An analysis of qualities and attributes of secondary school instrumental music teachers in their role of conductor-educator

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An analysis of qualities and attributes of secondary school instrumental music teachers in their role of conductor-educator
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1991.
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 144-150)
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by Victor Vallo, Jr.
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Typescript.
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Vita.

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AN ANALYSIS OF QUALITIES AND ATTRIBUTES OF
SECONDARY SCHOOL INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC TEACHERS
IN THEIR ROLE OF CONDUCTOR-EDUCATOR















By

VICTOR VALLO JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


1991


































Copyright 1991

by

Victor Vallo Jr.


































This work is gratefully and lovingly

dedicated to my mother,

Vincie P. Vallo















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

There are many persons who must be acknowledged

who made this research project not only possible but

helped bring this work to its gratifying fruition. Among

these persons are those who provided guidance, those

who provided research assistance, and still others who

provided emotional support--all necessary for so challenging

a project. Although it is difficult to adequately thank

all of these persons for their contributions, I will

nevertheless attempt to do so here.

I want to first acknowledge and thank the chair

of my supervisory committee, Dr. Charles Hoffer, whose

untiring guidance and patience was most inspiring to

me during the entirety of this work. I wish to also

thank all the members of my supervisory committee, Drs.

Phyllis Dorman, Camille Smith, Russell Robinson, David

Kushner, Raymond Chobaz, and David Miller, for their

personal and individually specific guidance and suggestions

that in total helped to fine-tune this work to levels

of scholarship that I am now only beginning to realize.

I also owe a debt of gratitude to Robena Cornwell,

University of Florida Music Librarian, whose patience

and information skills were of vast help to me in finding

the sources that were needed for the scope of this work.









In every person's life there are those special people

that somehow have touched and continue to touch your

life in all manner possible. There are five such people.

I wish to first thank my mother and father (deceased)

who not only brought me into this world, but showed me

how to help make this world a better place for others.

Their moral support and untiring love have been a guiding

force to me. As simple as it may sound, my mother's

words, "Just do it," would often echo as subliminal words

of encouragement, even when she was not always around.

I want to thank my uncle, Jimmy Collora, for his

belief in me and in my desire to always do what I set

out to do. Without his lifetime of caring and support,

I would not be as I am today.

I want to thank my sister, Victoria Dicheck, and

her family for understanding me and being there when

I needed them. They are a constant source of support

for which I am most grateful.

Finally, I wish to offer heartfelt thanks to my

best and dearest friend, Eileen Bellino, who was there

from start to finish. Through her constant willingness

to help in whatever ways possible, be it proofreading,

typing, preparing the surveys, and so forth, Eileen was

there. I often would tease her and say that if I could

not finish this project, she knew enough about it to

finish it for me and us. With her endless help and support,

our friendship and this work together grew in joy! (S.D.G)

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. .

ABSTRACT. . .


CHAPTERS


I INTRODUCTION. .


. . .1


Need for the Study. .
Purpose of the Study. .
Research Questions. .
Scope of the Study. .
Limitations .
Assumptions .
Definitions .
Organization of the Study
Conclusion. .


II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. .

Introduction . .
Related Research on Personality .
Related Research on Musicianship.
Related Research on Pedagogy. .
Theoretical Models. .



III QUALITIES AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE
CONDUCTOR-EDUCATOR. .

Personal Qualities. .
Musical Attributes. .
Pedagogical Attributes. .
Summary . .


IV METHODS AND MATERIALS .

Questionnaire .
Pilot Study .
Subjects for the Study. .
Description of the Sample
Procedures. .
Analysis of Data. .


. 12

. 12
. 13
. 25
. 36
. 44


. . 62

. . 62
. . 63
. . 64
. . 65
. . 70
. . 71


. . iv

- . viii












V RESULTS OF THE SURVEY. . .


Evaluation of Qualities. . 72
Comments from Surveyed Directors .84


VI APPLICATIONS TO TEACHING INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC. .91

Rank Order of Qualities. . .92
Applications to Selection and Training .94
Selection . . 94
Training. . . .96
Applications to Teaching . 99
Personal Qualities: Leader. .99
Musical Attributes: Musician. 107
Pedagogical Attributes: Educator. 113
Summary. . . .. 124


VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 126

Summary . . 126
Conclusions . 129
Implications. . .. 131
Recommendations . 133
Coda. . . 135


APPENDICES. . .

A PILOT LETTER. .

B MAIN SURVEY LETTER.

C QUESTIONNAIRE .

D INDICATORS. .

E FOLLOW-UP POSTCARD.

REFERENCES. . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .


. . .136

. . .136

. . .137

. . .139

. . .141

. . .143

. . .144

. . .151


vii


.72















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

AN ANALYSIS OF QUALITIES AND ATTRIBUTES OF
SECONDARY SCHOOL INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC TEACHERS
IN THEIR ROLE OF CONDUCTOR-EDUCATOR

By

Victor Vallo Jr.

August, 1991

Chairman: Dr. Charles R. Hoffer
Major Department: Department of Music

The conductor-educator is a leader, musician, and

pedagogue. Because school band and orchestra directors

must function effectively for student learning to take

place, the conductor-educator needs to possess a number

of personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities and

attributes. Both the writings of experts and the ensemble

directors in the field endorse these traits as essential

for teaching.

The purposes of this study were to (1) determine

the opinions of secondary school instrumental ensemble

directors regarding the importance of the particular

qualities and attributes in contrast to the existing

research and writings on the topic; (2) examine the relative

values of the designated personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities and attributes of the conductor-educator; and


viii











(3) compare the opinions of school band and orchestra

directors regarding the importance of the designated

qualities and attributes.

Related research and writings were examined pertaining

to the designated traits. From this analysis, 27 qualities

and attributes were determined. Two models, Teacher

Education in Music: Final Report (1972) and Music Teacher

Education: Partnership and Process (1987), were used

as a framework for structuring this study and for comparing

the perspectives by instrumental ensemble directors in

the field. The qualities were then rated as to their

importance through a questionnaire that was sent to 200

school band and orchestra directors. The data were analyzed

by using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques.

The results of the study indicated that all the

designated personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

and attributes were considered important. However,

the values placed on some of the qualities varied in

the opinions of the research literature and the ensemble

directors who responded to the survey. Personal qualities

were rated highest in importance, followed by pedagogical

attributes, and then musical attributes. Both band and

orchestra directors rated personal qualities the most

important, but the orchestra directors rated the musical

attributes second in importance, while the band directors

rated the pedagogical attributes second.















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


The conductor-educator is a leader, musician, and

pedagogue. Because ensemble directors of school musical

organizations need to function effectively in personal,

musical, and pedagogical domains to be successful, it

is important to study the relevant qualities of these

domains as they apply to music education in the schools.

Personal qualities consist of a number of traits

necessary to lead and guide the efforts of others such

as commanding presence, self-confidence, and organizational

ability. Musical qualities are those attributes based

upon musical training and include aural and modeling

skills, conducting techniques, and knowledge of music

history. Pedagogical qualities are those traits necessary

for teaching and include such qualities as knowledge

of psychology, knowledge of evaluation methods, and proper

use of resources. Because these qualities serve the

goal of teaching music, the conductor of a school ensemble

"is expected to lead and combine the skills of musicologist,

instrumentalist, community organizer, and psychologist

to accomplish his goal of leading an ensemble to communicate

musically" (Arcaya, 1975, p. 2).











The job of a school music director is diverse and

demanding, and requires highly qualified personnel for

the task of teaching. A study of the personal, musical,

and pedagogical qualities and attributes of the conductor-

educator can be invaluable to better understanding the

relative importance of these qualities. Through the

identification, analysis, and application of these qualities

to instrumental music teaching, conducting becomes the

means to an end--the meaningful learning of music.



Need for the Study

The most frequently employed descriptors of conductor

behavior in the school environment have been (a) specific

conducting gestures; (b) the beating of time; (c) inflection

of voice; and (d) facial expressions (Rainbow & Froehlich,

1987). However, the need arises to determine the extent

to which conductor-educators consider various personal,

musical, and pedagogical traits important in their teaching

and conducting. The need for this study is threefold:

1. There is little research that deals specifically

with the extent to which personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities are considered important by school band and

orchestra directors in the teaching of instrumental music.

2. The need to identify specific qualities of personality,

musicality, and pedagogy in the context of the instrumental

music setting (e.g. ensemble rehearsal) should be of











concern and practical use for today's school band and

orchestra directors at the junior and senior high levels.

3. The qualities and attributes discussed in the writings

of the experts and addressed by the ensemble directors

in the field may be valued differently in importance

by each. This implies a need for further research.

The limited amount of literature suggests that

nonmusical elements have more impact than musical elements

in the determination of effectiveness in an educational

environment (Goodstein, 1987). While this information

is useful, the authors have generally not examined and

correlated which qualities ensemble directors in the

field consider to be the most important in their teaching.

From the available research there also appears to

be a variance of understanding among the contributions

of personality, musicianship, and pedagogy as they relate

to music teaching. On the one hand, the successful school

instrumental programs are sometimes the result of competent

organizational ability and management. On the other

hand, there are situations where being a competent musician

and educator may not be enough in running a successful

school music program. On this point, Hovey (1952) comments:

Many good school orchestras and bands have been
developed by directors with excellent administration
ability and limited musical talent. Conversely a
fine musician may fail completely in his attempt
to develop a good school instrumental organization.
(p. 2)











The personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

of the conductor-educator provide the means to social,

musical, and educational ends, respectively. Because

instrumental music directors are charged with the

responsibility of qualitatively achieving such ends,

an examination of the relative importance of certain

qualities and attributes seems warranted, especially

within the environment of the ensemble rehearsal.

A comparative study of the personal, musical, and

pedagogical characteristics of the conductor-educator

could therefore help clarify the extent to which these

qualities are considered important for teaching. Because

of a lack of studies on the influences of personal, musical,

and pedagogical characteristics on instrumental music

teaching, a need for further research exists.



Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study is to determine

the opinions of secondary school instrumental music teachers

regarding the practical importance of certain personal,

musical and pedagogical traits and structure this

information by using theoretical models that exist in

the literature. Such a analysis can be useful to current

and prospective instrumental ensemble directors.

Secondly, this study provides an additional purpose

of examining the relative values of the personal, musical,











and pedagogical traits of the conductor-educator. This

comparison can reveal the relative significance of each

set of characteristic qualities.

Thirdly, this study provides a comparison of the

opinions of band and orchestra directors. This comparison

concerns their perception of the importance of having

certain personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

in their instrumental ensemble teaching.

Fourthly, this research provides an opportunity

to address the need for the development of curricular

offerings in the undergraduate training of future school

band and orchestra directors.

The data generated from this study will help to

develop a number of implications and recommendations

for further music education research. The overall goal

will be a more informed music educator.



Research Questions

The following research questions were posed:

1. To what extent are personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities and attributes considered important by a sample

of band and orchestra directors for the teaching of

instrumental music in the secondary schools?

2. What are the relative values of the personal, musical,

and pedagogical qualities of the conductor-educator when

compared with each other in teaching instrumental music?









6

3. To what extent do the opinions of school band directors

compare with those of school orchestra directors concerning

the relative importance of the personal, musical, and

pedagogical traits of the conductor-educator?



Scope of the Study

The scope of this study encompasses a comparison

of theoretical models from the research literature with

practical valuations based on the beliefs of school band

and orchestra directors at the secondary level (Grades

7-12). Because of a wide diversity of opinions regarding

the kinds of qualities that instrumental ensemble directors

should have to be effective music educators, the data

were gathered from a representative sample of secondary

school band and orchestra directors from three states

within the southeastern part of the United States: Florida,

Georgia, and North Carolina.

This study included 100 band and 100 orchestra

directors. Through systematic sampling procedures,

instrumental music directors from each of the three states

were selected and contacted. A questionnaire (Appendix

C) was developed to secure the opinions of the directors.

The scope of this study was limited to three types

or categories of qualities and attributes: personal,

musical, and pedagogical. In this way, both focus and

clarity of purpose were maintained throughout this research.











Limitations

The following limitations were observed:

1. Three states were surveyed to derive a sample of

current school band and orchestra directors.

2. Only public school instrumental music directors at

the secondary level were surveyed in this study.

3. The sample population of instrumental directors was

limited to 200 respondents.

