbon structure, equivalence
ratio, oxygen-nitrogen ratio, and initial tempera-
ture. When the semiempirical factor for one
variable is used to predict the effect of another
variable, the mean deviations are approximately
doubled. Empirical equations are summarized
which give better predictions, but require more
constants.



NACA Rept. 1161

AVERAGE SKIN-FRICTION DRAG COEFFICIENTS
FROM TANK TESTS OF A PARABOLIC BODY OF
REVOLUTION (NACA RM- 10). Elmo J. Mottard and
J. Dan Loposer. 1954. ii, 7p. diagrs., photos.
(NACA Rept. 1161. Formerly TN 2854)

Average skin-friction drag coefficients were obtained
from boundary-layer total-pressure measurements
on a parabolic body of revolution (NACA RM -10,
basic fineness ratio 15) in water at Reynolds numbers
from 4.4 x 106 to 70 x 106. The tests were made in
the Langley tank No. 1 with the body sting-mounted
at a depth of two maximum body diameters. The
arithmetic mean of three drag measurements taken
around the body was in good agreement with flat-
plate results, but, apparently because of the slight
surface wave caused by the body, the distribution of
the boundary layer around the body was not uniform
over part of the Reynolds number range.


ADDRESS REQUESTS FOR DOCUMENTS TO NACA, 1512 H ST., NW., WASHINGTON 25, D.C., CITING CODE NUMBER ABOVE EACH TITLE;
THE REPORT TITLE AND AUTHOR
SLq. 130 ?Z.


- -






2


NACA TN 3163

USE OF A HOT-WIRE ANEMOMETER IN SHOCK-
TUBE INVESTIGATIONS. Darshan Singh Dosanjh,
Johns Hopkins University. December 1954. ii, 98p.
diagrs., photos. (NACA TN 3163)

The use of the hot-wire anemometer in experimental
investigations of the transient flow phenomena in a
shock tube is examined. The response of a hot-wire
to a transient step-function type of change in flow
conditions is experimentally studied and a criterion
for predicting the right compensation is postulated
and experimentally verified. Besides using the hot-
wire for actual wave phenomena and for flow studies,
it has been very successfully used as a timing and/or
triggering device in shock-tube work.


NACA TN 3317

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR WINGS HAVING
MINIMUM DRAG DUE TO LIFT. Warren A. Tucker.
December 1954. 26p. diagrs. (NACA TN 3317)

The problem of increasing the range of supersonic
aircraft by the use of twisted and cambered wings is
considered, primarily for the purpose of developing
a rational method for the selection of a design lift
coefficient. Relations and curves are presented
from which a suitable selection may be made,
depending on the relative importance of maximum
range and top speed.


NACA TN 3319

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN
ACCELERATION RESTRICTOR AS DETERMINED
BY MEANS OF A SIMULATOR. Arthur
Assadourian. December 1954. 20p. diagrs.,
photos. (NACA TN 3319)

The operating characteristics of an acceleration
restrictor were determined from tests on a simulator
consisting of a control stick geared to a magnetic
brake unit and an analog computer. The restrictor
worked on the principle of stopping the elevator
motion by means of a brake when a signal which was
a function of normal acceleration, pitching accelera-
tion, and pitching velocity reached a certain preset
value. The results obtained with three brake-
operating signals are presented.


NACA TN 3321

ANALYTICAL DETERMINATION OF THE
MECHANISM OF AN AIRPLANE SPIN RECOVERY
WITH DIFFERENT APPLIED YAWING MOMENTS
BY USE OF ROTARY-BALANCE DATA. Sanger M.
Burk, Jr. December 1954. 43p. diagrs., 2 tabs.
(NACA TN 3321)

An analytical investigation has been undertaken in an
attempt to learn more about the factors which make
up a spin and the mechanism of recovery therefrom.
Use is made of rotary-balance data and a step-by-
step integration process of Euler's equations of
motion allowing six degrees of freedom. The present
study makes an analysis of an airplane recovery from
a right spin where constant applied antispin yawing
moments due to application of 800 and 1,600 pounds
of force at the left wing tip are considered.


NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO. 76

NACA TN 3327

APPROXIMATE EFFECT OF LEADING-EDGE
THICKNESS, INCIDENCE ANGLE, AND INLET
MACH NUMBER ON INLET LOSSES FOR HIGH-
SOLIDITY CASCADES OF LOW CAMBERED
BLADES. Linwood C. Wright. December 1954.
38p. diagrs. (NACA TN 3327)

An approximate analysis of cascade induction loss
variations with incidence angle, Mach number, and
leading-edge thickness is presented along with
computational results in the form of curves. Results
are based on the solution of the energy, continuity,
and integrated momentum equations under the
assumption that the blade leading-edge pressure
approaches zero at appreciable incidence angles.
Results indicate that relatively small blade leading-
edge radii (of the order of 2 percent of blade gap)
lead to good inlet characteristics for the average
conditions generally encountered in compressors.
The desirability of avoiding high stagger angles is
indicated by representative inlet loss against inci-
dence angle curves for stagger angles of 450, 600,
and 750.


NACA TN 3329

SHOCKS IN HELICAL FLOWS THROUGH ANNULAR
CASCADES OF STATOR BLADES. Robert
Wasserman and Arthur W. Goldstein. December
1954. 27p. diagrs. (NACA TN 3329)

A method is presented for calculating supersonic
potential flows in annular cascades of blades by the
method of characteristics. It is found that helical
flows may be adjoined by helical shocks of uniform
strength; these constitute a considerable addition to
the class of simple flows available for designing cas-
cades of lifting blades. It was also found that by
selection of the proper variables, the derivatives of
the velocity components, which occur in the charac-
teristic equations, could be combined into an exact
differential. This form of the equation facilitated
computations. A flow and several cascade designs
were computed.


NACA TN 3332

BURNING TIMES OF MAGNESIUM RIBBONSIN
VARIOUS ATMOSPHERES. Kenneth P. Coffin.
December 1954. 37p. diagrs., photos. (NACA
TN 3332)

Some details of the mechanism of the combustion of
magnesium ribbons were investigated in mixture of
oxygen (17 to 100 percent) and inert gases (A, N2,
He, A-H20 mixtures). Photographs indicated vapor-
phase reaction rather than surface reaction. Burn-
ing times were calculated for a vapor-phase process
with diffusion and heat transfer. Experimental
trends were closely predicted; actual numerical
values agreed to well within an order of magnitude.


NACA TN 3334

FRICTION OF POSSIBLE SOLID LUBRICANTS
WITH VARIOUS CRYSTAL STRUCTURES. Marshall
B. Peterson and Robert L. Johnson. December
1954. 32p. diagrs., photos., 2 tabs. (NACA
TN 3334)







NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO. 76

A number of solids with CdI2, CdC12, and MoS2
types of layer lattice were tested in a low-speed
friction apparatus for lubrication effectiveness.
Some solids with these structures performed in a
manner similar to MoS2 in that they did lubricate
effectively over extended periods of sliding, namely,
CdI2, CdC12, and PbI2, CoC12, and WS2; other
layer-lattice solids that were effective are HgI2 and
Ag2SO4. Not all were effective lubricants. Some
low-shear-strength solids that did not have a layer
lattice were tested and gave surface protection.
Effectiveness as a solid lubricant seemed to be
associated with the formation of adherent films on
both mating specimens.


NACA TN 3354

GUST EXPERIENCE OF A HELICOPTER AND AN
AIRPLANE IN FORMATION FLIGHT. Aimer D.
Crim. December 1954. 12p. diagrs., photos.,
2 tabs. (NACA TN 3354)

A single-rotor helicopter and an airplane have been
flown in formation in rough air for the purpose of
measuring and comparing their responses to gusts.
Rough-air flights were also made by the helicopter
alone at several different airspeeds over the same
ground path.


NACA TN 3379

A SURVEY OF BACKGROUND AND AIRCRAFT
NOISE IN COMMUNITIES NEAR AIRPORTS. K. N.
Stevens, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. December
1954. 36p. diagrs., tab. (NACA TN 3379)

An extensive survey has been made of background
and aircraft noise levels in residential communities
in eight cities having major airports. The measure-
ments were made in areas up to a distance of 12
miles from the airports, and the areas were chosen
to be under regularly used flight paths. Readings of
background noise were obtained primarily in the
octave bands 75 to 150, 300 to 600, and 1,200 to
2,400 cps, about 25 such spectra being taken in each
area. Octave-band spectra were obtained from
magnetic tape recordings of the noise of about 250
aircraft in flight, representing substantially all
commercial types.



