Beta radiation dosage measurements

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Beta radiation dosage measurements
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Brookhaven National Laboratory
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
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Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
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by Julia S. Marshall.
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Cover title.
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"October 1953 TIS Issuance Date."
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UNITEDD STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION


BNL -1505


BETA RADIATION DOSAGE MEASUREMENTS


By
Julia S. Marshall









October 1953
[TIS Issuance Date]

Brookhaven National Laboratory










IITechnical Information Service, Oak Ridge, Tennersse



























PHYSICS


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BNL-1505
AEC, Oauk Radge. Tenn.-W36334


























BETA RADIATION DOSAGE MEASUREMENTS*


By Julia S. Marshall


INTRODUCTION

The Area Survey Group of the Health Physics Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory
maintains a network of area monitoring stations for the purpose of measuring the radiation
levels encountered on the laboratory site and in the surrounding area. At these stations are
located Geiger-Mueller and scintillation counters for distinguishing alpha, beta and gamma
activities and recording fluctuations which occur in these components of radiation. These
stations are also equipped with gamma-sensitive ionization chambers and dynamic condenser
electrometersl which are capable of measuring the gamma component in roentgens. However,
no means has existed for making extensive measurements of beta dosage. The beta-sensitive
ionization chamber and methods of calibration developed by SanderS2 hav;e made possible the
measurement of beta dosage levels.
Beta dosage measurements have been made using beta-sensitive ionization chambers with
the dynamic condenser electrometers. Three of these chambers were constructed and cali-
brated as described by Sanders and placed at various area monitoring stations which are regu-
larly equipped with gamma-sensitive dynamic condenser electrometers. Measurements were
made over a four-month period in an effort to determine the magnitude of the normal beta
radiation background and the beta component of the dosage from the Argon-41 which is present
in the cooling air of the reactor. In addition, an attempt was made to observe the pattern of
beta dosage as a result of temperature inversions.
Measurements were made at four stations. In most cases the beta-sensitive chambers
were placed eleven feet above the ground in a position comparable to the gamma unit. How-
ever, to obtain further data concerning beta dosage during inversions, a beta chamber at sta-
tion E-2 was placed at ground level and on a platform at a distance of 5.6 feet from the ground.
Since the beta-sensitive chambers do not withstand moisture, measurements were taken only
during favorable weather. When left in operation overnight, each was covered with a polyethyl-
ene bag of about 5.2 mg,.cm2 thickness.
The walls of the beta-sensitive chambers were covered with "year-around" grade of
rubber hydrochloride. Two of these had covers of 4.07 mg cm2 thickness; the third was 7.26
mg, cm2. It was found that sunlight and exposure to the air caused the rubber hydrochloride to
dry out and become brittle so that it was easily destroyed by any breeze. This necessitated
replacing these covers frequently.



*Research carried out under the auspices of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.


BNL-1505





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BACKGROUND RADIAION

An examination of all background data yielded an average dosage of 18.3 CLr/hr measured
by the thin-walled chamber with the gamma component subtracted. However, the gamma units
used to obtain the gamma dosage were not of the inverted type, that is, the case containing the
dynamic condenser, the amplifier and other circuitry is situated above the ionization chamber,
thus shielding the chamber preferentially from above. A correction factor of 1.2 may be ap-
plied" to compensate for this difference. Applying this, the background figure reduces to 13.5
Iyr/hr with 4.07 mg/cm2 wall thickness. The corresponding figure obtained using the chamber
with 7.26 mg/cm2 wall thickness is 7.6 CLr/hr. This difference in background may be explained
by the fact that the 4.07 mg/cm2 wall thickness allows the detection of alpha particles. Taking
the average energy of the alpha particles of radon and its daughters, computation gives a figure
of 7 mg/cm2 necOSSary tO Stop these alphas completely if it is assumed that they are produced
at the surface of the chamber wall. The total background obtained with 4.07 mg/cm2 wall thick-
ness, exclusive of the gamma component, can therefore be assumed to include some response
to alphas as well as the beta radiation which is present. In the measurement of dosage due to
Argon-41 this alpha response occurs only in the background and is, therefore, eliminated in
the subtraction of the total background. As a result, the readings of the thin-walled chambers
corrected for gamma response will be referred to as the beta dosage. Reference to back-
ground, as measured by the thin-walled chambers, will include some alpha response but pre-
sumes subtraction of the gamma component. This background was found to vary considerably
from day to day, the measured value ranging from zero to as much as 25 Cr/hr.
Gamma background averages were found for each of the gammza units employed. They
were as follows:

