RPfRT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE
UmITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
Washington, D. C., September 25, 1925.
Si: Ihave the honor to present herewith the report of the Exten-
son rvice for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1925.
- C. W. WARBURTON,
W. M. JARDINE,
Secretary of Agrztlture.
Tihe Extension Service has continued
duri ti year on practically the
s: e basis as in 1924, with the excep-
tion tHat the office of demonstrations
recltmation projects was trans-
ferred to it by order of the Secretary
Ln Auyust 16, 1924. This small unit
oiducts extension activities on Fed-
"ra reclamation projects in the West-
SStats The object o the transfer
as to corriieate the activities of this
t more closely with the extension
2ork of the department and the sev-
tat States in which reclamation proj-
st are located.
SThe personsnE of the Ektension Serv-
Wiashington on Jne 30, 1924,
existed .f 172 persons of whom 5
r0e employed .in the offtie of the di-
2 were full-time employees of the office
of cooperative extension work, and 9
were employed by the office of ex-
hibits. In addition to the persons em-
ployed cooperatively by the depart-
ment and the States, about 1,000 are
employed in extension work in the
States who are not under appointment
from the department.
The direct Federal appropriation to
the Extension Service during the fiscal
year was $1,599,172, of which $1,307,-
940 was for farmers' cooperative dem-
onstration work, $153,712 for salaries
and administrative expenses, $99,880
for exhibits, and $37,640 for demon-
strations on reclamation projects.
Other bureaus of the department made
available $36,912 for extension work,
making a total of $1,636,084 in direct
Few changes hav
organization of the
tive extension work
during the year.
continued in charge
J. A. Evans as assist
On June 30, 1925
staff consisted of
and supervisory offi
tion field agents,
field agents, and a
e occurred in the
office of coopera-
or in its personnel
C. B. Smith has
of the work, with
, the Washington
cers, 12 organiza-
clerical staff of
approximately 80 people. Eleven tem-
porary clerks were employed for a
three months' period in the section
of reports and efficiency studies to as-
sist in summarizing the 1924 reports,
as compared to 20 clerks the preceding
year. This reduction in temporary em-
ployees was made possible by the
States assuming responsibility for
more of the tabulating and resulted in
a saving of approximately $3,000 to
the Federal Government.
I. O. Schaub, regional leader in the
1924, to become
in North Care
ceeded by O. B.
South for man
1924, R. A. Tur
and girls' club
the force. F.
lough the entire
This work is
quest of the I
Board. J. A.
es, resigned July 15,
director of extension
hlina. He was suc-
Martin, who has been
extension work in the
y years. On July 1,
ner, specialist in boys'
work, was added to
P. Lund, specialist in
on, has been on fur-
year in Denmark and
and home ec
being done at
was granted a furlough at the end of
the year for the purpose of making
a study for the Portuguese Govern-
ment of the possibilities of cotton
growing in the colonial possessions of
that country in southeast Africa.
The entire State field service on
June 30, 1925, numbered 4,860 persons.
Of this number, 3,447 were perma-
1.,.d L1t I t. n~nn 4.tn
53. Of the above total, 3,752 were co-
operative employees of the office of co-
operative extension work, practically
all engaged either in county work,
supervision of county work, or farm
The total funds from all sources
available for cooperative extension
work during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1925, were approximately
$19,612,407, or about $500,000 more
than for the previous year. Of this
amount 36.8 per cent, or $7,224,852,
was contributed by the Federal Gov-
ernment, exclusive of the use of pen-
alty envelopes; and 27.8 per cent, or
was derived from State ap-
ns to the agricultural col-
other State agencies. The
35.4 per cent, or $6,937,983,
n county appropriations for
work and from contribu-
ocal organizations and indi-
is. About 92 per cent of all
; used for cooperative extension
in 1925 came from public sources.
the Federal funds $5,880,000 was
available by the Smith-Lever Act
and other appropriations supplemen-
tary thereto, $1,307,940 from direct
appropriations to the office of coopera-
tive extension work, and $36,912 from
other appropriations to the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Of the total
funds $12,300,124 (62.7 per cent) was
allotted for extension agents in the
counties; $1,269,642 (6.5 per cent)
was allotted at the State agricultural
colleges for administration; $2,129,445
(10.9 per cent) for supervision of
county extension forces; and $3,-
550,399 (18.1 per cent) for the em-
ployment of subject-matter specialists
to supplement the county workers.
The remaining 1.8 per cent, or $362,-
797, was for use in connection with
the activities of the Federal Extension
Service located at Washington. A
considerable part of the money ex-
pended in Washington and at the
State agricultural colleges was for
and 145,012 local leaders for
work in 1924,* a total of 182,917
teer local leaders aiding the r
extension forces in carrying on
sion work. Over 75,000 of
leaders were women.
Substantial progress was also
in club work. Enrollment wi
creased by more than 51,000, ai
percentage of those completion
year's work was increased slightly
over 1923. The juniors put on about
60,000 more result demonstrations in
1924 than in 1923, while in the adult
work there were about 75,000 less
demonstrations than in 1923. It is
possible that there is some relation be-
tween these figures, as quite generally
county agents had been urged to give
more time to junior work.
Three regional conferences were
Western States met at
to review the progress
the year in carrying ou
program adopted at
Colo., in 1923, relating
stock, human nutrition,
of the 11
t the regional
to range live-
and took steps to continue and
strengthen this work. Agronomy was
added to the list of subjects given
special consideration at the Tucson
conference. Manuscript for a range
handbook has been prepared in fur-
therance of the western extension pro-
gram and is ready for the printer.
The Eiastern States extension work-
ers held a three-day extension confer-
ence at New York City in February,
1925, devoted to nutrition, soils and
crops, and dairying. The North Cen-
tral States held a three-day farm man-
n t CO
for extension work. I
will be published as a
the use of all extension
No regional con-
office has coop-
s bureaus of the
together the re-
hich are ready
extended during th
Jersey, under the |
of M. C. Wilson.
completed for ma
studies in Georgia,
cousin during the
fall of 1925. Four
field studies of the
e year to Colorado,
*husetts, and New
Plans have been
king similar field
Alabama, and Wis-
late summer and
other States have
ce in conducting
same general char-
In this work 10 members of the
office staff and 80 members of the
State extension services have partici-
pated in the collection of field data.
The benefit to those participating in
the collection of field data has been
very great, according to statements
made by extension directors indicat-
ing that the training of extension
workers in extension organization,
methods, and terminology is
means an unimportant by-prod
the field studies.
In three of the States-New
Colorado, and California--a
was made of the attitude of the farm-
ing people toward extension. Sixty-
six per cent, two farms out of three,
were reported favorable. Twenty-four
per cent, or one out of four, were re-
ported as indifferent or lukewarm to
the work. Actual opposition was noted
in 4 per cent of the cases, or on the
part of only 1 farm in 25. No atti-
tude was reported for the remaining
6 per cent.
These studies clearly indicate that
satisfactory progress has been made
by the extension organization in
reaching rural people, and they also
point out equally clearly the remain-
ing task of getting more farmers and
home makers to accept extension
teaching, and all to adopt more im-
proved farm and home practices.
Extension accomplishments.-A some-
what different plan has been followed
this year than heretofore in compiling
national results of cooperative exten-
sion work. All of the States were
invited to tabulate their county re-
ports and submit State summaries of
the different lines of work. Thirty-
paid extension workers were assisted
in their work by 182,917 voluntary
leaders recruited from the ranks of
local farmers and farm women. Mem-
bership in adult extension clubs or
groups totaled 557,347. Boys' and
girls' clubs to the number of 38,120
were organized, with 510,355 different
boys and girls enrolled in agricultural
and home economics projects. Per-
sonal calls by the agents were made
on over 700,000 farmers and more than
230,000 home makers. Personal inter-
views with agents at their offices were
reported to the extent of more than
3,000,000, with more than 2,160,000
telephone calls in addition. Over
3,760,000 personal letters were written
in connection with requests for infor-
mation. Nearly 19,000,000 persons at-
tended the 623,000, meetings arranged
for or participated in by extension
Nearly 4,000,000 improved farm and
home practices were reported adopted
in 1924, or approximately 1,500,000
less than during the preceding year.
This decrease is owing partly at least
to elimination of duplicate reporting
increases in number of.
trations conducted in
were in soils, forestry,
ing, home management,
and house furnishings. The largest de-
creases were in horticulture, poultry,
In the case of
health and sanitation,
ases in projects corn-
over 1923 were in po-
nd other special crops,
and nutrition, home
h and sanitation, and miscellane-
The principal decreases were in
culture and animal husbandry.
e number of improved practices
ted in 1924 as compa
larger in the case
'ng, rural engineering
red with 1923
g, rodent and
insect control, home management
house furnishings, home health
for the use of representatives of the
Federal Department of Agriculture
and for State and county workers
These briefs for the most part have
been typewritten for limited distribu-
tion, although in a few cases the man
trial has been mimeographed for gen-
eral distribution. The topics covered
are as follows:
From 1923 reports--
Cooperative tomato marketing.
