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National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
NO.31 OCTOBER 24, 1952
CURRENT NACA REPORTS
NACA Rept. 1026 I
NACA INVESTIGATION OF FUEL PERFO MACE
IN PISTON-TYPE ENGINES. Henry C. Ba ettk
1951. vi, 102p. diagrs., photos., 32 tabs. NAA
A compilation of many of the pertinent research data
acquired by the NACA on fuel performance In piston
engines. The following specific subjects are dis-
cussed: High-speed photographic studies of knocking
combustion, by C. David Miller; correlations of
knock-limited performance data; antiknock perform-
ance scales; preignition; hydrocarbons and ethers as
antiknock blending agents; aromatic amines as fuel
additives; tetraethyl lead as a fuel additive; anti-
knock blending characteristics of fuels; fuel volatil-
ity; and internal cooling.
NACA Rept. 1054
INTEGRALS AND INTEGRAL EQUATIONS IN LINE-
ARIZED WING THEORY. Harvard Lomax, Max A.
Heaslet and Franklyn B. Fuller. 1951. ii, 34p.
diagrs. (NACA Rept. 1054. Formerly TN 2252)
The formulas of subsonic and supersonic wing theory
for source, double, and vortex distributions are re-
viewed, and a systematic presentation is provided
which relates these distributions to the pressure and
to the vertical induced velocity in the plane of the
wing. It is shown that care must be used In treating
the singularities involved in the analysis and that the
order of Integration is not always reversible. Con-
cepts suggested by the irreversibility of order of in-
tegration are shown to be useful in the inversion of
singular integral equations when operational tech-
niques are used. A number of examples are given to
illustrate the methods presented, attention being
directed to supersonic flight speeds.
NACA Rept. 1065
CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES WITH
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE FOR SOME DICYCLIC
HYDROCARBONS HAVING HIGH THERMAL-
ENERGY RELEASE PER UNIT VOLUME-2-
ALKYLBIPHENYL AND THE TWO ISOMERIC 2-
ALKYLBICYCLOHEXYL SERIES. Irving A.
Goodman and Paul H. Wise. 1952 10p. diagrs. ,
2 tabs. (NACA Rept. 1065. Formerly TN 2419)
NKhree nomologous series of related dicyclic nydro-
oagbons are compared on the basis of the following
2t5physical properties: net heat of combustion, density,
melting point, boiling point, and kinematic viscosity.
The three series investigated are the 2-alkylbiphenyl,
and the high- and low-boiling 2-alkylbicyclohexyl
series through C16. Comparisons are made on the
following bases: (1) as members of an homologous
series in wnich the compounds have similar struc-
tures and differ in molecular weignt; (2) as Isomers
witn the same molecular formula but different mo-
lecular structure due to brancning of me side chain
or geometrical isomerism; and (3) as compounds
with tne same carbon skeleton but different molecular
formula due to hydrogenation of the aromatic ring.
NACA TN 2743
LANDING-GEAR IMPACT. W. Flugge, Stanford
University. October 1952. 91p. diagrs., 9 tabs.
(NACA TN 2743)
The report deals with the impact forces in landing
gears. Both the landing Impact and the taxying im-
pact have been considered, but drag forces have so
far been excluded. The differential equations are de-
veloped and their numerical integration is shown.
considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock
strut. A way is shown for determining the dimen-
sions of the metering pin from a given load-time
diagram. A review of German literature on landing-
gear impact is also presented.
NACA TN 2782 ,
BENDING OF THIN PLATES WITH COMPOUND
CURVATURE. H G. Lew, Pennsylvania State
College. October 1952. 49p. diagre., 2 tabs.
