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NGTON 25, D.C.
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Office of Public Reports
COVER: Robert M. Knoebel of Pennsylvania State University
teaches industry foremen at a summer school session
at Taiwan Teachers' College.
THE NEED OF MANY NATIONS
For many new nations of the world-and many centuries-old
nations-the need for economic and social progress today is
urgent. Yet low standards of living, deficient diets, widespread
disease and general lack of skills, limit the energies of millions
of people in these so-called "underdeveloped" countries. At
the base of all these conditions is lack of education. If rapid
progress is to be made, attention must be given to improvement
in popular education.
Today technical cooperation programs between the United
States and more than 60 other countries and territories are bring-
ing about an exchange of skills and advanced knowledge in
agriculture, health, industry, communications and many other
fields. These programs are producing impressive results. In
35 of these same countries and territories, American assistance
has been asked, and is being given in improvement of educa-
tional systems also.
The United States, with more than 138,000 elementary
schools, more than 27,000 secondary schools and thousands of
colleges, universities and technical schools, has a highly developed
educational system. This system is notable for its research, its
development of educational theory, its constant experimentation
and improvement and, above all, for its practical application to
improving day-to-day living.
Yet every educational problem that the United States has
faced and dealt with in its history exists somewhere, in some
degree, in an underdeveloped country.
Social customs and cultural patterns impose additional handi-
caps. In Middle East countries, for example, social customs
long denied education to girls and women. Diverse languages
and dialects hamper education. Ethiopia has more than 50
languages and dialects, although Amharic is the official lan-
guage of the country. Often training materials for teachers
and technical books do not exist in the local language, for the
reason that the language, in a sense "underdeveloped" itself,
does not yet have words into which technical concepts can be
Even where there are public schools, colleges and universities,
social attitudes have frequently regarded education as being
only for the well-to-do. And the education of the well-to-do
is designed for the cultivation of literary and social arts, largely
unrelated to the development of the nation and the technical
needs of the modern world.
Yet national leaders in virtually all the underdeveloped
countries are actively aware of the vital need for broad educa-
tional programs. To the limit of their resources, these countries
are undertaking programs of importance-starting thousands of
schools, setting up institutions of higher learning, training edu-
cators. Their expenditures, even in joint programs with the
United States, exceed the U. S. contribution.
In the main, what these nations seek from the United States
is expert advice-the "how to do it" of education.
ILLITERACY. Thl'i first great need of hundreds of millions of
people in Latin America, in Africa, in Asia is to learn how to read
and write-not necessarily in the Roman letters we ue. in Arabic
srilpt or in the iieigraphs of the Far East, but in any kind of writing~ i.
Literacy figures in many nations are largely estimates since many
countries do not have reliable educational statistics. In certain rural
areas of Iran, as recently as 1953, however, only three percent of the
population could read and write the hInlr-nage they spoke.
Countrywide figures for Libya show only 20 percent of the popula-
tion able to read and write. In Peru the figure is 42 percent, in
Thailand 50 percent and the figure ranges up to 65 percent in the
Republic of China (Formosa) and the Philippines. By (cinparison,
literacy in the United States is nearly 98 percent.
LACK OF SKILLS. In skills, a very wide gap separates the highly
industrialized nations of Ameri--a and ErInp1i and the relatively
underdeveloped countries of Central and South Aii-ri-a, Africa,
Play time at a demonstration school in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The school
represents part of the cooperative educational program in that country.
the .Mlille East and Southeast Asia. The essential difference between
an American worker and an Asian worker, economically speaking, is
in the amount each can produce and in what each earns, as expressed
in a standard of living, from his labor. In the industrialized nations,
where people are generally better educated and productivity is
higher, rewards are higher. In the underdeveloped countries, produc-
tivity is low, rewards are low.