Cover and green mfanure crops.
Cow testing associations.
Kitchen arrangement and equ
Motion pictures, use of.
Wheat seed treatment.
From 1924 reports-
Better sire campaign.
Campaigns and contests.
Improved seed and variety
Insects and diseases.
Livestock range improvement.
Farmers' institutes.-Information rela-
tive to farmers' institutes conducted
in 1924 has been collected from the
State agricultural colleges and the
State departments of agriculture by
J. M. Stedman. The 21 States con-
ducting institutions held an aggregate
of 3,514 institutes, comprising 10,387
sessions, which were attended by
1.474.966 persons. The cost of these
a ~ ~ m ~ n 1
port contains an index of all similar
reports prepared during the past six
VISUAL INSTRUCTION AND PUBLICATIONS
sas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachu-
setts, Mississippi, Missouri, New York,
North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South
Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee,
and Virginia. On these trips 1,860
new field photographs were taken.
The photographic reference file,
which includes illustrations on a wide
variety of agricultural and home-eco-
nomic subjects available for the use
of its Washingtqn and field employees
and cooperators, at the end of the year
comprised 25,497 photographs, 3,348
new illustrations being added during
In cooperation with subject-matter
The visual instruction and editorial
section of the office continued to
handle matters relating to visual in-
struction, publications, press material,
radio, photographs, lantern slides,
charts, motion pictures, exhibits, and
other illustrative material under the
leadership of Reuben Brigham.
Publications.-The following publica-
tions were prepared by the office of
cooperative extension work and
printed during the fiscal year: Co-
operative Extension Work, 1922; Co-
operative Extension Work, 1923; Boys'
and Girls' Club Work, 1922; Home
Demonstration Work, 1922; Extension
Work in Plant Pathology, 1923; Ex-
tension* Work in Agricultural Engi-
neering, 1923; An Extension Program
in Crop Production to Reenforce
Range Livestock, Dairying, and Hu-
man Nutrition for the Western States.
The following circular was reprinted:
A System of Field and Office Records
for County Extension Workers.
Information service.-Cooperating with
the department press service, the sec-
tion assembled and prepared 288 ar-
ticles relating to various phases of
extension work. These articles ap-
peared. in the Official Record, the De-
partment Clip Sheet, and other press
mediums. The picture news service
to farm papers and magazines relating
to national and regional developments
in extension work, which was being
developed in 1923; was further ex-
panded. Over 500 photographs, with
supplementary extension information,
were furnished for news purposes dur-
ing the year.
Visual instruction.-At the request of
State extension divisions short talks
were given on methods of extension
photography and on the preparation
and use of illustrative material at
conferences of extension workers in
Tntnr fllan iiniir r lERiac f O .. Ar ff0 n
rtment 18 series of
s on the following
draft horses; A
farm home; Pro-
milk; 4-H club
lflfa weevil; Range management on
the national forests; Plumbing for the
farm home; Food makes the differ-
ence; Beef slaughtering and cutting;
Cow-testing associations; Roundworms
and swine sanitation. The prepara-
tion of approximately 20 other series
of slides is in progress. The following
series have been revised during the
year: How to make good farm butter;
Cattle-tick eradication; Types and
breeds of beef and dual-purpose cat-
tie; Breeds of horses: The swine proj-
ect in vocational agriculture; Breeds
of sheep. During the year 815 sets
of slides were distributed to State
Nearly 40,000 negatives, prints,
slides, enlargements, charts, posters,
and drawings were requested and pre-
pared for use in extension work. Re-
quests for the preparation of illus-
trative material received for this sec-
tion by the office of publications in-
cluded 3,667 negatives, 28,652 prints,
7,518 slides, 678 enlargements, and
miscellaneous items, inclusive of
prints. In the section 1,713 lant
slides, 275 charts, drawings, and
signs also were prepared.
I n nn^ an v-c^.nnnf 4-4 an ____ 4-1, 4l-I, fa aC$* nn t,.#/
bureaus of the depai
lantern slides were
of extension worker
guide to fabric selec
bees; Milk for the
duction of clean
sults of which have not yet been tabu-
lated. As a result of a similar ques-
tionnaire, sent out in the spring of
1924, a summary was prepared show-
ing that of 944 extension agents mak-
ing replies, 151 had radio receiving
sets and 482 had access to receiving
sets. From the data obtained in the
questionnaire it is estimated that
364,800 farm families were using radio
receiving sets in 1924t
No additions were made to the corps
of subject-matter extension workers
during the year, the number remaining
at 10, as in 1923. The work has con-
tinued under the general charge of
A. B. Graham.
One purpose of these workers is to
organize the investigational results of
the several bureaus of the department
into form for use by the extension
services of the several States. The
subject-matter specialists, in coopera-
tion with the investigational forces of
the, bureaus, determine the means and
agencies by which the results of re-
search may best be extended. They
also assist in preparing publicity and
other general information for exten-
sion use. Four members of the staff
prepare material for mimeographed
publications such as The
Horticulturist and The
Pathologist, setting forth th
advocated by the department
in use by State specialists.
and other means the best
methods are made available to all
workers. The specialists also review
all projects submitted by the States
wh'ch relate to their particular line of
work. In their visits to the States
they give further study, through per-
sonal observation, to extension meth-
ods, agencies, and plans. Where funds
are not yet available to employ a sub-
ject-matter specialist, certain persons
within the bureaus have sometimes
been designated to give particular at-
tention to plans, surveys, and reports
of extension work related to bureau
cooperated with the State nutrition
specialists at the same conference,
The nutrition specialist and the farm
management specialist cooperated in
a similar conference in New York City
in February, 1925, where plans for
furthering these two lines of work
were developed in cooperation with
nutrition and dairy specialists from
the Northeastern States. At Sioux
City, Iowa, in May, 1925, the farm
management specialist cooperated with
State farm management specialists in
further developing their plans and
methods agreed upon at a conference
in Chicago a year previous.
The subject-matter specialists have
cooperated with the office of exhibits
and the office of motion pictures in
the preparation of exhibits and mo-
tion-picture films prepared for the ex-
A decidedly increased interest has
been manifested during the year in
the study of the needs of boys' and
girls' club work, and also the means
and agencies whereby this work can
be more successfully promoted from a
subject-matter standpoint. Subject-
matter specialists cooperate with each
other in coordinating their efforts;
they think of the farm as a unit rather
than of their various interests as
merely isolated features of that unit.
Extension specialists frequently con-
sulted with each other to determine
the relationships of their particular
Nearly 900 part-time or full-time ex-
tension specialists were employed by
the States, as follows:
Agronomy .__ .__ _......._.. 105
Animal husbandry --.. _-. 81
Clothing and millinery.... 59
Dairying...-...- ---- -. 95
Entomology, including bee-
keeping ............ -- --- 37
Farm management .__--__ 48
Foods and nutrition ,.-..- 57
Home economics, general __ 13
Home management_ _._S_ 22
Horticulture ........ 81
Marketing -- en 42
expensive has perhaps ranked next.
The seed improvement work and the
distribution of high-class seed have
developed from a system of inspection
an4 certification. This work, in many
of the States, was begun by the ex-
tension agronomists, who later gave
way to commercial agencies or to as-
sociations in their activities in promot-
ing it. These agencies are conducting
the work with a scale of charges for
inspection and certification of such
grains as corn, wheat, oats, and rye,
and grass seeds. The work in soil fer-
tility, which includes the application
of commercial fertilizers, lime, and
manure, has continued to claim much
of the attention of the county agents
and the agronomy specialists. Manu-
facturers and distributors of commer-
cial fertilizers have joined with the
investigators and extension workers in
recommending the use of high-grade
fertilizers. Conferences to bring about
this result were promoted by extension
and research agronomists.
Horticulture.-The pruning and spray-
ing of orchards has continued to be
the chief horticultural extension ac-
tivity. In many States demonstrations
in pruning and spraying were made by
the specialists and county agents.
Plant pathologists, horticulturists, and
entomologists have shown increased
interest in cooperative plans for spray-
ing in commercial orchards. Addi-
tional service has been given by the
Bureau in forecasting
conditions in important fruit-
regions, and recommenda-
year in the care
nation of the farm orchard
raising of small fruits. Thi
interest, as well as greater
and in the
of vegetables in farm gardens, may be
due in part to campaigns by nutrition
specialists for increased variety in
the diet in farm homes.
Extension horticulturists have co-
operated with extension pathologists
in extending the best methods in plant-
3n I0< -. -. -
sion plant pathologist.