(NACA TN 2782)
A method Is developed for analysis of deformations
of doubly curved thin plates under edge or surface
loads for small deflections. The problem is
approached from thin-shell theory so that the plate
is to form part of a shell of revolution. An analyti-
cal solution is presented completely for a plate with
arbitrary meridian of small curvature loaded by
normal edge loads on one pair of opposite edges and
numerical calculations are given for the deflection
and moment distribution for a particular meridian
curve. The method developed may be applied to
other problems of bending of doubly curved thinplates
under edge or surface loads but the theory Is limited
to small deflections of the plate considered.
AVAILABLEE ON LOAN ONLY.
ADDRESS REQUESTS FOR DOCUMENTS TO NACA, 17n4 F ST., NW., WASHNGTON 5s, D. C, CITING CODE NUMBER ABOVE EACH TITLE,
THE REPORT TITLE AND AUTHOR.
NACA TN 2790
FLOW STUDIES IN THE VICINITY OF A MODIFIED
FLAT-PLATE RECTANGULAR WING OF ASPECT
RATIO 0.25. William H. Michael, Jr. September
1952. 33p. diagrs., photos. (NACA TN 2790)
Studies were made of the flow In the vicinity of a
modified flat-plate rectangular wing of aspect ratio
0. 25 by the use of photographs of a tuft grid located
at various chordwise positions on the wing and behind
the wing, supplemented by wake studies with a yaw-
head pitot-tube installation. Evaluations were made
concerning the rolling-up of the trailing vorticity,
vorticity distribution in the wake. chordwise growth
of lift, and locations of the vortex cores.
NACA TN 2794
A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF LINEARIZED
CHARACTERISTICS FOR A SIMPLE UNSTEADY
FLOW. Roger D. Sullivan. September 1952. 28p
diagrs. (NACA TN 2794)
Two methods of using the concept of linearized
characteristics are derived for the one-dimensional
unsteady flow in a tube that Is rotated about an axis
perpendicular to the axis of the tube. One of the
methods corresponds to that used by Ferrl In his
basic work on the subject. Solutions are made by
both methods for boundary conditions that allow ana-
lytic solutions. Comparisons shows that both methods
give the same results but there are significant dif-
ferences in their application.
NACA TN 2796
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF
FINITE SURFACE DISTURBANCES AND ANGLE OF
ATTACK ON THE LAMINAR BOUNDARY LAYER ON
AN NACA 64A010 AIRFOIL WITH AREA SUCTION.
Milton A. Schwartzberg and Albert L. Braslow.
October 1952. 35p. diagrs. (NACA TN 2796)
A Langley low-turbulence wind-tunnel investigation
of a porous NACA 64A010 airfoil section has been
made to determine the effectiveness of area suction
in maintaining full-chord lammar flow behind finite
disturbances and at angles of attack other than 00.
Area suction resulted in only a small increase in the
size of a finite disturbance required to cause pre-
mature boundary-layer transition as compared with
that for the airfoil without suction. Combined wake
and suction drags lower than the drag of the plain air-
foil were obtained through a range of low lift coef-
ficient by the use of area suction.
NACA TN 2797
A STUDY OF THE TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF
SHOCK WAVES IN TRANSONIC CHANNEL FLOWS.
Robert V. Hess. October 1952. 32p. diagrs.
(NACA TN 2797)
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.31
The accuracy of the result obtained In a fundamental
paper by Kantrowitz (NACA TN 1225) that a small
short-time lowering of the back pressure in steady,
shock-free, transonic diffuser flow causes a station-
ary or trapped shock to form near the critical sonic
channel throat is investigated by considering the con-
tribution of a higher-order term in the short-time
calculations which was neglected in Kantrowitz's
paper. In this higher approximation to the short-
time effects, the shock is no longer stationary or
trapped unless it is supported by a negative steady-
flow back pressure; the result thus is no longer In
disagreement with steady-flow solutions for station-
NACA TN 2798
AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE
BEHAVIOR OF 24S-T4 ALUMINUM ALLOY SUB-
JECTED TO REPEATED STRESSES OF CONSTANT
AND VARYING AMPLITUDES. Herbert F. Hardrath
and Elmer C. Utley, Jr. October 1952. 23p.
diagrs., 4 Labs. (NACA TN 2798)
A device for adapting R. R. Moore rotating-beam
fatigue testing machines for tests in which the ampli-
tude of stress Is continuously varied is described.