The problem today is not that of bring iiing underdeveloped nations
up to the level of those now highly industrialized. The problem is
one of introducing skills to enable peoples of the underdeveloped
countries to use their own labors more efficiently and productively,
both to raise their own individual standards of living and to meet
the pr.ssiin needs of their own countries for increased production.
A development process fthere.by is started that fosters continuing
Ag-riiilture is the occupation of perhaps 80 percent of the peoples
of these nations. Yet the paral~l x is that this chief industry is
conducted in a primitive manner and is relatively unproductive, as
compared with agriculture in more advanced nations.
Tralitional trades and crafts exist in many countries and peoples
of the Middle East and Siuthieat. Asia have shown great skill in
these. But so far as meeting the i.ileds of the modern world is con-
cerned, training is almost entirely inadequate. Electric lights, tele-
phones, automobiles, tractors, radios, refrigratiti'rs, modern plumbing
and the like require skills not available, except in a very limited way,
ajliiil'n- the population of underdeveloped countries.
LACK OF TEACHERS. Every eillntry of the world has some
kind of education. It is the amount and quality that are the determin-
ing factors. Bolivia has 234 primary gnrad teachers per 100,000
population and 68 secondary tealllrs per 100,000 (the United States
has 630 teachers per 100,000, for children between the ages of 5
IThail and graduates 2500 elementary teachers a year and needs
Of 24,000 primary teachers in Peru, it is estimated that half do
not have teaching diplomas. In Liberia. 85 percent of elementary
teachers have less than a ninth grade education.
Libya, starting as a new nation, had no trained teachers at all
and E-yptian, Lebanese and Palestinian teachers who spoke Arabic
were brought in. Ethiopia's sec, 'nl ry v.ih iIils are entirely staffed
by foreign 1ch .1rs, except for to;we i rs of Amharic, and Ethiopian
secondary school teachers will not be ready before 1959.
LACK OF BUILDING AND TEACHING FACILITIES. In
warmer climates, school buildings may nI't be as necessary as in our
own ci('nlltry. Instruction can be, and often is, held under the open
sky or under a tree. But even in many communities where buildings
exist, the lack of books, blackboards, slates, pencils, paper is serious.
The myriad teaching aids of American schools--limpls. globes, posters,
piitllres, motion pictures, film-strips, recordings-are rarely available.
Normal sIhnn' vocational schools and the like make definite re-
quirements of buildings, teaching materials and laboratory and shop
CURRICULA, METHODS, PRACTICE. Such things as organized
courses of study, education for living, and vocational training are
unknown to the great 1itajority of teaihersi in most underdeveloped
countries. Learning is by rote, unrelated to community life; it pays
little attention to the needs of the school child and his future as
a productive citizen.
The United States a hundred years ago also was unaware of mii h11
that it now uses daily for education. What is known today was
developed by trial and error, has grown out of the inspired thought
of educational leaders, has stood the test of controversy and is still
under constant experimentation and extension. The underdeveloped
Many thousands of school buildings are being erected under educational
programs of various countries. This new building is in Honduras.
Students in a technology class in Bolivia in a vocational industrial school.
United States technicians helped organize the course and helped train
country does not have to go through all this. It can gain the benefits
of adviiani.o knowledge and experience without going through tih
historical process to get it. In this lies the essence of technical
In a cooperative educational program between the United States
and another country, Aiirirani educati, ii spclialit. u,\rk with local
officers in top-level positions. Public education in an underdeveloped
country is usually a national pri'gr~am with very little opportunity
for local experimentation. It repliires proportiially blr e expendi-
tures of funds and involves (or-ganization of elementary slcolo. sec-
ondary schools, nIifl'iiil schools, vocational schools, adult education
and other elements into an inite rated educational system.
A few countries with special revenues, such as Iraq, can set aside
funds for c.(Iiprelhensive programs (Iraq 1iLt i a $15 million six-year
school budget.) The typical underdeveloped country, however, is
wrestling with all the problems of underdevelopment at once and its
national resources can be used only sparingly in any one field. Such
a country is interested primarily in making the most basic improve-
ments and the most productive ones. Advice of education pcri.ialists
is therefore particularly needful.