E-2 11.6 CLr/hr
E-5 10.1 plr/hr
E-7 1. rh
E-9 10.4 CLr/hr

This agrees reasonably well with the average figure of 10.1 CLr/hr that has been determined
for a one-year period .


BETA DOSAGE DUE TO ARGON-41

The attached data showing the magnitude of the beta and gamma components due to radio-
argon was obtained using chambers of 4.07 mg/cm2 wall thickness. Each of these series of
measurements includes a period when other data from the monitoring stations indicate that
radiation from the stack effluent was present.
The total beta dosage for a period of one hour is computed as follows. The number of
cycles per hour on the Brown recorder chart from the gamma unit are counted. The number
of returns made by the pen is also noted and a correction applied since each return results in
a delay of thirty seconds. This procedure is repeated for the beta unit giving corrected cycles
per hour. The figure for the gamma unit is multiplied by the ratio of the gamma calibration
figure for the gamma unit to the gamma calibration figure for the beta unit giving the gamma
response of the beta instrument. To obtain the response of the beta unit which is due only to
beta dosage, the gamma figure is subtracted. This result is then multiplied by the beta cali-
bration figure to give beta dosage in Clr/hr. For example, at station E-2, using a gamma unit
with a calibration figure of 5.23 Clr/eycle and a beta unit with a gamma calibration figure of
4.55 pr~/cycle and a beta calibration figure of 17.51 pr/cycle, we have:






BNL-1505


date, time g, 1100
Cycles hour, i chamber 1.86
returns i chamber 2
Corrected i cycles br, > chamber 1.89
Equivalent > cycles hr, ii chamber 2.13
Total cycles 'hr, 13 chamber 3.31
Returns, r3 chamber 4
Corrected total cycles hr,
13 chamber 3.42
Beta cycles hr, r3 chamber 1.29
Beta dosage, pr hr 22. 59

The average total background varied widely from day to day although it remained fairly
steady over reasonably short periods of time. As a result of these observations, an attempt
was made to obtain background data during periods immediately preceding and following the
periods when Argon dosage was being measured. An average background figure was obtained
in this way for each period and this figure subtracted from the total dosage measured by the
beta chamber to obtain the beta dosage due to Argon. When it was not possible to obtain backr-
ground measurements in this whay the average background figures given above were used in
the calculations.
An examination of the data shows the variability of the relative amounts of beta and gamma
dosage which are measured simultaneously due to Argon-41. This variation is to be expected
since the gamma rays may be received from great distances whereas the maximum range of
the Argon-41 betas in air for mean conditions at Brookhaven is 4.2 meters. If the detector
were surrounded by a uniform cloud of stack effluent of dimensions large enough so that it
were a semi-infinite medium for both betas and gammas from Argon-41, the gamma dosage
would be about three times as large as the beta dosage at the detector. This arises from the
fact that the average beta and gamma energies per disintegration are 0.46 and 1.30 mev, re-
spectively. If the detector was immersed in a small cloud or a thin plume there would not
exist a semi-infinite medium for the Argon-41 gamma rays and the beta dosage might be as
large as for the large cloud but the gamma dosage comparatively small. On the other hand, a
cloud of effluent remaining at a distance greater than 4.2 meters from the detector will give
zero beta dosage but may result in a sizeable gamma doserate. There are some cases in the
data where beta dosage exists but there is no detectable gamma dosage. Presumably gamma
dosage was present in small amounts, the zero values shown being attritubed to the uncertain-
ties in the exact background figure mentioned above.
It should be noted that in very few cases does the total measured dosage exceed 0.1 mr
for a period of one hour, although higher dose rates may persist for periods of a few minutes
as shown below.

