REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE
DEPARTMENT OF AGUICULTlRE.
l'ashinlton, D. C'.. ,Sepl member 23J, 19.
SIR: I have the honor to present herewith the report of the
sion Service for the fiscal year ended June 30. 1924.
Hon. HENRY C.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE
ice of the
1, 1923, the
re Extensi on
officee of Ex
ry, uand the
ated as Actin
lh in t
e Office of
he Office of
Office of Mln-
. part of the
ned as As-
lber 14, 1l23,
e director as
StI tements, oi'nler i-rin :lill'
letins eoncerningl exterlsinn
(4) matters affec.'ting
engagell in extenisimn
i111 I 1 l-
DUTIES AND ORGANIZATION
Tile Extension Service repOlli.eli. s the
Secretary of A.riculture in hisi relh-
tions to all extension
by the State c,.,Ilees
under the terms of t
Act, and is thlp lgeivcy
7 t.l ., n
, e x
u11'r;l us I
n tle han
otf motion l
i:- -,*' ,** I
ai gricult ure
tlhe Ptel; irt-
I i'rryin, I Li ut
Lever A'l t is
Offlie Otf ('i-
late consisted of 3,762 persons, prac-
tically all of whom were employed in
in the court
the State colleges of
ties or in developing
this work. In addi-
persons not under ap-
the department are
The direct Federal appropriation for
the Extension Service during the fiscal
year was $1,568,730, of which $1,284,-
350 was for farmers' cooperative dem-
onstration work, $189;300 for salaries
and administrative expenses, and
$95,080 for exhibits. In addition, Fed-
eral appropriations amounting to
$5,880,000 were made available to the
States for extension work under the
terms of the Smith-Lever and supple-
mentary acts, *and $11,954,464 were
appropriated by the States, counties,
agencies for cooperative ex-
ctivit!es. The total amount
for extension work in the
United States during
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL
With the abolishment of the States
Relations Service and the realignment
of extension activities in the Exten-
ce, some readjustments were
in the Office of Cooperative
s made as
States was placed in
B. Smith has con-
the office, J. A.
sistant chief, and
sion of relations
services in the
the hands of four
regional agents. The assignments to
the regional subdivisions were as fol-
lows: Northeastern States, Miss Flor-
ence E. Ward, assisted by H. W. Hoch-
baum; Southern States, I. O. Schaub,
assisted by C. L. Chambers, I. W. Hill,
ITMENT OF AGRICULTURE
in organizing field agencies to carry
out these programs. They also aid the
office in the examination of Smith-
Lever extension budgets and in tihe
inspection of Smith-Lever accounts.
The Division of Subject Matter Spe-
cialists is under the supervision of A.
B. Graham. 'These specialists repre-
sent the several bureaus of the depart-
ment and serve as carriers of subject
matter to extension workers in the
States. They also study methods of
extension activity in their respective
sists of Mis
tion; C. P.
staff of this division con-
s Miriam Birdseye, nutri-
Close, horticulture; 0. H.
, forestry; H. M. Dixon,
cement; O. S. Fisher, agron-
Lowe, animal husbandry;
food preservation; F. C.
, plant pathology; and Miss Ger-
L. Warren, club organization.
Lund was on leave of absence
g the greater part of the year,
and was engaged in the promotion of
agricultural extension work in Den-
The Reports and Efficiency Studies
Division continued under the leader-
ship of M. C. Wilson. This division
summarizes the reports of the county
agents and prepares digests for the
use of subject-matter and other work-
ers. It also conducts studies to de-
termine the efficiency of the various
extension methods and agencies. On
July 1, 1923, the collection of statistics
on farmers' institutes and of informa-
tion on extension work in foreign
countries was added to this division,
under the supervision of J. M. Sted-
On July 1, 1923, that portion of the
former States Relations Service deal-
ing with visual instruction became a
part of the Office of Cooperative Ex-
tension Work. To it was added the
editorial work of the office. Reuben
Brigham is in charge of the section.
On June 30, 1924, the Office of Co-
operative Extension Work in Wash-
ington consisted of 10 administrative
supervisory officers, 12 organtza-
: ~ 4"~
and girls' club work, and 269 in exten-
ilon work with negroes. The county
workers were assisted in their work
by 696 full-time and 174 part-time
subject-matter specialists located at
the State agricultural colleges. There
were 394 persons employed as super-
visors and assistant supervisors, while
the administrative officers and their
immediate assistants numbered 53.