In the 35 countries where te thenited Stntes is carrying on coopera-
tive programs in education, the role of advising is by far the most
important contribution the United States can make. Specialists in
education find that they work not only with ministries of education
but also with ministries of agriiilture, health, labor, industry and
others, with private organizations, with industry and with. United
Nations agencies such as the United Nations Educational. Scientific
and Cultural Organization, the Food and Agricultural Org:;iniz;tion,
and the World Health Organization. The chief emphasis of their
J. 4 "
Training in handloom weaving at a vocational school in Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil. These teachers will return to the interior to teach arts and crafts
to boys and girls.
work is on the cooperative development of educational pr,,granis.
Some major activities are these:
TEACHER TRAINING. In the long run, normal schools and
teachers' colleges will be necessary in underdeveloped csiuntries. as
in our own. The sooner these can be established the better. Where
normal schools exist, immediate work needl to be done to bring these
up to rasihnable standard and to train teachers effectively.
With as many as 80 percent of the population illiterate, however,
popular education cannot wait until enough :ew trained teallhers
are graduated. One answer is in-service training of tea'-hers, making
A group of rural teachers (left) observes and participates in teaching a game to chi
school is included in the total teacher training program of SCIDE (Servicio Cooperative
better teachers of those already on the job. This is done through
workshops or vacation schools. Another device is to set up demonstra-
tion schools, whose practices and methods can be copied.
DevTlnipiiirp t of new courses of study and of ula i ng,; in courses
of study is another area in which the American education specialist
fills a highly important role.
Rai.sinii educational requirements for tea.rlili ', establlishinl better
pay schedules and the like are measures to be undertaken only by the
local buiv,\,rniiiit but the American education specialist can :i\le
sound advice in this respet also.
I."~~~r~"""'L"L *~- ~~
;' ~p g C
dren at a demonstration school at Villa Ahumada
Inter-Americano de Educacion).
in Honduras. The demonstration
iS..: s u
Slii ~ ~;
School health conferences for Lebanon are planned and sponsored jointly
by the Lebanese Ministry of Education and the United States technical
cooperation mission. In attendance are teachers from villages and towns.
TEXTBOOKS AND TEACHING AIDS. Many millions of school
children in underdeveloped countries have never seen a textbook nor
possessed one of their own. To an American educator, it .senls ainiit
incredlille to find children in )iInI schools stud.inwg only textbooks
about life in a foreign country, simply because no textbooks are
available about life in their own.
American education specialists have helped local governments to
develop simple textIonks. related to the life of the country and with
familiar illustrations, books teaching lessons of b,.ttor health prac-
tices, better agriculture or better comlmuinity life in the nation itself,
along with rending' and I ritii-. In many c.a-;. Aiiierica~in also help
train the people who will carry on and continue the work of preparing-
Creation of professional mat'ri;al in the local laniiiuage for training
teachers is another w;ti\ ity. Tll,,-se materials may be b1nks. pamphlets,
charts, etc. In some technical s.i *hl1s, even this takes too much time
and it is sometimes faster and better to conduct Eng ,"lii courles. s.i-
technical literature in the local l;inuuage is not available and will
not soon be available. It ii i'ht be noted 1 ;ht formerly it was nJ aci'-a ry
Home economics teachers being trained at a summer school in Iran. The
demonstration table is designed so that 125 persons can watch the work.
for students in certain fields in the United States to study German
or French for a similia reas,,n.
Audio-visual aids have long ;iui proved their effectiveness in
American education. In the underdeveloped countries, American
education specialists help prepare films, filmstrips, posters, pamphlets
and simple hi.oe-lmade niteriials to be used in teaching.