Total Dose Rates for Five-Minute Periods (plr br)

Station Date Time #-Dosage 3-Dosage Total

E-2 9 5 0025 -0030 621 11 632
E-2 9 5 1305-1310 835 27 862
E-2 9/18 1905-1910 254 10 264
E-7 9 1'12 1300- 1305 225 29 254
E-7 10 7 1400-1405 332 20 352
E-7 10 '7 2115 -2120 239 11 250

It must be taken into account here that measurements were made only in relatively good
weather and it is entirely possible that greater dosages may be obtained during different
meteorological conditions. Greater total dosages would also be possible in the event that a
period when stack effluent was present coincided with a temperature inversion due to the





BNL-1505


combined effects of pile and radiation build-up during the inversion. Greater dose rates might
also be observed close to the reactor stack under very calm wind conditions. It would also be
interesting to seek out a trail from the reactor stack and measure the maximum dosage that
could be obtained knowing the position of the plume or argon. It should be emphasized that
these measurements were taken on the laboratory site. There is every indication from pre-
vious studies of the gamma dosage and evidence from the thin-walled GM tubes that the off-
site radiation levels are considerably lower.


DOSAGE MEASUREMENTS DURING TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS

Dosage measurements were made with the thin-walled chambers during temperature in-
versions. A rise in the radiation background measured by these chambers was seen to follow
the pattern of the temperature inversion during these periods. Dose rates were found to in-
crease to as much as ten times the normal background level as measured by the thin-walled
chambers.
A time delay was observed between the onset of the temperature inversions and the rise
in radiation levels. To further analyse this effect, chambers were placed at levels of 11, 5.6
and 1.5 feet above the ground and a number of observations made at each location. The addi-
tional data confirmed the presence of this delay, its magnitude lengthening with increasing
height from the ground. During temperature inversions, normal mixing of the air due to con-
vection ceases and the radon and thoron which emanate from the ground, and their decay prod-
ucts, remain concentrated and do not disperse. It is, therefore, expected that a build-up of
radiation would occur and that a finite time, dependent on height from the ground, would be
required before this increased concentration reached the detector.
An attempt was made to duplicate the results obtained with ionization chambers by using
continuous dust monitors at station E-6. The dust monitor normaally in operation at this sta-
tion has an intake 10 feet above ground level. An additional dust monitor was installed with in-
take at floor level about one foot above ground. Readings were taken every 3 hours and no de-
lay was observed. The intake of the second dust monitor was then moved to ground level and
hourly changes noted. No evidence of any difference between these two locations was found
from this data. Two dust monitors were installed at the ground and 10-foot levels in station
]E-9 with counters at the intake. Hourly readings indicated no difference between the two loca-
tions.
The failure of the dust monitor to detect the same pattern of delay may be partially exr-
plained by the fact that the dust monitor operates primarily on thorium decay products, where-
as the thin-walled chamber is predominately sensitive to radon alphas and radium decay prod-
ucts. The dust monitor counts only particulate matter and is, therefore, not sensitive to the
built-up of radon and thoron which begins at ground level. Because of the very short half-life
of thoron (54.5 sec), a new concentration of decay products is set up promptly and no delay is
observed on the dust monitor, but the longer half-life of radon (3.825 days) and the rate of re-
lease of radon from the ground, cause the build-up of the activities detected by the thin-walled
chamber to require a finite length of time for reaching a new equilibrium after the beginning
of a period of inversion.
T'he standard dust monitor was designed to reduce the response to radon and thoron with
alpha and beta-gamma counters placed 7 and 4-1/2 hours, respectively, from the intake. The
construction of the ionization chamber with its charged center electrode and thin wall allows
the field to extend outside of the wall and 'enables it to act somewhat as a dust collector. In
some instances the decay pattern of these particles may be observed for short periods at the
end of an inversion. On the other hand, the filter paper in the dust monitor moves at a con-
stant rate. At the end of a temperature inversion the radiation falls to levels characteristic
of lapse conditions in a period of one hour or less, this effect being independent of the height
of the detector, as it is caused by convection currents.
In order to perform a thorough investigation, it would be necessary to take data simulta-
neously at different distances from the ground at the same station. Since time did not permit
a more detailed study of this phenomenon, this merely indicates the presence of the effect.






