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ItoQnal fl~~avisry Lommissee ror rlerona uacs
:. DECEMBER 12,r 1952
UltENT. NACA REPORTS
:~n RIcAL ETHOD POR TWE STRESS ANALY-
,,~1l~6 F ITIFENED-4HELL STRUCTURES UNDER
01 :Q iNEEORMW~bib TEMPERATURE blBTRIBUTIONs.
a 4 Heldenfels. 1951. 11, 20p. diagrs.,
L%itd s.. (AACA Rept. 1043. Formerly TN 2241)
icitial method Is presented for the stress anal-
oEitiS, tf Hfened-shell structures of arbitrary crose
n undei~t~n:f~e nonuniform temperature distributions,
h;!~lle method iqbased on a previonely published pro-
a th~;-.t t is e~xtendpd to include temperature effects
mj:ltinelioel construction. The application of the
:~~i~~dto practical problems is discussed and an .- .
uni;lli~trative ~analis is p d~r~esente ofatw-el .--
no;;.j uj~i.nder the combined action of vertically
and4i sidniform temperature distribution.
~ji:iRNC1 Rept. 1044 .L
M:'EE4ETHOD OF CIIARACTERISTICB FOR T
6SI'llTRMIERMNATION OF BUPERSONIC FLOW OE
iir;iODIESs OE REVOLUTION AT SMlALL ANGLES OF,.
ATTAGICK Antonio Ferrt. 1951. ti, 16p. diagre.
(NACA Rlept. 1044. Formerly TN 1800)
~'pe methodod of characteristics has been applied to
(A11tilt~onl: apersonic flow around bodies of revolution
wc~~.isana angle of attack. The practical numerical
~iistions are similar to those for Eero~angle of
tE~~ A mthd for determinin supersonic flow
todi:r~id~ circular cones at an angle of attack is also
N CA~t~ Rept. 10i5
,l Elt~jrcsoMIC FLOW AROUND CIRCULAR CONEB
A.~?:l~'L ANGLE S OF ATTACK. Antonio Ferri. 1951. ,
t~.135$.. diagrs.. (NACA Rept. 1045. Formerly
b~~.r`e properties of conical flow without axial
II infr;letry~ are analyzed. The flow around cones of
dl:;;.irculli crose section at sinall angles of attack is
determined by correctly considering the effect of the
Matropyg grLadied in te low.
NACA Rept. 1057
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF BOUNDARY-
LAYER CONTROL ON THIE TAEE-OFF AND
POWER-OFF LANDING PERFORMiANCE CHARAC-
TERISTICS OF A LIAISON TYPE OF AIRPLANE.
Elmer A. Horton, Laurence Kt. LofI~n, Jr., Stanley
F. RanBE and John H. Quinn, Jr. 1951. 11, 31p.
diagrs.' (NACA'Rept. 1057. Formerly TN 1597;
An Investigation has been made to determine whether
boundary-layer control by suction might reduce the
minimum take-off and landing distance of a four-
place or five-place airplane or a liaison type of atr-
plane having a pay load of 1500 pounds and a flight.
duration of 5 hours. The aspect ratio was varied
a5 to 15, the~wing span from 25 to 100 feet, and
raehorsepower from 300 to 1204 The effec-
aof boundary-layer control in reducing the
eofdistance for a givesl maximum speed,
~jrolrqs iRith increasing aspect ratio and, for win%
Ta adJ~ of 10 pounds per square foot or more and
an q ~et ratio of 10 or more, the addition of
be mdafy-layer control results in a decrease in the
Jdhalt~ke-olf distance of as much as 14 percent.
~The/irse of boundary-layer control causes reduction
--,n lotal landing distances (25 to 40 percent), ground-
run distance, gliding speed, and stalling speed
whereas sinking speed is mecreased only slightly.
NACA TN 2831
BPAN LOAD DISTRIBUTIONS RESULTING FROM
CONSTANT ANGLE OF ATTACK, STEADY
ROLLING VELOCITY, STEADY PITCHING
VELOCITY, AND CONSTANT VERTICAL ACCELER-
ATION FOR TAPERED SWEPTBACK WINGS WITH
STREAMWISE TIPS. SUBSONIC LEADING EDGES
AND SUPERSONIC TRAILING; EDGES. Margery E.
Hannah and Kenneth Moargoie. December 1952.
221p. diargra., 4 tabs. (NACA TN 2831)
On the basis of the linearized supersonic-flow theory
the theoretical apanwise distributions of circulation
(which are proportional to the epan load distribution)
resulting from constant angle of attack, steady roll-
ing velocity, steady pitching velocity, and constant
vertical acceleration were calculated for a series of
thin, sweptback, tapered wings with streamwise tips,
subsonic leading edges, and enpersonic trailing
edges. The results of the analysis are presented as
a series of design charts. Some IIullutrative varia-
tions of the apanwise distributions of circulation with
aspect ratio, taper ratio, Mach number, leading-
edge sweepback, and exis-of -pitch location are also
ciLABLE. ON LOXN ONLY.