In most Stltes
the plant pathologist cooperates with
the production specialists in agronomy,
ilorticulture, vegetable growing, and
forestry, with the expectation that
they will extend the most commonly
known practices for control in their
particular fields. By this plan the
extension plant pathologist can reserve
his time for clarifying old methods
and establishing new ones, where the
problems of plant disease are so great
that they require intensive attention.
The methods of control practiced in
others years have been developed fur-
ther during 1924, such as (1) locating
disease-free stock, (2) growing these
stocks in selected fields, (3) con-
ducting field and bin inspections, (4)
training inspectors, (5) conducting
test plots with seeds planted for cer-
tain uses, and (6) teaching by means
of newspaper articles, tours, exhibits,
and other agencies.
During the year there has been a
marked increase in the quantity of
ers for the use
farmers, and other
shown greater inte
fore in obtaining
of seeds. The co
and the publ
the sale of
on the farm
by extension work-
of county agents,
s on the control of
Seed dealers have
wrest than ever be-
operation of plant
licity that has resulted in
pure seeds is gradually
one of the great wastes
, that of loss from plant
to make extent
ing the groun
1924 the live-
its precarious condition
sion work in animal hus-
more than that
d already gain
nomic methods of feeding.
had a tendency to promote a
interest in the organizing of
tive shipping associations.
in the Far West and Southwes
poor corn crop in the North
at, and a
,,,.,,,,., +,,1?,, ,r
be the spread of the practice of dock-
ing and castrating lambs. This has
been emphasized particularly in Ken-
ist in ani
aged, and 1
e Federal extension special-
mal husbandry has visited
s of Tennessee knd Virginia
; practice has been encour-
has been in close touch with"
Sin eastern lamb markets.
recognition of this work is
the markets by slightly in-
In dairy husbandry, the
associations, the growing
feeds, and the making of a
ity of silage have shown
steady growth during 1924
a slow but
. The bull-
association work has had a steady
growth and is still to be commended
because of its reasonable certainty to
increase milk production
been a gradual increase
care of milk and cream,
milk market and for man
high quality butter 'and
dairy extension special,
operated with the nutriti
in encouraging farmers
own cows to obtain enough to pro
the family with milk and bu
Demonstrations with children to bring
them to normal weight by the addi-
tion of milk to their d'et have stimu-
lated a much larger use of milk in the
Extension methods in noultrv hus-
bandry have shown increased results
in the production of eggs and in the
raising of a better type of market
fowls. Culling seems to have become
a well-established practice in many
parts of the country. The grading of
eggs has gained considerable ground
because of increased prices offered by
buyers for eggs that grade up to ten-
tative standards established by the
Federal Department of Agriculture.
However, there is much room for im-
provement along this line. Farm jour-
nals, county newspapers, and special
poultry publications helped very ma-
terially by publishing stories of good
nmnltrrr mannnmornt" no nanotioarl hvr
recommendations have been made for
certain adjustments in the manage-
ment of the farm.
For the demonstrations in account
keeping books are furnished, usually
by the college of agriculture, at a
nominal cost. This work is for the
purpose of establishing the'habit of
record keeping and to serve as a guide
in considering each farm enterprise.
The gradual increase in the use of
machinery and the increased acreage
per worker have continued to a small
degree throughout 1924. In the han-
dling of farm machinery it has been
learned, through farm-management
specialists and from other sources,
that the lifetime of this machinery
can be extended by buying parts to
take the pl
has been a
a new one
ace of those parts showing
\t degree of wear. There
general relaxation of the
trading an old machine for
where repairs for the old
Ii S I J _i -
one can De obtained at reasonable
Marketing.-During the year there
was a general increase in the calls
for service in point-of-origin and term-
inal inspection. The point-of-origin
inspection has brought to the producer
more clearly than ever the necessity
of producing commodities of such
quality as will pass this initial in-
spection. This has also stimulated
cooperative marketing associations
and has given stability to them in that
it has afforded these organizations a
much-needed protection against termi-
nal market practices that were not
always fair to the shipper. There has
been a gradual raising of quality in
the marketing of eggs because of the
introduction of standards whereby the
individual shipper and the cooperative
shipping organizations could meet the
demands of the large consuming mar-
kets. Cooperative shipping associa-
tions for livestock and other coopera-
tive organizations for the marketing
of fruits, vegetables, and some types
of tobacco have often increased the
returns to the producer very appre-
oinh R Thh wool nonln in fhA nrinci-
eiopmehit of State "urseries, thereby
king planting material i Kie to ob-
t in fi ostered a planting virorhm
S:rany Itates up to th m ift of thd
S1 aof "i;tletAbi3u a ita.tAtiai froi u
ne nuserics. The planting of wind-
teakl i fhe pains ahd piairlb Ah-
ions and the prodiiction 6t feii6e pbsts
htTye continued to receive the greatest
afition. l1 th Sbuti thbre has been
a enewe interest ill refotesting rbugh
areas whic. have been cuit over by the
laige lumber companies. In many;
pses the State department of for-
ary, the county agent, and the far-
mier, ave codperated in the tdevelop-
inent do planiting plans. The care of
t the m woodland haS, however,
grown in favor in all of the States
lying in the natural wdodland areas
of the eastern, central, and southern
parts of the United States. The prod-
iucs of the farm woodland are coming
gradually tp be considered as much a
iroduvt of the farm as are the cereals
and livestock. The general looking
opwarc to Federal aid in forestry
extension wolk has quickened many of
thb States to develop their nurseries
more extensively and to give greater
attention to the farm woodland. The
creosoing of fence posts and other
timbers likely to be exposed to decay
increased ver rapidly dtiring 1924.
In ope of the States where sheep rais-
ing has beeti stimulated, thereby in-
creasing the amount of fencing, post
preeFrvation has been a major project
of feie forestry extension specialists.
Rural engineering.-During 1924, as in
years previous, the increase of the
productive power of the land by drain-
agi, terracing, irrigation, and clearing
@of stumps has progressed very grad-
ually in keeping with the idea that
the producing power of land per man
and per: acre may be increased by
providing artificial barriers against
19sses frm flooding, washing, and
4rpught, and facilitatting tillage by the
removal of rots and. stumps. The
I etime of farn machinery has been
increased by teaching the best methods.
cVarigg for it and repairing it.
-n'_ -"^ _. tj i-__ _- -n._Ti nB -'...
some of the methods of terracing. In-
struction has also been given in the
use of drags, levels, and rods, each of
which is necessary to the laying out
uflding plans for hog houses,
poultry houses, dwellings, and barns,
d.4 well as plans for the installation of
water AYstems, dumb waiters, and
various othet household conveniences,
have been distributed throughout the
year. The use of the kitchen score
card And other methods, of determin-
ing the rating of farm-home equipment
has stimulated the request for re-
modeling plans and detailed plans for
Clothing and millinery.-Demonstra-
tions in the proper selection of cloth-
ing material, with special reference to
the use to be made of it, have been
continued throughout the year. Con-
struction work by the use of adjusted
commercial patterns and homemade
dress forms have had a normal growth
without extra stimulation. Both of
these forms of work have passed well
beyond the propaganda stage. The
furnishing of a girl's room has stim-
ulated a greater interest on her part
in sewing along lines other than gar-
ment making. In clothing, as in milli-
nery, many demonstrations have been
made in local leader-training schools
and in other groups of women to
bring out the adaptability of goods of
a certain color and figure. Trimmings
for both dresses and hats to harmon-
ize with complexion, stature, and gen-
eral conformation have also been dem-
In millinery the training of local
leaders and the conducting of hat con-
struction and trimming schools have
progressed gradually during the year.
The Work in millinery has accom-
plished two outstanding results-de-
telopment of better taste in the con-
struction and trimming of hats to fit
the face as well as the head of the
individual and the saving of money.
Home management.--Home manage-
ment, from the financial aspect on the
farm, has become an integral part or
JC!:_~~~~~~~t .L S.-^ / f ___._ ____ ^I-
tribute her time and money more sys-
tematically. Devices for saving en-
ergy, steps, and time have been demnon-
strated. Kitchen rearrangement and
the installation of new or better equip-
ment have often resulted from the
use of the kitchen score card. The
installation of running water and sep-
tic tanks and the adjustment of the
height of sinks and tables have been
brought about through the cooperation
of the home-management specialists
with the rural engineers. The rural
engineer in one State has given most
of his time to the installation of septic
tanks. This specialist usually brings
the local plumber to his assistance,
so that local aid in the building of
such tanks is available if desired.
Business men have cooperated with
home-management specialists in the
loan of material for demonstration
purposes in the homes and for exhibit
purposes at various other meetings.
Home health.-Home-health demon-
strations have been confined to the in-
troduction of simple health practices
in the home, and the correction of cer-
tain physical conditions about the
home that would lead toward better
health. Therefore, encouragement has
been given to the screening of doors
and windows in many parts of the
country where this feature has been
neglected. Ventilating of sitting rooms
and especially of bedrooms in farm
and village homes has been advocated.