4. For purposes of this research, only positive qualities

were studied as to their perceived importance.

5. This study was not intended to evaluate the success

of the instrumental programs of the respondents. Its

intention was limited to gathering, reporting, and analyzing

the opinions of instrumental music teachers.

6. Because the sample of music teachers was derived

from published state-wide lists of those currently enrolled

in their state-level MENC organizations (i.e. FMEA, GMEA,

and NCMEA), generalizations apply only to those who are

members. Therefore, generalizations to the total population

of school band and orchestra directors cannot be made.



Assumptions

The primary assumptions of this study are as follows:

1. The conductor-educator is fundamentally a teacher.

Whether on or off the podium, the instrumental music

director is an educator. At the same time, "all school











instrumental teachers are, by virtue of their work with

ensembles, conductors" (Kinyon, 1975, p. 5).

2. There are definite personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities needed by the conductor-educator for the effective

teaching of instrumental music. These traits can be

surveyed through self-reporting procedures.

3. The personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

and attributes found in the research and literature on

conducting and teaching provide a comprehensive list

of traits needed for success in the role of band and/or

orchestra conductor in the secondary school.



Definitions

A number of terms were important in this study:

1. Conducting refers to the "art of leading people for

the purpose of recreating a musical experience" (Cramer,

1967, p. 33). This is accomplished through the use of

a qualified baton technique, left-hand gestures, facial

expressions, and other forms of nonverbal communication.

2. Conductor is "the leader and teacher of a musical

performing ensemble whose primary function is to communi-

cate and convey musical intent to the players through

various (verbal/nonverbal) means" (Berz, 1983, p. 13).

3. Conductor-Educator is the instrumental ensemble director

of a school musical organization whose primary purpose

is to teach music to the students. One of the means











of doing this is through conducting and its associated

personal, musical, and pedagogical behaviors.

4. School Band/Orchestra is a school instrumental ensemble

that consists of regularly enrolled students and is

conducted by a school music educator. For purposes of

this study the school music educator is listed on the

current band and/or orchestra membership rosters of the

respective state music education association directories.

Three 1990-1991 state lists were used (i.e. FMEA, GMEA,

and NCMEA) to provide the names from which the sample

of ensemble directors was selected.

5. Instrumental Ensemble refers to a group of musicians

rehearsing and/or performing music composed or arranged

for their specific combination of instruments.

6. Leadership means "the process of influencing the

activities of a group in efforts toward goal achievement

in a given situation" (Hersey & Blanchard, 1976, p. 60).

7. Pedagogue is another name for teacher or educator.

8. Pedagogy refers to the art and methodology of teaching

as well as the profession or function of a teacher.

9. Qualities/Attributes are any of the features of a

person that form one's characteristic traits.

10. Secondary School is a level of schooling that includes

senior high, junior high, and middle schools. Because

a number of the respondents teach at more than one type

of school, all three levels were used for this study.











Organization of the Study

This study is organized into seven chapters. Chapter

II, "Review of the Literature," offers related studies

and literature that deal with the research on personality,

(i.e. leadership), musicianship, and pedagogy. Two

theoretical models are offered for comparison.

Chapter III, "Qualities and Attributes of the

Conductor-Educator," is a synthesis of the personal,

musical, and pedagogical characteristics of music educators

as gleaned from the research and literature. These traits

are used for further research through the questionnaire.

Chapter IV, "Methods and Materials," is a discussion

of the research procedures involved in the present study.

Included are a description of the pilot study, the

data-gathering instrument (questionnaire), the respondents

in the study, and the procedures for research.

Chapter V, "Results of the Survey," is an analysis,

interpretation, and discussion of the data collected

from the questionnaire. Included are an evaluation of

the traits and comments from the surveyed directors.

Chapter VI, "Applications to Teaching Instrumental

Music," is an application of the data as they relate

to music teaching. The personal, musical, and pedagogical

traits of the conductor-educator are examined with reference

to the prospective and current school ensemble directors'

selection, training, and function as teachers.











Chapter VII, "Summary, Conclusions, and Recommenda-

tions," is a restatement of the results uncovered and

presents conclusions and implications for music education.

This chapter also offers recommendations for conductor-

educator trait development, selection, and training,

and suggests further research in the area of ensemble

music teaching at the secondary school level.



Conclusion

The main goal of this study is to expand the knowledge

of and about the qualities and attributes of the

conductor-educator in the teaching of instrumental music

at the secondary level. Kohut and Grant (1990) allude

to these traits when they comment:

A primary function of all conductors (school and
professional) is to recreate in sound and silence
the expressive qualities of the musical symbols and
ideas created and notated by the composer. This
requires a wide variety of personal and musical
skills. (p. 3)

The educational environment of the ensemble rehearsal

can be improved through the effective use of personal,

musical, and pedagogical qualities and attributes. From

this improvement comes greater meaning to the term "music

education."















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Introduction

The existing literature on the qualities and attributes

of the conductor-educator and the teaching of instrumental

music in the schools is both varied and extensive. Ranging

from musical elements (i.e. conducting skills) to nonmusical

elements (i.e. personality, pedagogy), the literature

has focused on a number of personal, musical, and

pedagogical traits useful in an educational setting.

However, the literature falls short of showing any research

on a comparison of such qualities as to their relative

importance in the teaching of instrumental music.

The literature on the teaching of music is based

on theoretical knowledge. There is a practical value

in the perspectives gained from such theoretical knowledge,

especially as it relates to personality, musicianship,

and pedagogy. In addition to the value of theory, the

ways things should be done can lead to insights as well

as to a greater understanding of the reasons behind various

personal, musical, and pedagogical practices. Such

knowledge can only help the conductor-educator to become

a more effective teacher by learning from theoretical

knowledge and applying it to current practices.










Chapter II presents a review of the literature and

research that will form the theoretical base for this

study. This review addresses aspects of personality,

musicianship, and pedagogy as they apply to instrumental

music teaching by the conductor-educator. Several

theoretical models will conclude this chapter.



Related Research on Personality

The possession of certain personality traits and

behaviors is an important element for conductors of musical

groups to have. Among the most important of the various

personality traits is that of leadership ability. Authors

as early as Gehrkens (1919) to Green (1987) have realized

the importance of leadership in the exercise of the role

of the conductor. Woodbury (1955) highlights this point

when he comments:

The behavior of a conductor is probably the most
basic factor of (ensemble) leadership. The possession
of certain personality traits in various degrees
determines to a large extent the attitude with which
a conductor faces the ensemble. (p. 125)

The music educator is not only a teacher in the

traditional sense, but is "an organizer, coach, bookkeeper,

motivator, director, and conductor" (Goodstein, 1987,

p. 43). Because school band and orchestra directors

are concerned with a relatively large group of students,

they can be compared to other kinds of leaders. Similar

to the business world, the ensemble director is not only











responsible for the group's day-to-day activities, but

also the end product--the musical performance.

Instrumental music educators function as educational

leaders. Because of this premise, the research available

on leadership in the business world may be useful to

help in the understanding of leadership characteristics

of school ensemble directors in an educational setting.

In whatever frame the concept of leadership is cast,

it must be acknowledged that the exercise of leadership

in group situations such as ensemble rehearsals is an

effective tool in accomplishing objectives beneficial

to the group. This concept was best summarized by Powell

(1976) when he writes:

Leadership can initiate action among people, guide
activities in a given direction, maintain such activi-
ties and unify effort toward a common goal. (p. 74)

In this review of literature on personality, leadership

is the main focus, since there are a number of qualities

similar to both. Because the school ensemble director

functions as a leader, the implication is that certain

behavioral traits must be present for effective leadership

to occur. As an interaction process, the exercise of

leadership by the conductor-educator can be influential

in positively affecting the educational environment.

To better understand the associated qualities of leadership,

this discussion will focus on (a) the leader; (b) the

follower; (c) group situations; and (d) conducting.










The Leader

Social psychologists have defined the concept of

leadership as a function of personality. In an effort

to isolate specific personality traits of leaders, social

psychologists have endeavored to itemize personality

characteristics that identify the leader.

Tead (1935) was one of the first to identify and

study qualities necessary to being a leader. He proposed

ten essential traits: (a) physical and nervous energy;

(b) sense of purpose; (c) enthusiasm; (d) friendliness;

(e) integrity; (f) technical mastery; (g) decisiveness;

(h) intelligence; (i) teaching skill; and (j) faith

(p. 83).

Gouldner (1950) defined a leader as any individual

whose "behavior stimulates patterning of the behavior

in some group" (p. 17). As a result, when the leader

presents a stimulus, he is facilitating group action

toward some predetermined goal. The stimulus could be

verbal, written, and, in the case of the conductor-educator,

gestural.

In another study, Haiman (1951) uses a different

approach to leadership. He offered several definitions

on leadership as an interaction process. On this point,

Haiman comments:

Leadership refers to that process whereby an indi-
vidual directs, guides, influences, or controls the
thoughts, feelings, or behaviors of other human beings.










This influence may be exerted through the medium
of his works or it may be exerted through personal
face-to-face contact. The term leadership implies
a purpose on the part of the leader. Leadership
is an effort to direct the behaviors of others toward
a particular end. (pp. 4-5)

Woodbury (1955) was one of the first to investigate

leadership characteristics of musicians and, in particular,

conductors. Similar to Tead's study, Woodbury also identi-

fied personality traits of conductors. His study surveyed

both symphony orchestra players as well as the conductors

themselves. Through the use of a questionnaire and personal

interviews, Woodbury found the following personal qualities

important for conductors to have: (a) self-confidence;

(b) sense of humor; (c) sincerity; (d) human understanding;

(e) restraint; (f) aggressiveness; (g) moral character;

and (h) friendliness.

According to Woodbury, these qualities have an

appreciable effect on the attitude with which a conductor

faces the ensemble. He also found that the conductor

was considered to be a "teacher" by a majority of the

respondents. Woodbury summed up his findings by commenting:

The degree to which a conductor inspires his musicians
to better performance is also indicative of his capacity
to teach well. (p. 127)

Flanagan (1961) also studied leadership and defined

it by what its constituent elements are. Different from

previous studies, Flanagan addressed the elements of

planning and motivating abilities. He comments:











Leadership behavior seems to consist essentially
of two types of behavior: planning and motivating.
Planning is regarded as including goal setting,
organizational structure, distribution of function,
and development of programs and operating procedures
to achieve the goal. Motivation is defined as including
the activities of integrating the individual's needs
and goals with that of the organization and carrying
out a maximally effective program of reinforcement
toward attaining these goals. (p. 277)

In a similar study, Fosse (1965) found the concept

of leadership to be one of the key factors for teacher

effectiveness. Fosse believed that the most important

phenomenon related to varying degrees of effectiveness

was the teacher's psychological characteristics, one

of which was leadership ability. Other traits included

optimism and methodological organization, the latter

of which is parallel with Flanagan's trait, planning,

as a desirable personal quality.

Garber (1971) studied a somewhat different but relevant

aspect of leadership: communication. Garber alludes

to the conductor's leadership as a way of capturing the

attention of the performers. On this he comments:

The leadership quality that some conductors possess
has nothing to do with the musical content of the
conductor but has rather to do with the nature
of the psychological contact that exists between
conductor and (ensemble). It is the presence
and operation of such psychological forces as the
exercise of human will by the conductor that endow
him with that quality and character of personality
hailed as leadership. (p. 161)

In a contrasting study, Caimi (1981) studied the

relationship between motivational traits and selected










criteria of conducting success. These criteria were

(a) ensemble musicianship; (b) ensemble performance;

and (c) students' ratings of their ensemble directors.

Caimi's findings indicated that the music teachers of

the musically inferior ensembles appeared to be motivated

by a sense of obligation to improve the students' overall

musicianship. The directors of the musically superior

groups were more motivated to teach musicianship for

fear of losing their jobs than their less successful

counterparts.

Roberson (1985) examined motivational leadership

theories and strategies as applied to music pedagogy.

Included in this study were discussions of motivational

theories based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, behavior

modification, McClelland's achievement quotient theory,

and others. Roberson concluded that no single theory

or model will satisfy every emotional need or situation.

In order to enhance teaching effectiveness, it was

recommended that every music teacher develop a mastery

of as many strategies as possible.