BRITISH REPORTS


N-34306*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
SCALE EFFECTS OF HIGH SUBSONIC AND
TRANSONIC SPEEDS, AND METHODS FOR FIXING
BOUNDARY-LAYER TRANSITION IN MODEL
EXPERIMENTS. A. B. Haines, D. W. Holder and
H. H. Pearcey. September 1954. 60p. diagrs.,
photos. (RAE Tech. Note Aero 2338)
This note is concerned with the major scale effects
that arise at high subsonic speeds from the differ-
ences between the conditions under which laminar
and turbulent boundary layers separate and behave
after separation. The scale effects arising in wind


3


tunnel tests made at low Reynolds numbers may often
be minimized by fixing transition to turbulent flow by
introducing an artificial disturbance such as that
produced by excrescences attached to the surface.
Several methods which can be used to fix transition
are described, and the results obtained by using
them are compared.



N-34307*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THE VERTICAL SPINNING TUNNEL AT THE
NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL ESTABLISHMENT,
BEDFORD. A. E. Clarke and R. L. Maltby.
September 1954. 20p. diagrs., photos. (RAE
Tech. Note Aero 2339)

The Spinning Tunnel at the National Aeronautical
Establishment is described. The choice of size and
type of tunnel as well as some of the more interest-
ing features of the design are discussed. The
description has been made before the tunnel was
completed and some of what has been written may
need revision in the light of experience.



N-34308*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
REQUIREMENTS FOR UNIFORMITY OF FLOW IN
SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNELS. D. E. Morris and
K. G. Winter. September 1954. 9p. diagr. (RAE
Tech. Note Aero 2340)

An analysis is made of the effects of nonuniformity
of flow on the pressure measurements on the surface
of a model and also on the force and moment mea-
surements, and standards of flow uniformity are de-
rived. A brief analysis is made of the errors in
model manufacture and their effects on force and
pressure measurements. Using the same standards
as were used in deducing the requirements for flow
uniformity, it is concluded that present standards of
model manufacture are satisfactory overall, though
for accurate pressure plotting tests at low super-
sonic Mach numbers, a higher standard is desirable.



N-34407*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
A NOTE ON THE SOUND FROM WEAK DISTURB-
ANCES OF A NORMAL SHOCK WAVE. Alan
Powell. April 15, 1954. 10p. diagrs. (ARC 16,728;
FM 2062)

The disturbances of a shock wave by sound waves or
temperature fluctuations are studied in one dimension
to a first order approximation. In general, both
sound waves and temperature fluctuations arise
behind the shock wave. Expressions are given for
their amplitudes, and calculated for y = 1.4.
Sound waves colliding with the shock wave are
amplified, but sound waves are almost annihilated by
weak shock waves if originally travelling in the same
direction as the shock wave. Small temperature
fluctuations give rise to much sound, on an
acoustical scale.








4


N-34408*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
NOTES ON THE STABILITY OF PHYSICAL
SYSTEMS. P. E. W. Grensted. February 4, 1954.
3p. (ARC 16,532; S & C 2859; 0.1104)

The term "stability" has to be used with caution
when applied to physical systems in general. Sug-
gestions are made concerning the way in which the
term can be legitimately applied. A note is included
on the behavior of a nonlinear system over a finite
period of time.


N-34411*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
DECAY OF TURBULENCE BEHIND A GRID
(DYNAMICAL THEORY). D. Meksyn. February 4,
1954. 7p. (ARC 16,530; FM 2019)

It is the purpose of this paper to show that the law of
decay of turbulence behind a grid is determined
mainly by dynamical connections of the flow, and
that it can be obtained by combining the equation of
the mean flow with the differential equations for the
mean flow. It is shown that the gradual transforma-
tion of the linear law of decay of small eddies can be
satisfactorily explained and is in general agreement
with experimental results.



N-34412*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt.Brit.)
THOUGHTS ON BOUNDARY LAYER NOISE. Alan
Powell. April 15, 1954. 5p. (ARC 16,727;
FM 2061)

The problem of boundary-layer noise is discussed as
being the predominating noise in high speed aircraft
(except in regions intercepting the "cone" of intense
jet noise). This boundary-layer noise may be very
powerful. The methods by which sound can be gen-
erated are considered. In general, the noise arising
from the flow past a fixed surface is of complex
origin, and the problem has been divided into aero-
dynamic or "layer noise, surface noise, panting
noise, and wake noise.



N-34493*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt.Brit.)
CALCULATION OF THE LOAD DISTRIBUTION OVER
A WING WITH ARBITRARY CAMBER AND TWIST AT
SONIC SPEED. K. W. Mangler. August 1954. 55p.
diagrs. (RAE Aero 2515)

A method is developed for the calculation of the load
distribution due to camber and twist over a thin wing
at sonic speed (or, more generally, over wings for
which A21M2-ll is small (A aspect ratio, M Mach
number)). The calculation is based on the usual
assumptions of linearized potential flow without fric-
tion and shock waves. Application of the method
involves the solution of a given integral equation,
which for a general planform has to be solved numer-
ically. Some simple examples show the effect of
twist and camber on the load distribution and on the
suction force along the leading edge of a delta wing.


NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO. 76

N-34494*

Nat. Gas Turbine Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THE REMOVAL OF POROSITY FROM INVESTMENT
CASE COMPRESSOR BLADES MADE FROM 0.2 PER
CENT CARBON, 18 PER CENT CHROMIUM, 2 PER
CENT NICKEL STAINLESS STEEL. J. E. Northwood.
February 1954. 31p. diagrs., photos., 5 tabs.
(NGTE Memo. M. 142)

This Memorandum describes an investigation carried
out at the National Gas Turbine Establishment on the
elimination of porosity-from investment cast 0.2 per-
cent carbon, 18 percent chromium, 2 percent nickel
stainless steel. A description is given of attempts to
minimize porosity in long thin compressor blades by
inducing directional solidification from tip to root.
The methods involved the achievement of either a
temperature gradient in the mould or a temperature
gradient in the freezing metal by the use of chills. An
attempt was also made to produce blades by centri-
fugal casting. All these tests gave unsatisfactory
results. A description is given of "pour-out" tests
and other work which led to the use of high mould
temperatures between 1300 and 13800 C for the sat-
isfactory production of relatively sound castings.


N-34496*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
FLOW DIRECTION MEASUREMENTS IN SUPER-
SONIC WIND TUNNELS. D. J. Raney. September
1954. 18p. diagrs. (RAE Tech. Note Aero 2342)

Some general requirements for satisfactory flow
direction measurements in supersonic tunnels are
stated and examples are given of the design and
calibrations of typical yawmeters. The results of
flow direction measurements made in two tunnels are
given and some of the flow characteristics are
discussed.


N-34497*

Nat. Gas Turbine Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
OBSERVATIONS ON THE SURGING OF VARIOUS
LOW-SPEED FANS AND COMPRESSORS. A. G.
Smith and P. J. Fletcher. July 1954. 30p. diagrs.,
tab. (NGTE Memo. M. 219)

In the course of testing fans and compressors over a
period of years various forms of low disturbances
have been noticed at low coefficients. Some of the
disturbances were spectacular and a remarkable var-
iation in the type of disturbance was found. This
report has been prepared in view of the current inter-
est in surging phenomena. On various fans, four
abnormal types of flow have been observed. These
abnormal flows have been called "surges" though two
of the types did not exhibit the oscillation implied by
the name. The commonest surge regime involved the
existence of a single band of reverse flow or disturbed
flow rotating in the sense of the rotor, but at a lower
speed.


N-34498*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
A POTASSIUM VAPOUR HOT-CATHODE RECTIFIER.
I. A. Mossop. July 1954. 19p. diagrs., photos.,
tab. (RAE Tech. Note EL. 74)








NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO. 76

Alkali vapor diodes, in which the vapor acts both as a
conducting gas and as a coating for the cathode, have
many features which warrant their consideration for
use as power rectifiers in aircraft. An experimental
potassium vapor diode has been constructed and its
anode characteristics have been measured. Apart
from requiring a higher envelope temperature and
having a higher arc drop, its performance was found
to be similar to that reported in the U. S. A. for a
caesium filled tube. A method of presenting a com-
plete anode characteristic, as a cathode ray tube
trace, is described; it should be useful for measure-
ments on other heavy current discharge tubes, such
as thyratrons. Provision is made for direct calibra-
tion of both the voltage and current axes as well as
for a simple check on these calibrations and on the
linearity of the amplifiers.

N-34499*

Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
ALLOYS OF TITANIUM WITH IRON. D. A.
Sutcliffe. July 1954. 15p. diagrs., 8 tabs. (RAE
Tech. Note Met.201)

Binary titanium iron alloys containing up to 9.18 per-
cent iron by weight have been prepared by arc melt-
ing. Tensile, hardness, and impact tests have been
made on the alloys at room temperature. The results
show that additions of iron cause a steady increase in
hardness and strength with a corresponding loss in
ductility. An alloy containing 3.0 percent iron had a
Vickers hardness of 242 D. P. N.; a U. T. S. of
45.6 tons/sq inch and a percent elongation of 24; the
impact strength as determined on Izod specimens of
substandard size was 3.7 ft-lbs (approximately half
that of the basis titanium). A survey of the literature
is included and details are given of the published work
on the titanium iron phase diagram and the effect of
iron on the mechanical properties of titanium.