Demonstrations have been made in the
drainage of low, wet places near resi-
dences and in the removal of discarded
receptacles where mosquitoes may
breed. Simple demonstrations have
been made in the general care of the
sick room and in methods of changing
linen on the beds of sick persons.
Very simple first aids have been
demonstrated, all of which have been
of a nature to show how help may be
rendered until a physician arrives.
Nutrition.--The use of height and
weight standards as applied to chil-
is made parents aware of the
proper physical development.
demonstrations have overcome
school children and young boys and
girls in club work.
The presentation of the four differ-
ent types of food, either by p cture or
exhibit, has s'mplified the presentation
bf better balanced rations both tor
adults and children. The objective
representation of these four classes
the fats, the sugars and starches, the
vegetable proteids, and the animal
proteids, may for all practical pur-
poses omit the consideration of cal-
ories and at the same t me not lay too
much emphasis on vitamins.
The family food supply has been
of small fruits
I and menu
by the prone
, a family
budget, and the addition
cows to produce milk and
the family. The raising
ily's own meat and poult
contributed to needed famr
plies. The greater use <
score card has brought
weaknesses in food prepare
s and menu
building have therefore been conitin-
ued. The use of local leaders among
adults as well as among boys' and
girls' clubs has made possible the ex-
tending of many practical features of
nutrition through various simple dem-
onstrations. Local leaders have in-
creased very rapidly in number during
the year. The success of the plan has
been due very largely to the more
careful training of these local leaders
by competent nutrition specialists.
The administrative work of the
office, in its dealings with the States,
is divided into four regions with a
leader in charge of each region. Dur-
ing the year Miss F. E. Ward has con-
tinued in charge of the work in the
Northeastern States, G. E. Farrell in
the North Central States, and W. A.
Lloyd in the Western States. As pre-
viously noted, 0. B. Martin succeeded
I. O. Schaub as regional leader in the
Southern States in July, 1924. Im-
increased interest in the problem of
weeding out low-producing cows
through the regular type of cow-test-
ing association. Particularly notable
has been the increase in interest in
better breeding by grading up the
herds through the use of purebred
dairy bulls. In Connecticut 450 pure-
bred bulls were purchased by dairy
The problem of rising feed costs has
led to increased interest in the work
extension agents are carrying on to
introduce more leguminous hay. Sev-
eral States, notably New Hampshire,
New York, and New Jersey, made an
intensified effort to develop more in-
terest in alfalfa.
The testing of cattle for tubercu-
losis and the eradication of tubercu-
lar cows has gone forward with
greater interest and greater success
than ever before. In many counties
it has been the most important dairy
With the intensification of poultry
husbandry in much of this section,
disease has become a most important
factor. Many of the disease problems
are still in the research stage, but
marked success has been won through
the use of eggs from tested flocks as
well as through the use of sanitary
and preventive measures in raising
chicks and caring for laying hens.
Interest in extension work in for-
estry, has increased in the North-
eastern States. Demonstrations in es-
timating woodlot timber have met
with unusual success, especially in
The progress in home demonstration
work has been marked, and fundamen-
tal problems of the home maker are
being solved. Surveys and studies of
the problems of the rural home have
been made in a number of States in
cooperation with the Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economies and the Bureau of
There has been a tendency to sim-
plify methods of work. For example,
various units of a project are corre-
lated, and the rural home maker who
fair balance between expenditures for
clothing and other items. In less well-
to-do localities emphasis has been
placed upon skillfully making over
and renovating clothing to reduce ex-
penditure. The major purposes of
clothing work are the saving of time,
material, effort, and money for the
farm family and the enhancing of
comfort and attractiveness.
Correlation of the work of the nu-
trition, garden, fruit, and dairy
specialists in considering adequate
diet for the family has been well
worked out in certain of the States.
In New York the orchard and vege-
table garden specialists devoted con-
siderable time to planning the garden
budget and writing home-garden bulle-
tins. With the dairy specialists they
made possible a broad and practical
program in human nutrition. This is
an excellent example of team work
between workers in agriculture and
North Central States.-The north cen-
tral region includes Illinois. Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas. Kentucky. Michigan,
Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, Ohio. South Dakota, and
Wisconsin. Work in these States has
continued along normal lines.
The total number of local leaders
cooperating in the North Central
States was increased from 74,262 in
1923 to 87,532 in 1924. The principal
increase is due to the general adoption
of the local leader method of carry-
ing on home-demonstration work.
More than 39,000 of the local leaders
cooperating were women who helped
to further extension work in home
economics and girls' clubs.
There is a tendency in nearly all
the North Central States to limit the
number of projects worked upon in
the counties and to encourage agents
to concentrate on two or three major
projects. The systematic use of agri-
cultural campaigns is increasing, tak-
ing the form of "lime, legumes, live-
stock, and better living"
"clover and prosperity
and clover conferences "
farmers of 10 of these States git the
cost of cartridging an4 transportation.
One of the deelyprments in county
ex tension wrk during 1924 was the
4.7 per cent increase in the number
of boys and girls completing clY wopk.
These States had 165,638 enrolled
with a total of 108,814, or 65 per cent,
competing. There has been an in-
creasing interest also, both among su-
pervisors and agents, in getting at
the facts through a careful analysis
of agricultural statistics, reports, and
other information wlich may indicate
what projects should be emphasized
and what method are most effective
in carrying on the work.
In the supervision of home-demon-
stration work during 1924 emphasis
upon training of the proj-
and keeping the public
informed in regard to the
aents in hompe-demonstra-
There was an increased
of the work of specialists,
the interrelation, for ex-
ample, of health with home manage-
ment, clothing and nutrition projects;
nutrition with health, gardening, and
dairying; clothing with home manage-
ment and art; and home management
with agricultural engineering, foo4,
Southern States.-The Southern States
include Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North
Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina;
Tennessee, Texas, and Yirgiga.
The most notable evidences of the
progress of the
South in 1024
members of tih
in all lines of i
homes made ex
progress of their
Thle most si
stations of tF
extension work in the
are found in the ad-
of the demopnstrations
farmers and the
families. Men and
i work, apd 821,114
or and interior ii"
ject lessons in the
Le year were t
which winter and summen legumes
were used with staple crops in soil
i'lmillinqrr f Ynnntrfnti nn with Rnv-
counties ylber@. a clpb of boy
a ab! f cotton per acre hatl
cqst of propuctiop. Some of t
1s haid gWo than 1i00 meber
echS. '~hio bor madb about $450
yat and 4ii dpQt negltet their chdoO
wqgk. Some of them 3mt4 pore thba
800 per acte on cotton. Tb' 9o ys ant
girls also developed their group acted y
cities. Hundreds of camps of instrve-
tion pmd recreatjn have bppn heid.
Georgia built a I$,OP0 enpcamnei t pt
$e '.cpllge of agricuIlre ag mrtTy
ot04r as&stantig) developments ip
taking place in othpr States.
Ep"noPnin grodit on an4 feigipi
mar etipg are progressing nba In
hand. A typ cal example 'is founq i
Cglrea4on County, $. 0. The bunipess
mep gid rfrmers orgmnize4 a market
bureau to sell the prodipts res$Itipg
from diversified farming. All farmers
wpre qsced to bring in sweet potatoes
on a certa n date. It was necessary
to buy potatoes with money from the
bureau treptury in order to gat enpigh
to fill the #rst car, The retrp0 from
the sh:pment were so satisfatortt
farmprps later brought in enough to fill
3- more cars. They apso sold $.O,QQO
worth of other products urinq the
year. The ~q~gent says, "Every one of
thesp farmers knows wllat No. 1, No.
2, sd Juxbo potatoes are pow "
Alltkpsgb. the wftpmen and girls have
devoted mu2 atteptiqn to the eqP-
pwa and improiezpept of kitchen,
bedrooins, living rooms, and the blme
generally, hey awve not neglected tieir
productive and income-egrig enter-
prises. More than 100,000 of tem
Inie Sppcessffl 4emonstratios in
utiliSlzg the product of tntp gar ens
and oreegrds. Their foot prpprva-
tlin and conservation wor4 4hs beep
excellent for a de ge. Popitry Ieq
Qastratipns were ctpndicted op ,m0,x
different farms. Home 4afrying wys
em h siaegd ap4 ?9,344 demopstr$~ps
were reported along th4i line.,
new things were done by the .pme
deInsptrators during tbe :yer. T1hey
made glvxes, Iags, apd liJ er hbiOg
ara a lanh-a s ath a rddn a r tfhr ina ia
EXTI SIO !
boards increased appropriations for
salaries and expenses of agents in
many cases. In 1923 there were 1,809
agents, men and women, white and ne-
gro. This was an increase of 13
agents above the year before. This
is a good showing in view of the fact
that in many sections of the South
the season was unfavorable and money
was scarce. The prospects for the
coming year are excellent.
