Sodium, think about it

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Material Information

Title:
Sodium, think about it
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
1 folded sheet (8 p.) : ill. ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
United States -- Dept. of Health and Human Services
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture :
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
Place of Publication:
<Washington, D.C.?>
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sodium   ( lcsh )
Sodium in the body   ( lcsh )
Food -- Composition   ( lcsh )
Food consumption   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"May 1982"--P. 8

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001263292
oclc - 09091745
notis - AGB3910
System ID:
AA00009152:00001


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TH I N K


ABOUT


Where Is Sodium Found?
Sodium in the diet comes from several
sources; it may be found naturally in
food or added during processing, during
cooking, or at the table. Most added
sodium comes from salt, but many com-
mon food Ingredients and additives such
as baking soda, baking powder, sodium
nitrite, and monosodium glutamate or
MSG a flavor enhancer also contain
sodium. Highly salted foods often taste
salty, but many other foods with natural
or added sodium do not.
Fora healthful diet, it is important to
eat a variety of foods. Despite the wide
use of salt and other sodium-containing
compounds, you can easily choose a .
varied diet that has only a moderate
amount of sodium if you know how. It is
virtually impossible for people who eat a ,
varied diet to get too little sodium. .
Tb help you plan a varied diet with
sodium content in mind, here is informa-
tion on the range of sodium in the major
food groups The sodium content of
specific foods within each group varies,
and the ranges represent averages which
are meant only as a general guide Some
foods in each group will fall above or
below the range. For information on how
much sodium is in particular food items,
see USDKs "The Sodium Content of Your
Food." (See box for information on how
to order.) Product labels also often list
sodium by amount. If your doctor has
advised you to cut down on sodium, be
sure to get more detailed information on..
specific sodium content of foods.


Many processed foods are higher in
sodium than fresh or raw foods because
of the use of sodium in processing. Some
sodium plays an essential role in pro-
cessing, such as protecting certain foods
from food-poisoning bacteria. Some
supermarkets carry low-sodium pro-
cessed foods
Remember, in addition to sodium, the
protein, vitamin, and mineral contents -
as well as the calories are critical to a
healthful diet. Choose foods from these
groups daily: fruits and vegetables; cere-
als, breads, and pasta, meat, poultry, fish,
and eggs; and milk, cheese, and yogurt
Serving size is important \bu can still
enjoy foods higher in sodium if you don't
overdo It.

One teaspoon of salt contains about
2,000 mg of sodium.
a The National Research Council Indl-


Regular hot cereals such as rolled oats
also have 5 mg or less of sodium in
/2-cup, if cooked without added salt. If
you go to the quick-cooking version, you
may find much more sodium. Most
ready-to-eat cereals (I-ounce serving)
and instant or quick cereals (/2-cup
serving) have between 100 and 360 mg of
sodium per serving. Some ready-to-eat
or quick cereals are available with little
or no sodium added.
Most white or whole grain bread has
between 110 and 150 mg of sodium per
slice. The sodium level of two or three
regular crackers is about the same.
Milk naturally contains some sodium.
Most plain fluid milk has around 125 mg
of sodium in a cup. Milks and yogurts
fortified with added dry milk solids .
(check the label) are slightly higher.
Most natural cheese has between 75
and 300 mg of sodium per ounce
because salt is used during the
manufacturing process, although blue,
Roquefort and parmesan contain more.
Processed cheeses and cheese food and
spreads have more around 350 to 450
mg per ounce again, because of the
salt used in processing. A /2-cup serving
of creamed or low-fat cottage cheese
contains about 450 mg of sodium. Some
supermarkets carry low-sodium cheeses.
a Fresh meats, poultry and fin fish
generally contain from 15 to 25 mg of
sodium per ounce generally less than
S75 mg in a 3 oz serving Shellfish are
.... '. :::*...... ......