5 REQUEa~ST FOR DOCUMENTS TO NA4CA, 1724 F ST., NW., WASHINGTON ns, D. C., CITING CODE NUMBER ABOVE EACH TITEs
jpRT tttE AND AUTHOR.
NACA TN 28933
AN ANALYSIS OF NORMAL ACCELERATIONS AND
AIRSPEEDS OF ONE TYPE OF TW~IN-EltlINE
TRANSPORT AIRPLANE IN COMMERCIAL OPERA-
TIONS OVER A NORTHERN TRANSCONTINENTAL
ROUTE. Roy Steiner. November 1952. 23p.
diagrs., 4 tabs. (NACA TN 2633)
Normal-acceleration and airspeed data obtained for
one type of twin-engine transport airplane In com-
mercial operations over a northern transcontinental
route are analyzed to determine the gust and gnat-
Load experiences of the airplane. The acceleration
Increments experienced equaled or exceeded the
limit-gust-load factor, on the average, twice (once
positive and once negative) in about 7. 5 x 106 flight
miles, and an effective gust velocity of 30 feet per
second was equaled or exceeded twice mn about
.1 x 106 flight miles. The data indicate that the
maximum gusted and gust loads experienced in the
winter were moughly 10 percent higher than those
experienced in the summer on this route.
NACA TN 2837
CORRECTIONS FOR DRAG, LIFT, AND MOMENT
OF AN AIUALLY SYMMETRICAL BODY PLACED
IN A SUPERSONIC TUNNEL HAVING A TWO-
DIMENSIONAL PRESSURE GRADIENT.
I. J. Koladner, F. Reiche and H. F. Ludloff,
New York University. November 1952. 45p.
(NACA TN 2837)
Corrections for drag, lift, and moment are derived
for an axially symmetrical body placed in a super-
sonic tunnel having a two-dimensional pressure
gradient. Although relatively simple longitudinal and
transverse pressure gradients are assumed, the
analytical treatment is rather difficult because of the
difference in symmetry between the body and the
basic flow field. Assuming arrotational conditions,
the velocity potential of the flow around the body is
expanded in powers of two parameters characterizing
the body thickness and the inhomogeneity of the
field and as a Fourier series in the azimuth around
the body axis. Upon substitution of this potential
series, the nonlinear equation of motion and the
boundary condition on the body surface are split into
a set of linearized boundary-value problems which
can be solved analytically.
NACA TN 2840
BUCKLINGr OF LOW ARCHES OR CURVED BEAMS
OF SMALL CURURVAUE. Y. C. Fung and
A. Kaplan, California Institute of Technology.
November 1952. 75p. diagrs., photo., 9 Labs.
(NACA TN 2840)
A general solution, based on the classical buckling
criterion, is given for the problem of buckling of
low arches under a lateral loading acting toward the
cneartocurava ure.heForiasin sodal a thunder
pressed exactly as a simple function of the beasn
dimension parameters. For other arch shapes and
load distributions, approximate values of the critical
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NOatg
load can be obtained by summing a few terms of a :q
rapidly converging Fourier series. The effects a
initial end thrust and axial and lateral elastic sq-
part are disaussed. The buckling load based as
energy criterion of IC~rmain and Telen is aleaC~i ~ 6
lPatd. Results for both he classileltl.lr andth
criteria are compared with experimental redt r.
NACA TN 2841l
INVESTIGATION OF 75-MILELIETBER-OR D gP-
GROOVE BALL BEARINGS UNDER RADIAL LA
AT HIGH SPEEDB. I -O~L-FLOW TUDIES.
Zolton N. Nemeth, E. Fred Macks and William j..
Anderson. December 1952. 30p. diagrs., 3 als.
(NACA TN 2841)
At arroll Inlet temperature of 1000 F, two methods
of bearing lubrication, single jet and pudI~tng, were
investigated. In this investigation, 715-millimeter-
bore ball bearings were studied over a range at DN
values (tyre times speed) from 0. 3 x 10g to
1. 2 x 10", radial Loads from 7 to 1113 pounds, and
oil flows from 2 to 8 pounds per minute. The
quantity of oil which flows through the bearing la
shown to have an important effect on beariag imperat-
ing temperatures and lubrication-system heat load.
The effects of the operating variables on the all1 flow
through the bearing and upon the.bearing outer-
and in~ner-race temperaltures are discussed.
