Talking about turkey

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Material Information

Title:
Talking about turkey how to buy, store, thaw, stuff, and prepare your holiday bird
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
20 p. : col. ill. ; 22 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.?
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Turkeys -- United States   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Turkey)   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"June 1984"--P. 4 of cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001287885
oclc - 11071375
notis - AGD8555
System ID:
AA00009146:00001


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Full Text
TALKING
ABOUT
TURKEY:
HOW TO BUY, STORE, THAW, STUFF,
r AND PREPARE YOUR HOLIDAY BIRD


4


0 0 0 1


m









CONTENTS



Introduction 1
How to Buy Your Bird -
And What to Look for on the Label 2
Fresh or Frozen Turkeys? 3
Storing Frozen Turkeys 3
Storing Fresh Turkeys 3
Buying the Right Size Turkey 4
How to Safely Thaw a Frozen Turkey 5
Thawing in the Refrigerator 5
Thawing in Cold Water 6
Thawing in a Microwave Oven 6
More Pointers on Thawing 7
After the Thaw, Washing the Turkey 7
How to Stuff a Turkey 8
Stuffing Pointers 8
How to Roast a Turkey 9
Roasting Chart 9
Testing for Doneness 10
Additional Cooking Methods 11
Oven Cooking Bags 11
Microwave Cooking 12
Outdoor Cooking 12
Rotisserie Cooking 12
Cooking a Solidly Frozen Turkey 13
Cooking Giblets and Neck 13
How to Carve a Turkey 14
Buffet Entertaining 16
How to Store Leftovers 17
Recipes 18
Stuffings 18
Gravies 19
Leftovers 19
The Meat and Poultry Hotline Inside back cover








INTRODUCTION


* ou might think that because turkey is the main attraction
in many an American holiday meal most consumers know
all they need or want to know about how to buy, store,
thaw, stuff, and prepare it. But that is not necessarily the
case, as shown by inquiries received by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Hotline.
So let's talk turkey.
Maybe you're a first-timer who has offered or was drafted to cook
that important holiday bird. First-timers often learn the "how to's"
from well meaning friends or relatives who may unintentionally pass
on erroneous information.
Even if you're an old hand who has prepared many turkeys, there may
be better or safer methods than the ones you're accustomed to.
Talking About Turkey is stuffed with expert advice you can rely on
from the time you buy a turkey to the time you wrap up the leftovers.
You'll find easy-to-use charts on thawing, cooking times, temperatures,
and recipes to round out your meal.
This year let Talking About Turkey be your guide to a safe and
delicious holiday meal.




'






How To BUY

YOUR


BIRD
AND WHAT TO
LOOK FOR ON
THE LABEL


-: A urkeys come in all sizes to fit everyone's holiday meal
..I plans. They can be purchased whole as in the traditional
manner, or in parts, suitable for small families or those
who have a preference for white or dark meat only. They
come fresh or frozen, self-basting and prestuffed.
Because so many different types of turkeys are available in the
market today, you can be sure you are getting exactly what you want
by carefully rending the label.
There are two important pieces of information to look for before
\,,u make your selection. An inspection mark on the label let: you
know the turkey has been inspected and that it is safe, wholesome,


Q E:


\uuu71


(0








and accurately labeled. Some 95 percent of all turkeys and other
meat and poultry products are inspected by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA).






DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE
P-42




Another symbol you will find on many packages is a USDA grade
mark usually grade A. Turkeys that are grade A are meaty, have a
well developed layer of fat in the skin, and are practically free from
pinfeathers, bruises, cuts, tears on the breast and legs, and broken bones.
How can you be sure of buying a tender turkey? The age category
on the label is the key. The younger the turkey, the more tender and
mild flavored it will be. All turkeys in the market are young and will
be labeled young turkey (usually 4 to 6 months of age). There are also
young turkeys labeled fryer-roaster turkey (usually under 16 weeks of
age). The sex designation of hen or torn is optional on the label, and
is an indication of size rather than the tenderness of a turkey.