Tests of 24S-T4 aluminum-alloy specimens subjected
to stresses of constant amplitude and to stresses
with amplitudes varying according to sinusoidal and
exponential functions are reported. The results are
analyzed by computing the summation of cycle ratios.
The values obtained in this analysis were found to be
influenced by the shape of the frequency-distribution
NACA TN 2800
SOLUTIONS OF LAMINAR-BOUNDARY-LAYER
EQUATIONS WHICH RESULT IN SPECIFIC-WEIGHT-
FLOW PROFILES LOCALLY EXCEEDING FREE-
STREAM VALUES. W. Byron Brown and John N. B.
Livingood. September 1952. 36p. diagrs., 2 tabs.
(NACA TN 2800)
Revised solutions of the laminar-boundary-layer
equations for cases which involved cooling at the wall
combined with large pressure gradients in the main
stream produced specific-weight-flow profiles which
locally exceeded free-stream values. Heat-transfer
and friction coefficients, boundary-layer thicknesses,
and velocity, temperature, and specific-weight-flow
distributions resulting from the revised solutions are
presented for Euler numbers of 0. 5 and 1, stream-
to-wall temperature ratios of 2 and 4, and cooling-
air flow rates through porous walls designated by
flow parameters of 0, -0. 5, and -1.
NACA TN 2801
INVESTIGATION WITH AN INTERFEROMETER OF
THE FLOW AROUND A CIRCULAR-ARC AIRFOIL
AT MACH NUMBERS BETWEEN 0. 6 AND 0. 9.
George P. Wood and Paul B. Gooderum. October
1952. 80p. diagrs., photos., tab. (NACA
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.31
The flow around a 12-percent-thick circular-arc
airfoil at zero incidence was observed by use of an
interferometer for small Increments of free-stream
Mach number from 0. 609 to 0. 896 with laminar and
turbulent boundary layers. Mach number contours
in the flow field and Mach number and pressure dis-
tributions on the airfoil were obtained. Conditions
were determined along and at the bases of the shock
waves that Interacted with the turbulent boundary
layer on the airfoil.
NACA TN 2802
BONDING OF MOLYBDENUM DISULFIDE TO VAR-
IOUS MATERIALS TO FORM A SOLID LUBRICAT-
ING FILM. I FRICTION AND ENDURANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF FILMS BONDED BY PRAC-
TICAL METHODS. Douglas Godfrey and Edmond E.
Bisson. October 1952. 16p. diagrs. (NACA
The use of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a solid-
film lubricant, in applications where designs or high-
er temperatures preclude liquid lubricants, is ex-
tended because of the good frictional and thermal
characteristics of MoS2. An investigation was con-
ducted to determine (1) practical methods of bonding
MoS2 to materials to form solid-film lubricants and
(2) friction and endurance characteristics of films so
formed. The results indicated that satisfactory films
can be formed by brushing on a mixture of MoS2
powder and a resin-forming vehicles such as:
thinned asphalt-base varnish, silicone-base varnish.
or glycerol (1 part, by weight, MoS2, 2 parts
vehicle). Choice of vehicle is governed by applica-
tion, cleaning, and temperature of curing. Friction
and endurance data obtained under high sliding ve-
locities and high surface stress showed that solid-
film lubricants (between 0. 0002 and 0.0005 in. thick)
of MoS2, bonded with the various resins including
corn-syrup resin, resulted in good lubricating ef-
NACA TN 2803
A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTI-
GATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE
GRADIENTS ON THE DEFORMATION AND BURST
SPEEDS OF ROTATING DISKS. P. I. Wilteraink,
A. G. Holms and S. S. Manson. October 1952.
45p. diagrs., photo., 2 labs. (NACA TN 2803)
The purposes of this investigation were to evaluate
the influence of temperature gradients and to test the
validity of a recently developed method of calculating
plastic flow In disks by comparing the calculated re-
sults with experimental observations. Short-time
spin tests on parallel-sided, 10-inch-diameter disks
were conducted under conditions that subjected the
disks to a range of temperatures from 700 to 14400F.