Both Russell (1983) and Goodstein (1987) conducted

research in the leadership styles of instrumental music

directors. Russell specifically studied the leadership

styles of high school orchestra directors. Using the

Managerial Grid developed by Blake and Mouton (1964),











he examined various styles of leadership and found a

definite relationship among the four sections of this

grid: (a) philosophy; (b) implementation; (c) planning

and goal setting; and (d) evaluation. Russell concluded

that the conductor-educator must work to balance "concern

for people" and "concern for the facilitation of learning."

On this point he comments:

When balanced properly, the (ensemble) director will
have created a musical environment in which individuals
will be productive as well as experience a sense
of personal enjoyment and satisfaction. (p. 13)

In a more recent study, Goodstein (1987) investigated

the leadership behaviors of high school band directors.

The data from this research indicated that there were

similar leadership behaviors between a group of successful

band directors and a group of randomly selected ones.

Such common leadership behaviors included encouragement

of two-way communication between students and directors,

as well as emotional support of the students by the

directors. From this Goodstein suggests that nonmusical

elements are more responsible than musical elements in

the determination of effectiveness in music teaching.

In summary, the research on leadership has focused

primarily on the personal qualities held by leaders.

From this common thread is derived a definition of

leadership that is functional for research in music

education.










The Follower

In the second type of study on leadership the focus

has been on the personal attitudes, problems, and needs

of the follower. Because an individual generally joins

a group to satisfy some needss, the ensemble director

as a leader must be able to facilitate the satisfaction

of those needs. On this point, Haiman (1951) writes:

The individuals in any group vary in the degree to
which they are really a part of the organization
and committed to the achievement of the group goals.
Why are some members more involved than others?
The answer is to be found again in terms of the
individual's need satisfaction. (pp. 82-83).

It is imperative that the conductor-educator not

neglect the personal dimension of leadership. According

to Labuta (1965):

The membership of school groups depends entirely
upon the individual rewards gained. An individual
remains in a group as long as it is advantageous
to him in some way. (p. 116)

In addition, it is important that the ensemble director

remain cognizant of the goals and needs of the members

of the ensemble. On this point Van Sickle (1955) writes:

Social goals (needs) that students in instrumental
music groups get from belonging to their music groups
are (a) fun working and learning with people (social
goals); (b) better understanding of music (task goal);
understanding of music instruments (technical
proficiency goal); and (e) pleasure of belonging
to prestige group. (p. 97).

In a similar study, Rohner (1932) examined the needs

of high school band and orchestra members. Based on

students' ratings of their ensemble directors, he found









21

that the students had a need for their directors to possess

the following personal qualities: (a) musicianship; (b)

good conductor; (c) good interpreter; (d) personality;

(e) disciplinarian; (f) teaching skill; (g) get along

with students; (h) hard worker; (i) impartial; (j) patient;

(k) helpful; (m) cheerful and agreeable (p. 29).

In summary, the needs of the follower are of intrinsic

importance in relation to the exercise of effective leader-

ship. House (1973) capsulized this point when he comments:

The exercise of leadership ultimately depends upon
satisfaction of the needs of followers. That is
to say that the activities of the unit must accomplish
objectives that are within the power of the group,
thus achieving that which the group considers desirable
and which results in some increase in the personal
satisfaction of the individual members of the group.
(p. 44)



Group Situational Leadership

The third type of study in leadership is concerned

with the group situation, often referred to as situational

leadership. Investigations of the group situation have

found that when persons with common goals interact

repeatedly over a period of time, a group structure

consisting of roles and hierarchical statuses begins

to form. On this matter, Sherif (1956) writes:

Interaction among individuals for the solution of
a common problem or attainment of a common goal
necessitates cooperation among them, differentiation
of functions, and coordination of efforts. (p. 162)









22

It is interesting to note that although no leadership

roles were predetermined in this type of study, leaders

gradually emerged. These emergent leaders have the

necessary skills and personal qualities to achieve things

that are ultimately important for the group.

Situational studies have confirmed that the individual

who becomes a leader usually excels in some qualities

or skills required by the problem or goals that the group

must deal with in a particular situation. The implication

of situational studies is therefore relevant to leadership

because they "focus attention upon the origin of structure,

status and roles, and the specificity of leadership"

(Labuta, 1965, p. 118). This type of situational study

helps to reveal how the small and informal social groups

have become structured within the framework of large

formal organizations. Hence, any study of leadership

of formal organizations (e.g. instrumental music ensemble)

should include all three dimensions of leadership: the

leader, the follower, and the situation itself.

Hersey and Blanchard (1976) are particularly noted

for their investigations of leadership. Their position

on leadership is that a leader's behavior should vary

from one setting to another. On this point they write:

The evidence from research clearly indicates that
there is no single all-purpose leadership style.
Successful leaders are those who can adapt their
behavior to meet the demands of their own unique
situation. (p. 1)











Research in industrial settings (e.g. IBM) has

concluded that a leader is able to guide the group only

if the characteristics of the group are of a specific

nature. According to Russell (1980), these group

characteristics (e.g. group cooperation) must be able

to create an environment which permit leaders to carry

out their leadership type behaviors.

In summary, the understanding of situational leadership

is an important tool in being able to function effectively

in a variety of situations. Schmuck (1962), a noted

educational researcher, summarizes the basic premise

of situational leadership as follows:

It appears that there is no one best leadership style
for all situations. Several leadership styles are
effective, but only in relationship to appropriate
work settings and personality characteristics of
members. Variety in leadership presents a challenge
to understand the setting in which each works best.
(p. 555)



Relationship of Leadership in Conducting

Throughout the research and literature on conducting

is expressed the idea that conducting is leading.

Leadership provides the essence for a successful conductor,

both professional and school, and is considered the sine

qua non of conducting. As early as 1919, Gehrkens mentions

that "a conductor must first of all be a strong leader,

and failing in this, no amount of musical ability or

anything else will enable him to conduct well" (p. 2).











The quality of leadership involves the character

of the conductor in such a way that it should capture

the attention of those being led. According to Garber

(1971), "leadership makes possible the control of all

facets of musical performance that the conductor must

ultimately have" (p. 60)

The leadership ability of conductors must relate

to the psychology that exists between the conductor and

the ensemble. This pertains to the nature of the

relationship in which a connection must be made between

the "conductor" and the "conducted." According to Fuchs

(1969):

The crux of the conductor's work is the contact with
live human beings. He may possess the finest
technical equipment, the most phenomenal sense of
interpretation, the most perfect ear; but if he cannot
find a psychological bridge to the people who produce
the sound for him, he is bound to fail. (p. 39)

It is the presence of such psychological forces as

personal magnetism (Gehrkens, 1919), commanding presence

(Goldbeck, 1951), force of character (Van Hoesen, 1950),

suggestive power (Krueger, 1958), and impulse of will

(Green, 1987) by the conductor that endows him or her

with the characteristic ability of leadership. On this

matter Garber (1971) writes:

The psychological means of personality and
presence emanating from the conductor as the
source and his exercise of will comprise
leadership. (p. 167)











The result of leadership in conducting is an

environment in which the conductor can proactively influence

student behavior to accomplish the musical goals of the

ensemble. Because leadership has been suggested as a

means through which music educators can improve teacher

effectiveness (Lutz, 1963; Powell, 1976), it is vital

that the conductor-educator acknowledge that there is

no one style of effective leadership. Much depends on

the situation and environment in which the school music

ensemble director functions.



Related Research on Musicianship

A review of the literature on musical attributes

for the school ensemble director is both relevant and

comprehensive. Much of the literature deals not only

with conducting skills, but includes research on aural

skills, modeling skills, and musical knowledge among

others. This section will review related research on

musical qualities that are considered important for the

teaching and conducting of instrumental music. The

categories include literature and studies on (a) conducting

skills; (b) musical knowledge; (c) musicianship; (d)

modeling skills; and (e) aural discrimination ability.

Conducting skills have been and continue to be

essential tools for the conductor, both in professional

and school organizations. The literature on conducting











by Berlioz (1844), Gehrkens (1919), Rudolf (1950), Green

(1987), Kohut and Grant (1990), and others stress the

important musical attributes of using a clear baton

technique and appropriate expressive gestures.

Berlioz (1844) was one of the first authors to

capsulize in theory the musical qualities important for

the conductor to have. In his treatise on conducting,

Berlioz emphasizes manual baton technique and expressive

conducting gestures. He indicates that "the expression

of his (conductor's) countenance has much to do with

the influence he exercises" (p. 13).

Gehrkens (1919) stresses in his text that technique

of the baton is essential in conducting. Like Berlioz,

Gehrkens offers a number of visual diagrams of conducting

patterns for time-beating. As a musical attribute, beating

time through a clear beat pattern becomes the prerequisite

for successful conducting. On this point Gehrkens remarks:

But granting the presence of these other factors
of endowment and preparation, one may often achieve
a higher degree of success if one has developed also
a well-defined and easily followed beat. (p. 35)

Rudolf (1950) is probably best known for his widely-

used conducting text, The Grammar of Conducting. In

his text Rudolf offers a comprehensive manual on most

if not all aspects of baton technique and expressive

gestures. From expressive to non-expressive patterns,

Rudolf provides both professional and school conductors










with useful examples of how to conduct a musical ensemble

effectively. He emphasizes that gestures are a means

of using one's musical abilities to create music. On

this point Rudolf writes:

The conductor must be a trained musician, must know
how to work with people in a group, and must convey
his intentions to his players by means of gestures.
(p. 1)

Green (1987) published a text on conducting based

on the technical principles of Nicolai Malko. In her

text Green devotes over half of the material to manual

baton technique and expressive gestures. As for musical

attributes, Green advocates the cumulative growth of

conducting skills so that other skills may grow and develop.

According to Green, "he (the conductor) must build the

skill in his gestures that will give him the control

and interpretive technique he will need as he gains

experience" (p. 3).

Kohut and Grant (1990) have a more recent text that

is similar to Green's in that a major portion of the

material addresses the musical abilities of baton technique

and expressive gestures. They go beyond basic techniques

and, like Green, offer chapters on intermediate and advanced

techniques to develop and reinforce necessary musical

traits for the conductor-educator with applications to

rehearsal procedures. Kohut and Grant hold the premise

that:











(Conducting skills) should be a means to an end,
not an end in itself. It should be based on logical
and justifiable principles related to musical, physio-
logical, psychological, and visual concepts of the
conducting art. Every movement of the hands and
every facial expression should serve a practical
or musical function; every action should make a
difference in ensemble performance. (p. 3)



Musical Knowledge

A thorough knowledge of music history, music theory,

musical styles, and musical instruments is essential

for the effective teaching of instrumental music by the

conductor-educator. Such knowledge not only establishes

one's musical attributes, but helps to reinforce one's

personal qualities as well.

Gehrkens (1919) maintains that conductors need

a knowledge of music history, music theory, and musical

style as necessary requisites for teaching music. On

this point Gehrkens writes:

Let him (the conductor) study harmony, counterpoint,
form, and if possible, composition and orchestration.
Let him study the history of music so
that he may become intelligent concerning the ideals,
the styles, and the forms of these various periods.
(p. 5)

Rudolf (1950) places great importance on having a

solid knowledge of the instruments as a musical attribute

without which one's effectiveness as a conductor would

be limited. On this matter Rudolf comments that a "good

working knowledge of instruments, both individually and











in combination is indispensable" (p. 1). The conductor-

educator must be able to relate to the complexities of

the various instruments of the ensemble in order to

interact better with the student musicians.

Kohut and Grant (1990) are in agreement with Gehrkens

(1919) concerning the knowledge of music history, theory

and style. On these qualities they remark:

The conductor must be intimately familiar with the
style of performance best suited to any given work.
The foundation for this knowledge is developed in
the study of music history and literature. .
(The conductor) must also develop a clear conception
of the complete work. This cannot be done without
a sound knowledge of theory, harmonic analysis, and
musical form. (p. 71)



Musicianship

Musicianship has been defined as "being sensitive

to the expressive qualities as well as the technical

aspects of music and being able to demonstrate that

sensitivity via performance on one's major instrument

or voice" (Kohut & Grant, 1990, p. 70). For purposes

of this study, personal musicianship will also be defined

as being able to express the music through conducting.

Wagner (1887) was one of the first authors to discuss

musicianship as it applies to the conductor. In his

essay entitled On Conducting, Wagner incorporates a number

of musical attributes necessary to be a musical conductor.