Western States.-In this group are in-
cluded the States of Arizona, Cali-
fornia, Colorado, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming. In the
States composing the western divi-
sion extension work had the same
budget as for 1923. The legislatures
in each of these States meet biennially,
and 1924 was the second year of the
bietnium. The number of county
ag~ets and subject-matter specialists
remained practically stationary. The
number of supervisory leaders and
the cost of administration were re-
duced, following the tendency of the
past six years.
A widespread drought prevailing over
much of the area, with a shortage of
Irrigation water due to insufficient
snowfall in the mountains in the
winter of 1923-24, seriously interfered
with farming operations and also with
demonstration work. The foot-and-
mouth disease outbreak in California
caused the stopping of demonstration
meetings, both in farm and home
demonstration work. Notwithstanding
these interfering factors, the volume
and quality of work was maintained.
The Western States extension pro-
gram, development of which was be-
gun in 1923 at the conference at Fort
Collins, Colo., was further developed
at the annual Western States exten-
sion conference at Tueson, Ariz., in
the fall of 1924 by the adoption of
permanent extension programs for the
major farm crops-alfalfa, wheat, oats,
barley, and potatoes, TPhe regional
program in human nutrition, live-
stock, and dairying was revised and
denitei& goals fixed.
Iltiinh 'mca monnaionc inm aaA n
tension programs. In Oregon the
State program has been taken into the
counties, and definite fact organization
on a county basis has been carried on
Jn 14 counties.
The better unification of all exten-
sion agencies on common extension
objectives is the outstanding achieve-
ment of the year. Differentiation be-
lines of work or classes of
s has been largely neutral-
Llmost every county agricul-
gent in counties without home
tration agents has projects in-
home economic phases, and
w exceptions county extension
both men and women, are
extension work as
attention to junior
a means of demop-
practices in agri-
culture and home economics.
R OIP STRATIONS ON RECLAMATION
The office of demonstration on rec-
lamation projects, previously admin-
isterl4 by the Bureau of Plant In-
dustry. was transferred to the Exten-
sion Service by the Secretary on Au-
gust 16, 1924. The personnel and
work of the office continued along the
same lines as in previous years. This
activity is under the general super-
vision of A. C. Cooley, with headquar-
ters in Salt Lake City, Utah.
During the year definitely organized
field work has been conducted on
seven of the Federal projects, as fol-
lows: Newlands, Nev. ; Minidoka,
Mont.; Uncompahgre, Colo.; 3orth
Platte, Nebr.-Wyo.; and Belle Fourche,
S. Thak. These projects have all had
the services of a full-time demonstra-
tion man to assist them in the solu-
tipn pf their agricultural problems.
The annual conference of the dem-
onstrators on reclamation projects
was held at Fort Collins, Colo., May
25 and g6, 1925, The conference was
attenue4 by the director of extension
work, the staff of the office of dem-
qnutrations on reclamation
andl hxr aornral niP fhT a q+0t
14 ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE I
and counties in which the demonstra-
tors are located. It is expected that
the department will continue to pay
the full salary of these demonstrators
and that the funds previously devoted
to office and field expenses will be
available for the placing of demonstra-
tors on additional projects and for
the employment of part-time men to
give help to the settlers along such
special lines as laying out their irri-
gation systems, preparation of land
for irrigation, the raising of poultry,
On each project where a represen-
tative of this office has been stationed,
a program of work was outlined at the
beginning of the year. In making up
these programs effort has been made
to select a few important activities
needing attention and concentrate on
them, rather than to undertake a gen-
eral program covering the whole field
of agriculture. The lines of work re-
ceiving the most attention during the
year have been dairying, poultry, and
Dairying.-In dairying, herd im-
provement has been stressed. The
purebred sire campaign which has
now been under way for several years
is showing encouraging results. The
scrub sire is fast being replaced by the
purebred and at th<
dairy farmers eithl
cess to a purebred
the projects, esp(
Plattp and Uncomi
tration agents ha
plan whereby the
lend promising you
for testing. Under
er obtaining a bull
him properly and
duction records of i
bull are also kept
er own o
ve worked out a
ng sires to farmers
this plan the farm-
agrees to care for
to keep accurate
of his cows. Pro-
heifers sired by the
through their first
The breeders re-
tains title to the bull and
right to take him back i
has proved his worth as
a sire. On
attention. Special emphasis has been
put on preparing balanced, rations
from home-grown feeds, and the re-
sponse of the farmers to it has been
very good. Another phase of the feed-
ing work Jbas been the stimulation of
interest in mixed-grass pastures. As
a result grass pastures are becoming
quite common on .several projects.
Considerable time has also been given
to arranging and organizing for the
tuberculin testing of cows. Some
demonstrations have been given in
treating animals for bloat, milk fever,
and other minor ailments.
Poaltry.-The attention of project
farmers has been called to the need of
giving the poultry industry more time
and attention. Feeding, culling, and
housing have been emphasized. The
importance of good poultry houses
and the right kind of feed for produc-
ing hens is not generally appreciated.
The problem of getting a farmer to
keep well-bred hens is very easy com-
pared with getting him to care for
them properly after he has them. The
culling work has been very popular
and during the season for it the serv-
ices of the field men have been very
much in demand. Assistance has also
been given to many farmers in work-
ing out plans for new poultry houses
and remodeling old ones.
The turkey industry has developed
into one of importal
the projects. On the
in Nevada, for insi
25,000 turkeys were
bringing in an inc
Feeding and disease
the principal lines o
the attention of the
ing this industry.
channels for promoti
dustry has been ti
girls' clubs. PoultrJ
ace on several of
tance, more than
raised last year,
ome of $100,000.
control have been
f work occupying
field men in help-
One of the main
ng the poultry in-
trough boys' and
r clubs have been
organized and definite instructions
given the club members in the various
phases of poultry production.
Sheep industry.--The high prices for
wool and lambs the past two years,
together with the relatively low prices
- e .. .
rams tfof st to large flock owners is
detelopIing into a very profitable busi-
ress for project farmers. Lamb and
wool pools have been encouraged and
organized by several of the demonstra-
tion agents, resulting in the farmers
receiving a better price for their
Swine industry.--The swine industry
has not been very profitable on most
projects the last few years. The long
haul to market with relatively high
prices for feed and low prices for
pork has reduced the project hog pop-
ulation to the point where car-lot
shipments to outside markets are very
few compared with the number shipped
a few years ago. Little encourage-
ment has been given to the industry
beyond local needs, and this has been
largely through the boys' and girls'
Relationships.-The relationships be-
tween the office of demonstrations on
reclamation projects and other Fed-
eral and State organizations doing
similar work have been very cordial
and helpful. Where representatives
of this office and the State extension
service cover the same territory, the
work has been so organized as to elim-
inate duplication in every possible
way. A very fine spirit of cooperation
has existed between the workers and
in many cases they occupy the same
office. The Bureau of Reclamation
has been very ready and willing at all
times to help in every way in fur-
thering the demonstration work. The
splendid cooperation of the farm su-
perintendents of the office of western
irrigation agriculture of the Bureau of
Plant Industry in furnishing the dem-
onstration men with data and infor-
mation of various kinds has been very
helpful and is much appreciated.
Organization.-The office of exhibits
continued during the year under the
supervision of Joseph W. Hiscox. In-
rd-an A v n# 44t a. rr: A4 ni c# n /r. n nn i a n r
ration. All m
conduct of Weh
charge of the
All fiscal and
conducted in t
sion as hereto
relating to the
the working out
ncial and mate-
fairs and expo-
the officer in
Financial cooperation.-In order to, re-
duce the large amount of account-
ing and to improve the efficiency in
handling the exhibits special contrib-
uted funds, a change was effected
April 1, 1925, by which all of these
special deposits are placed in one fund
without restricting their expenditures
to the current fiscal year and carried
under the title Special Funds, Agri-
cultural Fairs." Our experience in
handling these special funds by fiscal
years has demonstrated that this is
entirely unnecessary, and only in-
volves a useless amount of account-
ing. During the past fiscal year a
total of 69 fairs and expositions made
deposits with the disbursing officer
of the department. These amounted
to $9,141.65, and were to cover trans-
portation and installation costs. As
in previous years the transportation
cost was prorated and each fair and
exposition asked to meet its share of
the expense. Through the efforts of
the department a considerable saving
was effected in transportation costs
to the 69 fairs and expositions which
entered into this cooperative arrange-
ment. Land-grant deductions and the
securing of free return from transpor-
tation companies on a number of ship-
amount spent from the
regular appropriation for
in State, interstate, and
fairs, for the fiscal year
$9,141.65 of contributed
a total of approximately
$123,000 for all exhibits activities.