The agreement between the theoretical and experi-
mental results was good over the range of tempera-
ture conditions investigated. Temperature gradients
produced little reduction in the burst speed of the
disks which had a high ductility.
NACA TN 2804
THE PLANING CHARACTERISTICS OF A SURFACE
HAVING A BASIC ANGLE OF DEAD RISE OF 200
AND HORIZONTAL CHINE FLARE. Waiter J.
Kapryan and Irving Weinstein. October 1952. 42p.
diagrs., photos., 2 tabs. (NACA TN 2804)
A high-speed investigation was conducted to deter-
mine the hydrodynamic characteristics of a planing
surface having an angle of dead rise of 200 and hori-
zontal chine flare. The data indicate that the planing
characteristics at a given trim depend only on lift
coefficient. The ratio of center-of-pressure loca-
tion to the mean wetted length can be considered
approximately equal to 0. 67 up to 180 of trim. This
ratio decreases with further increase in trim. Pile-
up of water at the keel of the model was substantial
at trims above 120. Friction drag is negligible at
high trims. The resistances for trims of 180 and
higher, therefore, may be assumed equal to the
load times the tangent of the trim angle.
NACA TN 2807
MEASUREMENTS OF TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS
IN THE ATMOSPHERE NEAR THE TROPOPAUSE
WITH REFERENCE TO AIRSPEED CALIBRATION
BY THE TEMPERATURE METHOD. Lindsay J.
Lina and Harry H. Ricker, Jr. October 1952. 23p.
diagrs., tab. (NACA TN 2807)
Measurements of temperature variations In the
atmosphere near the tropopause over land in the
vicinity of Langley Field, Va., are presented. This
investigation was made for the purpose of obtaining
information on the accuracy of the temperature
method (NACA TN 2046) of airspeed calibration over
the range of Mach number from 0. 6 to 0. 8. The
temperature surveys and the description of a special-
ly designed thermometer are also presented.
NACA TN 2808
SHORT-BEARING APPROXIMATION FOR FULL
JOURNAL BEARINGS. F. W. Ocvirk. Cornell
University. October 1952. 61p. diagrs. (NACA
A short-bearing approximation of pressure distribu-
tion in the oil film is presented which Is an extension
of the pressure-distribution function of Michell and
Cardullo and includes end-leakage effects. Equations
giving applied load, attitude angle, location and mag-
nitude of peak film pressure,.friction. and required
oil flow rate as functions oi the eccentricity ratio are
also given. The capacity number, a basic nondimen-
sional quantity resulting from this analysis, Is the
product of the Sommerfeld number and the square of
the length-diameter ratio. Curves determined by
this analysis are compared with previously published
experimental data and theoretical curves of
Sommerfeld and Cameron and Wood. Conclusions
reached indicate that this approximation is of practi-
cal value for analysis of short bearings.
NACA TN 2810
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
ONE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHOKED-FLOW
TURBINES. Robert E. English and Richard H.
Cavicchi. October 1952 53p clagrs. (NACA
Flow conditions internal to chocked-flow turbines
were subjected to a one-dimensional analysis
Factors affecting the design, operation, and manu-
facture of such turbines were investigated. Criteria
are presented which will aid in analysis of test data
from such turbines. The effect of turbine-stator ad-
justment on internal flow conditions was investigated
for one application of turbine stator adjustment.