Of the above total, 3,751 were coop-
erative employees of the Office of Co-
operative Extension Work, practically
all engaged either in county work,
supervision of county work, or farm-
available for cooperative extetiion
work during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1924, was approximately
$19,149,450, or practically the same as
for the previous year. Of this amount
37.6 per cent, or $7,194,450, was con-
tributed by the Federal Government,
of the use of penalty en-
and 27.8 per cent, or $5,324,-
derived from State appro-
to the agricultural colleges
sr State agencies. The re-
34.6 per cent, $6,631,000,
came from county appropriations for
extension work and from contribu-
tions by local organizations and in-
dividuals. More than 94 per cent of
all funds used for cooperative exten-
sion work in 1924 came from public
Of the Federal funds, $5,880,000 was
made available by the Smith-Lever
law and others supplementary thereto,
$1,284,450 from appropriations to the
Office of Cooperative Extension Work,
and $30,000 from other appropriations
to the Department of Agriculture. Of
the total funds, $11,832,906 (61.8 per
cent) was allotted for extension
agents in the counties; $1,317,695 (6.9
per cent) was allotted at the State
agricultural colleges for administra-
tion; $2,208,653 (11.5 per cent) for
supervision of county extension
With the passing of the years and
the acquiring of experience and a
background, the need has been shown
of better organized programs of ex-
tension work and of a better under-
standing among all people and agen-
cies of the States as to what these
programs are and how they may all
work together toward a common end.
The usual plan followed is for the col-
lege of agriculture in each of its vari-
ous departments, upon the suggestion
of the extension director, to assemble
the facts regarding each major crop
and livestock interest, then invite to
the college the representatives of vari-
ous farmers' organizations, rural bank-
ers, business men's associations, etc.,
to consider in the light of the facts
what kind of an extension program is
most desirable to meet the agricul-
tural and home needs of the State.
The first thing sought is a broad vision
of the facts and needs, and a goal to
work toward, supplemented by a very
concrete program of work for the im-
mediate year. Representatives of the
Office of Cooperative Extension Work
have been participants in many of the
State conferences which have been
held, including those in Illinois, Min-
nesota, Oregon, and Virginia.
At the Regional Extension Confer-
ence of the Western States, held at
Fort Collins, Colo., during the year,
consideration was given to desirable
and possible extension activities in
range livestock production, dairying,
and human nutrition common to the
whole western group of States. To
this conference of extension workers
were brought the results of the re-
search work of both the United States
Department of Agriculture and of the
State agricultural colleges that were
ready for extension. All available
facts on the
and based an
range livestock industry
and human nutrition in
States were assembled.
Len digested this material
extension program upon
ANNUAL REPORTS OF
and national way as
sound basis for each
which it is carried on.
well as on
addition to the western confer-
two other regional conferences
held during the year. The one
in Birmingham, Ala., in January,
was attended by the State exten-
drirPctors and the Rftate leaders
of farm demonstration, home demon-
stration, and club work in the 14
Southern States, besides representa-
tives of this department. During Feb-
ruary, 1924, an Eastern States confer-
ence was held in Springfield, Mass.,
devoted primarily to the work of ex-
tension specialists in farm manage-
ment and home management. No gen-
eral conference of extension workers
in the North Central States was held.
These regional conferences are a
very helpful influence in crystallizing
ideas as to effective methods of doing
work and rapid spread of better meth-
ods from State to State. Those lines
of work in which the extension leaders
are given opportunity to meet with
like representatives from other States
and the Federal Department of Agri-
culture from time to time, as in nutri-
tion, county supervision, etc., are the
best organized and accomplishing
Following the organization of the
Extension Service on July 1, 1923, the
Office of Cooperative Extension Work
gave definite recognition to the grow-
ing interest among field workers in
facilities and methods for visual in-
struction adapted to cooperative ex-
tension work, by the organization of
the Visual Instruction and Editorial
Section of the office. This section, in
addition to giving attention to the edi-
torial and illustrative work of the
Wash'ngton office, was charged with
making available to its cooperative
field employees material and data from
the department relating to visual in-
struction, publications, radio, photo-
States, 1921; Farm management ex-
tension-early development and prog-
reass in 1922; Extension work in ag
cultural engineering, 1922; Statistici
of cooperative extension work, 1-92
24; An extension program in range
livestock, dairying, and human nutri-
tion for the Western States; Methos
and results of cooperative extension
work reported through count ag-i 1
tural agents, 1922; A system of felt
and office records for county extension
Extension workers made 7,181 re-
quests for department publations,
which were filled in cooperation with
the Office of Publications. About 220
pieces of duplicating were done for the
office during the year by the Office of
Publications and 416 small jobs by
the small emergency duplicating unit
operated in this section.
