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od at Work for
Reprinted from Home and Garden Bulletin No.1 FAMILY FA
Nutrition food at work for you----------------- 1
A guide to eat by-------------------------------_ 1
How to use the daily food guide ------------------ 2
The bonus of breakfast--------------------------- 5
Tips on meal planning---------------------------- 5
Nutrients what they do and where they are found- 6
Proteins ----------------------------------- 6
Carbohydrates ------------------------------ 7
Mineral elements -----------------------------_ 9
Vitamins ------------------------------------- 10
Water --------------------------------------- 12
Food energy -- ----------------------------13
Serving by serving food provide for daily needs -_ 15
Servings and pounds ---------------------------- 16
Meat, poultry, and fish--------------------------- 16
Vegetables and fruits---------------------------- 16
Smart buying ----------------------------------- 17
Meat ---------------------------------------- 17
Poultry ------------------------------------- 18
Fish ----------------------------------------- 19
Eggs ---------------------------------------- 20
Fresh fruits and vegetables ----------------------- 20
Canned and frozen foods ------------------------- 23
Wise storing --------- ----------------------- 23
Meat, poultry, and fish -------------------------- 23
Eggs-___--_ -- ------------------- 23
Fresh fruits and vegetables --------------_------23
Fats and oils ----------------------------- 24
Canned, frozen, and dried foods_ ------------------ 24
Food At Work For You
Nutrition is the food you eat. and how the body uses it.
People differ in how much they want to know about nutrition,
but everyone needs to know a few facts about food and health as a
basis for selecting the foods to eat.
You need food to get energy for work and play, to move, to
breathe, to keep the heart beating-just to be alive. Children and
youths need energy from food to support growth.
Wood also provides a variety of substances-nutrients-that are
esential for the building, the upkeep, and the repair of body
tissues, and for the efficient, functioning of the body.
Everyone needs the same nutrients throughout life but in dif-
ferent amounts. Proportionately greater amounts are required for
the growth of a body than just for its upkeep. Boys and men need
more energy and nutrients than girls and women. Large people
need more than small people. Active people require more food
energy than inactive ones. People recovering from illness need
more than healthy people.
Foods vary in the kinds and amounts of nutrients they contain.
No one food provides all the nutrients in the amounts required for
growth and health. You need a variety of foods each day to help
assure getting all the different nutrients.
A guide to eat by
Nutrition scientists have translated knowledge of the nutrient
needs of people and the nutritive values of foods into an easy-to-
use guide for food selection.
This Daily Food Guide, on pages 3 and 4, sorts foods into
four groups on the basis of their similarity in nutrient content.
Each of the broad food groups has a special contribution to make
toward an adequate diet.
ere are some of the reasons different food groups are empha-
sized in the guide and the names of some of the nutrients these
Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs from the meat group and their
alternates-dry beans, dry peas, and nuts-are valued for their
protein. This is needed for the growth and repair of body tissues-
muscle, organs, blood, skin, and hair. These foods also contribute
iron and B-vitamins.
Vegetables and fruits from the vegetable-fruit group are valuable
sources of vitamins and minerals. In the guide, this group is
counted on to supply most of the vitamin C and a large share of the
vitamin A value in the diet. Choices are directed toward the citrus
fruits and some other foods that are among the better sources of
vitamin C; and toward the dark-green and deep-yellow ones for
vitamin A value.
Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums and body tissues. Vitamin
A is important for growth, normal vision, and a healthy condition
of the skin and other body surfaces.
Foods from the milk group are relied on to meet most of the
calcium needs for the day. Milk is the leading source of the mineral
calcium, which is needed for bones and teeth.
Milk also provides protein, riboflavin, vitamin A, and
other nutrients. Cheese and ice cream also supply these nutrieW
but in different proportions.
The bread-cereal group, with its whole-grain and enriched bread
and other cereal products, furnishes protein, iron, several of the
B-vitamins, and food energy.
Fats, oils, sugars, and sweets are not emphasized in the guide
because they are common in every diet. Some of the fats and oils
provide certain of the vitamins, and some furnish essential fatty
acids, but the chief nutritional contribution of these foods is
How to use the Daily Food Guide
Homemakers who follow the guide will find it flexible enough
to use in choosing foods for families.
Food choices within the groups are wide enough to allow for
a variety of everyday foods. Meals can be planned to include
family favorites, foods in season, and foods to fit the family budget.
The size of servings can be suited to the needs of family mem-
bers-small servings for children and for those wanting to lose
weight; extra large servings (or seconds) for very active adults,
teenagers, and those wanting to gain weight. Pregnant and nursing
women also need more food.
Foods from the Daily Food Guide can easily fit into the fami*
pattern of eating. Enough milk is suggested for children to hM'
some at each meal-and for adults at two meals. Milk can be
served as a beverage, used in cooking, or poured over cereals or
fruit. Some of the milk may be used in the form of cheese and ice
A meat or alternate is usually a part of noon and evening meals,
and may be included in breakfast as well. This more than takes
care of the minimum servings suggested from the meat group.
A Daily Food Guide
Beef; veal; lamb; pork; vari-
ety meats, such as liver, heart,
Poultry and eggs.
Fish and shellfish.
As alternates-dry beans, dry
peas, lentils, nuts, peanuts, pea-
Choose 2 or more servings every day.
Count as a serving: 2 to 3 ounces of lean cooked meat, poultry,
or fish-all without bone; I egg; 1/2 cup cooked dry beans, dry
peas, or lentils; 2 tablespoons peanut butter may replace one-half
serving of meat.
All vegetables and fruits. This
guide emphasizes those that are
valuable as sources of vitamin C
and vitamin A.