BNL-1505


Figures I and 2 illustrate the manner in which the pattern of the temperature inversion is
followed by the increase in radiation as measured by the thin-walled chambers. Delays of
about one and one-half hours can be observed.


CONCLUSION

There are several difficulties encountered when one endeavors to make accurate meas-
urements of the beta component of Argon-41 from the reactor. The principal problem is the
extreme variation in the level of normal beta background radiation. This introduces a con-
siderable error in measurements taken over extended periods of time. Secondly, for any de-
gree of accuracy, it is necessary to have a gamma detector which has the same geometry as
the beta unit. The 1.2 correction factor was calculated for a non-inv'erted chamber assuming
complete immersion; i.e. a hemispherical source. Calculations have also been made for a
line source at varying distances. For instance, for a plume 100 meters directly above the
detector, the ratio of true to measured gamma dose rate would be 1.52. If' the plume where at
a height of 100 meters and displaced laterally from the detector by 300 meters, the correction
factor would be only 1.13. However, such figures cannot readily be applied to dosage measure-
ments of this type where the position of the plume with respect to the detector is unknown. A
third inaccuracy is introduced by the ability of the thin-walled chambers to detect alpha parti-
Fles. A minimum of 7 mg ecm" wall thickness would be desirable to minimize the background
correction and fluctuation in background. A fourth obstacle is the necessity for good weather
conditions before such measurements can be made, due to the fragile nature of the chambers.
However, from data obtained in this way, a reasonable estimate may be made of the magnitude
of the beta radiation background, the beta dosage due to radioargon, and the increase in back-
ground radiation levels during temperature inversions.


REFERENCES

1. Kuper, J. B. H.; Chase, R. L.; Rev. Sci. Inst., 21, 356-359, April 1950.
2. Sanders, A. P.; A Radiation Monitor for Measuring A41 Beta Radiation Dosage at Brook-
havren National Laboratory, BNL-1304.
3. Memo: P. H. Lowry to M. M. Weiss, August 7, 1951; The Effect of a Line Source on Non-
uniform Response of Ionization Chamber,
4. M. M. Weiss; Area Survey Manual of Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL-167, p.130.
5. loc. cit.; p. 95.