generally higher than fin fish. Most
canned fish or poultry has 90-150 mg per
oz Eggs have about 60 mg each.
Sausages, luncheon meats, frankfurters
and other cured meats such as ham
contain larger amounts of sodium than
fresh meats because salt is generally
added as a preservative during
processing Most have 250 to 450 mg per
oz: bacon is higher Serving sizes for
these foods vary greatly the sodium
content of 3 oz will generally range from
750 to 1,350 mg.
a If you're looking for "ronwnennce" fods,


l u What you add to the food can be as
.important as the foods you choose. Soy
. sauce contains over 1,000 mg of sodium
per tablespoon the highest of com-
monly used condiments. Most other con-
diments, such as catsup, chili sauce, tar-
tar sauce, Worcestershire sauce, steak
sauce, and mustard have about 125 to
275 mg per tablespoon. One tablespoon
Sof pickle relish or three ripe black olives
contain about 100 to 125 mg of sodium.
Green olives are higher.
Fats and oils are fairly low in sodium.
Since vegetable oil has no sodium and
vinegar has less than 6 mg per table-
spoon, an oil and vinegar dressing is very
low in sodium. Prepared salad dressings,
however, usually have from 100 to 250 mg
per tablespoon. Salted butter and mar-
garine have around 45 mg per teaspoon,
but the unsalted versions have only
) about I mg. Creams, including sour cream,
have around 6 mg per tablespoon, while
the imitation types have about 12.
The sweets in your diet have varying
levelsof sodium Sugars syrups, jams,
and jellies have 20 mg or less per table-
spoon. Most types of candy have be-
tween 2 and 80 mg per ounce. Sodas and
fruit-flavored drinks also vary from
almost none to 80 mg per 8 ozs.

a Some estimates suggest that as much
as one-third of the average dally Intake
of sodium comes from salt added to
food In cooking or at the table. How
much salt do you add? Try this test:
Cover a plate with wax paper or foil.
Salt the plate as you would if It con-
tained food. Collect the salt and meas-
ure it. If you used about Va teaspoon,
that amounts to 250 mg of sodium,
probably more than most adults need in
an entire day.


labels, but do provide nutrition Informa-
tion to customers who write for it. Look
for the firm's address on the label.
In the kitchen:
a Plan meals that contain less sodium.
Consider the total amount of sodium
in a meal, or in a day's meals. If you eat a
high-sodium food, choose a low-sodium
food to go with it.
Take into consideration not only the
sodium content of a food, but how much
you will eat. Also consider the proportion
or balance of calories and essential nu-
trients in the food.
Remember that unprocessed foods
usually contain less sodium than pro-
cessed foods. When you start from
scratch, you're in charge of the amount of
salt you add.
a Reduce the salt you add to foods dur-
ing cooking.
Start with moderate changes. That way
you can cut back on your taste for salt
gradually. You weren't born with a prefer-
ence for salt, and it can be "unlearned."
Try gradually reducing the amount of
salt in your favorite recipes until you've
got it down to half or even less.
Look for recipes with a reduced
sodium content.
Cut back or even cut out the salt used
in cooking rice, noodles, pasta, or hot
cereals.
Consider the sodium content of all the
ingredients in a recipe. For instance, if
you use cured meat, dehydrated or
canned soup, cheese, or canned vege-
tables in a dish, you may not need to
add any salt.
a Look for condiments and sauces with
less sodium, or use lemon juice, spices,
or herbs such as onion or garlic pou-
der (not onion or garlic salt), paprika.
pepper, curry, or dill for flavor. Make
your own relishes and salad dressings,
cutting back on the salt.
Try adding new spices and herbs in-
stead of salt to vegetables or the water
you cook them in.
At the table:
Taste food before you salt it. If you
must add salt, try one shake instead of
two.
Watch the amount of prepared sauces
or condiments you add.
Try lemon juice, vinegar, or a home-
made relish for zest.
At a restaurant:
a Choose foods without sauces. If you do
prefer a sauce, ask for It "on the side" so




supermarkets carry low-soaium pro-
cessed foods.
Remember, in addition to sodium, the
protein, vitamin, and mineral contents -
as well as the calories are critical to a
healthful diet. Choose foods from these
groups daily, fruits and vegetables; cere-
als, breads, and pasta: meat, poultry, fish,
and eggs. and milk, cheese, and yogurt
Serving size is Important. You can still
enjoy foods higher in sodium if you don't
overdo it.

a One teaspoon of salt contains about
2,000 mg of sodium.
* The National Research Council indi-
cates that a "safe and adequate"
sodium Intake per day Is about 1,100 to
3,300 mg for an adult.
a Estimates place sodium consumption
by adults at 2.300 to 6,900 mg a day.