ADULT EDUCATION. Even grown people can learn to read
and write and do not find it difficult to appreciate information on how
to grow a better crop or protect the health of their families. Mluch
work, therefore, is being done in adult education. Te aching the adult
has an added advantage in that children do not beiime ashamed of
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. Manual training and bhime eco-
nomics entered into Aniiwri.-ia education in the 1880's. By 1925,
some 93,000 students were taking vot.atimiiil agriculture courses,
429,000 were enrolled in trade and industry courses and 154,000 were
studying home economics. By 1951, these figures had jumped to
771,000 for vocational agriculture, 792,000 for trade and industry
courses and 1,458,000 for home economics. This illustrates the growth
and direction of American vocational education.
R. L. Amsberry, U. S. education specialist in Iran, presents a certificate to
an Iranian peasant who attended all classes in one of the village adult
education programs. Teaching is done by Iranian technicians.
By contrast, in the whole of Paraguay, for instance, with a popula-
tion of a million and a half. there is but one civilian vocational school,
set up under technical cooperation with the United States. Altlhlinh
India has had home science courses for many years, it was only in
1954 that the first class taking a full four-year home science course
was graduated. Today with U.S. Government and Ford Foundation
assistance, India is developing a nationwide home science pri'grailn
intended to reach out into the villages.
TRAITVING. In order that educational leaders may study ad-
vanced systems, provision is made for trainiii grants in the United
States and in other countries. This enables the leaders to adapt
whatever is useful to their own countries. Since cultural patterns,
level of advancement and stalnards of living are often in contrast to
those of the United States, regional training also is undertaken under
U. S. sponsorship. Trainees in the Far E;it, for example, can study
in Manila; others from the Mliddle Eit in Beirut and Latin American
trainees in Puerto Rico.
VNIVERSIT7Y ('OXTA.1'TS. More and more the United States
has solughlt to bring together educational institutions of our own
country and those of underdeveloped countries. Under government
sponsorship, American educational institutions agree to undertake
specific ta;ks, such as developing igri.tiltural extension prrl.II.in or
setti ng. up schools of business administration or developing scientific
and technolo,--iil courses. As of May 3, 1955. 63 such contracts were
in operation with institutions of 31 other countries.
Examples of far-reaching consequences are association of the Uni-
versity of Nebraska with the new Ataturk University in Turkey, in
which Nebraska is helping to develop schools of agriculture, engineer-
ing, business administration and education; a project whereby
Columbia University is surveyi g the entire needs of Mexico for
technology ical experts and the capacities of Mexican institutions to
produce them; the association of Bradley University with development
by the Government of Iraq of a two-million dollar technical institute,
intended to be the outstanding institution of its kind in the Middle
These are only some of the major features of the educational
approach in technical cooperation. Actually everythli ng that an
American education specialist has learned, has heard of or read about
is of use to him abroad. No field of technical cooperation has wider
diversity or involves more fields of specialized knowledge. American
education specialists are filnli-g that since each country presents
individual problems, they themselves are gaining important field
The major results of education programs are iiitnliiible ones.
Certainly the most important one, where it has occurred, is a change
in educational philosophy. In our own country this came in about
1900, when our education turned from emphasis on subject mliatter
to the neesl of the child himself. M,imy countries are at that point
today. How well the ch ilate is made, how well education becomes
education for living, will detti'iiiiiie to a gr',aift extent the future of
d,'mocraciy in these countries.
A survey of 22 countries, over the last three years* shows the
following facts and figures:
TEACHER TRAINING. Technical cooperation projects have
helped to give pre-service training to more than 17,000 teachers; in-
service training to more than 46,000. Trained in the United States
were 558 foreign educators, trained in re ginal programs 2168. More
than 1200 teachers institutes or .ir.;iti n workshops have been held,
621 demonstration s'ql00o, set up.
*Technical cooperation in education in Latin America extends over the past
With American advice, elementary teaching requirements in Le-
banon have been raised from two years' training to three for a
terl.linl certificate. In the Philippines, the traditional two years'
requirement has been raised to four. In Peru, teachers now have to
have four years' training, instead of three, to get the highest degree.