Fresh or Frozen Turkeys?


another choice shoppers make is whether to buy a fresh or
frozen turkey. There is no significant difference in quality
between a fresh turkey and a frozen one; the choice is
based on personal preference.




f you are one of those people who likes to shop well in
advance of when you will be serving your meal, then a
frozen turkey is your best bet. At the market, look for one
that is solidly frozen.
Many frozen turkeys are now available pre-basted, and some are pre-
stuffed. By reading the label carefully, you can be sure of getting
exactly what you want.







A whole frozen turkey prestuffed or unstuffed can be stored in
your home freezer at 0F or below for up to one year without appre-
ciable loss of quality. Keep a prestuffed turkey in the freezer until you
are ready to cook it. It should not be thawed, because bacteria can
develop in the stuffing while the turkey thaws. Frozen whole turkeys
do not need to be rewrapped for freezer storage unless the packaging
has been opened or is punctured or torn.





* he USDA recommends that for optimal safety, buy a fresh
turkey only if you do your shopping within 1 or 2 days of
when you plan to serve it. The reason is that fresh
turkeys, like other fresh meat and poultry, are highly
perishable. You need to be careful when purchasing and storing them
to avoid spoilage. If you buy one too far in advance, it may start to
spoil in your refrigerator before you're ready to cook it.
Here, too, some labels can be helpful by including "sell by" dates.
The "sell by" date is the last day the turkey should be sold by the
retailer. It will maintain optimal quality and safety for 1 or 2 days
after this date.
You should avoid selecting a fresh turkey that is stacked above the
top of the store's refrigerator case. Remember, once you get your fresh
turkey home, refrigerate it right away at 40F or below, and use it
within 1 to 2 days.
Your market may be able to reserve a fresh turkey for you and hold
it for last-minute pickup.
Fresh turkey parts can be frozen and stored in your freezer at 0F
or below for up to six months. The turkey parts should be repackaged
in any type of moisture-vapor-resistant wrap such as freezer paper or
heavy-duty aluminum foil to prevent freezer burn and the development
of an off-flavor. Date packages before storing, and always use the oldest
first. Turkey parts have a shorter freezer-life than do whole turkeys
because more surface area is exposed, providing a greater opportunity
for microbial contamination during processing and packaging.


Buying the Right Size Turkey


*nce you have decided on the type of turkey you want to
buy, the next question is how big it should be. You can
figure on 1 pound of turkey per person. If the turkey is
prestuffed, allow 11/4 pounds per person. This will provide
generous servings with enough left over for second day dishes.







How


To SAFELY


FROZEN

TURKEY


U whether you have 4 days or 12 hours, you can safely
thaw your frozen turkey without risking bacterial
growth. Thawing your turkey in the refrigerator is the
preferred method for safety reasons, but you can also
thaw it in cold water. The thing to remember about both methods is
that they keep your turkey cold while thawing the key to prevent-
ing excessive bacterial growth.
And, no matter which method you select, cook the turkey promptly
after thawing.


he following chart shows how long it will take to thaw
turkeys of various sizes in the refrigerator. Simply place
the turkey in its original wrap on a tray or in a pan to
catch moisture that accumulates as it thaws.










Thawing Time in the Refrigerator
Whole Turkey
8 to 12 pounds 1 to 2 days
12 to 16 pounds 2 to 3 days
16 to 20 pounds 3 to 4 days
20 to 24 pounds 4 to 5 days
Pieces of Large Turkey
half, quarter, half breast 1 to 2 days







*f it's the day before you plan to serve your turkey and you
just remembered that it's still sitting in the freezer, don't
despair. Check the wrapping to make sure there are no tears,
and simply place the bird in its unopened bag in the sink or
in a large container and cover it with cold water. If the wrapping is
torn, place the turkey in another plastic bag, close securely, and then
place in water. You will need to change the water frequently to assure
safe but effective thawing. The National Turkey Federation recom-
mends every 30 minutes as a rule of thumb.



Thawing Time in Cold Water (Whole turkey)
8 to 12 pounds 4 to 6 hours
12 to 16 pounds 6 to 9 hours,
16 to 20 pounds 9 to 11 hours
20 to 24 pounds 11 to 12 hours






* turkey can also be thawed in a microwave oven. Since
microwave ovens vary in what they can accommodate,
check the manufacturer's instruction for the size turkey
that will fit in your oven, the minutes per pound, and
the power level to use for thawing.