BNL-1505


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BNL-1505


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BNL-1505


Beta, Gamma and Total Dosage from. Argon-41 Effluent from the Reactor, r/hr


y Dosage as
Measured by
Hour y Chamber


B Dosage as
Measured by
B Chamber

13.8
11.6
27.1
71.1
37.8
78.6
.87
29.1


y Dosage Due
to Argon

0
0
0
15.4
23.3
23.1
22.6
0


B Dosage Due
to Argon



12.2
56.1
22.8
63.6

14.1


Total Dosage
Front Pile



12.2
71.5
46.1
86.7
22.6
14.1


9.93
9.99
10.8
27.0
34.9
34.6
34.2
10.0



25.0
14.6
12.3
8.52


1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700



1500
1600
1700
1800


Station E-2, 9/5/52
13.4
3.08
.78



Station E-2, 9/14/52


14.9
49.0
0
10.2


9.80
44.0
0
5.08


23.2
47.0
.78
5.08


0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600



1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900


12.7
13.1
12.9
12.1
11.2
12.9
13.6
11.6
12.1
11.0
11.2
10.3
11.4



11.6
11.6
10.6
13.3
11.3
14.3
15.0
14.7
15.9
17.5
16.4
21.4
26.5
26.3
27.9
44.1


37.3
26.3
16.5
23.6
20.3
8.93
4.38
11.6
7.35
8.93
6.65
8.23
5.08


1.10
1.52
1.31
.52
0
1.36
2.04
0
.57
0
0
0
0


27.6
16.6
6.81
14.0
10.7
0
0
1.91
0
0
0
0
0



0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14.9
16.3
0
0
0
31.5
0


28.7
18.1
8.12
14.5
10.7
1.36
2.04
1.91
.57
0
0
0
0



.05
.05
0
1.72
0
2.77
3.45
3.14
4.34
20.9
21.2
9.88
15.0
14.7
47.9
32.6


Station E-2, 9/14--9/15/52


3.68
0
7.53
0
1.22
.70
0
0
0
18.7
20.1
0
0
0
35.4
0


1.72
0
2.77
3.45
3.14
4.34
5.96
4.86
9.88
15.0
14.7
16.4
32.6






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i Dosage as
IMeasured by
Hour -> Chamber


4 Dosage as
Measured by
g Chamber


28.0


.18
1.40
.53
5.60
.18


i Dosage Due
to Argon

32.6
23.2
40.9
27,1
1.41
.78
.89

.57
2.35


p Dosage Due
to Argon

0
24.2
0
0
0
0
0
1.76
0
0


Total Dosage
From Pile

S32.6
57.4
40.9
27.1
1.41
.78
.89
1.76
.57
2.35


1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900



0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400



1200
1300
1400
1500
1600



1000
1100
1200
1300
1400



1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1800


44.1
34.8
52.5
38.6
13.0
12.3
12.4
10.5
12.1
13.9



10.1
10.5
10.6
9.94
11.5
10.1
4.65
10.1
9.68
9.88
9.83
9.62
10.1
10.5



12.2
12.1
12.4
11.8
11.1



16.0
30.3
23.5
35.2
28.8



14.2
12.9
14.0
22.0
41.4
34.5
13.5


Station E-2, 9 19/52

7.18 0
6.83 0
3.33 0
10.9 0
14.4 0
3.15 0
30.1 0
4.70 0
22.8 0
21.5 0
16.8 0
16.3 0
45.5 0
1.75 0

Station E-2, 11/6/52
16.8 .62
19.1 .57
10.7 .88
15.9 .26
13.5 0

Station E-7, 9 12/52


0
0
0
0
3.00
0
18.8
0
11.4
10.2
5.45
4.92
34.2
0


3.34
5.61
0
2.46
.01


21.4
88.9
60.6
80.7
76.6


3.80
18.1
11.2
23.0
16.6


3.15
70.6
42.4
62.4
58.3



6.22
11.9
12.4
27.6
59.3
56.9
22.5


Station E-7, 9 30-10/1 52


23.0
28.6
29.1
44.4
76.1
73.7
39.2


2.01
.62
1.74
9.73
29.1
22.2
1.29


0
0
0
0
3.00
0
18.8
0
11.4
10.2
5.45
4.92
34.2
0



3.96
6.11
.88
2.72
.01



6.95
78.7
53.6
85.4
74.9



8.23
12.5
14.1
37.3
89.4
79.1
23.8





BNL-1505


y Dosage as
Measured by
Hour y Chamber


p Dosage as
Measured by
B Chamber

16.4
32.9
19.5
36.3
15.9
3.08
9.59
16.8
13.5
17.3
15.9
19.4
17.8
15.6


y Dosage Due
to Argon

3.47
0
0
.17
.22
3.47
0
0
.39
.18
.90
.67
1.85
3.25


p Dosage Due
to Argon

0
16.2
2.80
19.6
0
0
0
.06
0
.67
0
2.63
1.09
0


Total Dosage
From Pile

3.47
16.2
2.80
19.8
.22
3.47

.06
.39
.85
.90
3.30
2.94
3.25


1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800



2100
2200
2300
2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600



0900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700


Station E-7, 10/2-10/3/52


15.7
3.66
12.2
12.4
12.5
15.7
9.05
12.1
12.6
12.4
13.1
12.9
14.1
15.5



16.4
12.9
20.9
18.0
16.4
14.8
18.2
26.0
19.1
24.3



13.6
25.7
13.6
27.7
26.2
23.9
20.2
30.3
32.9
9.56
10.7
11.2
11.6
14.5
11.4
11.4
11.0
11.0
11.4
11.2
11.2
11.2
11.4