NACA RM E52H01
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
LUMPED REFLECTOR PARAMETERS FOR TWO-
GROUP REACTOR CALCULATIONS. Daniel Fieno,
Harold Schneider and Robert B. Spooner. September
1952. 25p. diagrs., tab. (NACA RM E52H01)
Equations are developed to show that, for one-
dimensional two-group neutron-distribution calcula-
tions, the properties of a neutron-reflector region
can be combined in three parameters that effectively
represent the action of the reflector. The use of
these parameters and boundary conditions based on
them for single and multizone reflectors is consid-
ered and from the results of computations, the
following applications of the parameters are shown:
(1) Use of the parameters in connection with reactor
core properties for comparison of reflector config-
urations, (2) direct use of parameters as circuit
constants in electrical analog, and (3) use of bound-
ary conditions based on reflector parameters to ob-
tain numerical solutions of two-group equations in a
NACA RM E52H11
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
INVESTIGATION OF FLOW FLUCTUATIONS AT
THE EXIT OF A RADIAL-FLOW CENTRIFUGAL
IMPELLER. Joseph T. Hamrick and John Mizigin.
October 1952. 20p. diagrs., photo. (NACA
RM E52H11) '
Surveys were made at the exit of a radial -flow cen-
trifugal impeller to obtain instantaneous values of
velocity from blade to blade and at various positions
between the front and rear diffuser salls Surveys
were also made at several radial stations midway
between the walls of the diffuser to observe the
radial change in flow pattern. At the impeller exit,
there were variations in velocity patterns across
each passage from passage to passage, and for the
same passage from revolution to revolution. The
general flow patterns persisted into the diffuser and
were still evident at a radius 23 percent greater
than that of the impeller.
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS Ne41
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
CABIN COOLING FLIGHT TESTS ON A TUDOR 2
AIRCRAFT. D. A. Hancock and T. J. Methven.
March 1952. 45p. diagrs.. photos., 4 tabs. (RAE
Tech. Note Mech. Eng 118)
This note describes a series of flight tests made on
a Tudor 2 aircraft as the first stage of the practical
determination of the heat loss or gain of aircraft
cabins in flight. The prime object of these tests,
which were made with an air cycle refrigerator (type
C. A. 7.) fitted to the aircraft ventilation system was
to obtain data on cabin cooling; but as the refrigera-
tor installation was fully instrumentated, measure-
ments of its performance were obtained. It was
found that owing to the large number of variables
-present ana the difficulty in obtaining identical amba-
ent conditions for any two flights, the results ob-
tained were not completely conclusive. It is possible,
however, to make general deductions for this particu-
lar aircraft, and to indicate future investigations.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (GI Brit.)
INVESTIGATION OF RETRACTABLE AILERONS ON
RECTANGULAR WING OF PROFILE S. 0. 2915.
(EXPERIMENTS IN THE BANLEVE WIND TUNNEL
NO. 777, FEBRUARY, 1948). May 1952. 22p.
diagrs (RAE Library Trans. 407. Trans. from
Societe Nationale de Constructions Aeronautiques du
Sud-Ouest G 9)
The present report completes the investigation of
retractable ailerons for the SO 8000 on a model of a
rectangular wing of profile SO. 29 15, 1 metre span
and 0 50-m choru quoted in report G, 7 of October
1947 The experiments were resumed with type I
slotted spoiler (rake type) of which a detailed
description is given.
Royai Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF
RESISTANCE THERMOMETERS FOR OUTSIDE AIR
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM AIR-
CRAFT D C Austin April 1952. 17p. photos.
