The transmission of neutrons and gamma-rays through air slots

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Title:
The transmission of neutrons and gamma-rays through air slots
Series Title:
BNL ;
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Schamberger, Robert D
Shore, Ferdinand J
Sleeper, Harvey P
Brookhaven National Laboratory
U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
Publisher:
United States Atomic Energy Commission, Technical Information Service
Place of Publication:
Oak Ridge Tenn
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Nuclear physics   ( lcsh )
Neutrons -- Diffraction   ( lcsh )
Gamma rays   ( lcsh )
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Robert D. Schamberger, Ferdinand J. Shore, Harvey P. Sleeper, Jr.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Originally published 1954.
General Note:
"September 1, 1954."
General Note:
"Subject category: Physics."
General Note:
"Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York."
General Note:
"Date Declassified: November 21, 1955."--P. 2 of cover.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004703692
oclc - 432319550
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AA00009214:00003


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BNL-2020


subject Category: PHYSICS



UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION



THE TRANSMISSION OF NEUTRONS AND
GAMMA-RAYS THROUGH AIR SLOTS.
PART I. THE TRANSMISSION OF NEUTRONS
THROUGH STRAIGHT SLOTS IN WATER

By
Robert D. Schamberger
Ferdinand J. Shore
Harvey P. Sleeper, Jr.





d'H

September 1, 1954 ,G 56

Brookhaven National Laboratory
Upton, New York


Technical Information Service, Oak Ridge, Tennessee














Date Declassified: November 21, 1955.


This report has been reproduced directly from the best
available copy.

Issuance of this document does not constitute authority
for declassification of classified material of the same or
similar content and title by the same authors.

Printed in USA, Price 25 cents. Available from the
Office of Technical Services, Department of Commrce, Wash-
ington 25, D. C.


This report was prepared asa scientific account of Govern-
ment-sponsored work. Neither the United States, nor the Com-
mission, nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission
makes any warranty or representation, express or implied, with
respect to the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of the in-
formation contained in this report, or that the use of any infor-
mation, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this report
maynot infringe privatelyowned rights. The Commission assumes
no liability with respect to the use of,or from damages resulting
from the use of, any information, apparatus, method, or process
disclosed in this report.






Page 1


BNL-2020






THE TRAlISMISSION (F NEUTROiJS AND GA-l.A-RAYS THROUGH AIR SLOTS


Part II

The Transmission of Neutrons Through Straight Slots in Water


Robert D. Schamberger
Ferdinand J. Shore
Harvey P. Sleeper, Jr.




1 September 1954












REACTOR DEPARTMENT

BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORaTORY
associated Universities, Inc.


Work performed under Contract No. AT-30-2-Gen-16











































Digilized by iIe Iniernet Archive
in 2012 Wi ll ILundlllg Irom
University oi Florida. George A. Smaihers Libialle.; Wih Eupport from LYRASIS and the Sloan Foundation


hllp: archie.org detail; Iran mi,;ionolne0053troo





Page 3


(1)
Using the slAt box described in Part I and thermal neutron
detectors, the thermal neutron flux in the water above the air slots was
determined as a function of slot dimension. Traverses were made in the
water in the slot length and thickness directions in an effort to character-
ize the radiations in terms of the slot dimension. A few checking runs
were made with a lead-covered fast-neutron dosimeter. Data will be
presented for the slot sizes given in Table I.


TABLE I

Dimensions of the Air Slots
Norinal
Width W Thickness T Length L
(inches) (inches) (inches)

34 0.125 12 24 48
0.25 48
0.50 12 24 48 72 96
1.00 12 24 48
1.5 24 48
3.0 24 48 72
12 3.0 24 36 48 72

In an investigation such as this it would be desirable to
take both fast and slow neutron data over the slots for the entire di-
mensional spectrum. However, a serious limitation is imposed by the
gamma-ray fluxes present on the use of the only available fast neutron
detector; i.e., a Hurst-type dosimeter. This restricts its use to the
longer slots. It was decided, therefore, that thermal neutron' detectors
be employed over the entire range of slot dimensions and that some checks
be made, when possible, with the fast neutron dosimeter. A good correlation
should not be expected, a priori, for those regions throughout which the
thermal neutron portion of the spectrum is not in equilibrium with the
high energy part.

The combination of a thermal neutron detector and water
thickness, D, makes an energy dependent detector which will give results
more representative of a fast neutron detector when D is made large
compared to the thermal neutron diffusion length. This indicates that
one should use large D for good agreement with the dosimeter. A com-
plication still exists for large D and short slots, however, when the
slow fission counter is used, because the large gamma-ray fluxes present
induce photofission which represents a spurious count rate. In the case
of thin slots, where the flux transmitted through the air is comparable
to that going through the water, the photofission count rate can be a
serious problem, especially for large D.


BNL-2019






Page 4


In order to characterize the neutron transmission in terms
of the thermal neutron counter measurements, one must select some
reproducible parameter. For this purpose, one may express the excess
flux detected along, the slnt centerline as a function of the slot
dimensions keeping a constant water separation D between the aluminum
slot box and counter.

Figure la shows traverses taken beyond a typical air slot
0.25 x 34 x 48 inches. The 1 inch x 6 inch BF3 counter was aligned
horizontally with its long axis parallel to the 34 inch dimension of the
slot. The horizontal traverses in this case were taken at Z values of
54, 60, and 66 inches which correspond to D values of 1.5, 7.5 and 13.5
inches. One notices that the more water there is between detector and
slot, the broader the curves become. Figure lb shows a vertical traverse
aleng the centerline of the air slot. The vertical traverses in general
have an attenuation length of about 4 cm with D=1.5 inches and between
5 and 6 cm at D=7.5 inches. A summary of such flux plots for D=1.8 inches
and 7.5 inches are shown in Figures 2 through 6.