Sodium In Your Diet
* Fresh. frozen and canned fruits and fruil
juices are low in sodium Most have less
than 8 milligrams (mgl in a 2 cup serving
m A 2-cup serving of fresh or frozen
vegetables will usually have 35 mg or less of
sodium, if salt is not added during
cooking. A higher range 140 to 460 mg
- is found in most canned vegetables or
frozen vegetables with a sauce
* Grans are naturally low in sodium.
When cooked without salt, plain pasta
Ispaghetti. noodles, etc.) has 5 mg or less
of sodium in a 2-cup serving. But watch
the sauce you add.


generally higher than fin fish. Most
canned fish or poultry has 90-150 mg per
oz Eggs have about 60 mg each.
Sausages, luncheon meats, frankfurters
and other cured meats such as ham
contain larger amounts of sodium than
fresh meats because salt is generally
added as a preservative during
processing. Most have 250 to 450 mg per
oz; bacon is higher. Serving sizes for
these foods vary greatly the sodium
content of 3 oz will generally range from
750 to 1,350 mg.
If you're looking for "convenience" foods,
you may also find quite a bit of sodium.
Most frozen or canned prepared main
dishes, such as pot pies, ravioli, and
pizza, range in sodium content from 800
to 1400 mg for 8 oz or I cup of the item.
Most canned and dehydrated soups con-
tain about 800 to 1300 mg of sodium in a
I-cup serving. Some entrees and soups
are available with substantially less
sodium than these ranges indicate -
check the label
Snack foods vary, usually depending on
the salt that's added. Unsalted nuts and
popcorn are naturally low in sodium
Generally less than 5 mg in a I ounce
serving) Salted nuts, caramel coated
popcorn, potato chips, and corn chips
generally have 150 to 300 mg of sodium
per ounce about 14 chips Pretzels and
salted popcorn tend to be higher. Un-
salted chips and pretzels are available in
some areas of the country
S. Desserts also vary in sodium content.
Ice cream, ice milk, and sherbet run
about 35 to 80 mgof sodium in I 2-cup
Most cookies range from about 5 to 50
mg of sodium each. Frozen fruit pies
have around 180 mg of sodium in a serv-
ing (one-eighth of a pie). Frozen cream
pies tend to be lower and nut pies
higher. A serving of cake approximately
one-twelfth of an unfrosted cakel varies
from 130 to 310 mg ofsodiomA1


truit-tlavored drinks also vary trom
almost none to 80 mg per 8 ozs.

a Some estimates suggest that as much
as one-third of the average dally Intake
of sodium comes from salt added to
food in cooking or at the table. How
much salt do you add? Try this test:
Cover a plate with wax paper or foil.
Salt the plate as you would if It con-
tained food. Collect the salt and meas-
ure it. If you used about 1% teaspoon,
that amounts to 250 mg of sodium,
probably more than most adults need In
an entire day.


W hat Yobu Can Do
If you decide you want to moderate
your sodium intake, there are choices
you can make. If you want more details
than this general listing provides, consult
USDAs "The Sodium Content of Your
Food."
First, when you shop:
* Read food labels Labels that make
specific claims such as "low in sodium"
must show the sodium content on the
label Also, more and more manufactur-
ers are voluntarily putting sodium infor-
mation on labels The amount of sodium
is always stated in milligrams per serving
and includes sodium in the raw ingre-
dients as well as those added during
processing
Even when the amount of sodium is
not on the label, remember that the
ingredients are listed according to their
weight in the products recipe from
most to least
Learn to recognize ingredients that
contain sodium Salt soy
brine, and any ingre hsodiu
such as monosod ate
such as baking s o pan of ita
contain sodium /
m Finally, some nies dgct list r
sodium inform n theiltduct


try aaaing new spices ana neros in-
stead of salt to vegetables or the water
you cook them In.
At the table:
a Taste food before you salt it. If you
must add salt, try one shake instead of
two.
a Watch the amount of prepared sauces
or condiments you add.
a Try lemon juice, vinegar, or a home-
made relish for zest.
At a restaurant:
* Choose foods without sauces. If you do
prefer a sauce, ask for it "on the side" so
you can control the amount.
* Ask to have your food served without
added salt so you can add only as much
as you want.
* lry to balance, as you do at home. If
you have a high-sodium main dish, eat
low-sodium side dishes with it; or If you
eat a high-sodium dinner, eat a lower
sodium breakfast and lunch _


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