Sources of Vitamin C
Good sources.-Grapefruit or
grapefruit juice; orange or
orange juice; cantaloup; guava;
mango; papaya; raw strawber-
ries; broccoli; brussels sprouts;
green pepper; sweet red pepper.
melon; lemon; tangerine or tan-
gerine juice; watermelon; as-
paragus tips: raw cabbage; col-
lards; garden cress; kale; kohl-
rabi; mustard greens; potatoes
and sweetpotatoes cooked in
the jacket; spinach; tomatoes or
tomato juice; turnip greens.
Sources of Vitamin A
Dark-green and deep-yellow
vegetables and a few fruits,
namely: Apricots, broccoli, can-
taloup, carrots, chard, collards,
cress, kale, mango, persimmon,
pumpkin, spinach, sweetpota-
toes, turnip greens and other
dark-green leaves, winter
Choose 4 or more servings every day, including:
I serving of a good source of vitamin C or 2 servings of a fair
I serving, at least every other day, of a good source of vitamin
A. If the food chosen for vitamin C is also a good source of
vitamin A, the additional serving of a vitamin A food may be
The remaining I to 3 or more servings may be of any vegetable
or fruit, including those that are valuable for vitamin C and for
Count as I serving: I/2 cup of vegetable or fruit; or a portion
as ordinarily served, such as I medium apple, banana, orange, or
potato, half a medium grapefruit or cantaloup, or the juice of I
Milk-fluid whole, evapo-
rated, skim, dry, buttermilk.
C h e e s e-cottage; cream;
Cheddar-type, natural or
Some milk every day for everyone.
Recommended amounts are given below in terms of 8-ounce cups
of whole fluid milk:
Children under 9.._ 2 to 3
Children 9 to 12 _.. 3 or more
Teen-agers--------. 4 or more
Adults.-----------. 2 or more
Pregnant women -- 3 or more
Nursing mothers 4 or more
Part or all of the milk may be fluid skim milk, buttermilk, evapo-
rated milk, or dry milk.
Cheese and ice cream may replace part of the milk. The amount
of either it will take to replace a given amount of milk is figured
on the basis of calcium content. Common portions of cheese and
of ice cream and their milk equivalents in calcium are:
1-inch cube Cheddar-type cheese= = cup milk
M cup cottage cheese = cup milk
2 tablespoons cream cheese =1 tablespoon milk
Y cup ice cream = 4 cup milk
All breads and cereals that
are whole grain, enriched, or
restored; check labels to be sure.
Specifically, this group in-
cludes: Breads; cooked cereals;
ready-to-eat cereals; cornmeal;
crackers; flour; grits; macaroni
and spaghetti; noodles; rice;
rolled oats; and quick, breads
and other baked goods if made
with whole-grain or enriched
flour. Bulgur and parboiled rice
and wheat also may be included
in this group.
Choose 4 servings or more daily. Or, if no cereals are chosen,
have an extra serving of breads or baked goods, which will make
at least 5 servings from this group daily.
Count as I serving: I slice of bread; I ounce ready-to-eat cereal;
1/2 to 34 cup cooked cereal, cornmeal, grits, macaroni, noodles,
rice, or spaghetti.
To round out meals and meet energy needs, almost everyone will use some foods
not specified in the four food groups. Such foods include: unenriched, refined
breads, cereals, flours; sugars; butter, margarine, other fats. These often are ingredi-
ents in a recipe or added to other foods during preparation or at the table.
Try to include some vegetable oil among the fats used.
A fruit or juice at breakfast is customary in many families.
The additional three or more servings of fruits and vegetables
suggested can be divided between the other two meals.
A serving of bread or cereal readily fits into each meal. Cereal
includes items such as macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, and rice.
Some meals may contain both bread and cereal.
Foods from each group often appear in each meal-but this
is not essential. The important thing is that the suggested number
of servings from each food group be included sometime during the
Many people want and need more food than the minimum
servings suggested from the four food groups. To round out meals
d satisfy appetites, you can include additional foods from the
'r groups as well as other foods not listed in these groups.
The bonus of breakfast
Food starts to work for you early in the day when you eat
breakfast. It is a research fact that people who eat a good breakfast
are more alert and productive in the morning-and more resistant
to fatigue through the day-than those who skip breakfast.
After the fast of the' night, the body needs to be replenished
with food to get the energy and other materials-proteins,
minerals, vitamins-required to keep it working efficiently.
And with today's convenience foods, breakfast can be prepared
in a matter of minutes.
Tips on meal planning
Keep these points in mind when you plan meals for your
Include a variety of foods each day and from day to day.
Introduce a new food from time to time.
Vary flavors and textures. Contrast strong flavor with mild,
sweet with sour. Combine crisp textures with smooth.
,.tTry to have some meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk or cheese at
Make a collection of nutritious recipes that the family enjoys
and serve them often.
Brighten food with color-a slice of red tomato, a sprig of
dark greens, or other garnish.
Combine different sizes and shapes of food in a meal, when
NUTRIENTS What They Do
and Where They Are Found
Here-for the easy reference and convenience of those who F
to know more about nutrition-is a summary of the import'
nutrients found in food. It tells how these nutrients-proteins,
carbohydrates, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water-function in
the body, and lists foods that supply appreciable amounts of each
These facts will help you understand why everyone needs a
well-chosen variety of foods to be adequately nourished and
All life requires protein. It is the chief tissue builder; the basic
substance of every cell in the body.
Protein is made up of smaller units called amino acids. After
foods are eaten, the proteins are broken down-digested-into
amino acids which are then rearranged to form the many special
and distinct proteins in the body.
The proteins in food are usually made up of 18 or more amino
acids. The body can make its own supply of more than half of
these. But the others must come readymade from food and are
called essential amino acids.
The amino acid makeup of a food protein determines its nutri-
tive value. Proteins that supply all the essential amino acids in
about the same proportions needed by the body rate highest&
value. Foods that provide good amounts of these top-rankil
proteins best meet the body's needs. Generally these are foods of
animal origin-meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and milk.
