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Information pertinent to the marketing of Dade County Florida sub-tropical
summarized herein for the
Calabaza-Pumpkins, and Yautias-Malangas
season, along with comparative data.
increased in importance since World War
particularly in the past 10 years, not nationally but in large metropolitan
areas with heavy Latin-American populations.
most important market
New York City,
is by far,
. Others are Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans and large Texas
as San Antonio, Houston,
The center of production of these
in the farm area south of Miami.
is the first of its
kind ever to
other data on ship-
related information on sub-tropical
In addition to
complied by the Federal-State Market News
the Plant Quarantine Division, Agricultural Research
Department of Agriculture, the Dade County
Agricultural Agent 's
, Cuban farmers and shippers who patiently
plained their operations to us
furnished daily shipment data.
County trucking firms who have
is hereby made
and individuals for
their information and cooperation.
of this SUMMARY
are available upon request to any of
the following offices:
Federal-State Market News
Post Office Box 3275
Florida City, Florida 3
Florida Dept of
Post Office Box
Fruit & Vegetable Market News
U. S. Department of Agriculture C&MS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
History Background Acreage
Volume Shipped from Dade County
Sub-Tropical Vegetable Names
Points of Entry for Imports
Afr and Truck Freight Rates
Dade County Shipments
Total Supplies Imports & Dade County
Frozen Imports Total
Points of Entry for Imports
Imports by Countries, Fresh
Imports by Countries, Frozen
- New York City
DADE COUNTY PLORIDA-MARKETING BATATAS..
- 1959-70 SEASON
In 1961 a Cuban farmer, who had shortly before fled from Cuba, planted in
the south Miami farm area 14 Batata plants, and 10 acres of Calabazas.
the start of commercial production of sub-tropical
Florida, and for that matter in the
From that small beginning, plantings increased to where in 1969 the farm
value of sub-tropical vegetables in Dade County was estimated at $5 million
by the Dade County Agricultural Agent's Office, and acreage planted for
that year at almost 4,000 acres as follows:
In addition, there is now a small acreage in Central Florida, and in New
Jersey. Last year New Jersey calabazas were quoted in the New York City
and Philadelphia market reports.
What brought on this sharp increase for these odd sounding vegetables,
unknown to all but a relatively few people, even now? Simply the fact that
there was a demand for them by people coming here from Cuba, Puerto Rico,
Mexico, and other Latin American countries. Ever since this country was
founded, each national group immigrating here, brought with them their in-
dividual food preferences. And so it was that the first saurkraut in this
country was probably prepared by a German, and the first spaghetti and
pizza pie by an Italian.
Similarly Latin-Americans have added to the vast variety of foods now
available in this country. Of course the size and wide range of climatic
and soil conditions of this country has made production possible. But
each national group by introducing something new and different, has to
that extent enriched and broadened the variety of different foods grown in
this country, probably unequaled elsewhere in the world.
The introduction of new food crops adds much to the economy of an area.
And so with the increase in production of sub-tropical vegetables in Dade
County, new jobs have been provided, additional farm equipment, fertilizers,
insecticides, packages, transportation, etc., have been demanded. Another
effect has been new crops taking acreage away from other over produced
Volume Shipped: Recording of the movement of sub-tropical vegetables was
started by the Florida City Federal-State Market News Office late in May
1969. Despite unfavorable growing conditions -- about 33 inches of rain-
fall from mid-August through October, and the third coldest January on
record the total movement for the 12 month period ending May 1970 was
406 carlot equivalents of 30,000 pounds each. This compares quite favorably
with some of the minor Florida vegetables. For example, for the 1969-70
season up to June 8 out-of-state shipments for Florida okra was 160 and
for southern peas 163 for a total of only 323 carlot equivalents. The highest
out-of-state shipments ever for mangoes was 195 carlots of 28,000 lbs each
Sub-tropical Venetable Names: Different Caribbean and other tropical
countries have different names for the same vegetables. Moreover, ea
vegetable has different types and varieties, some widely different in
appearance and uses. All this makes for uncertainty and confusion in
selecting acceptable names, hence the dual names in this report Bat
Boniatos, Calabaza-Pumpkins and Yautias-Malangas.