E*gain, remember that frozen, prestuffed turkeys should not
be thawed before cooking. Frozen, unstuffed turkeys can
also be cooked without being thawed. See instructions
under "Other Cooking Methods."
If necessary, you can refreeze a partially thawed turkey as long as ice
crystals are still visible in the cavity and the neck and giblets remain
frozen. However, keep in mind that thawing and refreezing can affect
the juiciness and flavor of the turkey.
You may be wondering why thawing your turkey on the kitchen
counter isn't recommended. The reason is that room temperatures fall
within the danger zone of 600F to 1250F that promotes active growth
of bacteria. Left on a kitchen counter, a frozen turkey will thaw from
the outside in. As its surface warms, bacteria multiply. In the time
that elapses while the turkey is thawing, the surface bacteria could
multiply to dangerous levels. You can't rely on cooking to destroy all
bacteria. Some food poisoning organisms produce toxins that with-
stand heat.




*nce your turkey has thawed, it requires little preparation
before cooking. Remove the neck and giblets from the
neck and/or body cavities. Wash the inside and outside
of the turkey and the giblets in cold water and drain
well. To prevent the spread of bacteria, wash your hands, utensils and
sink after they have come in contact with the raw turkey.








How To STUFF





\TURKEY


E actually, you can enjoy stuffing with your turkey whether
or not you decide to stuff the bird. If you are in a hurry,
you may want to bake your stuffing in a greased, covered
casserole during the last hour while the turkey roasts.
You'll save time by not stuffing the turkey and having to scoop the
stuffing out to serve it once the turkey is done. And an unstuffed
turkey takes less time to cook than one that is stuffed.
However, if you prefer to stuff the turkey, read on for some important
pointers.



* t may seem like a good idea to save time by stuffing your
turkey in advance, but that's inviting trouble, because harm-
ful bacteria can multiply in the stuffing and cause food
poisoning. Turkeys should be stuffed only at the last minute.
Dry stuffing ingredients may be prepared the day before, tightly
covered, and left at room temperature. The perishables (butter or
margarine, mushrooms, oysters, cooked celery and onions, broth)
should be refrigerated. The ingredients should then be combined just
before stuffing the turkey.
The cavity of the turkey should be stuffed lightly, because stuffing
expands as it cooks.
Allow three-fourths of a cup of stuffing for each pound of ready-to-
cook turkey. Extra stuffing may be baked separately.
To keep the stuffing in the turkey, you need to close the neck and
body cavities. Fold the neck skin over the back and fasten with a
skewer, trussing pins, clean string, or toothpicks; twist the wingtips
under the back of the turkey to rest against the neck skin. To close
the body cavity, use skewers, or tuck ends of legs under a band of
skin at the tail, or into metal "hock-locks," if provided, or tie legs
together with clean string.








How To


ROAST





TURKEY


* lace the turkey breast side up on a rack in a shallow
roasting pan. Do not add water. Before placing the turkey
in the oven, you may want to brush it with cooking oil,
melted butter or margarine, although this is not necessary.
Then cover the turkey with a loose tent of heavy-duty aluminum foil.
To make a tent, tear off a sheet of foil 5 to 10 inches longer than the
turkey. Crease foil crosswise through the center and place over the
turkey, crimping loosely onto sides of pan to hold in place. This
prevents overbrowning, allows for maximum heat circulation, keeps
the turkey moist, and reduces oven splatter.
When using a meat thermometer, insert it through the foil into the
thickest part of the thigh muscle without touching the bone. The
inner thigh is the area that heats most slowly.
Roast according to the following chart. To brown the turkey, remove
the foil tent 20 to 30 minutes before roasting is finished, and continue
cooking until the thermometer registers 185 0E
Basting is usually not necessary during roasting since it cannot
penetrate the turkey. Also, opening the oven door frequently prolongs
the cooking time.


E he following times are based on an oven preheated to
325 0F. Plan the roasting time for a large bird so it will be
done about 20 minutes before serving. Allowing the
turkey to stand, covered loosely with aluminum foil,
makes the meat easier to carve and juicier.