The log plot of Figure 2 indicates that with D=1.8 inches,
as one varies the slot thickness, T, and holds length constant, a
family of straight parallel lines is generated. The net flux was
determined by taking the difference between fluxes obtained with the
slot filled with air and with lucite. Values obtained with thicknesses
of the order of .125 inches are uncertain for reasons discussed in Part I.

The slope of the lines as plotted is two, indicating that the
transmitted flux varies as the square of the slot thickness. This is the
behavior predicted by a line-of-sight calculation which assumes that the
water is opaque to neutrons and that the emergent flux is essentially
integrated by the detector.

Figure 3 shows a similar summary except that D=7.5 inches.
Again the data are consistent with straight lines drawn with slope 2.0 to
2.1. Checks made with a lead-covered fast-neutron dosimeter and slots
48 inches in length and 0.50 inches and 2 inches thick give the 1.96 power
for the thickness dependence,

The flux data, when plotted as a function of slot length,
with thickness as a parameter, yield Figure 4 in which D=1.8 inches.
The lines, as drawn, have slopes of minus 2 and are seen to fit the
data fairly well indicating an inverse square length dependence. Similar
results, shown in Figure 5, are obtained with D=7.5 inches.

This result is surprising for short lengths for which one
expects deviations from inverse square dependence. In the eaperimebt
one must recall that the 40 inch source plate is 10.6 inches below
the water tank bottom which in turn is separated by 3 inches of water
from the slot bottom. As one decreases the slot length the detector
"sees past" the aperture formed by the slot bottom and "looks at" a
larger portion of the source plate. For lengths shorter than about 6.5
feet the detector can see past the edge of the source plate in the width
direction, and hence the effective source size stays constant in this






Page 5


direction. In the thickness direction the detector always looks at the
source plate. If one calculates the solid angle subtended at the detector
by the effective region of the source plate, then significant departures
from inverse square law occur for slot lengths over most of the range
studied. In the actual case, neutrons which must travel an oblique path
from the source plate to detector are attenuated in the 3 inch thick water
layer more than those which travel along the minimum length. This would
tend to make an even greater inverse square behavior. There is some
evidence that relatively smaller flux is obtained with shorter lengths
as may be seen in Figure 5. The departure from geometrical behavior
may be the result of an appreciable contribution to the flux getting out
of the top o~the slot by neutrons which come in the side of the slot near
the bottom. In addition, a possible clue to the reason of the departures
may be found in the rapid decrease in the flux in the water along the
sides pf the slot, which follows an inverse fourth power dependence on the
length .

In one set of runs, the length dependence was studied using
slots of width 12 inches and of thickness 3 inches. The source plate
always filled the aperture formed by the slot bottom for the range of
lengths 2 feet to 6 feet which were employed. In Figure 6 are shown the
results obtained i th D = 1.5, 7.5, 13.5, and 19.5 inches. For D = 1.5
inches, the slope with L greater than 2 feet is about 2.9. For the other
D values the slope is close to 2.0. This result is markedly different for
the slower neutron component of the emergent flux which was obtained at
D = 1.8 inches for the 34 inch width, but it is the same as that obtained
earlier for the fast neutron component. At least some of the difference
with the small D is the result of the change in geometry.
Comments on the data:

The data presented in the form of graphs in Figures 7 through
25. At the upper right hand corner of each figure is a description of the
experimental conditions which follow the code outlined in Part I of this
series1. For those instances in which an appreciable photofission count
rate was obtained with the fission counter, a correction was applied. In
the case of vertical traverses the correction usually was appreciable in
the region where the operational range of the BF3 counter overlapped that
of the fission counter. For the horizontal traverses, the correction
became more serious as the detector was moved away from the slot center-
line. Fission counter data which have been corrected for photofissions
appear as parts of dashed curves. For example, in Figure 10 run number
2163 has been corrected for gamma-ray effects for x values greater than
7.5 inches.

An estimate of the size of the photofission background can
be made from Figure 11 in which background run 2538 taken with the fission
counter should be compared with run 1645 obtained with an aluminum walled

1 BNL 2019

2See Part IX, BNL 2027






Page 6


ionization chamber. Run 1645 has been arbitrarily normalized to run 2538.
It is seen that the "background" detected in 2538 was mainly gamma-rays.
The true neutron background, obtained with a BF counter, is given by
run 2590A. The companion horizontal traverses are indicated in Figure 12
in which run 1385, obtained with the fission counter, is to be compared
with run 2590 for which a BF3 counter was used.

Inexplicable changes in overall response seemed to have occur-
red in several instances, as for example runs 1736 and 1931 of Figure 17
or those of Figures 22 and 23. Since, in some of these instances, periods
of time of a few months intervened between runs, it is difficult to ascribe
the variations to any single factor.

Summary of results:

1. The peak neutron flux in water above a slot whose thickness is not
great compared to the counter size follows a thickness square depend-
ence. This result seems to be independent of the energy of the neutrons

2. The measured length dependence for the slower neutron component is an
inverse square, and for the faster component it is about tth same.
This dependence is not expected for the case investigated in which
the slot width was comparable to the source size. This suggests, at
least for the lower energy component, that some mechanism other than
line-of-sight transmission makes important contributions to the emitted
flux.

3. When the slot width was small compared to source size the length
dependence for the faster neutrons was the inverse square.






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