He is very clear in his implication that conductors must











understand the melody and the right tempo for each work

to be performed musically. On this point Wagner writes:

The right comprehension of the MELOS (melody) is
the sole guide to the right tempo; these two things
are inseparable; the one implies and qualifies the
other. Our conductors so frequently fail to
find the true tempo because they are ignorant of
singing. The whole duty of a conductor is
comprised in his ability always to indicate the right
tempo. (pp. 18-20)

Gehrkens (1919) also discusses musicianship but in

more general terms. He alludes to musicianship as having

innate musical feelings in addition to being a trained

musician. Gehrkens writes:

Unless our leader (conductor) has musical feelings
within him and musicianship in back of him, it would
be utterly futile for him to attempt to conduct.
(p. 5)

In a study by Rohner (1932), a number of both strong

and weak points of school band and orchestra directors

were examined. Rohner first obtained an analysis of

the various directors from their school principals.

Having surveyed the opinions of the principals, Rohner

then investigated the reaction of the students to their

ensemble directors. Factors favored by the principals

included a mastery of subject, skill in teaching, and

enthusiasm. Of significance were the musical attributes

of musicianship, conducting ability, and interpretation.

These were the most highly favored qualities of the ensemble

directors by the student respondents.











Aural Discrimination Ability

Aural discrimination skills refer to having the

capability to detect errors, both in rehearsals and

performances. According to Rudolf (1950), "the conductor's

ear should be keen enough to recognize inaccuracy in

pitch and maintain proper balance" (p. 1). A number

of studies are based on score-study programs and deal

with having the musical ability for aural discrimination

of errors.

Ramsey (1978) studied the effects of programmed

instruction using full-score band literature to teach

pitch and rhythmic error detection skills to college

music education students. It was found that programmed

instruction is an effective means of training pitch and

error detection skills at the college level.

DeCarbo (1982) investigated the effects of conducting

experience and programmed materials on the error detection

abilities of conducting students. The premise of this

study was that "the conductor in the preparation of perform-

ing ensembles must have the skills to effectively and

efficiently correct errors within a musical rehearsal"

(p. 187). With this premise DeCarbo reinforced the

importance of possessing such aural skills. The results

were that the students, trained by on-the-podium

experiences, scored significantly higher on the conducting

test than those students trained with programmed materials.










In teacher effectiveness research Sang (1984) found

that there are skills suggested in the literature on

music education as being needed by music teachers. One

of these skills is the ability for aural and visual

discrimination. Unfortunately, little research has been

based exclusively on the visual aspect of discrimination.

Yet, the conductor-educator must know how to perform

and recognize such skills as correct posture, embouchure,

and hand positions on all instruments. According to

Sang, "this suggests that aural and visual discrimination

skills should go hand-in-hand, but the latter is overlooked

frequently in discrimination research" (p. 24).



Modeling Skills

One of the ways students learn is through imitation.

Actual demonstrations of musical performance can provide

effective models that students can imitate.

In What Works Merrion (1989) explains that "effective

instrumental teachers should rely more heavily on modeling

processes than on verbalization to teach suitable

performance behaviors" (p. 64). Conductor-educators

who are successful teachers often use models to demonstrate

desirable performance techniques and styles. According

to Kohut (1985), "most good conductors rely heavily on

singing to communicate their concepts of interpretation

and musical style" (p. 63). Whether the models are teachers,











recordings, or students, modeling provides a credible

and tangible example of how something should be performed.

Modeling can account in part for the learning of

a variety of social, affective, and cognitive skills

(Madsen, Greer, & Madsen, 1975). In music education,

modeling has been shown to affect students' preferences

for appropriate and inappropriate renditions of a musical

performance (Baker, 1989). In addition, various approaches

to music education depend heavily upon teacher examples

and other forms of modeling (e.g. Suzuki Talent Education).

Zurcher (1975) was one of the first to study the

effects of modeling. He investigated the effects of

model-supportive practice on beginning brass players.

The purpose of this study was to examine whether recorded

models and instructions by the teacher for home practice

would be more effective than traditional practice methods

in improving performance achievement. The results indicated

that model-supportive practice is cumulatively more effect-

ive than traditional practice. Zurcher drew the following

conclusions based on his findings:

1. Model-supportive practice is more effective

than traditional practice in reducing pitch errors,

developing pitch matching skills, reducing rhythm errors,

and increasing time spent in practice.










2. There is no difference between model-supportive

practice and traditional practice in establishing tempo

stability and in reducing fingering/slide position errors.

In a similar study, Rosenthal (1980) examined the

effects of four modeling conditions on instrumentalists'

musical performance. The four conditions were (a) guided

model; (b) model only; (c) guide only; and (d) practice

only. The guided model consisted of combined verbal

and aural examples of a musical selection. The model-

only offered just an aural example. The guide-only model

was simply a verbal explanation. The practice-only option

avoided the use of a model.

The results of Rosenthal's study demonstrated that

different modeling conditions can affect students' perform-

ances. Significant differences were found among the

four treatments in the performance of notes, rhythms,

dynamics and tempo. No significant differences were

found among the groups in phrasing and articulation.

It was also found that verbal instruction alone may be

no more effective than independent practice in helping

students perform accurately. Students in the model-only

group attained significantly higher scores than all the

other groups, particularly the guide-only and practice-only

groups. Rosenthal suggested the implication that "direct

modeling without added verbiage may be most effective

in helping students perform accurately" (p. 272).








35

Sang (1984) also studied the research on effectiveness

of the instrumental music educator. From his review

of the research, it was found that most of the skills

and behaviors reported in the literature can be placed

in one of three categories, one of which is teacher musical

demonstration or modeling skills.

Modeling skills as a musical attribute are a vital

component in teaching effectiveness. Because of this,

teachers must know not only when to use modeling, but

in what combination as well. Imitation learning can

be thought of as a meaningful form of reception learning

in which the instructor prepares and organizes the material

to be learned and the educational environment. (Ausubel,

1978). Sang summarizes his points when he comments:

Modeling skills were the greatest contributors
to the variance in instructional effectiveness among
beginning music teachers. The quality of the
modeling, however, is the basic issue to the music
educator, not necessarily the frequency. (p. 24)

In a related study Sang (1987) studied the relationship

between instrumental music teachers' modeling skills

and pupil performance behaviors. It was found that there

is a significant relationship between the variables of

teacher modeling and pupil performance. Sang writes:

A teacher's ability to model and the degree of demon-
stration in the instrumental class has bearing upon
pupil performance levels. Teachers who have stronger
modeling skills in teaching are more likely to produce
students who perform better than teachers who do
not. An important link, however, has been made between
the theory of modeling and practice. (pp. 158-159)










Related Research on Pedagogy

A review of the literature relating to the teaching

of instrumental music by the conductor-educator reveals

an emphasis on the mechanical and expressive techniques

of the baton, as well as on educative rehearsal methods.

Compared with approximately 74 treatises and texts authored

as teaching tools for prospective conductors since the

early 19th century (Patterson, 1984), applications of

instrumental music pedagogy have not been as comprehensive

as the literature on conducting has been. Because ensemble

directors should function as teachers, it is important

to recognize the relationship between conducting and

teaching. Green (1987) comments:

No conductor can disassociate himself completely
from the teaching facet of his trade. Knowing how
to teach and how to suggest changes without prejudicing
the members of the ensemble is a valuable asset.
(p. 2)

This section will review related research on

instrumental music pedagogy in the ensemble rehearsal.

The categories of review are (a) ensemble teaching

techniques; (b) knowledge of psychology; (c) communication;

and (d) goals and objectives.



Ensemble Teaching Techniques

One of the first studies investigating an application

of ensemble teaching techniques was by Yarbrough (1975).

She examined the effects of the magnitude of conductor










behaviors on student performance, attentiveness, and

attitude. Magnitude was defined as the amount of a given

behavior hypothesized to be reinforcing. Eye contact,

closeness, gestures, and volume/modulation of voice are

examples of pedagogical behaviors studied in terms of

magnitude.

Yarbrough's study found that when a conductor's

overt behavior in an ensemble rehearsal is dynamic, it

can affect the students' performance, attentiveness,

and attitude. However, this effect can be either positive

or negative. This study also found that 75 percent of

the performing ensembles observed received their lowest

music ratings under the low-magnitude conductor. In

addition, it was determined that inattentiveness by the

students was lower during the high-magnitude conditions.

Overall, the students preferred being led and taught

by the high-magnitude conductor.

In a similar study Ervin (1978) determined that

a variable called "expressive conducting" is perhaps

the most discriminating nonverbal conducting behavior

affecting ensemble performance. Rehearsal behaviors

included voice inflection and specific conducting gestures

like eye contact. After considering a number of rehearsal

behaviors for their potential as conducting tools in

teaching, Ervin chose to concentrate on expressive conduct-

ing and eye contact as his variables for further study.










He found that the two nonverbal variables of expressive

conducting and eye contact had a high potential to discrim-

inate between high and low effectiveness conductors in

ensemble rehearsals.

Ernst (1978), in his study entitled Developing

Competencies in Teaching Instrumental Music, examined

performer response among other evaluative criteria for

conducting and teaching. From this study Ernst offers

the following recommendation:

The ultimate test of conducting effectiveness is
the response of the performers. You must teach them
to understand and respond to your visual indicators.
It does little good to make elegant gestures in the
air if the performers don't respond. (p. 2)

In a related study, Berz (1983) examined conducting

gestures for description and classification, focusing

primarily on the gestures used by band directors in both

rehearsals and performances. Berz found that most of

the band directors he observed seemed to rely on hand

movements for expressing and teaching musical ideas

nonverbally rather than using facial expressions or posture.

Graves (1984) designed a method for evaluating the

effectiveness of several commonly used rehearsal techniques

by ensemble directors. These techniques included verbal

instructions, hand and body gestures, and facial expres-

sions. Graves attempted under controlled conditions

to determine a best combination of the aforementioned

rehearsal techniques. He found that trained observers










could discriminate among groups rehearsed with one of

three rehearsal methods. These methods were:

X: Full rehearsal techniques using sung examples,
verbal instruction and modeling, full range
of gestures, and facial expressions.

Y: No verbal instruction, explanation or modeling,
full range of gestures and facial expressions.

Z: No verbal instruction, explanation, or modeling,
no facial expressions, and full gestural range.

Graves found validity in the idea that musical excerpts

recorded when conductors used a full range of teaching

behaviors (Method X) were rated higher than those recorded

when a limited number of teaching behaviors was used

(Methods Y and Z). The implication is that ensemble

directors who have a full range of rehearsal techniques

obtain a higher response from the ensembles they teach.

Carpenter (1988), in a contrasting study, described

both qualitative and quantitative aspects of high school

instrumental ensemble director behaviors. The goal of

his study was to determine if there were specific factors

in the verbal communication behaviors of ensemble directors

that might be predictive of overall rehearsal ratings.

The data indicated that ensemble directors tend to be

more disapproving than approving during rehearsals.

The data also indicated that the highest-rated rehearsals

were governed by comments from a director who addressed

the musical behaviors of the students.










Knowledge of Psychology

One of the earliest studies that examined the psycho-

logical dimensions of music pedagogy in rehearsal was

by Van Sickle (1955). He focused on the social-psychological

forces at work in group rehearsals (e.g. group pressure,

conformity, etc.). From this study Van Sickle found

that the school music group in rehearsal is affected

by dynamic forces comparable to those operating in other

kinds of groups. He also found that:

The more effective directors of school bands and
orchestras were those who allowed a greater degree
of freedom among the players to determine the
organization's welfare. (p. 283)

Kuhn (1962) advocates group instruction in his text,

Instrumental Music. Because the group is a social-

psychological setting, Kuhn believes that there are a

number of advantages to group instruction based on findings

of how students learn. Among the advantages that relate

to instrumental music teaching are (a) increases motivation;

(b) helps students to overcome self-consciousness; and

(c) facilitates learning through observation.

In a comparable study, Parker (1970) studied the

conductor's social-psychological rapport with the ensemble.

He found that in sharing a common purpose both the conductor

and the performers were motivated by an impulse derived

from their relationship as well as from the music. Parker

summarizes his beliefs when he writes











Accomplishment of this goal (common purpose) is
facilitated by several natural psychological desires
which are usually inherent in a group setting. (p.
73).

Benner (1972) also contributed to this area of research.