Proteins from cereal grains, vegetables, and fruits do not provide
as good an assortment of amino acids as animal proteins do, but
they do supply valuable amounts of many amino acids. Proteins
from legumes, especially soybeans, chickpeas, and peanuts, are
almost as good as proteins from animal sources.
To have your daily meals rank well in protein quality, only a
portion of the protein needs to come from animal sources. Com-
bining cereal and vegetable foods with a little meat or other source
of animal protein will improve the protein value of the meal.
Examples of nourishing combinations are cereal with milk, rice
with fish, spaghetti with meat sauce, vegetable stew with meat.
Or you could simply have milk as a beverage along with foods of
plant origin. It is a good idea to have some food from animal sources
at each meal.
You need protein all through life for the maintenance and re-
pair of body tissues. Children urgently need protein for normal
-1 building of cells is only one of the roles of protein in the body.
mnong other functions, protein helps to-
Make hemoglobin, the blood protein that carries oxygen to
the cells and carries carbon dioxide away from the cells.
Form antibodies that fight infection.
Important amounts of protein are found in meat, poultry,
fish, milk, cheese, eggs, dry beans, dry peas, and nuts.
Bread, cereals, vegetables, and fruits contain relatively -.maller
amounts of protein. How-ever, the quantity of bread-and perhaps
of cereal-eaten daily may be large enough to make these foods
Foods supply carbohydrates chiefly in three forms-starches'
sugars, and celluloses (fibrous materials). Starches and sugars
are major sources of energy for humans. Celluloses furnish bulk
in the diet.
Glucose, commonly called blood sugar, is the form in which
starches and sugars are mainly used by cells to furnish energy
for body processes and to support activity and growth.
Carbohydrates spare proteins by supplying energy, thereby
.'ing protein for tissue building and repair and for other special
jobs. Carbohydrates also help the body use fats efficiently.
Good sources of starch are: grains (such as wheat, oats, corn,
and rice), products made from grains (such as flour, macaroni,
spaghetti, noodles, grits, breads, and breakfast cereals), potatoes,
sweetpotatoes, and dry beans and peas.
Most other vegetables, fruits, and fruit juices contain smaller
amounts of carbohydrate. In vegetables this is mainly in the form
of starches; in fruits, it is chiefly sugars.
Cane and beet sugars, jellies, jams, candy, and other sweets,
honey, molasses, and sirups are concentrated sources of sugar.
Fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain cereals provide bulk or
Fats are concentrated sources of energy. Weight for weight,
they give more than twice as much energy, or calories, as either
carbohydrates or protein.
Everyone needs some fat. Primarily the fats supply energy,
but they also carry the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Make up part of the structure of cells.
Form a protective cushion around vital organs.
Spare protein for body building and repair by providing
Supply an essential fatty ncid, linoleic acid.
The body does not manufacture linoleic acid so it must be
provided by food. It is found in valuable amounts in many oils
that come from plants-particularly corn, cottonseed, safflower,
sesame, soybean, and wheat germ. These are referred to as
"polyunsaturated" fats or oils. M argarines, salad dressings,
mayonnaise, and cooking oils are usually made from one or more
of these oils. Nuts contain less linoleic acid than most. vegetable
oils; among the nuts, walnuts rate quite high. Poultry and fish
oils have more linoleic acid than other animal fats, which rank
fairly low as sources.
In choosing your daily meals, it is well to keep the total amount
of jat at a moderate level and to include some foods that contain
In cooking, fats add flavor and variety to many foods. Fats
also make foods-and meals-satisfying because fats digest slowly
and delay a feeling of hunger.
Common sources of fats are: Butter, margarine, shortening,
cooking and salad oils, cream, most cheeses, mayonnaise, sa
dressings, nuts, and bacon and other fatty meats. Meats, wh
milk, eggs, and chocolate contain some fat naturally. Many
popular snacks, baked goods, pastries and other desserts are
made with fat or cooked in it.
Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made in the body and found
in every cell. It is a normal constituent of blood and tissues. In
addition to the cholesterol made in the body, smaller amounts
come from food. Cholesterol content of the diet is but one of many
factors that influence the cholesterol level in blood.
Cholesterol is found only in foods of animal origin. It is not
present in fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, nuts, or in
vegetable oils or other foods coming from plants. Organ meats,
such as brains, liver and kidney, and egg yolk contain the largest
amounts of any foods. Shellfish supply appreciable quantities.
Other foods of animal origin contain smaller quantities.
Many minerals are required by the body. They give strength
and rigidity to certain body tissues, and help with numerous vital
More information about some of the minerals follows.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral element in the body.
Teamed up with phosphorus, it is largely responsible for the
hardness of bones and teeth. About 99 percent of the calcium in
the body is found in these two tissues.
The small amount of calcium in other body tissues and fluids
aids in the proper functioning of the heart, muscles, and nerves,
and helps the blood coagulate during bleeding.
1\ilk is outstanding as a source of calcium. Appreciable amounts.
are contributed by cheese (e -pecially the Cheddar-types), ice
cream, certain dark-green leafy vegetables (collardls. kale, mus-
tard greens, turnip greens), and c~unned .-almon (if the bones aire
.9qPeople who live away from the seacoast in areas where the soil
is low in iodine sometimes fail to get an adequate supply of this
mineral. Getting too little iodine can cause goiter, a swelling of
the thyroid gland.
Iodized salt and seafoods are reliable sources of iodine. Regular
use of iodized salt. is the most practical way to assure enough
iodine in your diet.
Iron is needed by the body in relatively small, but vital amounts.
It combines with protein to make hemoglobin, the red substance
of blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to body cells and
removes carbon dioxide from the cells. Iron also helps the cells
obtain energy from food.