Discarded material.-On account of the
nnnnrAh nk an A 4-5 fn Vn-P ann nr nn on
demned the material ag uinsetvietabIe.
It was then disposed of &t ptibllc auc-
tion in accordance
regulations of the d
sales wtre held
31, May 1, May
In all, 236 piece
from the Burea
of Ptiblic Roadr
were sold. Be
could be used
hibits, such as
With the property
March 21, Marli
and JUtle 2, 1925.
all of it Which
in preparing new ,ex-
was salvaged, as was
such portions of it as could be used
by the department's mechanical shops.
Removal of these obsolete exhibits
expedited the renovation of current
exhibit material which was being de-
layed for lack of space to handle it.
A large quantity of material which
has been discarded by other bureaus is
still on hand, which it is proposed to
condemn and sell as soon as the rush
of the current exhibit season is over
and its disposition can be conveniently
DIVISION OF EXHIBITS PREPARATION
During the fiscal year 66 new
hibits were completed, 27 were
vised, 24 were renovated, and 15
exhibits are under construction.
unit of measure is the standard b
The trend in design of exhibits
year tuere is greater
the interest of the
the standpoint both
of exhibits and the
in gaining attention.
more and more thor
ity must be devoted
and preparation of
;'s educational exhib
they may continue
rest and the
of the num-
eight and in-
to the plan-
its in order
to gain and
: the attention of visitors and may
their story quickly and strikingly.
4.rn nF nLP n-rTihto nrnorrl +htran
investigate +many new con-
in ti advertising and ex-
hibit, fields. The exhibit, planners
therefore, have been on the lookout
for new methods of presentation,
mechanical aids, and irqpoved mate-
rials for construction purposes. The
new types of exhibits also presented
many problems of an engineering na-
ture and the exhibits eSg neer has in-
vestigated and adopted for our use,
number of new materials and methods
of construction. Plywood has been
adopted as a substitute for wall
boards of various kinds, in the prepa-
ration of cut-out figures of animals,
people, and other objects. As ply-
wood is less inclined to warp and has
tougher edges, it requires very little
bracing, previously a large factor in
the cost of making cut-outs. Profile
board, used for the bracing of stage
scenery, was also adopted for use in
exhibit building. The merits of this
material, which is light and tough,
were discovered by our engineer when
investigating methods used by theatri-
cal operators to produce realistic ef-
fects with materials of minimum
weight and maximum strength.
A new type of exhibit structure
called the universal booth was devel-
oped and two of these structures were
built. As the sections of this exhibit
are standardized they may be used
er horizontally or
adapted for repr
type or shape of
ly exteriors and in
where doors must
* vertically and
.tenors of build-
be shown in the
walls extend to
than the earlier exhibit structures, the
lower part of which consisted of bur-
A second type of exhibit structure
which was developed this year is so
made that the framework folds into a
small package, while the walls, which
are muslin, can be rolled compactly.
This type of exhibit is especially
adapted to scenic effects. tight of
these exhibits were prepared for use
ducted. Even if the curtains are not
wholly fireproofed, at least their in-
flammability is created reduced-an
important factor in exhibits.
Reports from fair circuits last year
indicated that there was a need for a
well organized information-publication
booth on each circuit. Structures
which were worked out for this pur-
pose and which proved successful in
field tests are to be added to the major
exhibition circuits of fairs.
The number of visitors at the Wash-
ington headquarters from State ex-
tension forces, commercial concerns,
and other agencies has greatly in-
creased, compared with previous
years, and to meet the demands for
information from these sources it has
been found necessary to keep one or
more exhibits of each type in our
work rooms. Blue prints of struc-
tural plans of these exhibit types have
been sent out on request.
During the past year the division
of exhibitions has compiled complete
descriptive summaries on the appear-
ance, subject matter, and installation
requirements of all exhibits. When
distributed at fairs these summaries
furnish valuable notes on the subject
of the exhibits
take home with them.
also give suggestions
for the use of State
ers. Detailed states
the use of exhibits
and study have been
for visitors to
tical records on
dies which were
started last winter, in connection with
the annual check up of all exhibits
material with the different bureaus
to determine what material should be
retained for further showing, brought
out some rather striking information.
Because of lack of space only a few
of the more important points will be
Participation by bureaus.-The study
showed wide variation in the use
which is being made of exhibits fa-
portraying its activities, was respon-
sible for initiating work on 30 booths
listed as covering subject matter of
the various bureaus. It is possible
that some of the bureaus not now
utilizing our exhibits facilities do not
realize the scope and character of the
users of t
the large number of people
the department exhibits.
e fiscal year 1924, depart-
bits at fairs were seen by
5,000,000 at comparatively
to the department. The
low that the Bureau of
and the Bureau of Animal
ave been by far the largest
he exhibit method of pre-
senting their work. About two-thirds
of the exhibits constructed during the
past four years present the work of
one or the other of these two bureaus.
Life of booth exhibits.-The factors af-
fecting the life of exhibit booths-
that is, the time during which they
can be used effectively--are being
studied. Among these factors are sub-
ject matter, method of presentation,
timeliness of subject, area suitable
for showing, and
tion. Of the boo
ing the past four
showing on June
36; Animal Ind
16; Forest Servi
nomics, 7; Biologi
manner of co
years, the fol
30, 1924: Da
ustry, 50; A
rce, 16; Horn
ical Survey, 8
Only half of the booths
on dairy subjects are still
only one-third of the
Economics booths, while
of the Animal Industry,
of the Public Roads, and
of the Forest
r Bureau 1.
I in use and
70 per cent
80 per cent
94 per cent
Exhibits made.-This year the number
of exhibitions made has been cut down
somewhat due to the curtailment, so
far as possible, of showings at points
other' than State and interstate fairs.
The application of the time and money
thus saved to the improvement of ex-
exhibits displayed during the fiscal yar ended June 80, 1925
Atlantic City, N. J--......
Aurora, Ill. -_ ---- .
Austin, Tex_- .
Baker, Oreg ._._..1.
Beaumont, Tex ...... .
Bel Alton, Md ... .
Bethany, Mo_ .. --
Billings, Mont- ---.-.
Charlotte, N. C.-.-.-
Chicago, Ill ......
Do ---......- -......
Columbia, S. C._-.
Dallas, Tex ..........
Denver, Colo ....-..
Des Moines, Iowa .a._
Douglas, Wyo --.-..-
Fairfax Court House, Va
Fort Worth, Tex_.......
Kansas City, Mo-.....-
Kingston, R. I__
Lincoln, Nebr-- .__...
Little Rock, Ark..__.
Los Angeles, Calif-..__
Louisville, Ky.. .....-
Macon, Ga..---- .-..--
Milwaukee, Wis ......
Missoula, Mont ......
Missouri and Arkansas..
New York- ....__._
New York State- -.-.
Phoenix, Ariz-___. --
Pomona, Calif ........
Pueblo, Colo- ..........
Raleigh, N. C--....-__ -
Do.- ---._--------- ..
Richmond, Va-- .
Riverside, Calif .._
Rochester, N. Y -...
Rocky Point, R. I......-
Roseburg, Oreg .-..
St. Paul, Minn -.........
Salt Lake City, Utah -_
San Bernardino, Calif-...
Savannah, Ga ...........
Linn County Fair 1.- .............
College of Agriculture Short Course
Highway Officials Association......
Central States Exposition-_ wwmm
Texas State Exposition-- -.-..
Eastern Oregon Sportsman's Fair L
Baltimore Poultry Show ..........
South Texas State Fair ..........
Charles County Fairs .. .....
North Missouri State Fair .----..
Midland Empire Fair--_
Good Roads Congress .............
International Livestock Ernosition
Railway Show- ..---...
Women's World Fair .-..
South Carolina State Fair__
Ohio State Fair 3...........
Southern Hotela a .a..a.. .
Texas State Fair....__.
Illinois-Indiana Fair_- -
National Western Stock Sh4
Iowa State Fair- ..-.-----
Wyoming State Fair-__----
Fairfar Cinontv Fair
- -- a -
- ---- ---- -
-h -- --
-- -- *-
---- a w-
- --- -- --
- --m---- -
-- --- -
- ---. -
- -- .- -
- -- ---
- ----- -- -
---. -. -
- a -- --
Cooperative Association of Virginia._.....
Fat Stock Show _.
National Farmers Expositiona..... .aa-
Fresno District Fair-_- .....- -- -- -
University of Florida .............--
American Royal Livestock Show-.... -
Kansas City Auto Show-... -----..-...-
Rhode Island Fairs .----.--.-..........-
Lewiston Fair ............ ----.........--
Nebraska State Fair --...................
Arkansas State Fair_---- ---
Conference Western Division,1 United S
Chamber of Commerce.