BATATAS-BONIATOS are a tuber starchy vegetable of the sweet potato family,
but more similar to Irish potatoes in appearance, texture, taste and use.
Roots are larger and heavier than potatoes, of denser or heavier texture,
Batatas are thoroughly washed, graded, and packed in 50-1b. sacks.
CALABAZAS-PUMPKINS are similar to pumpkins in shape, texture and use, but
smoother and mottled green in color, yellow when fully ripe. They have a
rich flavor similar to Acorn or Danish squash, and can be boiled, baked or
made into pies the same as other types of hard shell squash and pumpkins.
Calabazas are packed in 50 to 100 lb. sacks, but most are 75 Ibs.
YATIAS-MALANGAS, also called Dasheens, are of many different types and
varieties. Less common names in this country are taro, tania, tanier,
tanyah, belembe, calalu and eddo. All are perennial tuberous plants with
large elephant-like ears leaves, growing as much as 5 feet above the
ground. Some do not produce edible tubers and only leaves and shoots are
The Yautias grown in Dade County are the long type of the Blanca or white
variety, of dark brown rough skin with white flesh and rather nut like
flavor. Malanga is a popular name for them in Dade County but in New York
City and Philadelphia they are quoted as Yautias. In those markets only
the round type is called Malanga.
Yautias-Malangas are more. nutritous than Irish potatoes but not so easily
digested. They are used in stews, soups and consomes.
They are washed, graded and packed in 50-1b, crates or cartons in Dade
County. It takes 10-12 months to -grow this vegetable. Expansion of pro-
duction in other areas is therefore limited because very few in the United
States have that lons a growing season.
CASSAVA-YUCCA: Production .in Dade County has been very small, only about
150 acres in 1969. This is a shrubby perennial, grown widely in the tropics
for the large fleshy tuberous starchy roots. Some types or varieties are
bitter and used for extraction into flour for making into bread or commercial
tapioca. Some are sweet and they are eaten as vegetables in stews and soupS.
Of total imports there is no-desgination of the amount suitable for eating
and the amount for making into flour and tapioca.
IMPORTS: Total imports of Cassava-Yucca, Calabazas-Pumpkins, Yautias-Malanga-
Dasheens, and Batatas-Boniatos-Yams for the year ending June 1969 was
slightly over 25 million pounds. This was 77 percent over that imported
However, this- is;not a true comparison because in 1959-60 no frozen
quantities of these vegetables were reported as imported, while in 1968-69
the total frozen was almost 2 million pounds. Assuming that the frozen
weight of 2 million pounds was the equivalent of 3 million pounds in the
fresh, state, the total imports- in equivalent fresh form for 1968-69 would
be about 28 million pounds or about double that of 1959-60.
Total SupDlies Available in recent years, however, have more than doubled
over 1959-60 when account is taken of the volume shipped from Dade County -
406 carlot equivalents in 1969-70, against none in 1959-60.
Back in 1959-60 Cuba was the main.source of imports, but in 1968-69 the
Dominican Republic accounted for about 72 percent of all imports of
Batatas-Boniatos-.asheens, about 85 percent of Cassava-Yuccas, 84 percent
of Calabaza-Pumpkins and about 42 percent of .all Yams which includes
As the tables on imports in following pages show, many more countries now
take part in sending their tropical vegetables to the United States than
nine years earlier.
Points of Entry for Imoorts for Batatas are New York City, Florida ports
such as Miami, Port Everglades, West alm Beach, and Jacksonville;
Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and a few others. However, San
Juan Puerto Rico, considered part of the United States ranks high,
Air and Truck Preihtt Rates :t
low air rates for it
from the Domi
's fruit and
pound depending on weight and air
New York City 7-8 cents per lb.
are by boat.
An important factor for the increase in
nican Republic may be the relative
vegetables, to Miami from 3j 65 per
line, but mostly 3* per lb. and to
However, most shipments to New York
Truck rates from Dade County
around mostly $2.00 per cwt.,
have been increasing.
Currently they are
some Yautias-Malangas $2.10.
Prices: For Florida Batatas in 1969, highest prices in New York City
were from January through Nay, ranging $5.50-7.50, mostly $6.50-7.00
per 50-lb. sack. Lowest prices were in September $3.50-4.50, higher
thereafter to mostly $6.00-6.50 for the remainder of 1969.