Only a few foods contain much iron. Liver is a particularly good
source. Lean meats, heart, kidney, shellfish, dry beans, dry
peas, dark-green vegetables, dried fruit, egg yolk, and molasses
also count as good sources. Whole-grain and enriched bread and
cereals contain smaller amounts of iron, but when eaten frequently
become important sources.
Frequent use of foods providing important amounts of iron
particularly encouraged for young children, preteen and teenage
girls, and for women of childbearing age. Research shows these are
the groups whose diets are most likely to be short in iron.
Other essential minerals
Two other minerals with vitally important functions are phos-
phosus and magnesium. Like calcium, they are found in largest
amounts in bones and teeth. Among their other functions, they
play an indispensable role in the body's use of food for energy.
Magnesium is found in good amounts in nuts, whole-grain
products, dry beans, dry peas, and dark-green vegetables. Phos-
phorus is found in a variety of foods. If your meals contain foods
that provide enough protein and calcium, you very likely will get
enough phosphorus as well.
The other 10 or so essential minerals not discussed here that
help keep the body functioning in a smooth and orderly fashion
will usually be provided in satisfactory amounts by a well-chosen
variety of foods as outlined in the Daily Food Guide.
Fluoride-which helps protect teeth from decay-may be an
exception. During the years when teeth are being formed, drinking
water that contains a proper amount of fluoride (either natural or
added) will make teeth more resistant to decay.
Vitamins play a dynamic role in body processes-they take part
in the release of energy from foods, promote normal growth of
different kinds of tissue, and are essential to the proper functioning
of nerves and muscle.
A dozen or more major vitamins that food must provide have
been identified. Ordinarily, you can get all the vitamins you need
from a well-chosen assortment of everyday foods, such as is sug-
gested in the Daily Food Guide.
Here is a summary of the vitamins-including some of their
functions and a list of foods that are dependable sources.
Vitamin A is needed for normal growth and for normal vision
in dim light. It also helps keep the skin and inner linings of the
body healthy and resistant. to infection.
,Vitamin A occurs only in foods of animal origin. However, many
getables and fruits, particularly the green and yellow ones,
contain a substance called carotene that the body can change
into vitamin A.
Liver is outstanding for vitamin A. Important amounts; are also
found in eggs, butter, margarine, while milk, and cheese made
with whole milk. Carotene is found in largest amounts in dark-
green and deep-yellow vegetables and in deep-yellow fruits.
Vitamin D is important in building strung bones and teeth
because it enables the body to use the calcium and phrphorus
supplied by food.
Few foods contain much vitamin D naturally. Milk with vitamin
D added is a practical srlrce. Small amo-unts of vitamin D are
present in egg yolk, butter, liver; larger amounts occur in sardines,
salmon, herring, and tuna.
Another source is the vitamin D produced by action of direct
sunlight on the skin.
To supplement amounts from sunlight and food, vitamin D
preparations may be prescribed by a physician for infants and
.scorbic acid (vitamin C)
Ascorbic acid helps form and maintain cementing material that
holds body cells together and strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
It also assists in normal tooth and bone formation and aids in
Citrus fruits-oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, lemons, and
their juices-and fresh strawberries are rich in ascorbic acid.
Other important sources include tomatoes and .tomato juice;
broccoli; brussels sprouts; cabbage; green peppers; some dark-
green leafy vegetables such as collards, kale, mustard greens,
spinach, turnip greens; potatoes and sweetpotatoes, especially
when cooked in the jacket.
The B vitamins
Three of the B vitamins-thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin-
play a central role in the release of energy from food. Among them,
they also help with proper functioning of nerves, normal appetite,
good digestion, and healthy skin.
Generally, foods in the meat group of the Daily Food Guide
are leading sources of these vitamins. Whole-grain and enriched
bread and cereals supply smaller but important amounts. A fe
foods are outstanding sources-milk for riboflavin, lean pork I.
thiamin, and organ meats for all three.
Getting enough niacin is not a problem if a good amount of
protein is included in daily meals. An essential amino acid-
tryptophan-present in the protein can be changed by the body
Other B vitamins, B6-and particularly B12 and folacin (folic
acid)-help prevent anemia. Vitamin B12 is found only in foods
of animal origin. The other two are widely distributed in foods.
Folacin occurs in largest amounts in organ meats and dark-green,
leafy vegetables. Good sources of vitamin B% include meats in
general, whole-grain cereals, dry beans, potatoes, and dark-green,
Combinations of foods that provide sufficiently for the vitamins
listed above are likely to furnish enough of the other vitamins
Water is essential for life. It ranks next to air, or oxygen, in
importance. The body's need for water even exceeds its need fr
food. You can live for days, even weeks, without food, but onlR
few days without water.
About one-half to two-thirds of the body is made up of water.
Water is the medium of body fluids, secretions, and excretions. It
carries food materials from one part of the body to the other.
Also, water is the solvent for all products of digestion. It holds
them in solution and permits them to pass through the intestinal
wall into the bloodstream for use throughout the body. Water
carries wastes from the body as well.
Some other roles of water are to-
Regulate body temperature by evaporation through the skin
Sustain the health of all cells.
It takes a regular and generous intake of water to perform all
these jobs. The body gets water fr'-nm many oiurces. The niii-t
obvious is the water you drink, but. this often represents ,nly a
small part of total intake. Water also coine in beverages coffee,
tea, juice, soft drinks, milk) and soups. Foods, .11chl a., vegetables,
fruits, meat, and even bread and dry cereals, contain n ;some
water. And water is formed when the body uses fod for energy.
Supplying enough energy to support the nmny functions of the
body at, work and play is one of the chief jobs of food. This
energy comes from the fats, carbohydrate. -, and proteins in the
foods you eat. Of the three, fat is the i.o.t concentrated source.