In his book, Teaching Performing Groups, he mentions

that the complexity and uniqueness of the social and

psychological environment that surrounds the activities

of a performing organization often limit the possibility

of definitive research. But, because teaching is a process

involving an interaction between two or more persons,

"the characteristics of the teacher (become) factors

that either augment or limit the social and psychological

environment of learning" (p. 16).

Rudolf (1950) summed up his conviction on this subject

with simplicity and relevance. He writes:

But all his musicianship and thorough study of scores
will help him little unless he knows how to talk
to people, work with them, and get results in a quick
and direct manner. Knowledge of a few simple principles
is of great assistance in rehearsing efficiently
the players to a good performance. (p. 1)



Communication

One of the most important pedagogical attributes

and skills a good teacher possesses is that of effective

communication with the learner. A review of the literature

on communication in ensemble rehearsals as a means of

teaching shows an emphasis on nonverbal communication

(e.g. conducting/baton technique). But it is equally










important to know what, when, and how to use verbal

communication in explaining musical concepts.

Righter (1956) examined this problem and concluded

that there is no one road to success in teaching and

conducting. He explains that perhaps too much emphasis

has been placed upon the technical preparation of music

teachers with comparatively little emphasis on their

literary, historical, and cultural background. Righter

summarizes his beliefs when he comments:

It is essential that the conductor have at his command
a vocabulary replete with concise and precise terms
of instruction and direction. The conductor
would do well to consider whether or not he is making
the most effective use of words to inspire meaningful
performance. (p. 15)

Julian (1980) addressed the nonverbal communication

behaviors of the conductor. Such behaviors include "eye

contact, body orientation and posture, facial expression,

movement of feet, torso, head, in addition to the expected

hand gestures" (p. 64). According to Julian, what is

important is that the way the conductor looks and moves

his body are silent messages to the ensemble as well

as to the audience. The implication is that for the

conductor to communicate the emotion of music, he must

be aware of both the ensemble's understanding of the

emotions involved as well as his ability to indicate

the intensity of that emotion through his own body language.

On these points Julian writes:










Understanding body language can help us communicate-
-whether we are teachers, students, or conductors.
We must know the capabilities of our bodies and be
free to react. (p. 65)

Willard (1986), in comparative research, advocates

less verbal communication and more nonverbal communication

through conducting gestures. His contention is that

"speaking less during rehearsals saves time, allows the

students to play more, and also enables them to learn

by watching and listening" (p. 38). Willard believes

that with less talk communication will be increased between

the conductor and the students.



Goals and Objectives

A review of the literature concerning goals and

objectives for music teaching reveals their unequivocal

necessity for effective pedagogy. Normann (1941) was

one of the earliest writers who advocated having goals

and objectives. He observed that those teachers who

are most successful in influencing students to value

music in their lives have a common element: a clear set

of objectives. Normann remarks:

Around his aims the instructor will build his daily
program so that his students may gain a true conception
of music rather than a fragmentary knowledge of the
subject. (p. 32)

Kohut (1973), in his book Instrumental Music Pedagogy,

discusses the need for both objectives of music education

and objectives of instrumental music. While both types










of objectives are similar, both are nevertheless needed

to cover all areas of music teaching. According to Kohut:

Formulation of objectives, establishing minimum
standards, curriculum design, testing and evaluation-
all of these and other related topics are important
to successful teaching. All first-rate teachers
have definite objectives in mind and operate a well-
organized program. (p. 6)

Boyle (1974) compiled a resource book on instructional

objectives in music for the National Commission on

Instruction. In this book Boyle implicitly emphasizes

through his contributing authors the need for music

educators to be able to formulate their instructional

objectives in cogent and useful terms. The intent is

to provide music teachers with resources for developing

objectives as a basis for planning and evaluating

instruction in music. According to Boyle, the ultimate

goal is to "help teachers increase the efficiency of

their instructional programs and develop more effective

techniques of evaluation" (p. vii).



Theoretical Models

The personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

and attributes of the conductor-educator involve

characteristic traits that have theoretical bases found

in the research and literature. Through the limited

research on such traits, it can be ascertained that,

while the theory is in place, the practice and application










of such qualities remain an area for further research.

It therefore becomes necessary to compare theory with

practice so that a better understanding of the relative

importance of the personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities and attributes might be reached.

It becomes essential to first have some kind of

working models) upon which to base this comparison.

For purposes of this study, the models that were used

are derived from two sources: Teacher Education in Music:

Final Report (1972) and Music Teacher Education: Partnership

and Process (1987). These MENC publications provided

the framework on which later comparisons were made between

the theory of these models and the perceptions of school

band and orchestra directors concerning their practice

of personal, musical, and pedagogical characteristics

in teaching instrumental music.



Teacher Education in Music: Final Report

A functional model is offered in Final Report that

emphasizes the need for "music educators who are competent,

flexible, creative, curious, and prepared to survive

and flourish in a world of change" (p. 4). This model

identifies qualities and competencies necessary for music

education to be successful. It also"recognizes the need

for a well-prepared musician-educator who will function

in various instructional modes and roles" (Klotman, 1972)










One of the focuses of Final Report is a review of

personal qualities, musical competencies, and professional

qualities involved in the selection and training of prospec-

tive school music teachers. To draw a comparison between

the tenets of Final Report and this present study, the

following is given:

Final Report: Present Study:

Personal Qualities Personal Qualities

Musical Competencies Musical Attributes

Professional Qualities Pedagogical Attributes

One of the basic characteristics addressed in Final

Report is the ability to inspire others by demonstrating

qualities of leadership that encourages students to learn.

This is parallel with this study's focus on personal

traits which stress the conductor-educator's qualities

of enthusiasm and motivation.

Another parallel can be seen in the area of musical

attributes between the various musical competencies of

Final Report and the musical qualities being considered

in this study. In Final Report competencies such as

performance ability on a musical instrument, singing,

conducting, and familiarity with musical instruments

are specifically referred to as necessary for the

development of comprehensive musicianship in the school

instrumental music program.










Parallel with the musical competencies outlined

in Final Report are a number of musical attributes found

in the literature. For example, in addition to personal

musicianship that includes performance capability on

a musical instrument, the literature highlights a number

of other musical abilities essential for effective teaching.

These include baton technique, expressive gestures,

understanding of instruments, and modeling skills. With

such a parallel, the research-based musical attributes

agree with those musical competencies recommended in

Final Report.

Regarding the third area, professional qualities,

Final Report specifically says that "the ability to

communicate with students is essential for teachers"

(p. 7). This trait encompasses the teacher's ability

to express his or her philosophy of education, demonstrate

familiarity with contemporary educational thought, and

exhibit by example the concept of a comprehensive musician

who is dedicated to teaching. Such traits are essential

as pedagogical attributes for the conductor-educator.

From the research are seen such pedagogical traits

as communication ability, knowledge of evaluative tech-

niques, and possessing a philosophy of music education.

Because they function as professional traits, they are

consonant with the professional qualities as outlined

in Final Report.










Music Teacher Education: Partnership and Process

In this report, commonly referred to as Partnership,

another theoretical model is presented. This model is

designed to "prepare various sets of ideals to which

each participant and institution can aspire as the process

of change and growth evolves" (p. 11). According to

Olson, "the call for a new model in music teacher education

is made to revitalize the means through which music teachers

are prepared for the future" (p. 13).

The framework of this theoretical model is based

on the following categories: (p. 15)

Personal development of attitudes, interests, and
distinctive personal qualities that demonstrate a
commitment to effective teaching.

Intellectual development of critical thinking skills
that focus on the content of academic disciplines
and a curiosity for solving problems.

Musical development of increased musical sensitivity
and an understanding of the art of music.

Instructional development of applied instructional
skills built on a theoretical basis that recognizes
the factors that influence good learning and teaching.

Throughout this report certain qualities are addressed

as vital for the prospective music educator. According

to Olson (1987), "the profile of new candidates should

reflect strong potential in personal, intellectual, musical,

and instructional characteristics" (p. 21). Specific

qualities are mentioned under each category of

characteristics in Partnership that are comparable to










those not only in Final Report, but also to those found

in the research and literature as well.

In conclusion, both Final Report and Partnership

provide models with which to compare the data generated

from the field concerning the practice of personal, musical,

and pedagogical traits in the teaching of instrumental

music by the conductor-educator. Because of the addition

of a fourth category, "intellectual," found in Partnership

but not in Final Report, this study focuses on a concurrence

of those areas that are common to both which included

the categories of personal, musical, and pedagogical

(professional/instructional) qualities and attributes.

The personal, musical, and pedagogical characteristics

of the conductor-educator were compared using these

theoretical models to further examine the concept of

theory versus practice in the teaching of instrumental

music. It is in the teaching of music that Lawrence

(1989) summarized the need for such traits by commenting:

Successful (music) directors often display certain
qualities that help them achieve their goals. These
qualities can be grouped into three general categories:
personal qualities, musical knowledge and skills,
and effective teaching techniques. (p. 37)















CHAPTER III
QUALITIES AND ATTRIBUTES OF THE CONDUCTOR-EDUCATOR


Ensemble directors of school musical organizations

should possess a number of qualities and attributes to

be effective as teachers. Among these traits are personal

qualities, musical attributes, and pedagogical attributes

which help facilitate the learning of music.

According to Kinyon (1975), "the primary role of

the director on the podium must always be that of teacher;

(the) role as a conductor is but one means to that end"

(p. 73). When the conductor is strengthened with technical

knowledge and adequate conducting skills, his or her

confidence as a leader begins to emerge (Green, 1987).

This chapter synthesizes from the research literature

covered in Chapter II a number of personal, musical,

and pedagogical traits that are considered important

in accomplishing the goals of music education. Because

the theoretical writings do not give valuations of the

relative importance of these qualities, they can only

serve as models for comparison with the director rankings,

but cannot speak to the needs of the conductor-educator.

These qualities, nonetheless, remain a functional part

of the conductor-educator's repertoire of skills through

which the students become the musical beneficiaries.










Personal Qualities

Ensemble directors need to possess certain personal

qualities in order to be effective teachers. Of these

qualities, the one that stands out as essential is

leadership. According to Kohut and Grant (1990), "the

most important personal qualification of a good conductor

is that of leadership" (p. 73). Green (1987) goes a

step further in stressing the leadership factor of the

conductor by stating that "the impulse of will is the

vital quality in the conductor; upon its strength depends

the demanding definition of the rhythmic beat, the decisive

leadership of the conductor himself" (p. 60).

Because leadership has been suggested in the research

literature as an important determinant of success for

instrumental music education (Powell, 1976; Lutz, 1963),

the ensemble director should manifest leadership. In

this way, the conductor-educator will be better able

to achieve success in teaching.

The following personal qualities are emphasized

in the writings and research on conducting:

1. Assertiveness was advocated primarily by both

Woodbury (1955) and Kohut and Grant (1990) as a necessary

quality. It is evidenced by clear and direct instructions

and by the use of confident voice and mannerisms. Because

the terms "suggestive power" (Krueger, 1930), "force

of character" (Van Hoesen, 1950), "aggressiveness"










(Woodbury, 1955), and "impulse of will" (Green, 1987)

were also used in the literature, this writer chose

the term "assertiveness" for this study as a synthesized

and up-to-date interpretation of what various authors

were referring to as a vital personal quality.

2. Commanding Presence was supported by Goldbeck

(1951), Garber (1971), Nielson (1975), and Kohut and

Grant (1990). This quality was described as having a

dominating podium posture and its disciplined readiness,

the degree to which the director is in charge, professional

podium demeanor, and a firm, erect posture.

3. Enthusiasm was well documented in the literature

by Gehrkens (1919), Tead (1935), Flanagan (1961), Walker

(1989), Kohut and Grant (1990), and Grant and Drafall

(1991). This quality was described as being able to

exhibit a cheerful and positive attitude, motivate students,

and encourage better performance through positive reinforce-

ment. The authors emphasized the contagiousness enthusiasm

engenders. Gehrkens remarks that "enthusiasm spreads

by contagion, and there can be no spreading by contact

unless we have a point from which to start" (p. 18).

4. Friendliness was strongly supported in the

literature as a very important personal quality. Tead

(1935), Benner (1972), and Walker (1989) all agree that

being approachable, companionable, and easy to talk with

can facilitate learning. Directors who are good leaders










usually have a friendly and healthy rapport with their

students (Walker, 1989).