Timetable for Roasting Fresh or Thawed Turkey or
Turkey Parts
Weight (pounds) Unstuffed (hours) Stuffed (hours)
4 to 6 (breasts) 1 Vz to 2 /4 Not applicable
6 to 8 2,,4 to 3V4 3 to 3
8 to 12 3 to 4 31/2 to 4/2
12 to 16 31/2 to 4V2 41/2 to 5'/2
16 to 20 4 to 5 5/2 to 6 Vz
20 to 24 42 to 51/2 6/2 to 7
24 to 28 5 to 61/2 7 to 81/2
Drumsticks, quarters, thighs 2 to 3'/2 Not applicable


You should not partially roast a stuffed turkey one day and
complete roasting the next. Interrupted cooking enhances the
possibility of bacterial growth.
It seems every holiday season brings publicity about a new way of
cooking turkey, promising excellent results. One that has been
publicized recently is long cooking at a very low temperature (250 F).
This method is not recommended. Because of the low temperature, the
turkey (and stuffing) might take more than 4 hours to reach a high
enough temperature to destroy bacteria, and could therefore be unsafe.
The quality of the turkey might suffer, too. During prolonged cooking,
some areas would tend to become very dry.


Testing for Doneness


.. he most reliable method for detecting when your turkey is
thoroughly cooked is using a meat thermometer. See page 9
for instructions on how to insert a thermometer. The
turkey is done when the temperature reaches 1800F to
185 F in the inner thigh of whole turkeys and in the center of the
thickest part of turkey pieces. Stuffing temperature should reach at
least 165F. To check the stuffing, insert the thermometer through
the body cavity into the thickest part of the stuffing and leave it for
5 minutes. The stuffing temperature will rise a few degrees after the
turkey is removed from the oven.
Another method for testing doneness is to press the fleshy part of
the thigh with protected finger,. If the meat feels soft, or if the leg
moves up and down easily and the hip joint gives readily or breaks,
the turkey is done.







Doneness can also be detected by inserting a long-tined fork into
the thickest area of the inner thigh. If the juices run clear, not pink,
the turkey is done.
As soon as your turkey is completely cooked, you should remove all
the stuffing from the cavities. Harmful bacteria is more likely to grow
in the stuffing if it sits in the bird after cooking. If you do not need
all the stuffing for first servings, you can put the remaining stuffing in
the oven at 200F to keep hot until you need it.


Additional Cooking Methods





M*reparing a turkey in an oven cooking bag is a moist-heat
cooking method that produces a moist, tender bird. When
using oven cooking bags, preheat your oven to 350E.
Shake 1 tablespoon of flour in the bag to prevent bursting.
Place celery and onion slices in the bottom of the bag to help prevent
the turkey from sticking and to add flavor. Place the turkey on top of
the vegetables, close the bag with the enclosed tie, and make 6 half-
inch slits in the top to let steam escape. Insert meat thermometer
through a slit in the bag. When your turkey is done, cut or slit the top
of the bag down the center. Loosen the bag from the turkey so there
is no sticking and carefully remove the turkey to a serving platter.
As with the traditional oven roasting method, the turkey will be
done when it reaches 180F to 185F.


Roasting Chart for Fresh or Thawed Turkey
Cooked in an Oven Bag
Weight (pounds) Unstuffed (hours) Stuffed (hours)
8 to 12 1% to 21/4 21/4 to 23/4
12 to 16 2V4 to 23/4 2 to 3/4
16 to 20 23/ to 31/4 34 to 33/
20 to 24 3/4 to 334 34 to 4/


Using ordinary brown bags for roasting is not recommended because
they may not be sanitary. Also, the glue and ink used on brown bags
have not been approved for use as cooking materials, and may give
off unhealthful fumes. Finally, as the turkey cooks, the juices may
saturate the bag, causing it to break during cooking.










Sf you intend to cook your turkey in a microwave oven, before
you do your shopping, check the manufacturer's instruction
for the size bird that will fit in your oven. Your instruction
book should indicate time, power level and other considera-
tions for cooking the turkey.
Using an oven cooking bag during microwave cooking ensures the
most even cooking.