It furnishes more than twice as much energy for a given weight
as protein or carbohydrate.
Alcohol also Supplies energy and ranks next to fat as a source--
providing about three-fourths as much energy as an equal weight,
Food energy is measured in calories. All foods furnish calories,
some much less in a given serving than others. Food that contain
appreciable amounts of water ire relatively low in calories be-
cause water, which has no calorie value, dilutes the energy-
yielding nutrients in these foods. Many fresh fruits and vegetables
are in this category. Calories climb, however, when sugar, fat,
such as butter or margerine, or a fat-containing food like salad
dressing or cream is added to them.
Foods rich in fat, starch, or sugar-and beverages high in alco-
hol-are high in calories.
When you choose foods that furnish more energy, or calories,
tan you need, the excess energy is stored in the body as fat.
.A.ntinued overeating can lead to an unwanted gain in weight. If
too little food is eaten to meet energy demands, the body's stored
fat serves as an energy source. Weight loss results when there is
a shortage of energy from food day after day.
Your weight stays about the same when the energy from food
matches the energy needs of the body.
Maintaining desirable weight
It is best to maintain desirable weight for one's height, at all
ages, even during childhood. Here are two principles that you can
Reduce food intake as you become less active. Exercise and
activity use up energy-or calories. If you cut down activity but
not food, you are providing more energy than the body needs.
Reduce food intake as you-as an adult-get older. As adults
grow older, less energy is needed to keep the body functioning.
To reduce food intake without shortchanging the body of essen-
tial nutrients, follow the pattern of choices suggested by the Daily
Food Guide. Weight watchers need the same types of food
health as everyone else. Crash diets and food fads are not W
answer and may be dangerous to health.
Cut down on food, but don't cut out any important kinds of
Snacks.are counted as a part of the day's total food. Sensible
snacking can help meet nutritional needs, but indiscriminate
eating between meals usually leads to more calories than are
wanted, less of some nutrients than are needed.
Specific information on weight control is given in Home and
Garden Bulletins 74, "Food and Your Weight," and 153, "Calories
and Weight: the USDA Pocket Guide." Both contain basic
weight-control facts and calorie values of common foods.
Serving by Serving...
Foods Provide for Daily Needs
Stars on the chart below give a general idea of how serv-
ings of familiar foods contribute toward dietary needs-the
more stars, the better the food as a source of the nutrient. The
percentages given below the chart are based on the National
Research Council's recommended dietary allowances for a young
man. For some kinds of food, values are for a specific food. For
others, values are for a food group; in a varied diet, which is
* common in this country, group values are likely to average
Kind of food
Milk, whole fluid.. -
Meat, poultry, fish
Citrus juice----.. .--
Other fruit, fruit
t tatoes_ _-- -----
ther vegetables -
cu1 1 1 ,......I..I....,, 1 1 1 11 1 .....-I- I11-
Part of daily need from a serving:
*****About 50 percent or more.
****About 40 percent.
***About 30 percent.
**About 20 percent.
*About 10 percent.
Servings and Pounds
If you are a thrifty food shopper,
you learn to buy the kinds and
amounts of food that your family
will use-with a minimum of waste.
To avoid waste and to make the
most of your food dollar, you also
need to know how many servings
you get from a market unit, such as
1 pound of fresh carrots or a 10-
ounce package of frozen peaches.
Information in this section can
help you decide how much to buy to
feed your family.
The amount of meat, poultry,
and fish to buy varies with the
amount of bone, fat, and breading.
Meat, poultry, and fish
Much bone or gristle-------- 1 or 2
Medium amounts of bone--- 2 or 3
Little or no bone----------- 3 or 4
Chicken-------------------- 2 or 3
Turkey -------------------- 2 or 3
Duck and goose------------- 2
Whole----------------- 1 or 2
Dressed or pan-dressed------- 2 or 3
Portions or steaks ---------- 3
Fillets -------------------- 3 or 4
1 Thr c ounces of cooked lean meat,
poultry, or fish per serving.
Vegetables and fruits
For this table, a serving of
vegetable is 1 cup cooked vegetable
unless otherwise noted. A serving of
fruit is y c'up fruit; 1 medium
apple, banana, peach, or pear; or
2 alpricots or pluims. A serving of
cooked fresh or dried fruit
fruit and liquid.
Beans, lima 2 ... ....
Beets, diced 3. -- .
Raw, diced or shredded 3_-
Raw, chopped or diced --
Parsnips 3. -------
P eas 2... -----------------
Squash, winter ------
Tomatoes, raw, diced or
2 Bought in pod.
3 Bought without tops.
4 Bought untrimmed.
5 Bought prepackaged.
Brussels sprouts -----------
Corn, whole kernel ---------
is / cup
3 or 4
5 or 6
3 or 4
3 or 4
4 or 5
9 or 10
4 or 5
5 or 6
5 or 6
4 or 5
3 or 4
3 or 4
2 or 3
3 or 4
9 or 10 o
3 or 4
3 or 4
2 or 3
2 or 3
Most vegetables ------
Greens, such as kale
Dry beans ------------
Dry peas, lentils-
Cherries, sweet --
I As purchased.
Blueberries --..--. ..
Raspberries. ---.._ ..-
Served with liquid -..-
3 or 4
2 or 3
Your best guides for selecting
meat are the U.S. Department of
Springs Agricult ire grades. Federally
graded meats carry a'purple grade
0 r11 stamp-a shield enclosing the
10or 11 letters "USDA" and the grade
name. These stamps divide the wide
Servings per range of meat quality into several
market unit I
Grade stamps appear on most
retail beef, veal, calf, lamb, and
3 or 4 per pound .
mutton cuts. Pork is not usually
graded. Some meat packers, whole-
salers, and retailers use their own
5 or 6 per pound brand names to designate the
quality levels of their products.