51.2
28.8
30.3
36.8
58.9
34.1
34.8
50.7
59.1
78.8


4.14
.62
8.44
5.76
4.19
2.57
5.98
13.8
6.82
12.0


33.0
10.5
12.1
18.6
40.7
15.8
16.5
32.4
40.8
60.5


37.1
11.1
20.5
24.4
44.9
18.4
22.5
46.2
47.6
72.5


Station E-7, 10/7-10/8/52


15.0
32.4
37.5
33.6
30.3
38.0
40.6
56.7
68.0
31.2
20.6
15.8
14.4
15.1
14.9
14.2
16.6
17.3
16.6
15.6
17.0
13.9
17.1


1.34
13.4
1.34
15.5
14.0
11.7
8.00
18.1
20.6
0
0
0
0
2.22
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
16.7
21.8
17.9
14.6
22.3
24.9
41.0
52.3
15.5
4.86
.06
0
0
0
0
.92
1.60
.92
0
1.26
0
1.43


1.34
20.1
23.1
33.4
28.6
34.0
32.9
59.1
72.9
15.5
4.86
.06
0
2.22
0
0
.92
1.60
.92
0
1.26
0
1.43






BNL-1505


SDosage as
Measured by
Hour > Chamber


r3 Dosage as
Measured by
C3 Chamber


y Dosage Due
to Argon


B Dosage Due
to JArgon


Total Dosage
From Pile


Sitastion E-5, 10/28/52


1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600


1000
1100
1200
1300
14100
1500
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400


2000
2100
2200
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800
0900


1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
0100
0200
0300
0400
0500
0600
0700
0800


22.1
22.8
32.4
23.0
20.9
20.4


2.28
3.01
10.9
1.32
0
0


1.46
12.1
11.7
2.31
.26
0


32.6
0
10.3
12.9
71.0
0
0
0
.23
4.00
96.3
0
0


3.12
0
4.14
0
0
2.43
2.77
1.40
18.4
3.29
1.75


0
.19
.36
2.58
.70
0
0
1.38
.70
.87
0
2.24
1.73
0
0


3.74
15.1
22.6
3.63
.26
0


34.9
6.87
11.8
14.1

10.5
19.4
25.1
34.2
37.3
97.5
39.7
16.5


3.44
.43
4.14
.11
.22
2.43
2.77
4.89
26.0
8.93
3.02


0
.19
.36
2.58
.70
.06
.06
1.60
.70
1.46
2.54
14.4
15.0
9.19
3.60


Station E-5, 10/30/52


46.1
0
23.8
26.4
84.4
8.56
0
0
13.7
17.5
110.
0
8.91


2.28
6.87
1.54
1.22
0
10.5
19.4
25.1
34.0
33.3
1.17
39.7
16.5


Station E-5, 11/5-11/6/52


12.7
8.57
13.7
6.85
9.08
12.0
12.3
11.0
27.9
12.8
11.3


.32
.43
0
.11
.22
0
0
3.49
7.61
5.34
1.27


Station ]E-5, 11/6-11/7/52


12.4
13.1
21.0
11.4
9.29
9.71


12.4
17.0
11.6
11.3
10.0
20.5
29.5
35.2
44,1
43.4
11.2
49.7
26.6


10.4
10.5
9.45
10.2
10.3
10.1
9.82
13.6
17.7
15.4
11.4


9.93
9.77
9.98
9.56
10.1
10.1
10.1
10.3
10.1
10.7
12.6
12.2
23.4
19.3
13.7


9.25
13.9
14.0
16.3
14.4
13.2
11.8
15.1
14.4
14.6
12.7
15.9
15.4
11.3
8.9


0
0
0
0
0
.06
.06
.22
0.
.59
2.54
12.2
13.3
0.19
3.60




UIVESITY OF Flll~LOIDA




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