E urkey parts can be cooked on a barbecue grill; a whole
turkey or turkey parts can be cooked in a covered kettle
grill. Charcoal makes a hot fire. To build your fire, you
can line the grill with heavy-duty aluminum foil to aid
even cooking and ease cleanup. Stack the coals in a pyramid and
follow the directions on the lighter fluid. Once the coals are white-
hot, spread the coals to form an even layer.
When using a barbecue grill, be sure racks are 6 to 8 inches from
the embers for an even heat without too much intensity. Small turkey
quarter roasts are excellent for this method of cooking. Young fryer-
roaster turkeys weighing 6 to 8 pounds can be cut into individual
servings. The turkey pieces will take at least an hour to cook, depend-
ing on their size and thickness. Turn them occasionally while they are
cooking. If they start to char, raise the grill farther from the heat.
When using a covered grill, arrange charcoal on both sides of the
fire bowl with a drip pan in the center of the coals. Place the whole
turkey on a rack over the grill. Cover the grill. Add a few coals to
each side of the drip pan every hour. To give it a hickory-smoked
flavor, sprinkle one-half of a cup of water-soaked hickory chips or
flakes over the coals during the last half hour of cooking. If you prefer
a heavier hickory-smoked flavor, add more chips or flakes.
You should allow 15 to 18 minutes per pound for an unstuffed
turkey cooked on a covered grill. For a stuffed turkey, allow 18 to 24
minutes per pound.



-hole turkeys (unstuffed) can be cooked on a special
rotisserie that turns the meat slowly on a rotary spit
over direct heat. Since rotisseries vary greatly, follow
the directions that come with the equipment.
Before turning on the spit, be sure to balance and mount the bird.
See that the turkey does not slip as the spit turns.







To mount a whole turkey on a rotisserie spit, attach the neck skin
with a skewer to the back of the body. Tie or skewer the wings close
to the body. Insert the spit through the length of the body and
tighten the holding prongs. Tie the tail and drumsticks firmly to the
rod. If properly balanced, the turkey should rotate evenly when the
spit is turned.

i C i7.king 'Ieon a Rotisserie

.ok ~igh Approximate Cooking Time
.-6 to 8 pounds 3 to 3/z. hours
to 10 ,pounds 3.to 4 hours
Wo ns .4 to 5 hours




i whole frozen turkey without giblets and neck can be
roasted, braised or stewed without thawing. Turkey parts
can also be cooked without thawing. The turkey should
be cooked in a preheated 350F oven.

,." I .,
t~~ing Soidly Frozen Turkey



-to9







* o prepare the giblets and neck for cooking, wash
thoroughly. Remove any separable fat from the gizzard.
If you need broth for gravy, cover the neck, gizzard, and
heart with water and simmer until tender: about 1/ hours
or more. Add the liver during the last 15 to 30 minutes of cooking,
and simmer until done.
If you don't need broth for gravy, seal the giblets and neck tightly
in aluminum foil and cook the wrapped pieces in the pan with the
turkey. Giblets will cook in about the same time as the turkey.








How To CARVE






TURKEY


membere, you'll get better results carving your turkey if
you allow it to stand 20 minutes after you take it out of
the oven.

CARVN A TUKE -eho I (Taitoa ethod


1. Remove drumstick and thigh To remove
drumstick and thigh, press leg away from
body. Joint connecting leg to the hip will
oftentimes snap free or may be severed
easily with knife point. Cut dark meat
completely from body by following body
contour carefully with knife.

2. Slicing dark meat Place drumstick and
thigh on cutting surface and cut through
connecting joint. Both pieces may be indi-
vidually sliced. Tilt drumstick to conve-
nient angle, slicing towards table as shown
in illustration.

3. Slicing thigh To slice thigh meat, hold
firmly on cutting surface with fork. Cut
even slices parallel to the bone.


4. Preparing breast In preparing breast for
easy slicing, place knife parallel and as
close to wing as possible. Make deep cut
into breast, cutting right to bone. This is
your base cut. All breast slices will stop at
this horizontal cut.





I .
. .... .. :. .. :."


i' : :: Place drumsticks and thigh on separate
P. ..plate and: cut through connecting joint.
..oth pieces may be individually sliced.
-'. } :'Tilt drumstick to convenient angle, slicing
taids plate.."
4. J -... .