4 or 5 per pint USDA Prime, the top grade, is
8 or 9 per quart used largely by hotels and res-
taurants. USDA Choice and USDA
Good are the grades most com-
monly found in retail markets.
per package USDA Standard and Commercial
(1Oor 2oz.) grades are not often sold at retail.
S 3 or 4 Another purple stamp that may
S 2 or 3 appear on fresh retail meat cuts is
2 or 3 the circular mark of Federal meat
2 or 3 inspection (below, left). This shows
that meat is inspected and passed
per can for wholesomeness, and that it is
(16 oz.) processed under strict sanitary con-
4 editions. A round mark of Federal
S 2 or 3 meant inspection (below, right) also
4 or 5
7 0 &
USDA meat inspection marks.
appears on processed meat products
to show they are made from w hole-
some meat, are processed under
.sanitary conditions, and are truth-
fully labeled. All fresh or processed
meat products that are shipped
from one State to another must
bear a mark of Federal inspection.
Not all meat is federally in-
spected. Some States and cities
have their ,own regulations for
locally prodllced meats. However,
under the Wholesome Meat Act of
1967, consumers are assured that
all meat is inspected by either the
Federal Government or an adequate
Meat and your money
At the meat counter, consider the
amount of cooked lean meat you
will get for the money you pay.
The prices for a pound of beef
chuck roast, pork rib roast, ground
beef, and beef liver may be about
the same at your store. In many
instances, a pound of these roasts
will provide only about half as much
cooked lean meat as a pound of
ground beef or beef liver. The other
half of the pound of roast is bone,
excess fat, and drippings.
So it would take twice as many
pounds-and twice as much
money-to feed your family the
roasts as it would the ground beef
or liver, even though the price per
pound is the same.
In retail niarkets, ready-to-c~nok
poultry is available chilled ir fri ,zeln,
whole or cut ip. Processed poultry
U SDA poultry inspection and grademarks.
products are also on the market in
canned, frozen, dehydrated, and
other convenient forms.
Look for both the round U.S.
Department of Agriculture inspe
tion mark and the shield-shaped
trademark on the poultry you buy.
The round USDA inspection
mark (above, left) means that
poultry and poultry products have
been officially inspected for whole-
someness, are truthfully labeled,
and are not adulterated. USDA
inspection is required in plants
that produce poultry products for
sale across State lines or in foreign
The shield-shaped trademark
(above, right) shows that the
poultry has been officially graded
for quality. Poultry must be USDA-
inspected before it can be federally
graded. The U.S. grades for poultry
are based on meatiness, freedom
from defects, and general appear-
ance. The best grade of poultry
is marked "USDA Grade A."
Chicken, turkey, duck, and goos,
are common forms of poultrW*
Guinea is available in some markets.
The label may suggest suitable
cooking methods and indicate the
age of the poultry-for chicken:
"broiler or fryer," "roaster." "stew-
ing chicken;" for turkey: "fryer-
roaster," "young hen," "young
tom," naturee turkey."
Types of poultry
Broilers, fryers, roasters, capons,
and Rock Cornish game hens are
young chickens with tender meat.
Stewing chickens, hens, and fowl are
mature chickens with less tender
meat. Turkeys labeled fryer-ruaster
or young turkey are young birds
with tender meat. Most ducks are
marketed young as ducklings-
broilers, fryers, and roasters. Most
Pfse and guineas are marketed as
ng geese and young guineas.
Ready-to-cook chickens are sold
chilled or frozen-whole or cut into
parts. Most ready-to-cook turkeys
are marketed frozen whole, in a wide
range of sizes; some are available
chilled. Frozen turkey halves, quar-
ters, or parts are sometimes avail-
able. Ducks, geese, and guineas-
like turkeys-are generally marketed
frozen whole. Ducklings are also
available as cut-up parts.
Frozen poultry, stuffed and ready
for the oven, is available in many
markets. Boneless poultry roasts
and rolls-so convenient-are also
on the market.
Today there are about 240 com-
mercial species of fish and shellfish
marketed in the United States.
e'ey may be fresh, frozen, or
Fresh fish are generally available
by the pound in these forms-
whole, dressed, and in steaks, fillets,
and chunks. Most fish dealers will
clean, dress, or fillet your fish for
you. They can also tell you what
fish are in season and what fish
are a good buy.
Frozen fish are usually packed
during the season when they are
plentiful and are held in freezer
storage until distributed. This
means that you can buy most fish
throughout the year. Frozen fish
come whole, dressed, and in steaks,
fillets, chunks, portions, and sticks.
Canned fish and specialty items
containing fish are ready to serve or
use as bought. Canned tuna,
salmon, mackerel, and Maine
sardines are widely available.
Familiarize yourself with these
market forms of fish:
W'hole.-Fish marketed just as
they come from the water. Ask your
dealer to scale, eviscerate, and
remove head, tail, and fins.
Dressed or pa n -dressed.-Fish with
scales and entrails removed, and-
usually-head, tail, and fins re-
moved. Small fish are called pan-
dressed and are ready to cook as
purchased. Large dressed fish may
be cooked as purchased, but often
are filleted or cut into steaks or
Steaks.-Cross-section slices from
large dressed fish cut 8 to 1 inch
thick. Steaks can be cooked as
Fillets.-Sides of the fish cut,
lengthwise away from the backbone.
They may be skinned or the skin
may be left on. Fillets are ready to
cook as purchased.
Chunks.-Cross sections of large
dressed fish. A cross section of the
backbone is the only bone in a
chunk. They are ready to cook as
Raw breaded fish portions.-Por-
tions cut from frozen fish blocks,
coated with a batter, breaded,
packaged, and frozen. Raw breaded
fish portions weigh more than 1%e
ounces. They are ready to cook as
Fried fslh portions.-Portions cut
from frozen fish blocks, coated with
a batter, breaded, partially cooked,
packaged, and frozen. Fried fish
portions weigh more than 1 Y ounces.