NACA TN 2843
AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR
ADAPTING THE CONSTANT-TEMPERATURE ROT-
WIRE ANEMOMETER TO SPECIFIC PROBI.EM IlN
AIR-FLOW MEASUREMENTS. James C. Laurence
and L. Gene Landes. December 1952. ii, 77p.
diagrs., photos., 3 Labs. (NACA TN 2843)
The constant -temperature hot-wire anemometer
amplifier and accessories have been developed to
provide an instrument with wide frequency response,,
good stability, and ease cooperation. Audlllairy
equipment has been developed to provide heating
currents for large wires, to make average-8quare
computatlions, and to make double-correlation coef-
flcient measurements. Technliques are deslcribed
for using this equipment to study periodic phenomena
such as surge, rotating stall, and wake surveys III.
centriugal- and axial-flow compresears. The
application of the equipment to the study of non-
periodic phenomena such ase intensity, scale, and
spectra of lootropic turbulence is also discussed.
Heat-lose data for standardized tungsten wire'probes
show that no wire calibration is necessary if
accuracies of +5 percent are efficient.
NACA TN 2844
LAMINAIR BOUNDARY LAYER ON CONE IN SUPER1-
SONIC FLOW AT LARGE ANGLE OF ATTACKS.
Franklin K. Moore. Appendix B: NUMEHICAL
MsobhTIONOF DIFFF9RE2NT E UTIO. LanR
.r .. -'C
; AEsEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.
The laminar boundary-dayer flop about a cone at
Inkgd as (198 of attack to a supersonic stream has
been arnalyled In the plane of symmetry. At the
bottom of the cone, velocity profiles were obtained
aboir the expected tendency of the boundary layer
to become thinner on the under side of the cone as
i. Ithe angle of attack is increased. At the top of the
c :one, the analyals failed to yield unique solutions,
exceptxcet for small angle of attack. Beyond acertain
i,"crittcal angle of attack, boundary-layer flow does
$:'ot exlet in the plane of symmetry, thus indicating
NAC'A RM L52K10a
PRELIMINARYLINAR RESULT OF STABILITY CALCU-
LA TEDNS FO)R THE BENDING OF BOX BEAMS
11)FI ONG#.i~l"UDIETALLY~ STIFFENED COVERS
.;CONNECTED BY POSTS. Roger A. Anderson,
Thod~ias~ W. Wilder, II and Aldie E. Johnson, Jr.
December 1952. 17p. diagra., tab. (NACA
Th ~ 'Fe preliminary results of a computational program
a.;re presented which give numerical values of the
s 'tiffnesses required of posts and longiudinal stiff-
eners along the row of posts to achieve desired
backling-atresa values in the covers of a box beam
subjected tobending. The validity of a short-cut
solution to the stability equation derived in NACA
TN 2760 is also shown.
AIeronantical Research Council (Gt. Brit.)
THE PATH OF A LIGHT FLUID WHEN RELEASED
rN A HEAVIER FLUID WHICH IS ROTATING.
Geoffrey Taylor. August28, 1950. 10p. diagrs.,
tab. (ARC 13,327; CF 144; FM 1471)
TZhis report presented a discussion of a previous re-
part, 'Thermo-Centrifugal Convection in Combue-
tion Chambers, by J. F. Alcock and W. D.
Armstrong, in which an attempt was made to calen-
Iate how a fluid would move if released in a fluid of
another density while the whole system was rotating
at uniform angular velocity.
Marine Aircraft Experimental Establishment
(Gt. prit.) A NOTE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF
*. SEN~I~TIVE PRESSURE OPERATED WATER CON-
TACTS FOR USE ON SEAPLANES. R. Parker.
July 'fa11952. 10p. diagre., photos., tab. (MAEE
t:.Apreseare' operated water contact has been deel-
o; ped, suitable for indicating the instants of take-off
ital touchdown for a seaplane hall. Flight tests have
Ishow~n that the Instrument is accurate in operation
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
NOTES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CRYSTALLOY
AND H. C. R. AGNETIC MATERIALS IN TRANB-
DUCTOR CIRCUITS. A. G. Milnes and D. E.
Fielder. May 1952. 22p. diagrs. (RAE Tech. Note
Tranaductor behavior with Crystalloy and H. C. R.
as the core materials is examined and the sensitivity
is shown to increase with increase in the supply
voltage. As a result of this examination, a design
flux density of 12, 000 to 13, 000 gause (peak) is
recommended for H. C. R. and 10, 000 to 11, 000 gauss
(peak) for Crystalloy. The transductor character-
Latics obtained with H. C. R. cares are superior to
those for Crystalloy; but to conserve supplies of
nickel-iron materials, the use of Crystalloy or
equivalent materials is advised for output stage
tranaductors in applications where the highest stand-
ards of performance are not required.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THE 'NATUlRAL VIGNETTING" OF PHOTOGRAPHIC
LENSES. R. W. Fish. May 1952. 10p. diagrs.