3..To slice thigh mea.;old firmly on plate
.. ..: ih fork. Cut even slices parallel to. the
Sbone. .




4. Remove half of the :breast at a time by
cutting alg keel bone and itb cage with
sharp 1kife.





S ace half bea d cutting suae and
$ hit eqveglygaipst: the grain of the meat.
"., ea, wi' secon' hplf breast whe addi-
t ,W. aap lie ,o
::'L : :; .. ':ki.. : "


5; Carving breasts After making base cut,
carve downward, ending at base cut. Start
each new slice slightly higher up on breast.
Keep slices thin and even.












L BUFFET


ENTERTAINING


E holiday buffets are festive and fun, but they require extra
care in preparing, storing, and serving the food. Con-
sider how many guests you can safely serve. Be sure you
have enough refrigerator space for the perishable foods.
Keep buffet servings small, and replenish the serving dishes as needed,
directly from the stove or refrigerator.
You may want to use heated serving units such as hot trays or chaf-
ing dishes to keep food hot. Remember, though, when food is left out
for more than 2 hours, even in heated serving units, the risk of food
poisoning increases.
When all your guests have finished eating, put the perishables -
especially the turkey and other meat and poultry products back
into the refrigerator.








How To


ST RE


L. LEFTOVERS






*o far, so good. You bought the kind of turkey you wanted
because you read the label. You thawed it properly and
cooked it according to the directions. Now, what do you do
with the leftovers?
Handling cooked turkey incorrectly can result in food poisoning.
Think of the post-cooking stage as a countdown which begins when
you take the turkey out of the oven. From that time, you have ap-
proximately 2 hours to serve it and then refrigerate or freeze the left-
overs the turkey, stuffing, and gravy. Why just two hours? Because
bacteria that cause food poisoning can multiply to undesirable levels
on perishable food left at room temperature for longer than that.
It is important to take out all of the stuffing from the turkey as
soon as you remove the bird from the oven. Extra stuffing can be kept
hot in the oven at 200F while you eat, or can be refrigerated.
How you store the leftovers is also important in preventing bacterial
growth. Large quantities should be divided into smaller portions and
stored in several small or shallow covered containers. That's because
food in small amounts will get cold more quickly.
Leftover turkey will keep in the refrigerator for 3 to 4 days. Stuffing
and gravy should be used within 1 or 2 days. Bring leftover gravy to a
rolling boil before serving.
For longer storage, package items in freezer paper or heavy-duty
aluminum foil and freeze them. Proper wrapping will prevent "freezer
burn" white dried-out patches on the surface of food that make it
tough and tasteless. Don't forget to date your packages and use the
oldest ones first. Frozen turkey, stuffing, and gravy should be used
within 1 month.











RECIPES


Savory Bread Stuffing


Makes 4 cups, uncooked
Celery, finely chopped
Onion, finely chopped
Parsley, chopped
Butter or margarine
Bread cubes, soft
Savory
Salt
Pepper.


3/4 cup
2 tablespoons
3 tablespoons
3 tablespoons
1 quart
1/2 teaspoon
1/2 teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon


1. Cook celery, onion, and parsley in butter or margarine until
tender.
2. Mix lightly with remaining ingredients.
3. Stuff inside the turkey, or bake covered in a separate pan during
last hour of roasting the turkey.
Calories per cup uncooked stuffing: about 190.

Notes: Allow about 3/4 cup of stuffing per pound of ready-to-cook
turkey. For more moist stuffing when baked separately, add
1 tablespoon of chicken or turkey broth per cup of uncooked
stuffing.

VARIATIONS

Oyster Stuffing
Reduce celery to 1/2 cup and parsley to 1 tablespoon. Add 12 fluid
ounces of oysters, heated for 3 minutes in their own liquid and drained.
Calories per cup of unbaked stuffing: about 235.

Cornbread Stuffing
Omit bread cubes and savory. Add 1 quart of cornbread crumbs and







1/2 teaspoon of thyme. Calories per cup of unbaked stuffing:
about 330.
Fruit Stuffing
Omit parsley and savory. Reduce bread cubes to 3 cups. Add 11/2 cups
of chopped tart apple and 1/2 cup of cooked, pitted, chopped prunes.
Calories per cup of unbaked stuffing: about 220.