Kentucky State Fair.- -...-.. --
Georgia State Fair ..--.---.. .--.----
Jackson County Fair 1 ....
National Dairy Exposition ......__
Western Montana Fair 1-.. ._. .......-..
Missouri Pacific Marketing Train-........
Alabama State Fair 2- ..-___..-----
Oklahoma Free State Fair ....
Tennessee State Fairt_--..- -. -
Southern Exposition- .-. ----.....-..
Erie Railroad -.-----.----. -----.-- a--
Arizona State Fair --.-.. .- _a
Los Angeles County Fair 1 --.......---.--
Pacific International Livestock Exposition
Colorado State Fair_- ..a. me
Negro State F air ......- -.....--
North Carolina State Fair 2.......
Virginia State Fair 2 .._.........,.
Southern California Fair ---..
Rochester Exposition- -...
Rhode Island State Fair. .........
Home Product Show .. ......-
California State Fair ...........
Minnesota State Fair: -..........
Utah State Fai... ..........
National Orange Show,....
Savannah Tri-State Fair. -
Missouri State Fair' -....
a~ -. a a
a a -
- I- -1
-- ---- CI
- -h -
- -. a
- 1 -
- -. -
- -- a l.. ,
-a -II 41 ,n -s a al ill
-. -------- -
Sept. 17-20, 1924.
Dec. 29, 1924-Jan. 3, 1925.
Feb. 25-27, 1925.
Aug. 15-23, 1924.
Oct. 2-10, 1924.
May 22-25, 1925.
Dec. 2-6, 1924.
Nov. 13-22, 1924.
Oct. 6-11, 1924.
Sept. 2-, 1924.
Sept. 16-29, 1924.
Sept. 23-Oct. 3, 1924.
Jan. 5-9, 1925.
Nov. 29-Dec. 6, 1924.
Mar. 10-12, 1925.
Apr. 8-25, 1925.
Oct. 20-25, 1924.
Aug. 24-30, 1924.
Oct. 11-26, 1924.
Aug. 24-30, 1924.
Jan. 17-21, 1925.
Aug. 20-29, 1924.
Sept. 16-29, 1924.
Oct. 1-3, 1924.
Oct. 23-24, 1924.
Mar. 8-15, 1925.
Dec. 4-12, 1924.
Sept. 29-Oct. 4, 1924.
Feb. 11, 1925.
Nov. 17-22, 1924.
Feb. 7-14, 1925.
Sept. 11-27, 1924
Sept. 9-13, 1924.
Aug. 31-Sept. 5, 1924.
Oct. 6-11, 1924.
Dec. 2-3, 1924.
Sept. 8-13, 1924.
Oct. 20-25, 1924.
Sept. 10-13, 1924.
Sept. 27-Oct. 4, 1924.
Sept. 30-Oct. 4, 1924.
Nov. 16, 1924-Jan. 16, 1925
Nov. 3-11, 1924.
Sept. 27-Oct. 4, 1924.
Sept. 15-20, 1924.
May 11-22, 1925.
Nov. 10-15, 1924.
Oct. 14-18, 1924.
Nov. 1-8, 1924.
Sept 22-27, 1924.
Oct. 20-26, 1924.
Oct. 13-18, 1924.
Oct. 6-11, 192.
Oct. 7-12, 1924
Sept. 1-6, 1924.
Sept. 6-9, 1924,
Sept. 10-12, 1924.
Aug. 30-Sept. 7, 192.
Aug. 30-ept. 6, 1924.
Oct. 1-7, 1924.
Feb. 19-Mar. 1, 1925.
Oct. 27-Nov. 1, 1924.
AUg. 16-23, 1924.
Lst of exMhbits displayed during the fiscal year ended June 80, 1925-Continued
Waterloo, Iowa .---,-.-
Wheeling, W. Va .----.
Wichita Falls, Tes._-
Yakima, Wash__ ._.._.-_
American Civic Association.
Forestry Conference- ._. _
International Council of Women.
National Food Show
Dairy Cattle Congress .....__.
West Virginia State Fair_-.._-_-
Texas-Oklahoma Fair ...........
Yakima Harvest Home Festival '
Dec. 30-31, 1924.
Oct. 7-12, 1924.
Nov. 15-21, 1924.
May 4-14, 1925.
Jan. 5-17, 1925.
Sept. 22-28, 1924.
Sept. 1-6, 1924.
Sept. 29-0ct. 5, 1
Sept. 18-20, 1924.
1Exhibits made by Forest Service in West and reported to Washington.
Exhibits on western circuits.--Depart-
ment of Agriculture exhibits were
shown at State, interstate, -and na-
tional fairs in the West through in-
terbureau exhibit committees. This
included showings in Arizona, Cali-
fornia, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Ne-
vada, New Mexico, Oregon, part of
Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyo-
ming. The present western exhibit
program was put into
in compliance with the
tions of Western States
rectors at their meeting
lines, Colo., in 1923. As
hibits now fill the local
in Fort Col-
a result, ex-
needs of the
State extension forces as well as pre-
sent subject matter satisfactory to the
The present plan of handling ex-
hibits in the West has little more than
got under way in the year and a half
during which it has been in effect.
As a result of experience so far, how-
ever, it appears that there will be
genuine gain in efficiency and, there-
fore, in economy, through systematic
organization and standardization. The
net result of this efficiency and econ-
omy will be exhibits of better quality,
which in turn will justify better co-
operation from officials of fairs. These
exhibits are serving their highest prac-
tical purpose in placing the cardinal
principles of good agriculture before
the general public.
Specifically, the-department is ac-
nmrinwmlhincr twio cnil in ltr nr aSnt.
pervision 6f Fred W. Perkins. Defi-
nite accomplishments during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1925, were as
Completion of 28 new motion pictures
of one or more reels, the total number of
reels being 42.
Revision of 30 old films.
Beginning of scenario or production
work, or both, on 25 new films.
Circulation of department films through
extension workers and others to a par-
tially reported audience of 2,902,242, and
to a total audience believed to be in
excess of 9,000,000.
Addition of 299 prints, totaling 419
reels, to the department's stock avail-
able for distribution, bringing the number
of separate copies to 1,413 and the num-
ber of reels to 1,862.
Authorization of sale of 173 prints, to-
taling 257 reels, at a cost to purchasers
of approximately $9,000.
Improvement in quality of our films, and
increase of circulation.
Invention of new apparatus for special
worri in motion-picture production.
Completion of manuscript for a circular
on methods of using motion pictures by
Increased results are shown in
every important item subject to math-
ematical measurement, with the excep-
tion of sales of prints to authorized
below those of the
Steady growth of cil
tially reported aud
during the year.
many large users,
were 30 per cent
seen in the figures
people in the par-
ience for our films
As reports s
merous institutions that have
people in urban communities who have
come in contact with the Department
of Agriculture through the use of por-
tions of department films in the film
news weeklies, screen magazines, and
other commercial productions of that
nature. These would probably triple
the estimated audience as given above.
TIhat the beneficial results in spread-
ing agricultural knowledge are com-
parable with the size of the audience
is indicated by hundreds of expres-
sions that have been received from
users of our films. The county agri-
cultural agent at Duncan, Ariz., re-
ported, "The showing of moving pic-
tures has done more to arouse inter-
est in this county than any other one
thing that I have tried." An extension
specialist at the Illinois College of
Agriculture writes, "Motion pictures
are the most satisfactory means of
bringing educational facts before peo-
ple in country communities that we
have tried so far." The home demon-
stration agent at Danbury, Conn.,
says, "I have used the films from the
Department of Agriculture and found
them quite satisfactory. I feel that
we can do a great deal
in our work."
rn apparatus by
ent films will c
the field for
continue to in-
of the steady
ly rapid growth is furnished
fact that in the fiscal year
1925 the number of film shipmp
from the department laboratory
4,260; in 1924, it was 3,199; in 1
2,175, and in 1922, 2,066.
New films completed.-The new mo
picture films completed during
year number 28, representing an
crease of two over the preceding year,
and also representing, it is believed,
a continuation of the steady improve-
ment in quality that has won a wide
reputation for the Department of Ag-
riculture films. Numerous letters
from users of department films indi-
cate appreciation of the improved
quality of the newer productions.
Four Men and the Soy (two reels, Bu-
reau of Plant Industry).
Why Strawberries Grow Whiskers (one
reel, Bureau of Plant Industry).
Laying Lumbricus Low (one reel, Bu-
reau of Plant Industry).
The Pines (two reels, Forest Service).
Pines--From Seed to Sawmill (two reels,
Pines for Profit (one reel. Forest Serr-
Dual Purpose Tre
Good Turns for Ou
Beans or Beetles?
Board Feet or Bor(
Bureau of Entomology).