For Florida Calabazas New York City per lb. prices ranged 14-17$ in
January and February; 13-15% mostly 14-151 for March-May; 8-14% mostly
12 135 from June-October; and 12-15j in November and December. New
Jersey prices were lower.
New York City 1969 prices for Florida Yautias ranged $7.00-13.00 per
50-lb carton or crate in 1969, the highest prevailing in January, the
lowest in December. For most of the year, the range was $8.00-9.00,.
The round type Yautias, reported as
$7.00-8.00 in 1969, a few as high as
Malangas from Puerto Rico ranged
$11.00 in February.
CALABAZAS & YAUTIAS -
SHIPMENTS BY MONTHS
(Reported by trucking firms)
Sax, various wgts
Crts or Ctns
Exported to Puerto Rico 10,920
For Batatas & Yautias 600 50-1b. sacks or crates per carlot;
500 75-lb sacks per carlot.
UB-TROPICAL VEGETABLE SUPPLIES:
Imports for 1959-60 & 19
& Dade County Florida Shipments,
IMPORTS Total Suplies- Car ots 0.000 lbs each
Commodity 1959-60 19-68-9 I l morts Daae Count
Pounds Pounds0 5 o ---96---
Cassava-Yucca 2,868,496 5,456,120 96 182 -
Calabazas- Pumpkins 2,981,615 4,082,933 97 136 26
Yaut ias-Malangas-Dasheens 8,274,465 10,029,327 276 34 151
Batatas-Boniatos-Yams 48,157 5,503,457 2 184 229
Total, Fresh 14,172,733 25,071,837 471 836 406
Total, Frozen- Fresh equiv., --- 3,000,000 100 NA
Grand total I 14,172,733 28,071,837 471 936 406
None reported for
1959-60 but for 19
POINTS OF ENTRY FOR SELECTED
VEGETABLES YEAR ENDING JUNE 1969
Commodity & Fresh Frozen Commodity & Fresh Frozen
Entry Point ,, ,,,, Pounds ,Pounds I Entry Point Pounds P.PouncdsJ
New York City
W. Palm Beach
Total Florida 2,662,758 90O
San Juan P. Rico
Total 10,029,327 23,975
New York City
San Juan P. Rico
iU. Palm Beach
.LJaJ. r.la !U.L.2t7 ---
Neir York City
U. Palm Beach
Total lorida 1,178,205 931,647
Total -5,475.120 1,838,060
New York City
San Juan P
1 ^S I it
S~n 5uan P,
IMPORTS INTO UNITED STaTES OF SELECTED SUB-TROPICAL VEGETABLES BY COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN )
1959-60 and 1968-69
BATATAS -BONIATOS-DASHEENS LI
British W. Indie
British W. Pacif
Trinidad & Tobag
!Tannr n ,Vr- t-HA" -
Total 8,274,464 10,029,327
CALABAZA- PUMPKINS /1
British W. Indies 2,001 ---
Costa Rica --- 14,941
Cuba 2,659,676 ---
Domican Republic 5,235 3,414,532
Haiti --- 42,173
Jamaica --- 63,750
Leeward-Windward Is. --- 79,650
Mexico 314,703 337,960
Panama --- 6,200
Trinidad & Tabaog --- 9,352
Venezuela --- 114,375
Total 2,981,615 4,082,933
(Year Ending in June)
i D. .. ,II -- ] Iodl t I
Total 2,868,496 5,456.120
Barbados --- 1,202,145
British West Indies 1,480 ---
British Honduras --- 27
British Pacific Is. --- 16,381
Columbia --- 746,072
Dominican Republic 324 2,323,512
Ghana --- 25
Haiti -- 196,555
Hong Kong 43,603 --
Jamaica --- 561,125
Japan 2,750 51,020
Leeward-Windward Is. --- 390,450
Nicaragua --- 3,300
Portugal --- 6, 000
New Zealand --- 300
Trinidad & Tobago --- 6.545
Total 48.157 5,503.457
/1 In Plant Quarantine, USDA Agricultural Service reports, Batatas-Boniatos are reported under
the name of DASHEENS; Calabazas under the name of PUMPKINS; Yuccas under the name of CASSAVA;
and Yautias-Malangas under the name of YAMS.