IRAE Tech Note EL 28)
This note gives results and details of a number of
flight tests carried out on eight variations of resist-
ance thermometer installations for measurement of
outside air temperature from service aircraft. The
purpose of the tests was to determine the most suit-
able type of installation for general service use and
to find an alternative thermometer to the existing
flat plate type The magnitude of the possible error
due to the velocity of the aircraft is shown and the
method of determining this error is given in detail for
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS NO.31
information and also as a basis of comparison with
similar tests carried out by other establishments
The errors which arise due to other causes are also
detailed to indicate the over-all accuracy which can
be expected. The thermometer bulbs tested ana
their associated indicators constitute systems which
are considered suitable for installation in all types
of aircraft as distinct from the more precise and
accurate thermometric systems installed on
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
A MODULATOR CIRCUIT OF THE MAGNETIC
AMPLIFIER TYPE J. Baranowski. March 1952.
41p. diagrs. (RAE Tech. Note EL. 34)
A transductor type modulator with two cores and two
cooper-oxide rectifiers which gives a duo-directional
d-c. output is described. Current gains of 10 to 20
and power gains of up to a thousand are obtained in
a single stage and the output may be fed into a sim-
ilar modulator or into a conventional magnetic
amplifier. A 400 c s three stage amplifier is also
described which incorporates two such modulator
circuits and which has a power gain of 108 (current
gain 1000) for a response time of 0. 14 sec with a
long term zero stability of 2 x 10-11 watt input pow-
er. With further development it is considered that
this zero stability could be improved, possibly by
a factor of 10.
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit )
A SIMPLE ESTIMATE OF THE PROFILE DRAG OF
SWEPT WINGS. J Weber ana G. G. Brebner
June 1952. 14p diagrs.. tab. IRAE Tech. Note
It is shown that the profile drag of swept wings near
zero lift can be calculated much more simple than
might be expected in view of the complicated nature
of the three-dimensional boundary layer. Following
the approach of Young and Booth, simple charts are
derived for obtaining a drag reduction factor due to
sweep. The profile drag of a swept wing may be
obtained by applying this factor to the results of
Squire and Young for two-dimensional airfoils, if
the transition position on the swept wing is Known.
Results of such a calculation are confirmed by exper-
imental data from a 450 sweptback wing of aspect
Royal Aircraft Establishment (Gt. Brit.)
THEORETICAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON A WING
WITH A CYLINDRICAL BODY AT ONE END.
J. Weber June 1952. 27p diagrs. (RAE
A method is derived for calculating the spanwise
load distribution over a lifting wing having a long
circular-cylindrical body at one end. The solution
is derived for arrangements giving minimum induced
drag, but can be generalized to obtain approximate
results for other plan forms including those with
sweepback. Charts are given for the case in which
the sectional lift slope is constant along the span.
The lift distribution over both wing and body can be
determined quickly, or the over-all load obtained
directly The results are applicable to the determi-
nation of side forces on a fin in combination with the
rear fuselage of an aircraft, or of the lift loading on
a Aing with a weapon or fuel tank at one tip.
NACA TN 2599
Errata No. I on "EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINA-
TION OF TIME CONSTANTS AND NUSSELT NUM-
BERS FOR BARE-WIRE THERMOCOUPLES IN
HIGH-VELOCITY AIR STREAMS AND ANALYTIC
APPROXIMATION OF CONDUCTION AND RADIA-
TION ERRORS" Marvin D Scadron and Isidore
Warshawsky. January 1952.
THE ROLE OF ELECTRIC POWER IN SUPERSONIC
FLIGHT A. G. Buck. 1952 8p. (To be deliv-
ered before the San Francisco chapter of American
Institute of Electrical Engineers on September 12,
This report gives a briefdiscussion of some of the
many phases of electrical engineering which have
gone into the achievement of supersonic flight.
MINIATURE PRESSURE CELLS. Tail Wrathall
1952. 29p. diagrs photos (To be presented at
Instrument Society oi America conference 1' exhibit.
Cleveland, Ohio, September 8, 19521.
It is the purpose of this paper to show in general
terms what has been done by the National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics, in the development of
small pressure cells. Construction details and
characteristics are briefly discussed.
NACA-Langley 10-24 52 3250
UNIVERSmr OF FLORIDA
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