. Exploring the Upper Air (one :reel,
Watching the Weather Above (two reels,
Cooperative Marketing-Cotton (two
reels, Bureau of Agricultural Economics),
Cooperative Marketing-Tobacco (two
reels, Bureau of Agricultural Economies).
Road Building in the United States (two
reels, Bureau of Public Roads).
A Highway of Friendship (two reels,
Bureau of Public Roads).
The Road Goes Through (onr
reau of Public Roads).
Roads-From Surf to Summit
Bureau of Public Roads).
Across the Great Salt Desert
Bureau of Public Roads).
A Crop Worth Saving (two
Touring With the Grangers
Pan and Ceres in the Movies
e reel, Bu-
New films in preparation.-Films now in
preparation, on which considerable
preparatory or actual production
work has been 'done, and most of
which should be completed within the
next few months, include the follow-
Poor Mrs. Jones! (Extension Service.)
Traveling Extension Conference in Call-
fornia (Ittension Service).
John Doe's Cotton-and Yours (Bureau
of Plant Industry and Extension Sernie).
Magic In It (Bureau of Agricultural
The Horse and Man (Bureau of Animal
The Travels of a Banded Duck (Bureau
of Biological Survey).
Back of the Weather Forecast (Weather
Clouds (Weather Bureau).
Seed Inspection Work (Bureau of Plant
Uncle Sam's Forests (Forest Service).
as .. ". e ^i^a^ /*-, em. ft .rss.~'. mm.T*< ir kyamesi
Water, Supply (Bureau
of Plant Industry).
Cooperation with Government agencies.--
Without interference with its pri-
mary work, the office has been able
to cooperate with other agencies of
the Federal Government frequently
during the past year. Assistance has
been given to the Air Mail Service of
the Post Office Department; the Geo-
logical Survey and the Bureau of
Mines of the Department of the In-
terror; the Signal Corps and
Chemical Warfare Service of the
Department; the Public Health
ice of the Treasury Department
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
merce of the Department of
merce; the State Department, and the
Pan American Union. The office, in
return, has received cooperation from
most of these agencies, and from the
Needs of the work.-A recent ques-
tionnaire sent to extension workers
developed the fact that their main
criticism of our film service is that
they often can not get the film they
want when they want it. Most of
them naturally object to substitutions
when their meetings are planned to
cover certain subjects. One way of
meeting this difficulty is for the de-
partnient to supply more prints of its
films for distribution from Washing-
ton. As many old prints are nearly
worn out the need for this action be-
comes more pressing. Another way is
for the State agricultural colleges and
extension divisions to purchase more
prints from our negatives. Many of
these institutions are already large
purchasers and are finding that cir-
culation of films from a State center
reduces the time and expense required
in such distribution and gives closer
contact with the local extension
We .. W f l ..
department for the use of teachers of
agriculture and nature study.
The work of the office consisted as
heretofore of studies of methods of
teaching and the content of subject
matter for the use of agricultural
teachers in secondary and elementary
schools. Another phase of the work
has been to
been to kee
pupils useful agricultural
accumulated by the De-
Agriculture and the State
colleges and experiment
I these studies the aim has
p in as close contact as
h the latest developments
ral education and to pre-
pare the material in form for imme-
diate use by teachers.
Interest in agricultural instruction
in secondary and elementary schools
continues to increase from year to
year. Agriculture is now taught in
approximately 3,000 high schools un-
der the provisions of the Smith-
Hughes Act, and in a large number
of other high schools not receiving
Federal aid. About two-thirds of the
States now require that agriculture
be taught in the elementary schools.
The demand on the department for
up-to-date material useful to teachers
in these schools has increased each
year. Only a limited number. of
teachers in elementary rural schools
have had special training along agri-
, cultural lines. It has therefore been
the aim of the office of agricultural
instruction to give special attention
to the needs of both teachers and
pupils in this field.
By means of corresp
to schools where agricul
and attendance at co
educational meetings, it
sible to acquaint the
much of the material
ment of Agriculture the
available for their use.
this contact, a wider
made of publications
ment classified by this
special use of teachers.
prints, crop specimens
Iture is taught,
has been pos-
of the Depart-
tt can be made
As a result of
use is being
of the depart-
office for the
and other ma-
4 ~ -.. *1. a .
In supplying this material the depart-
ment is performing a service which is
not being duplicated by any other
agency of the Government.
The demand from agricultural teach-
ers for lantern slides adapted to their
needs has rapidly increased. In the
preparation and distribution of such
trained with th
slide series wt
the year in 36
as many as 42
was to schools,
cooperation is main-
le editorial and visual
;tion of the office of
tension work and with
the subjects in which
is prepared. Lantern
ere distributed during
States, one State using
series. About half of
of department slides
73 different series hav-
ing been circulated. Series of slides
are being revised from time to time as
conditions require. New series are
now in preparation calculated to show
the best practices for teaching school
garden work. To obtain the illustra-
tions needed for the series on school
garden work, cooperative arrange-
ments were made with the supervisor
school garden and na-
the city schools of
other series are being
control of household
e fundamental princi-
)nomics. The illustra-
i in the latter series
obtained in cooperation with the
economics teachers in the nor-
schools of Washington and the
of Education of the University
land. Plans are now under
prepare a series of slides for
of home economics in colored
The illustrations for the se-
be taken in cooperation with
teachers of home economies,
some illustrations already having been
made in cooperation with the home
economics division of the Hampton
Normal and Agricultural Institute.
In order to serve the agricultural
on interests in a broad way it
en necessary to continue coop-
with agencies outside the De-
nt of Agriculture. This coop-
Cs moaintconoA (1l with Rtntca 1
teaching procedure in studies of job
analyses, and (4) with teachers in
service by bringing to their attention
results of studies in agricultural edu-
cation made by members of the staff
and sources of various kinds of useful
material available for their needs.
In the matter of cooperating with
States in preparing courses of study
for teachers, the Oklahoma course was
completed and submitted to the State
Department of Education and the ag-
ricultural college for printing. The
material for the Utah and Missouri
courses is about completed and will
be submitted for printing in the near
The cooperative relationship which
has existed between the Federal
Board for Vocational Education and
the Department of Agriculture since
the inception of the former has been
continued on the same basis as here-
tofore. Under this arrangement, two
studies were begun and completed dur-
ing the year. The following publica-
tions were prepared by a member of
the staff and published by the Fed-
eral board: (1) An Analysis of the
Management of a Farm Business and
(2) An Analysis of a Corn Growing
Enterprise. In making these studies
close cooperation was maintained with
the subject-matter specialists of the
Department of Agriculture, the pur-
pose of these analyses being to deter-
mine the kind of training which the
manager of a farm should have who
assume the responsibility of
recognized for the
business, or who may
in the corn-growing
material included in
based on extensive
nal interviews with
in the field who are
!ir skill and business
ability in farming. Another study
dealing with the analysis of a cotton
enterprise is now being made under
the same cooperation and will be com-
pleted during the year.
The nature of the service rendered
in cooperation with teacher-training
sections in the land-grant institutions
tain suggestions as to some of the
important problems c rofronting the
Cooperation with teachers in service
constitutes an important part of the
work of this office. Numerous re-
quests come from teachers for sugges-
tions on teaching agriculture. Two
publications were prepared during the
year for this group, one entitled Les-
sons on Cotton for Elementary Rural
Schools," and the other Lessons on
Corn for Elementary Schools." Lan-
tern slides are widely distributed to
teachers in service. Classified lists of
publications of the department and
sources of other material prepared for
the special use of agricultural teach-
ers were widely distributed. Educa-
tional series of charts on animals and
crops are being prepared for distribu-
tion in cooperation with other bureaus
of the department. Cooperation has
been carried on as heretofore with the
Bureau of Soils of the department in
supplying teachers in service with sets
of soil samples of the United States.
These samples are sent only to
which are teaching four-year
Members of the staff have a
the annual meeting of the I
Society for Vocational Education, re-
gional conferences called by the Fed-
eral Board for Vocational Education,
and State conferences of supervisors
and teachers of vocational agriculture.
By attending these conferences our
agents are able to obtain from teach-
ers much valuable information about
the trend of development of vocational
instruction and the best service possi-
ble to render teachers in this field. A
member of the staff attended regional
conferences on vocational education
for negroes where problems relating
to the training and supervision of
teachers were discussed and plans
formulated for improving the work.
Members of the staff attended a con-
ference on negro education called by
the United States Commissioner of
Education and attended by presidents
of negro land-grant colleges and others
interested in negro education. Gen-
eral problems relative to the curricula
of the negro land-grant institutions
were discussed and suggestions for
improvement adopted. The office was
also represented at the annual meet-
ing of the National Education Asso-
ciation where an exhibit on phases of
agricultural education was displayed
before the division of rural education.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1I 1111111HI1III Hill 1Ill WI 11liii 1111111HI I
3 1262 08739 4531
x x x