FROZEN SELECTED SUB-TROPICAL VEGETABLES IMPORTED INTO UNITED STATES
BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN,
1959-60 and 1958-
(Year Ending in June)
Comnmodity 1959-60 1968-69
- ------ ~-
SELECTED SUB-TROPICAL VEGETABLES
- 1969 PRICE RANGES BY MONTHS IN
LEADING WHOLESALE TERMINAL MARKETS
- Thursday prices
BATATAS CAL4BAZA YAT!A G ALA
Month Florida I P. Rico j 3 Rep s iRe raoRe"
S0-. sacksCents Per Pound 0-lb. sac ks
6.50-7.00 15-17% 10.oo-13.oo
Jan mostly mostly 15-185 mostly 11.00-13.00 -
6. 50 16-17 12.00-1 .00
1-1 9.00-1.oo 0
Feb 7.00-7.50 16-18% mostly mostly 9.00-11.00 i 7.25-11.
.._______________________ 18 9.50-10.50o....
Mar 6.50-7.00 13-15 13-14 $ mostly 6.50-9.50 7.25-8.0
S,_ I ______________________________________l 8.50-9.00......
Apr mostly 14 12-15 mostly 5.50-7.50 7.50-8.0
So6.5 -7.stol ... .......... .. 8.5 0-8.75 .00- .50....
May mostly 6.50 6.50 14-15% 12-1l 1 8.00-9.00 mostly i7.25-8.0
6.oo-6.7 ,,,, .. ,,,,, ,, ,,,, ,,,8.oo-8. o 0: ..._
7.75- .50 7.00- .50 7.25-7.5
June 5.50-6.50 12% 12-13% i mostly mostly mostly
8.00-8.50 .25-8.25 7.50
4.550 o-12 -- -9.0- .5o-9.oo0
July mostly t mostly fair q few mostly 7.00-7.
4.75-500 12 10 8.50 8.00-8.75 _
4.00-4.50 12-14 800-9.00 7.50-.O0 o
Aug mostly 4.00-5.00 4.00-5.00 mostly 10-12% mostly mostly 7.501
1.2 -4.05 .. .. 12-1| 8.25-8.50 .0 !. .
3.50-.50 11-13 8.00-9.00
Sept mostly 4.50 4.50 mostly 10$ mostly 7.50-8.50 1 7.50 ;
.00-4.25 12-1 8.50-9.00
3.75-.5 0 .12 5- I7.oo- .00 7.50
Oct mostly 6.00-6.50 6.25 mostly mostly 8.50 mostly few
4.00-6. 0012 8-1. .2
.00- 50 .50- .00 7.00-7.|
Nov mostly 12-15% 8-13% 7.50-8.00 mostly | mostly
6.50 .0- .
12-l 7.0- 7.0 7.50- .oo00
Dec 6.00-6.50 13-15 mostly mostly mostly 7.00-7.t
12 7.500 7. 50
P H I L A D E L P H I A Monday's Prices
Month Florida P. _i co oD e: i. ... --.
50-1b sacks Cents Per Pound 50-1 COrate | .os
Jan mostly 13.00 ,
_an__ 6.oa 1_______________________________i_1
.0 .00 -
Feb 7.00 10.00 -
Mar 7.00 mostly 9.00 8.00
Apr mostly 15% 13% 9.25 8.00 8.50
- 6.75 i- 8.75 8.00.8.75 8. o
Jue*" 0 .2 1 .75 8.75-9.00 8.0oo-. 8.50
Jul 16. -1 9.50 ot 8.50
ua 6.25 15f 15d 8.00-9.50 mostly 8.00-8,50
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UNITED STATES DUANTNB? OFP A GR6 C TIR
Post Offlee Box 3275
Florida City. Florida 33030
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
iiU 1sil lll11111I l iIII 111 1ll 3
3 1262 08496 2363
HBlE LIBRARY I. F. A. St
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MECARTY HALL UNIT C
SUB-TROPICAL VEGETABLE SUMMARY 1969-70 SEASON
Florida City, F & V Shipping Point
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