5. Human Understanding combines the traits of caring,

showing sincerity and genuine concern, and being respectful

of the students (Woodbury, 1955; Benner, 1972; Kohut,

1973). Kohut stresses that "students are first of all

human beings and must be treated as such" (p. 8). The

authors agree as to the psychological importance of having

this personal quality for teaching.

6. Integrity has been described as the state of

being honest and trustworthy (Woodbury, 1955; Tead, 1935;

Jensen, 1965). Jensen supports having such a quality

when he comments that "the conductor must be a dedicated

teacher whose uncompromising personality, integrity,

and sincerity elicit a mental alertness (from students)

and a desire to strive for the ultimate in perfection"

(p. vii).

7. Organizational Ability has been discussed in

the research by Gehrkens (1919) and Flanagan (1961) as

the ability to conduct well-run rehearsals, thoroughly

plan ahead, and properly handle one's duties in a timely

manner. Such a quality is essential for ensemble directors

to have in coping with the day-to-day activities.

8. Self-Confidence is undoubtedly one of the more

necessary qualities for successful teaching (Gehrkens,

1919; Woodbury, 1955; Lutz, 1963; Kinyon, 1975; and Kohut










& Grant, 1990). Gehrkens stresses self-confidence as

"the primary basis upon which a sense of leadership rests"

(p. 15). Some indicators are eye contact and decisiveness.

9. Self-Discipline refers to having patience,

composure, and self-control (Gehrkens, 1919; Hindsley,

1940; Rohner, 1932; Benner, 1972; and Woodbury, 1955).

The focus is on the teacher's ability to maintain

self-control by holding back one's temper in stressful

situations. Showing self-discipline can "implant in

the minds of band and orchestra members ideals of order

and discipline (and) lay the foundation both for good

musicianship and good citizenship" (Hindsley, 1940, p.79).



Musical Attributes

The research and literature continually emphasize

the need for musical knowledge and skills. The conductor-

educator should, therefore, possess such musical attributes

and competencies in order to have a solid foundation

from which to base music teaching.

The following musical qualities have been suggested

in the research and literature:

1. Aural Skills pertain to having the discrimination

ability to detect errors, intonation problems, and other

kinds of musical problems during ensemble rehearsals

(Rudolf, 1950; DeCarbo, 1982; Sang, 1984; and Kohut,

1985). These authors concur that "an integral part of









teaching and learning is the ability to accurately detect

and correct performance errors" (Kohut, 1985, p. 130).

Sang (1984) goes a step further and suggests that aural

and visual discrimination skills should complement each

other, but unfortunately the latter is often overlooked

in discrimination research.

2. Baton Technique is emphasized in all the major

texts on conducting by Gehrkens (1919), Rudolf (1950),

McElheran (1966), Green (1987), Kohut and Grant (1990),

and others. It includes being able to give clear downbeats

and beat patterns and to use various kinds of beat patterns

correctly. In addition, the treatise by Berlioz (1844)

addresses baton technique as a means to the ends. Because

the test of conducting effectiveness is the response

of the performers (Ernst, 1978), baton technique must

be clear and concise.

3. Expressive Gestures are also addressed in the

major conducting texts by Rudolf (1950), McElheran (1966),

Green (1987) and others. Such gestures include the use

of facial expressions, body movement, left-hand gestures,

and various styles of beat patterns (e.g. legato versus

staccato conducting). These authors point out that while

baton technique and expressive gestures are separate

musical skills, they coexist and function simultaneously.

From these writings the musical attribute of expressive

gestures is considered as important as baton technique.








56

4. Knowledge of Music History is a musical attribute

that is strongly advocated by Gehrkens (1919) and Kohut

and Grant (1990). These authors support having a historical

knowledge on which to base one's conducting and teaching.

In this way, the instrumental ensemble director can also

explain better how the music being rehearsed relates

to the larger world of music. The result is that the

students will be able to understand the music, and, in

turn, perform it more intelligently and musically.

5. Knowledge of Music Theory is another musical

attribute supported by Gehrkens (1919) and Kohut and

Grant (1990). A knowledge of music theory is a valuable

attribute because it allows the ensemble director to

analyze music and to understand musical form. This

knowledge can help conductor-educators explain what makes

the music "tick."

6. Knowledge of Musical Style is an attribute

addressed by Gehrkens (1919) and Kohut and Grant (1990)

as important for helping the ensemble director understand

better the correct performance practices for different

kinds of music. Both authorities agree that when a

conductor is cognizant of the correct style period of

the music, the conducting and teaching of it will be

in accordance with the composer's original intentions.

7. Musical Modeling Skills have been supported

by a number of experts to include Sang (1984; 1987) and








57

Kohut (1973). Musical modeling refers to learning through

imitation where the teacher provides an appropriate and

correct performance model for the students. By the teacher

musically demonstrating the students' part music, either

through singing or playing, students should be able to

learn the music better based on hearing an aural example.

8. Personal Musicianship has been defined as being

sensitive to the expressive qualities of the music (Kohut,

1973). Other authorities on this topic agree with this

concept, one of whom is Gehrkens (1919). Musicianship

also involves being able to exhibit a mastery of musical

concepts, as well as being able to perform competently

on one's major instrument or voice. Rohner (1932) found

that musicianship was the highest-rated quality students

favored in their ensemble directors.

9. Understanding of Instruments is a musical attribute

that refers to having a working knowledge of the instruments

of the band and/or orchestra. Rudolf (1950) and Klotman

et al. (1972) both advocate possessing such an attribute

so that the ensemble director may be able to know first-hand

the technical demands of each instrument. Kruth (1984)

summarized this point when he said that "conductors must

not only know what they want to hear, they must have

a thorough knowledge of instruments so that they can

describe exactly how to get the desired results. The

conductor is always a teacher" (p. 29).









Pedagogical Attributes

The research and literature has consistently pointed

to the fact that the school ensemble director should

have certain pedagogical traits for effective teaching

and learning to take place. In an MENC Contemporary

Music Project Seminar Report (1965), the issue of school

music directors as teachers was addressed in definitive

terms. This report stated that "as a high school

instrumental teacher his primary function will

be that of conductor" (p. 8). According to Russell (1983),

the ensemble director "must possess and utilize the

characteristics of both conductor and educator, constantly

striving to interrelate the complex nature of both these

roles" (p. 2). Because of this interrelationship, the

conductor as an educator who possesses certain pedagogical

attributes is in a position to accomplish a number of

educational and musical objectives.

The following pedagogical attributes are suggested

in the research and literature:

1. Application of Rehearsal Methods in the ensemble

rehearsal has been supported by Kinyon (1975), Graves

(1984), Gattiker (1977), and Kohut and Grant (1990).

Through the use of educative rehearsal techniques, ensemble

directors are able to pace rehearsals, make the best

use of available rehearsal time, and know when and how

to have sectionals. Kohut and Grant summarize the use










of this attribute when they comment that "rehearsal

procedures are methods of teaching used in ensemble

rehearsals (and) are used to communicate technical

and musical concepts that cannot be conveyed with hand

gestures and facial expressions" (p. 102).

2. Communication Ability refers to the ability

to verbally explain points clearly. Gehrkens (1919),

Neilson (1975), and Kohut (1985) agree on the importance

of clearness of speech and expression. In this way the

nonverbal communication of the conducting gestures can

be reinforced and heightened by the teacher's verbal

facility. Both forms of communication should complement

each other on the podium.

3. Goals and Objectives are considered the basis

for giving direction in one's teaching (Normann, 1941).

Kohut (1973), Boyle (1974), and Walker (1989) agree with

Normann concerning the necessity of having instructional

goals and objectives for effective teaching.

4. Knowledge of Psychology has been addressed by

such authors as Gordon (1971), Klotman et al. (1972),

and Bigge (1980). Music teachers need to be able to

make practical applications of educational and social-

psychological principles that are relevant to music

teaching, especially in the ensemble rehearsal.

5. Knowledge of Evaluation Methods pertains to the

ability of correctly and objectively judging student









performance (Colwell, 1970; Kohut, 1973; Olson, 1987).

This attribute entails having a knowledge of measurement

and evaluation so that the most appropriate evaluative

technique is used for each situation. According to Colwell,

"understanding the whys and wherefores of evaluation

is necessary for successful teaching" (pp. 2-3).

6. Mastery of Subject Matter is another sine qua

non of instrumental teaching. Gehrkens (1919), Rohner

(1932), and Benner (1972) have all stressed the importance

of technical knowledge as a foundation for pedagogical

practices. Gehrkens comments that "the influence of

this type of manner (confidence) cannot be permanent

unless it rests upon a foundation of really solid knowledge

or ability" (p. 16).

7. Philosophy of Education pertains to having

a sense of purpose and a guiding set of principles upon

which to base one's teaching. Klotman et al. (1972),

Abeles et al. (1984) and Reimer (1989) all emphasize

the need for a philosophy. As Reimer says, "the profession

as a whole needs a set of beliefs which can serve to

guide the efforts of the group" (p. 3). The possession

of a philosophy becomes a valuable attribute in focusing

the director's pedagogical efforts in the rehearsal.

8. Role and Performance Model relates to having

the attribute of using one's personal and musical abilities

as pedagogical tools in demonstrating to the students








61

what an acceptable standard is. Kohut (1985), Sang (1987),

and Boardman (1989) support the teacher knowing how to

model various skills and behaviors for the students to

emulate. According to Boardman, "the music teacher should

also model diverse musical roles (in) conducting,

performing, listening, composing, or arranging" (p. 88).

9. Utilization of Resources applies to knowing

what musical resources are available and which ones are

effective for maximum educational benefit. Klotman et

al. (1972) and Olson (1987) advocate such a skill as

a means of developing musical awareness. According to

Klotman, "teachers should have experience in combining

their resources in a creative and supportive manner in

a variety of classroom situations" (p. 22).



Summary

The personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

and attributes of the conductor-educator are considered

important for teaching success. No teacher can possess

all of these traits. What is possible, however, is for

the teacher to become increasingly aware of the relative

importance of these qualities and attributes as they

pertain to instrumental music teaching. The conductor-

educator should constantly strive to link the goals of

music education with the personal, musical, and pedagogical

traits necessary to accomplish these goals.














CHAPTER IV
METHODS AND MATERIALS


The research, literature, and other writings have

shown that a number of personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities and attributes are needed for effective music

teaching. To aid in refining and applying these model

characteristics for the directors of school instrumental

music groups, a survey was needed.

Current information on the qualities and attributes

that are considered important in teaching instrumental

music was gathered through an investigator-constructed

questionnaire, developed on the basis of the models in

Chapter III. The questionnaire is only part of the overall

study in which descriptive research methods are employed

as a means to arrive at data for comparative analysis

and applications to instrumental music teaching.



Questionnaire

A questionnaire (Appendix C) was designed by the

researcher to obtain descriptive data from instrumental

ensemble directors about their beliefs in the importance

of certain qualities and attributes needed for teaching.

The review of the research and literature, presented

in Chapter II, had suggested a number of personal, musical,










and pedagogical characteristics. These traits were based

on articles, essays, books, dissertations, and theses

that dealt with qualities and abilities necessary for

conducting and teaching. The importance of these traits

needed to be validated and correlated through ratings

by school band and orchestra directors in the field.

The ensemble directors were asked to indicate the

importance they attach to each of the traits by giving

them each a number on a Likert-type scale from 1 (lowest)

to 5 (highest). Additional comments were requested

regarding these traits as a final part of the questionnaire.



Pilot Study

A pilot study was conducted to assess the strengths

and weaknesses of the questionnaire before it was sent

to the ensemble directors. The pilot study tested the

clarity of each item on the questionnaire. It provided

additional data on the validity of these qualities and

attributes as they relate to the conductor-educator in

an ensemble setting by allowing the respondents to comment

on the use of these traits in their teaching.

Fifteen ensemble directors were systematically selected

from Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina for participation

in the pilot study. They were each called on the phone

to confirm their willingness to participate in the pilot

study. A letter of instruction (Appendix A), questionnaire,










and a list of indicators (Appendix D) were sent to each

director. They were asked to complete the questionnaire

and comment on its clarity and relevance. The comments

and suggestions received were then considered for

incorporation into the final version of the questionnaire.

The pilot study provided information in a number

of additional areas, including: (a) the development of

a more systematic approach in the preparation of the

questionnaires and the mailings; (b) a refinement of

the coding process; (c) a more appropriate wording of

the cover letter; (d) a refinement of the qualities and

descriptors in the questionnaire; and (e) development

of a data tabulation process through the use of the

Statistical Analysis System (SAS) computer program.