(RAE Tech.Note Ph. 466)
The variation of illumination in the focal plane of a
photographic lens is commonly represented by the
co.40 law ("natural vignetting') in the absence of
true vignetting, reflection and absorptioq Losses, and
veiling glare. It isshown that this cos 0 law only
holds when the image Is free from diatortlan and
there is no aberration of the entrance pupil. The
collimator method of measuring the variation of illu-
mination is shown to be correct in theory. The ap-
plication to wide angle lenses for air survey is brief-
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
A PHOTO-ELECTRIC CURVE FOLLOWER. R. H.
Forrest and K. H. Treweek. With appendices.
J. A.Roberts. May 1952. 61p. diagrs., photos.
(RAE Tech.Note Arm. 487)
This enrve follower reproduces in voltage form the
ordinate of a curve recorded photographically as an
opaque trace on clear film. A prototype instrument
has been constructed and is described in some detail
in the present paper. It is capable of following
curves, recorded on 35-mm film, which do not ex-
ceed 800 in elope nor 20-mm peak to peak in ampi-
tude at 60 cycles per second. The film is drawn
past the face of a cathode ray tube in the X-ade
direction and is viewed by a photocell which control
the Y-plate voltage to keep the luminous spot locked
to the trace. The Y-plate voltage is therefore a
measure of the curve ordinate. The follower works
as a carrier frequency system and reads substantial-
ly the center of the recorded trace. The reading is
therefore inseneittiv to line thicknese and density,
considered stnruture hra eae~ei
of an arthatrdpic plate of vb thl kne
fers from the usual straraft w~lag
the assumption a a continuous antrigid~
riba and websl representedlj the: cOMii
between land and elaelic deformpintin o
structure is developed,. starting t thq
sold plates. Analysis fields a parti
equation of fourth order writh vraabli
ne~xtension of the blharmonto e ual
formaattan of sold plates anl form.
suppressing the' rib bending, thesid aght
equation Is Linearised and anmel -.
comes possible. Hence, a theory of~r aI
sional flat structure can be devei
ston at the barnding and twisting ter
and the reading error in the prototype to about 2 per-
cent offull anale. The appendices describe the
theory of the generation of the algnals by the optical
system and the use of a galvanometer in place of a
cathode ray tube.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THE MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER AND
SKIN FRICTION AT SUPERSONIC SPEEDS. PART
IV TESTS ON A FLAT PLATE AT Mi = 2. 83-
SR. J. Monaghan and J. R. Cookie. June 1952. 43p.
diagrs., 3 tabs. (RAE Tech. Note Aero 2171)
This note gives the results of over-all heat transfer
and boundary-layer measurements made on a flat
plate in a 5-in. square supersonic wind tunnel
operating at M = 2. 82 under atmospheric stagnation
pressure conditions. The tests were made to extend
the range of results previously obtained at
Mi = 2. 431, 2 and sed the same experimental equip-
ment. In general, the results confirm those ob-
tained at the lower Mach number and some general
conclusions are now drawn concerning the structure
and behavior of experimental laminar and turbulent
compressible boundary layers on a flat plate. The
present series of tests is now complete, but subsonic
check tests remain to be made.
NACA TN 2598
Errata No. 1 on A TECHNIQUE APPLICABLE TO
THE AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OF INDUCER-TYPE
MULTISTAGE AXIAL-FLOW COMrlPRESSORS".
Melvyn Savage and Loren A. Beatty. March 1952.
ON THE STATICS OF THIN AIRCRAFT WINGB. (Sur
Statik von diinnen Flugseng-Tragfliichen). H. Schiirch.
October 1952. 85p. diagrs., photo., 2 tabs. (Trans.
from Eidgenissidtie Technische Hochschule Zuirich.
Institute filr Fleugegstatik und Flugseughau.
Milttellungen 2, 1950, 62p.).
This paper dealer with the structural analysis of flat
structures, similar to those encountered th the wing
and tail-plane design of modern aircraft. A sandwich
type flat structure is considered. This structure is
assumed to be built up at two faces, carrying normal
and shearing loads and of a core of pure shearing
rigidity normal to its center plane. The faces are
assumed to be stiffened by an orthogonal system of
stringers. Due to the stringers, the local bending
rigidity of the flat structure Is variable in different
surface directions. Ah arbitrary variation of these
bending rigidities is taken into account. Thus, the
UNIVERS~ ITYO LOIDA
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