Turkey Gravy
6 servings, about 1/4 cup each
Butter or margarine 1 tablespoon
Flour 3 tablespoons
Salt 1/4 teaspoon
Turkey broth 1 /2 cups


1. Melt butter or margarine over low heat;
2. Heat and stir until bubbly.
3. Add broth slowly, stirring constantly.
4. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly,
Calories per serving: about 35.


mix in flour and salt.


for at least 13 minutes.


Giblet Gravy
Add 1/2 cup of chopped, cooked giblets to turkey gravy. Heat for a
few minutes to blend flavors. Calories per serving: about 60.


Turkey-Broccoli Casserole
6 servings, about 1 cup each


Noodles, uncooked

Broccoli spears, frozen
Butter or margarine
Flour
Salt
Dry mustard
Pepper
Milk
Processed cheddar cheese,
shredded_

Turkey, cooked, diced


4 ounces
(about 3 cups)
10-ounce package
2 tablespoons
2 tablespoons
1/2 teaspoon
1/4 teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon
2 cups

1 cup
(about 33/ ounces)
3 cups







1. Cook noodles and broccoli as directed on packages; drain.
2. Melt butter or margarine; stir in flour and seasonings.
3. Add milk slowly; cook, stirring constantly, until thickened.
4. Remove from heat; add cheese and stir until melted.
5. Dice broccoli stems, leave flowers whole.
6. Place noodles, broccoli stems, and turkey in an 8 x 8 x 2 inch
baking dish.
7. Pour cheese sauce over ingredients in baking dish.
8. Arrange broccoli flowers on top, pressing them into sauce.
9. Bake, uncovered, at 350F (moderate), for about 25 minutes or
until bubbly.
Calories per serving: about 425.
Turkey Salad
6 servings, about 2/3 cup each


Turkey, cooked, diced 3
Celery, chopped 1
Pickles, sweet, chopped 1
Eggs, hard-cooked, chopped 2
Salad dressing, mayonnaise-type 1
Lemon juice 1
.S 1t 1


cups
cup
/4 cup

/2 cup
tablespoon
/4 teaspoon


Lettuce leaves


1. Mix turkey, celery, pickles, and eggs together lightly.
2. Mix salad dressing, lemon juice, and salt until smooth.
3. Gently stir salad dressing into turkey mixture.
4. Chill thoroughly.
5. Serve on lettuce leaves.
Calories per serving: about 265.
Turkey Gumbo Soup
6 servings, about 1 cup each


Turkey or chicken broth
Onion, chopped
Celery, chopped
Okra, cut, frozen
Tomatoes
Salt
Pepper
Rice, uncooked


3 cups
1/2 cup
1/4 cup
10-ounce paLkage
16-ounce can
1/2 teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon
1/4 cup


1. Heat broth to ailing.
2. Add vegetables, seasonings, rice, and turkey.
3. Cover and cook slowly 15 minutes, until vegetables and rice are
tender.
Calories per serving: about 170.


A








THE MEAT AND


POULTRY


m HOTLINE




Ie hope you have found the information in Talking
About Turkey helpful. But should you have additional
questions about turkey or other meat and poultry prod-
ucts, you can contact the U.S. Department of Agricul-
ture's Meat and Poultry Hotline for assistance.
Hotline staff is available to answer questions or handle complaints
about the safety, wholesomeness, or labeling of meat and poultry prod-
ucts. This central source of information is operated by the Food Safety
and Inspection Service (FSIS) and can be reached by writing:
Meat and Poultry Hotline
USDA, FSIS
Room 1163-S
Washington, D.C. 20250
or by calling: (202) 472-4485 (not a toll-free number).




Talking About Turkey was created by the U.S. Department of Agri-
culture in cooperation with the Consumer Information Center of the
General Services Administration, the National Turkey Federation, and
the Consumer Products Division, Reynolds Metals Company.

Authorization to reproduce this booklet is granted. Please credit the sponsoring parties.
Writer: Laura Fox





United States Department of Agriculture
Home and Garden Bulletin Number 243
June i'P-4


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


3 1262 08584 2903


i


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