Subjects for the Study

The subjects for the study were selected through

a systematic spaced sample out of a total of 1,860 school

directors. The names were selected from the 1990-1991

state-approved membership lists of public school band

and orchestra directors from Florida, Georgia, and North

Carolina. The distribution of subjects by state is as

follows: 67 from the Florida Music Educators Association

(FMEA)*, 67 from the Georgia Music Educators Association



*FMEA list was subdivided into Florida Band Association
(FBA) and Florida Orchestra Association (FOA) lists.










(GMEA), and 66 from the North Carolina Music Educators

Association (NCMEA) membership lists, for a total sample

of 200. Every tenth name from each list was selected.

To ensure an equal representation of band and orchestra

directors, the total sample of directors was retained

at the same number: 100 band and 100 orchestra directors.

A number of these ensemble directors teach concurrently

at the senior high, junior high, and middle school levels.

All of the subjects were also active members of their

state-level band and/or orchestra contest organizations.

Because policy usually requires concurrent state and

national memberships, it can be assumed that a majority

of the respondents were also Music Educators National

Conference (MENC) members.

On January 22, 1991 a survey packet was mailed to

each of the 200 ensemble directors selected for the sample.

They were asked to participate in this study by completing

the questionnaire and returning it by February 11, 1991.



Description of the Sample

This section provides a description of the sample.

The tables represent the following demographic information:

(a) number of orchestra and band directors; (b) gender;

(c) age; (d) membership in musical organizations; (e)

instrumental specialties; (f) years of teaching experience;










(g) levels of education; and (h) leadership training.

The number of respondents was almost evenly distributed

between band and orchestra directors at about a 4:3 ratio.

However, the majority of the responses were from the

band directors. Table 4-1 reflects these results.


Table 4-1
Respondents By Group

FREQUENCY


GROUP

Orchestra
Band


PERCENT


45%
55%


Male respondents outnumbered female respondents by

almost 2:1. A majority of the sampled orchestra directors

were female while a majority of the sampled band directors

were male. Table 4-2 shows these results.


FREQUENCY

106
54


Table 4-2
Gender By Group

PERCENT OF TOTAL

66%
34%


ORCHESTRA/BAND

30/76
42/12


The majority of respondents fell within the 30-39

year range, indicating a mature and seasoned group of

instrumental ensemble directors in the schools. The

age categories are presented in Table 4-3.


GENDER

Male
Female










Table 4-3
Group By Age

AGE CATEGORY FREQUENCY PERCENT

20-29 32 20.0%
30-39 62 38.8%
40-49 47 29.4%
50-59 17 10.6%
60 and over 2 1.2%



The sample of respondents also shows the diversity

of memberships in professional musical organizations.

Only 47 (30%) respondents indicated their membership

in the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) which

is probably not a true figure. The affiliated organizations

(i.e. FMEA, GMEA, NCMEA)* usually require national in

addition to state membership, therefore the percentage

is significantly higher. The results are in Table 4-4.



Table 4-4
Membership in Musical Organizations

ORGANIZATION FREQUENCY

Music Educators National Conference 47
Florida Bandmasters Association 38
Florida Music Educators Association 33
North Carolina Band Directors Association 7
Florida Orchestra Association 27
Georgia Music Educators Association 63
American String Teachers Association 27
National School Orchestra Association 34
National Band Association 13
National Association of Jazz Educators 10
North Carolina Music Educators Association 20
NO MEMBERSHIP INDICATED 4


*Verified telephonically from FMEA, GMEA, and NCMEA.








68

While it is assumed that all professional music

educators learned to play at least one musical instrument

as a major instrument, it may be useful to show which

instrumental specialties the ensemble directors possessed.

Table 5-5 offers data according to musical instrument.


INSTRUMENT

Bassoon
Bass
Cello
Clarinet
Euphonium
Flute
Horn
Oboe
Percussion
Piano
Saxophone
Trombone
Trumpet
Tuba
Viola
Violin
Voice


Table 4-5
Musical Instrument Specialties

FREQUENCY


In the area of teaching experience the data indicate

that a majority of the respondents fell within the extreme

categories of 1-5 and 21 or more years music teaching

experience in band and/or orchestra. Such a cross-section

demonstrates a wide diversity of experience in the current

work force of school instrumental music educators. Table

4-6 offers these results.


PERCENT

0.6%
4.4%
5.6%
13.1%
1.9%
1.3%
6.9%
1.3%
4.4%
0.6%
4.4%
9.4%
14.4%
4.4%
6.9%
18.8%
1.9%










Table 4-6
Years of Teaching Experience

YEARS TEACHING FREQUENCY PERCENT

1-5 38 23.8%
6-10 30 18.8%
11-15 31 19.4%
16-20 24 15.0%
21 or more 37 23.1%



The majority of the ensemble directors possessed

a masters degree or higher, indicating a substantial

level of education. Table 4-7 shows these results.



Table 4-7
Levels of Education of Ensemble Directors

HIGHEST DEGREE FREQUENCY PERCENT

Bachelors degree 67 41.9%
Masters degree 87 54.4%
Doctoral degree 6 3.8%



The ensemble directors were asked if they had taken

any leadership and/or management courses as part of their

teacher training in college. The results indicated that

most of the respondents had taken some kind of leadership

training in classroom management skills. It is possible

that such training could have occurred after the completion

of their undergraduate music education curriculum (e.g.

in-service teacher training). The results are found

in Table 4-8.










Table 4-8
Leadership/Management Training of Ensemble Directors

CATEGORY FREQUENCY PERCENT

Have Taken Training 89 55.6%
Have Not Taken Training 71 44.4%



Procedures

A survey packet containing a cover letter (Appendix

B) explaining the purpose of the study and instructions

for completing the questionnaire, a copy of the

questionnaire (Appendix C), a list of personal, musical,

and pedagogical indicators (Appendix D), and a

self-addressed, stamped return envelope was mailed to

each instrumental ensemble director in the sample.

As recommended by Rossi, Wright, and Anderson (1983),

each cover letter had the director's name and address

typed on it and was signed with a blue ballpoint pen

to personalize the appearance. The questionnaires were

color-coded in addition to each having a number code

in the upper right-hand corner, to preserve confidentiality

between the researcher and the respondents. The

questionnaires for band directors were printed on blue

paper and the ones sent to the orchestra directors were

printed on orange paper. All follow-up mailings and

return envelopes were individually typed and stamped

with first-class postage.










A reminder card was sent to each nonrespondent three

weeks after the initial mailing (Appendix E). Phone

calls were made and, in twenty cases (10%), data were

taken over the phone. Directors who still had not responded

were sent a second cover letter, along with the

questionnaire and the list of indicators.



Analysis of Data

The survey materials were returned by 160 respondents

of the sample of 200 instrumental directors, for a return

percentage rate of 80%. Analysis of the data from the

survey included both descriptive and inferential statistics.

Data from the completed questionnaires were analyzed

to determine the comparative importance of the personal,

musical, and pedagogical qualities and attributes by

the ensemble directors. The use of the Statistical Analysis

System (SAS) computer package program was employed to

determine the means, standard deviations, Pearson

product-moment correlations, and, through analysis of

variance (ANOVA), the significance levels between and

within the band and orchestra groups of ensemble directors.

In addition, data were analyzed concerning the directors'

opinions of the top three traits considered to be the

most important for instrumental ensemble teaching.














CHAPTER V
RESULTS OF THE SURVEY


The purpose of the survey is to be the complementary

and practical part of the overall study. An ideal or

model set of qualities and attributes were gathered from

the research and literature and were rated by experienced

music educators for secondary school instrumental ensemble

teaching. Its goal is not only to examine the relationships

between band and orchestra directors concerning the

personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities and attributes

derived from the writings of experts, but to determine

the significance of these attributes for the conductor-

educator in the secondary schools.



Evaluation of Qualities

This section focuses on the ratings by the respondents

of certain personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities.

Numerical values were assigned to each trait by the

respondents, with 5 being the highest and 1 being the

lowest. Included are the following results: (a) overall

importance of qualities; (b) mean ratings; (c) correlations

among qualities; (d) highest-rated qualities; (e) testing

effects; (f) t-tests, and (g) interaction effects.










The ensemble directors were asked to rate 27 traits

according to how important they considered these qualities

to be in their teaching. Table 5-1 shows these results.



Table 5-1
Ratings of Overall Importance of Qualities and
Attributes By Secondary School Ensemble Directors

QUALITY/ATTRIBUTE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION


Personal Qualities:
Assertiveness
Commanding Presence
Enthusiasm
Friendliness
Human Understanding
Integrity
Organizational Ability
Self-Confidence
Self-Discipline
OVERALL AVERAGE


Musical Attributes:
Aural Skills
Baton Technique
Expressive Gestures
Knowledge of Music History
Knowledge of Music Theory
Knowledge of Musical Styles
Musical Modeling Skills
Personal Musicianship
Understanding of Instruments


4.625
4.400
4.813
4.263
4.556
4.744
4.438
4.631
4.456
4.547


4.788
4.175
3.800
3.656
3.894
4.356
4.325
4.500
4.469


.580
.771
.422
.789
.601
.505
.733
.610
.717
.636


.425
.829
.917
.997
.962
.772
.789
.644
.726


OVERALL AVERAGE 4.218 .785

Pedagogical Attributes:
Appl. of Rehearsal Methods 4.506 .633
Communication Ability 4.725 .488
Goals & Objectives 4.513 .663
Knowledge of Psychology 3.594 .992
Knowledge of Evaluation Methods 4.131 .817
Mastery of Subject Matter 4.563 .600
Philosophy of Education 3.981 .974
Role & Performance Model 4.369 .774
Utilization of Resources 4.113 .861
OVERALL AVERAGE 4.277 .759


GRAND MEAN


.727


4.347








74

Most of the qualities and attributes from the research

and literature were rated very highly by the ensemble

directors. With 4.813 as the highest rating and 3.594

as the lowest, the average rating was 4.347 out of a

possible 5.0 with a standard deviation of 0.727. This

indicates an overall relatively high range of importance.

Enthusiasm, aural skills, integrity, communication

ability, self-confidence, assertiveness, and mastery

of subject matter ranked the highest overall among the

band and orchestra directors. Expressive gestures,

knowledge of music history and music theory, philosophy

of education, and knowledge of psychology were rated

low in comparison, probably because these attributes

do not apply so obviously to directing a school instrumental

ensemble. The mean data allows for such comparisons

by showing a rather equitable dispersion of characteristics

in each of the three categories.

Orchestra and band directors exhibited differences

in their priorities among the qualities and attributes.

Both types of directors rated the personal qualities

the highest, but there were some differences between

the musical and pedagogical categories. The orchestra

directors rated the musical attributes second in

importance, while the band directors rated the pedagogical

attributes second. Table 5-2 shows these results.










Table 5-2
Mean Ratings Between Orchestra and Band Directors
According to Quality/Attribute Category

CATEGORY ORCHESTRA (MEAN) BAND (MEAN)

Personal 4.56 4.54
Musical 4.30 4.14
Pedagogical 4.27 4.28



There are positive relationships among the personal,

musical, and pedagogical qualities and attributes. Table

5-3 shows these results.



Table 5-3
Matrix of Correlations Among Major Categories
of Qualities and Attributes

CATEGORY PERSONAL MUSICAL PEDAGOGICAL

Personal 1.00 0.59 0.72
Musical 1.00 0.66
Pedagogical 1.00



The respondents were asked to list what they considered

the top three traits in importance. The data indicate

a wide yet consistent range of choices. Table 5-4 presents

these results in the format of first, second, and third

choices, their frequencies and relative percentages,

and a combined frequency of all the qualities and attributes

designated by the respondents. The result was that the

personal qualities were rated the most important, the

pedagogical attributes were rated second, and the musical

attributes were rated third or least important.















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77

The statistical technique of Repeated Measures Analysis

of Variance (ANOVA) was employed in this study. Testing

for between-subject effects (band versus orchestra),

the analysis revealed no significant overall differences

across the qualities between band and orchestra directors

in their ratings of the various characteristics. The

statistical analysis for within-subject effects, however,

shows significant differences among the personal, musical,

and pedagogical categories as indicated by the F-value

equalling 58.86 where p <.05. There is also a significant

difference in the band and orchestra directors'

within-subject effects for quality by group (band versus

orchestra). In other words, the differences within the

personal, musical, and pedagogical traits were not the

same for the band and orchestra directors. These results

are presented in Table 5-5.