In Iran a joint education pri'gri ii his resulted in countrywide
teacher training requirements for the first time-no teacher now can
teach without at least one year of professional training.
TEXTBOOKS, TRAINING AIDS. American specialists have
helped to develop 143 different textbooks, copies of which have been
distributed to 751,000 children; they have helped prepare 1138
professional materials for 216,000 teachers. American financial sup-
port has helped equip 513 libraries, most of them in schools.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. MI,1re than 13,000 persons have
been trained in short courses in the Sao Paulo area in Brazil, more
than 25,000 in short courses in Iran. A three mnlthls' technical
training course at one Tehran foundry resulted in a 100 percent
increase in production.
Americiin aid has added equipment to 108 school science labora-
tories, 518 shops, 163 home economics departments, 265 crafts and
other school priingranils. In the Philippines, asis-,tani.ie has been given
Children at a Bedouin tribal school in Jordan. Such schools represent
Jordan's first effort to educate tribal peoples.
to 38 vocational agriculture s.hnll. 34 trade schools. In Israel,
equipment has been provided for 10 trade schools.
On Decel iber 30, 1954, at Beersheba in Israel, American Ambassa-
dor Edward B. Lawson took part in dedication of the new Vocational
Training Center, the first of six to be established in the country under
the Israel-America prig l;in. Built to meet a critical shortage in
skilled workmen, the Center itself was under construction 12 nIm iths.
rather than the average of seven or eight months, because of the lack
of the same skilled workmen the school will train. The first class
of 45 students started their training last December.
In Ethiopia, the Jilmman Ag ri,.iltural Secondary School, operated
by Oklailhiiia A. & M., opened for students on October 13, 1952, the
first school of its kind in the nation. Initial enrollment was 79 but
facilities were enlarged to accommodate 140. For the fall term in
1953, 437 boys applied. One boy, eager to enroll, traveled 800 miles,
most of the distance on foot. When he applied he had not had food
Children at a school in Peru where advanced methods are used.
for two days. After a few days' rest, he took the examination, passed
it, was admitted.
In Para1 1.ivy. the only civilian industrial school graduated its fourth
class in 1954. All 154 graduates have been placed immediately in in-
dustry. At first all instruction had to be carried out by .\ l'nican
teachers, who helped set up the school, organize the curriculum and
train the teaching and administrative staff. Now the staff is entirely
Paraguayan. Courses are given in automotive iiir.lanii.is., radio,
refri.raitin, carpentry, leatherwork, plumbing, !h l.klitlling.
In Jor.lal two demonstration schools for nomadic Bedouin boys
were established in the desert. This is the first time an educational
program has ever been attempted in Jordan for these illiterate,
In Iran, 73 tribal schools for children of nomadic tribes have been
set up in tents and go with the tribes as they migrate. In one case,
after seven months' .,.l ,ling. all children passed first grade exam-
inations, a large number passed second grade tests and slie bright
pupils passed third grade. Tribal chieftains were so enthusiastic
they wanted to IllI1 school ei-lht hours a day, seven days a week. The
American contribution ;l, mounted to $20,968, the tribes themselves
contrillte, the equivalent of $45,384 in salaries, transportation,l
water-bags and food. Often the tribes contributed clothing for
In Lebanon, under a university contract, a team from Isaac Dclgado
Trade School in New Orleans is a-sisting the Ecole des Arts et
AMetiers, the government technical school, in conducting coilr..s and
trainili'- teachers of foundry work, auto le,.h.ni,.s, radio and tech-
nical engineering. Also in hotel iina111 eillent, since Lebanon has a
large tourist trade.