They are ready to heat and serve as
Fried fish sticks.-Sticks cut from
frozen fish blocks, coated with a
batter, breaded, partially cooked,
packaged, and frozen. Fried fish
sticks weigh up to 1Y2 ounces. They
are ready to heat and serve as
Inspection and grading
The U.S. Department of Com-
merce provides an official inspec-
tion service that enables you to
identify high-quality seafoods. Such
products may be :identified by the
official USDC grade or inspection
shields that appear on the label.
Fishery products that display these
shields have been processed under
continuous in-plant inspection and
have met definite quality, proc-
essing, and packaging requirements.
Buy graded eggs in cartons at a
store that keeps them in re-
frigerated cases. Federally graded
eggs are identified with a shield-
hapled trademark that indicates
the quality at the time of grading.
If they have been properly handled
since grading, there should be little
loss in quality.
Quality.-U.S. Grade AA (or
Fresh Fancy) and Grade A eggs are
excellent for all purposes, but are
especially good for poaching and
frying where the appearance of the
finished product is important.
Grade B eggs are satisfactory for
use in cooked dishes.
The grade of the egg does not
affect its food value; lower grades
are as high in nutrients as top
grades. Buy either white or brown
eggs. The color of the shell does
affect the nutritive value or qual
of the egg.
Size.-Eggs are also classified by
size according to weight per dozen.
Size is independent of quality; large
eggs may be of high or low quality
and high-quality eggs may be of any
size. Common market, sizes of eggs
and the minimum weight per dozen:
U.S. Extra Large-27 ounces.
U.S. Large-24 ounces.
U.S. Medium-21 ounces.
U.S. Small-18 ounces.
The substitution of one size egg
for another often makes little differ-
ence in recipe results. However, in
some recipes-for example in sponge
and angelfood cakes-the propor-
tion of egg to other ingredients is
very important. For these recipes,
it may be necessary to increase the
number of eggs if you are using a
Fresh fruits and vegetables
Fresh fruits and vegetables are
usually best in quality and lowest
in cost when in season.
Whatever fruit or vegetable you
are buying, look first for freshness.
Pointers on selecting some fruits
and vegetables follow on page 21.
Apples.-Good color usually indi-
cates full flavor.
Bananas.-Bananas should be
firm, fresh in appearance, and un-
scarred. Yellow or brown-flecked
ones are ready for immediate use.
Select slightly green-colored ba-
nanas for use within a few days.
Berries.-Select, plump, solid ber-
ws with good color. Avoid wet or
y berries. Blackberries and rasp-
berries with clinging caps may be
underripe. Strawberries without caps
may be too ripe.
Grapes.--Grapes should be plump,
fresh in appearance, and firmly
attached to the stems. Red or black
varieties should be well colored for
the variety. Most white or green
varieties should have a slightly
Melons (except u'atermelons).-
Ripe cantaloups have a yellowish
surface color; honeydews, a creamy
color; crenshaws, a golden-yelluw
color mottled with green; casabas,
a yellow color; and persian melons,
a dull gray-green color. Ripe melons
of these types usually have a fruity
aroma and a slight softening at the
blossom end. A ripe cantaloup has
no stem; other melons may have
Oranges, grapefruit, and lemons.-
Choose those heavy for their size.
Smooth, thin skins usually indicate
more juice. Most skin markings do
not affect quality. Oranges with a
slight greenish tinge may be just as
ripe as fully colored ones. Light or
greenish-yellow lemons are more
tart than deep-yellow ones.
Peaches.-Best quality peaches
are fairly firm, not. bruised, with
yellow or red color over the entire
Pears.-Some pears, especially
winter varieties, are marketed when
slightly underripe and need to be
ripened at home-at room tem-
perature. Pears are ripe and ready
to eat when they yield slightly to
vary greatly in color. Ripe pine-
apples have a fragrant, fruity
aroma. Usually, the heavier the
fruit for its size, the better the
quality. Avoid pineapples that have
decayed or moldy spots.
have a somewhat dull surface and a
creamy color underneath. The in-
terior should be fully red and firm,
and should have few immature
.Asparagus.-Stalks should be
tender and firm; tips should be close
and compact. Choose the stalks
with little white-they are more
tender. Use asparagus promptly-
it toughens rapidly.
Beans, snap.-Choose slender
beans with no large bumps (bumps
indicate large seeds). Avoid beans
with dry-looking pods.
Broccoli.-Look for small flower
buds on compactly arranged heads
with good green color. Avoid yellow-
ing, soft, or spreading heads.
Brussels sprouts.-The heads
should be firm with good green
color. Yellowing outer leaves and
softness indicate aging. Smudgy,
dirty spots may indicate insect
damage or decay.
Cabbage.-Choose heads that are
firm and heavy. Outer leaves should
be fresh, green, and free from worm-
Cauliflower.-Choose heads that
are compact, firm, and white or
creamy white. Avoid discolored
heads and those with soft spots.
Celery.-Best-quality celery is
fresh and crisp. It is clean and has
leaves that appear fresh; stems do
not have black or brown discolora-
tion. Avoid pithy, woody, or very
Corn.-Good-quality fresh corn
has husks that are fresh and green.
The ears are well filled with plump,
firm, milky kernels. Immature ears
of corn have small, undeveloped,
watery kernels. Overmature ears
have very firm, large, starchy ker-
nels, often indented.
Cucumbers.-Choose firm, slender
cucumbers for best quality. Avoid
yellowed cucumbers and those with
withered or shrivelled ends.
Lettuce (head).-Select heads that
are green, fresh, crisp, and fairly firm
to firm. Head lettuce should be free
from rusty appearance and exces-
sive outer leaves.