Table 5-5
Testing Effects: Group & Quality

SOURCE SS DF F-VALUE PR > F*

Between Subjects
Group 27.88 1 .65 .4216
Error 6784.04 158

Within Subjects
Quality 772.86 2 58.86 .0001
Quality X Group 50.24 2 3.83 .0244
Error (Quality) 2074.72 316

*p <.05, with Huynh-Feldt adjustment










Because a significant F-value of 3.83 was found

in the interaction of quality and group, a follow-up

test known as the t-Test was employed for further analysis.

The musical category shows a significant t-value of 3.43

while t is significant at > 1.96. Hence, the orchestra

directors judged the musical attributes to be more important

than the band directors' ratings. Orchestra versus band

ratings did not differ on the personal and pedagogical

traits. Table 5-6 reflects these results.



Table 5-6
Comparison of Group Means (t-Test)
for Orchestra and Band Directors

QUALITY t RESULT

Personal .51 non-significant
Musical 3.43 significant
Pedagogical -.34 non-significant

p <.05; t > 1.96


The personal versus musical and personal versus

pedagogical ratings by the ensemble directors were

significant at the .05 level. Personal qualities were

rated as more important than musical and pedagogical

attributes across band and orchestra directors. This

was also consistent with the three highest-rated qualities

in Table 5-4. These results are at Table 5-7.










Table 5-7
Combined Group Means (t-Test)

QUALITIES t RESULT

Personal vs. Musical 7.24 significant
Personal vs. Pedagogical 5.99 significant
Musical vs. Pedagogical -1.25 non-significant

p < .05; t > 1.96



Background Analyses

This researcher was interested in investigating

any effects among several variables that might show

significance in the ratings of the personal, musical,

and pedagogical traits. The variables studied for analysis

were (a) education; (b) experience; and (c) gender.

The first analysis was to examine a full model of

all the variables on the personal qualities. The result

is that there were no interactions and therefore no

significance between experience, education, and gender

for the personal qualities. Table 5-8 shows these results.


Table 5-8
Effects for Full Model on Personal Qualities

SOURCE F-VALUE PR > F

Education 0.38 0.68
Experience 0.47 0.50
Gender 0.14 0.71
Experience X Education 0.93 0.34
Gender X Education 0.09 0.77
Experience X Gender 1.59 0.21

p < .05










Removing the interaction terms and examining the

main effects of levels of education, years of experience

teaching, and gender, it was found that there were no

significant effects in the directors' ratings of the

personal qualities. Table 5-9 shows these results.



Table 5-9
Effects for Reduced Model on Personal Qualities

SOURCE F-VALUE PR > F

Education 1.52 0.22
Experience 0.39 0.53
Gender 2.85 0.09

p < .05



Table 5-10 shows relatively high F-values in the

experience and experience X education categories. At

the .05 level there are no significant interactions.

Therefore, education, years of experience, and gender

do not affect the ratings for pedagogical attributes.



Table 5-10
Effects for Full Model on Pedagogical Attributes

SOURCE F-VALUE PR > F

Education 0.63 0.53
Experience 1.87 0.17
Gender 0.13 0.72
Experience X Education 1.19 0.28
Gender X Education 0.00 0.95
Experience X Gender 0.91 0.34

p < .05










As a follow-up, the reduced model for examining

main effects shows that there is still no effect among

the variables of education, experience, and gender.

Table 5-11 presents these results.


Table 5-11
Effects for Reduced Model on Pedagogical Attributes

SOURCE F-VALUE PR > F

Education 0.14 0.89
Experience 2.13 0.15
Gender 1.30 0.26

p < .05


There was a significant interaction between the

variables of experience and education when comparing

the interaction effects on the musical attributes: 9.15

F-value at the .05 level. Table 5-12 shows these results.


Table 5-12
Effects for Full Model on Musical Attributes

SOURCE F-VALUE PR > F

Education 2.91 0.06
Experience 0.02 0.88
Gender 0.89 0.35
Experience X Education 9.15 0.00
Gender X Education 0.02 0.88
Experience X Gender 1.63 0.20


p < .05










As a follow-up, various mathematical computations

were performed to further analyze the interaction effects

in the musical attribute ratings between years experience

and education level. The following degree prediction

equations show the interaction of education and experience,

where experience has been coded one to five for 1-5 years,

6-10 years, 11-15 years, 16-20 years, and 21 or more

years, respectively:



Bachelors Degree

MOS = (38.30) (.44) X EXPERIENCE = 37.86




Masters degree

MOS = (34.04) (1.24) X EXPERIENCE = 35.28




Doctorate

MOS = (34.73) + (1.99) X EXPERIENCE = 36.72


To visually represent the interaction effects on

the musical attributes, a graph has been constructed.

The result is that the higher the degree level and the

more years of teaching experience possessed by the ensemble

directors, the higher the musical attribute rating

predictions. Figure 1 shows these interaction effects.
























(Doctorate)


45+


404


(37.86)

(36.72)
(35.28)


(40.24)


(Bachelors)
- (36.10)


21/more


YEARS OF TEACHING EXPERIENCE


Interaction Effects on Musical Attributes.


55+


50+


1-5


6-10


11-15


16-20


Figure 1.










Comments from Surveyed Directors

Thirty-two respondents, or 20 percent, offered

additional comments on the traits being studied. Table

5-13 reflects the breakdown by orchestra and band directors.



Table 5-13
Comments by Orchestra and Band Directors

DIRECTORS FREQUENCY PERCENT

Orchestra 12 7.5%
Band 20 12.5%



The comments offered by the directors were germane

to this study and contributed to the findings. For purposes

of reporting, the comments are grouped as follows: (a)

personal qualities; (b) musical attributes; (c) pedagogical

attributes; and (d) combination of qualities and attributes.



Personal Qualities

The following are qualitative statements from the

ensemble directors who responded to the survey:

"All qualities rated 4 or 5 are extremely important.

Every quality you list is essential, although those rated

3 are not applied as much. Notice how many 5s there

are under personal qualities, yet, I feel that they receive

much too little importance in college training. Of the

eight '5' ratings, two come from both musical and

pedagogical, but four come from the personal category."










"Personally, I have trouble being assertive enough.

I believe that being very assertive is the key to being

effective."

"Personality and communication skills are of utmost

importance. Teaching pedagogy is highly overrated.

Most instrumental directors are fine musicians and have

taken teaching methods courses. What no one can teach

is your personal commitment and love for music and young

people."

"I believe that the above categories (personal, musical,

pedagogical) can measure according to a balance. For

example, a person who has high personal qualities but

not too low pedagogical skills could still be a very

effective teacher. Several combinations could be true."

"The students' welfare (mental, psychological, musical,

and social) should come first. Show the students you

care."

"Assuming that you know what to teach and how to

interpret the music, the most important thing is that

the kids respect and care about you enough to want to

please you to make you proud of them. The non-musical

things (display of class pride, manners, unity, discipline,

etc.) are the things that will stay with them forever."

"In studies that I have read in research, the common

factors in successful band programs was that all the










directors were well-liked by their students and they

showed a high enthusiasm for music. I believe this to

be true."

"Being an instrumental ensemble director is not an

easy task, but I believe that if one is organized, is

familiar with materials) for the age group you are

dealing with, and knows how to be a 'people' person with

your students and parents, I am convinced that the director

will be relatively successful wherever the teaching

situation may be."

"I started my training as an apprentice under my

husband who is one of the finest band directors around.

He was a tough task-master. Under his heavy thumb I

received the best training possible. My learning 'how

to' came through experience and his wonderful guidance.

The courses one takes are necessary, but when one steps

on that podium for the first time, well they don't have

that page in any book."

"If you have enthusiasm, friendliness, and human

understanding, the rest comes easy. Students will go

110% for you. Talking to students at their level of

understanding is most important, i.e. don't talk over

their heads as most new teachers are inclined to do.

Have a good working relationship with fellow music teachers,

-he principal, and janitor."











"I think an important point not covered was how much

a director likes children. A director can be a great

musician, know how to teach, and still not be a good

teacher. Students know when they're not liked and react

in kind."

"I feel teachers need some background in management

skills to handle those above and below; managing budgetary

needs of a program; inventory control and maintenance;

and marketing skills for community support. Most are

unprepared for these realities of teaching and some never

see the need. Thus programs are cut from the curriculum

- back to basics."



Musical Attributes

Comments from this category include the following:

"The great directors would possess high amounts of

most all qualities, especially musical indicators. In

other words, to make great music, the musical qualities

must be strong with personal ones next important."

"I realize it is contradictory to rate mastery of

subject matter high and some of the musical qualities

low. I feel that a lot of ear training and conducting

expressiveness are lost or not really useable at certain

levels of teaching."

"My main order of business with my bands is to stress

the 'musical experience.' I spend a lot of time each










rehearsal working on tone production, tuning, listening,

and generally aiming for a better sound every day. The

direction of this is that the kids should feel that 'musical

expression' is a daily thirst they want to quench. The

result, for one thing, is a near 100% retention rate

in the program."



Pedagogical Attributes

Comments from this category are as follows:

"A successful band director is different things to

different directors. You must have an educational

philosophy in order to know what goal you want your

students to achieve."

"As a forever band director now teaching orchestra,

I have found that one need not be proficient on the specific

instruments taught, as long as one has a good understanding

of the music and how to teach."



Combination of Qualities and Attributes

Comments on the combined traits are as follows:

"All of the above qualities are important to teaching.

Many can be combined together and overlap."

"The most important qualities of a successful music

teacher are to be a subject matter expert, be able to

communicate all musical elements, and, above all, love

the kids and the job you are doing."










"All the qualities need to be present to quite a

high degree. But if integrity, aural skills, and musical

modeling skills are weak, then the others, even if present,

will be less effective."

"Your questionnaire brings to light all the many

qualities that make a successful music educator. I think

all three categories personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities are of equal importance. I also believe

a music educator must find time to maintain a high level

of proficiency on his own instrument. It nurtures the

soul and gives continued understanding of what the students

are going through."

"Actually all of the items listed are very important.

However, most beginning teachers will not have all of

the musical and pedagogical qualities when they graduate.

They will hopefully develop these qualities to a much

higher level after several years of practice in the field."

"You have done an excellent job in listing factors

which make for an outstanding director. A director lacking

in these qualities cannot hope for much success."

"Difficult to choose the three most important qualities

since all of the qualities listed are crucial. It is

just as bad for a director to be musically excellent

and not have as excellent communication skills."










"All listed traits are important and necessary.

Left-hand gestures are the only ones not critical, but

they are certainly important."

"I consider all of these qualities important.

Unfortunately, we cannot achieve all of these (qualities)

all the time because of the current social problems and

because our legislators are not putting education as

their first priority."



The responses to the questionnaire revealed that,

while all of the personal, musical, and pedagogical

qualities and attributes are considered important by

secondary school orchestra and band directors, there

are still differences that need to be addressed as they

relate to music education. Orchestra and band directors

show similarities in their ratings of the importance

of personal and pedagogical traits but differ in their

ratings of the musical attributes. The emphasis, however,

appears to be on the personal qualities of the conductor-

educator having a dominant effect on the teaching of

instrumental music (band and orchestra) in the schools.














CHAPTER VI
APPLICATIONS TO TEACHING INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC


The purpose of this chapter is twofold. One is to

offer applications to instrumental ensemble directors

at the secondary level. The other is to discover

relationships between what the existing research and

writings suggest and what capabilities are indicated

by directors who are currently teaching. The purposes

of these applications are (1) to enhance the music teachers'

knowledge of personal, musical, and pedagogical qualities

and attributes as they relate to instrumental ensemble

rehearsals; (2) to determine how the information about

the qualities applies to the selection and training of

the conductor-educator; and (3) to promote self-improvement

by developing an increased awareness of the importance

of methods and conducting courses.

This chapter is divided into three parts. The first

part presents rated summaries of the various qualities

of the conductor-educator and how each trait falls within

certain roles. The second part of this chapter suggests

ways of applying these qualities and attributes to the

selection and training of school ensemble directors.

The third part presents specific applications of these

traits for the teaching of instrumental ensemble music.




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