N-34501*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
STRESS ANALYSIS OF MULTI-WEB BOXES. W. S.
Hemp. March 21, 1954. 18p. diagrs. (ARC 16,767;
Strut 1706)

Particular solut6ios given are constant stress solu-
tion, pure shear solution, bending by tip shear force,
distributed pressure, and anti-symmetric internal
stress system (root constraint in torsion). These
particular solutions are incomplete and have to be
supplemented by the solutions of problems formulated
in given equations. Solutions to these supplementary
problems are best obtained by approximate methods
using Castigliango's Theorem of Stationary Strain
Energy. An example is worked out for root con-
straint for the case of tip shear force.


N-34502*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
THE HOT-WIRE ANEMOMETER FOR TURBULENCE
MEASUREMENTS. PART IV. B. Wise and D. L.
Schultz. April 15, 1954. 42p. diagrs. (ARC 16,726;
FM 1527c; Oxford Univ., Engineering Lab. No. 71)

An account is given of some measurements of both
turbulence level and spectra at subsonic and super-
sonic speeds. An investigation of the steady-state
heat-loss law over the transonic range is also
described.


5

N-34503*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
THERMO-ELASTICITY. W. S. Hemp. April 1954.
8p. (ARC 16,766; Strut. 1683)

A continuous solid body is referred to rectangular
axes. The body is assumed "elastic"; that is, the
components of strain are taken to be single valued
functions of the components of stress and the temper-
ature T. The body is subjected to a quasi-static
loading by forces (X, Y, Z) per unit volume and (Xv,
Yv, Zv) per unit of external surface. The tempera-
ture T' of the surrounding medium at the surface of
the body and the "heat transfer coefficient" or
"external conductivity' h is assumed to be known.
Both the mechanical and thermal loading are varied
with the time t, but not so rapidly as to excite
vibration in the body. The problem solved is the
calculation of the deformation, stress, and tempera-
ture distribution as functions of the time.



N-34504*

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOT-WIRE
ANEMOMETERS FOR HIGH SPEED FLOWS. D. L.
Schultz. March 4, 1954. 10p. diagrs., photos., tab.
(ARC 16,635; FM 2046; TP 424; Oxford Univ.,
Engineering Lab. No. 68)

Factors influencing the design of high speed hot-wire
anemometers are discussed and it is shown that, for
fluctuation measurements, tungsten is the most suit-
able wire material. A technique for spot welding the
wire to steel supports is described and complete
probe assemblies suitable for use at transonic and
supersonic airspeeds at least up to M = 1.8 at
atmospheric stagnation pressure are illustrated.



N-34505'

Aeronautical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
ON THE STABILITY OF ACCELERATED MOTION.
A. R. Collar. May 1954. 9p. (ARC 16,831;
S and C 2908)

In the case of certain sets of equations such as arise
in problems of aircraft stability the coefficients vary
with speed in related ways. It is shown that in such
systems a particular form of acceleration enables a
general solution to be obtained; the result may be
regarded as a generalization of the treatment of sets
of equations with constant coefficients.






MISCELLANEOUS



N-33571*

NOTES ON HELICOPTER FLIGHT RESEARCH.
John P. Reeder. (Presented to Flight Test Panel of
Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and
Development, Paris, France, November 29 -
December 4, 1954) 29p. diagrs., photos.







6 NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO. 76


The NACA entered the field of rotary-wing research
and flight testing some 23 years ago with studies of
the autogiro. This experience served as a back-
ground for helicopter research and the first heli-
copter was received for flight testing in 1944. This
paper briefly reviews some of the knowledge gained
from flight tests. One problem studied is that of
blade stalling. More recently the study of the flying
qualities of a helicopter has been undertaken. This
has included speed stability, maneuver stability, and
turn and lateral-oscillation characteristics. Other
current projects include instrument flying studies
and the helicopter loads program.





UNPUBLISHED PAPERS


N-33814*

THE STATUS OF RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF
HEAT TRANSFER. E. Schmidt. June 1954. 31p.
diagrs., photos. (Trans. from Zeitschrift des
Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, v. 76, no. 42,
October 15, 1932, p. 1025-1032)

The complexity of the field of heat transfer and its
problems is discussed. Theory succeeds in pre-
senting complete solutions for only a few simple
cases. A summary is given of the measuring
methods and results in the most important individual
cases of heat transfer. Questions not yet clarified
and problems to be dealt with in the future are
pointed out. We shall have to make a strenuous
effort in order to maintain the lead Germany has had
so far in view of the fact that in America much
emphasis is being placed on problems of heat
transfer.


NACA-Langley 1-11-55 4M





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