Onions (dry).-Size and color do
not affect flavor or quality of dry
onions. Clean, hard, well-shaped
onions with dry skins are usually of
good quality. Moisture at the neck
may be a sign of decay. Mild.
flavored onions, which are often
large, may be elongated or flat.
Stronger-flavored onions are usually
medium size and globe shaped.
Peas and lima bean.s.-Select pods
that are well filled but not bulging.
Avoid dried, ,pottted, yellowed, or
are firm, smooth, and well shaped.
They are free from cuts, blemishes,
and decay. To judge quality more
easily, look for potatoes that are
reasonably clean. Avoid potatoes
with wasteful deep eyes. Potatoes
with green skins may be bitter. If
you plan to buy a large quantity
of potatoes, buy a few first to see
if they are the kind you want.
Early-crop potatoes, harvested in
spring and summer, tend to be lI
mealy when cooked than tho
Root vegetables.-Choose smooth,
firm vegetables. Very large carrots
may have woody cores; oversized
radishes may be pithy; oversized
turnips, beets, and parsnips may
be woody. The size and condition
of the tops on root vegetables do
not necessarily indicate the eating
tatoes that are clean, smooth, well
shaped, and firm. Damp or soft
spots may indicate decay. There are
two types of sweetpotatoes. The
moist type has soft, moist, orange-
colored flesh and bronze or rosy
skin. The dry type has firm, dry,
somewhat mealy, yellow-colored
flesh and yellow or light-brown skin.
Tomatoes.-Choose tomatoes that
are plump, firm, and uniformly pin
red, or yellow in color. They shou
be free from growth cracks, scars,
and bruises. The best flavored
tomatoes are ripened on the vine.
For more information, see Home
and Garden Bulletins 141, "How to
Buy Fresh Fruits," and 143, "How
to Buy Fresh Vegetables."
Canned and frozen foods
Canned.-You may want to
choose the highest quality for
salads, or for serving "as is." But
second quality may do for combina-
tion dishes such as stews, casserole
dishes, soups, and fruit puddings,
where uniform size, shape, or color
is not important.
Frozen.-Buy only packages that
are frozen solid. Avoid partially
thawed packages that feel soft or
V stained. Thawing and refreezing
Meat, poultry, and fish
All meat should be promptly
The transparent wrap on pre-
packaged meat, poultry, or fish is
designed for refrigerator storage at
home for 1 or 2 days.
Meat or poultry wrapped in meat
paper when brought from the
store-or prepackaged roasts and
steaks that may be stored in the
refrigerator for 3 to 5 days-should
be unwrapped, placed on a platter
or tray, and loosely covered before
refrigerating. Wrap and store fish
separately from other foods. Poultry
giblets should also be wrapped and
W eep cooked meat, poultry, and
fish, and the gravy or broth made
from them, in covered containers
in the refrigerator.. Use within 1 or
Cured and .smoked meats-ham,
frankfurters, bacon, sausage-can
be stored in their original con-
trainers in the refrigerator. Mild-
cured hams are similar to fresh
meats in keeping quality. Use whole
hams within a week, half hams and
slices within 3 to 5 days. For best
flavor, use bacon, franks, and
smoked sausages within a week.
To help maintain quality, store
eggs in the refrigerator promptly
after purchase-large end up.
For best flavor and cooking
quality, use eggs within 1 week if
possible. Eggs held in the refrig-
erator for a long time may develop
off-flavors and lose some thickening
and leavening power.
Cover leftover yolks with cold
water and refrigerate in a tightly
covered container. Refrigerate left-
over egg whites, too, in a tightly
covered container. Use leftover
yolks or whites within 1 or 2 days.
Fresh fruits and vegetables
Fresh fruits should be ripe when
stored in the refrigerator. Some
unripe fruits will ripen if left for a
time at room temperature-pref-
erably in a cool room between 60"
and 700 F.
Keep bananas at room temper-
ature. They will turn dull brown
if refrigerated. Sort berries and
cherries; then refrigerate, unwashed.
Use promptly. Refrigerate ripe
Sweet corn keeps best if refrig-
erated uncovered in husks; use it
promptly. Removing tops from
carrots, beets, and radishes reduces
wilting. Storing potatoes in a cool,
dark place prevents greening.
STORAGE GUIDE FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Hold at room temperature until ripe; then refrigerate, uncovered:
Melons, except water-
Store in cool room or refrigerate, uncovered:
Store in cool room, away from bright light:
Beans, snap or wax
Beans, lima, in pods
Corn, in husks
Peas, in pods
Fats and oils
Refrigerate lard, butter, marga-
rine, drippings, and opened con-
tainers of cooking and salad oils.
You can store most firm vegetable
shortenings (those that have been
hydrogenated), covered, at room
temperature. Refrigerate opened
jars of salad dressing; do not freeze.
Canned, frozen, and dried foods
Canned foods.- Store in a dry
place at room temperature (not
above 700 F.).
Frozen. food.s.-Can be stored in
freezing unit of refrigerator up to
1 week. For longer storage, keep in
a freezer at 0 F.
Dried foods.-Store dried fruits in
tightly closed containers at room
temperature (not. above 700 F.). In
warm, humid weather, refrigerate.
Store nonfat dry milk in a close
container at a temperature of 75" .
or lower. Because of its higher
milkfat content, dry whole milk does
not keep as well as nonfat dry milk.
Keep dry whole milk in a tightly
closed container in the refrigerator.
Refrigerate reconstituted dry milk as
you would fresh fluid milk.
1 U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 171 0 444- 377
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
0111111111i 1111l111 111111 I1111
3 1262 08855 7011
Consumer and Food Economics Research Division
Human Nutrition Research Division
Agricultural Research Service
This is a
Sek of USDA
Revised December 1971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washingtou, D.C. 20402- Price 20 cents
Stock Number 0100-1517
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