The industrial education progi'raii in Brazil started in 1946. Since
then 1500 t';l-1itr-, and supervisors have been trained in Brazil and
120 came to the United States for training -u; 87 textbooks and manuals
have been produced and more than 600,000 distributed; new tcai.ling
methods have been introduced in 2:; federal and st;ite in,'a;tii'ial
The rural education prir1',;iii in Bolivia is a good example of how
dynamic and functional education programs make schools more in-
fluential in the lives of the people. In the normal school at Warisata,
curriculum and teaching methods have been revised and teaching
material related to real life situations. School gardens provide basic
lessIns in sound agricultural practices. Yegetables fr'mli the gardlens
are used for school luncheons and lessons in nutrition. Pupils are
taught how to use the meager resources of the altiplano (high plateau)
reg inn in making school and home furniture, pottery and rugs.
Development of these handicrafts will help to round out the economy
of the region.
The myriad problems of improvement and the many appnlallces are
indicated in this report from a technician in Ecuador:
"Our first undertaking was in the Normal School itself at Uyum-
bicho. This Normal is set within a farm of 155 acres of rich soil.
There were 60 milk cows, a few pigs and chickens, ,s iii planting,
some production but everything was poorly cared for, unorganized
and constantly being pilfered. The school itself was just as poorly
organized. Classrooms were in miserable condition, dirty, poorly
lighted and ventilated. Drinking water and water for cooking, bath-
ing, washing was carried from a nearby ditch. Students lived any
place on the farm or in the village. Teachers were careless about
attendance, indifferent and poorly trained. There were no black-
boards, tools, few books and no teaching materials. Yet the N,'rmal
had great possibilities. This was in 1952-53.
"By the end of 1954, this Normal School had been transformed
into a good, effective center for the training of studentts in practical
education and for the preparation and training of rural elementary
teachers who can be placed in the surrounding con munilit i's or any-
where else in the world.
"We first tackled the improvement of the curriculum, methods
of teaching, sanitation, the buildings and farm production. A dormi-
tory housing 200 boys was repaired-the girls are still living in the
village; showers. lights, flush toilets, lavatories and lockers were
installed. A water supply system was built by digging a 115-yard
horizontal tunnel into the mountain side and constr uting a tank ....
Electricity was carried from the village of Uyumbicho. A temporary
kitchen and dining room were constructed, classrooms were repaired
or remodeled; furniture for classrooms and dormitories was con-
structed, much of it by students in the manual arts classes.
"Barns, poultry houses, pi' pens and rabbit hutches have been
remodeled or reconstructed. Fai-ilities have been developed on the
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1 II Btllll lll lll 1111 11111 111111 hI ll 1I Ill1 II
3 1262 08745 7098
grounds for the production of adobes, brick, tile, lumber and wood.
These are being used for the construction of new buildings .
"On the academic side, equal improvement has been made. The
Ministry of Education has been taking a very active interest in
secllring teachers, granting recommendations and permission to make
curricular chan ges. The pre-servicve teacher training period has been
lengthened from four to six yea rs. giving us a longer time in which
to educate and prepare teachers for their work. Eleven Ecuadorian
teachers, including the Director of the Normal Schools, were sent
to American universities for long or short-term scholarships in 1953
and 1954. These have returned recently and four of them are now
teaching at the Normal School.
"The curriculum has been changed from a rigid academic program
to a more practical program for rural students and teachers but
containing all the subjects required by the Ministry of Education and
with courses in agriculture-using the farm as a laboratory-and
in manual arts. Botany and zoology are taught in relation to agri-
culture and rural life. Some attempts have been made to teach home
ec'ononiis, cooking and food preparation but lack of equipment,
personnel and funds have hindered this development .
"A reading room and library of more than one thousand books-
professional, leisure reading, magazines and daily papers-has been
organilized, catalogued according to the Dewey Decimal System and
supervised by a full-time trained librarian. Students and teachers
have been taiulght how to use the file cards and the library.
"Student living is now supervised, student activities and organ-
izations have been formed, a small store, a barbershop and shoe-shine
parlor have been organized under student manaii'emeut.
"There is still much to be done. ."
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