Information Service.-The section coop-
erated with the department Press
Service in assembling and preparing
292 articles relating to various phase
of extension work for the Official
Record and for press release. A be-
ginning was made in the organization
of a picture news service relating to
national and regional developments in
Visual Instruction.--At the request of'
State extension divisions, short talks
and discussions were given in methods
of extension photography and in the
preparation and use of illustrative ma-
terial at conferences of extension
workers in Arkansas, Connecticut,
Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, New
Jersey, Oklahoma, Virginia, and West
In cooperation with State extension
divisions several carefully planned se-
ries of field photographs illustrating
extension work were obtained for use
in publications, information service,
and exhibits, and for distribution in
lantern-slide form. In the work 12\
States were included, as follows: Ala--
bama, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland,
Pennsylvania, Iowa, Ohio, New Jersey'
North Carolina, South Carolina, Vir-
wloving Subjects: Farm sanitation;
arberry eradication; important culti-
vated grasses; stem nematode disease
t alfala; sweet potato diseases and
The controlT; storage and handling of
cotton; village and town planning;
and boll-weevil control. The prepara-
tion of approximately 40 other series
f slides is in progress. During the
year 1,256 sets of slides were dis-
Tibuted for the use of extension
More than 36,000 prints, slides, en-
largements, charts, posters, and draw-
ings were requested and prepared for
use in extension work. Requests for
the preparation, of illustrative mate-
rial filled for this section by the Office
of Publications included 2,948 nega-
tives, 21,028 prints, 5,576 slides, 219
lenlrgements, and 1,251 miscellaneous
items, inclusive of blue prints. In the
section. 4,728 lantern slides, 214 en-
largements, and 63 posters were col-
ored for extension use; 247 charts,
drawings, and designs were also pre-
In cooperation with the Office of
Motion Pictures five extension motion
pictures were completed, as follows:
"Better Seeds-Better Crops," "The
Corn-Belt Derby," "Limestone for Ail-
Ing C lover," "Hidden Foes in Seed Po-
tatoes," and "Seeing Washington."
The section assembled and prepared
for submission to the director of exten-
sion work extension suggestions for
new motion pictures to be produced by
the department including approxi-
nmately 40 subjects.
I In cooperation with the Office of
rxhibts, material was prepared for
two interstate boys' and girls club ex-
hibits at Springfield, Mass., and Sioux
SCity, Iowa, and for the exhibit of club
work held in connection with the Na-
tional Boys' and Girls' Club Congress
Raio.-A radio questionnaire was
sent to extension workers at the re-
quest of the Bureau of Agricultural
economics during May, 1924, the re-
'suits of which have not yet been tabu-
tlaed. As a result of a similar ques-
REPORTS AND EFFICIENCY STUDIES
The largest single activity of the
Section of Reports and Efficiency
Studies has been the tabulating of the
annual statistical reports of the 3,400
cooperatively employed county exten-
sion agents. While the revised county
extension report form somewhat fa-
cilitated this task, the necessity for
making sectional totals, as well as
totals for county agent work (white
and colored), home demonstration
work (white and colored), and boys'
and girls' club work greatly compli-
cated the tabulating. The completed
summary of the 1923 1 statistical re-
ports from county extension agents
comprises seven large volumes con-
taining more than three thousand 18
by 26 inch tabulation
As in previous yea
porary clerks was
three months' period
handling of the mo
nual reports of field
rs, a corps of tern-
employed for a
to assist with the
re than 4,000 an-
The cost of this temporary force this
year has been slightly in excess of
Index of Narrative Reports.-The task of
reading and indexing th
mately 4,000 narrative
State administrative and
officers, State subject-mat
ists, and county extension
been handled by this sectit
tie assistance from other
on with lit-
to include in the 1923 index only the
more outstanding references which
give the necessary details of the work
described to make the information of
value to one interested i studying
that particular phase of subject-mat-
ter work. While somewhat smaller
in size than the 1922 index, the 1923
index of annual reports contains 384
pages of closely typewritten references.
Briefs.--In addition to functioning as
a central agency for bring together
national information on the activities
and accomplishments of cooperative
extension work, the Section of Re-
norts and Efficiency Studies has also
*.?- .-- JL. q J-J. -* A J -. aJ j*_ ._. I- ..- :jL 44 n a a r' jrt n- *ft a(^^
of the department
these digests or briefs
cated for distribution.
briefs are included in
Egg l marketing -------- ---------- 1
Drainage_----_- __ .....-.- 2
Fertilizers for Citrus Fruits -----
Forestry ----------------..-------- 4
Boll Weevil------------ 5
Crop Rotation------- --------- 6
Cooperative Fruit Marketing----- 8
Dairy Manufactures..-- --------- 9
Dairy Bull Associations-_ 10
Clover ---------------- ---
Cotton Variety Standardization---__ 12
Home Water Supply and Hydroelectric
Power Plants ----------------13
Poultry Management-- ---------- -- 14
Poultry Flock Certification --------- 15
Poultry Diseases .-- _-.--- --------- 16
Poultry Marketing- ---_------ -_-- 17
Poultry Feeding---_--------------- 18
Potato Spray Rings-.----- -- 19
Recreational Activities and Pageants- 20
Besides the briefs duplicated for
distribution, 19 other digests of infor-
mation in 1922 reports have been pre-
pared by this section.
Farmers' Institutes.-On July 1, 1923,
the work conducted with farmers' in-
stitutes and foreign-extension reports
was incorporated with this section of
the office. Under the immediate direc-
tion of J. M. Stedman, information has
been collected from the State colleges
and the State departments of agricul-
ture relative to
conducted in 1923.
on farmers' institi
pared showing the
in 1923. The plan
the various States,
funds involved, an
tion are given.
A national report
utes has been pre-
extent of that work
of organization in
the personnel and
d similar informa-
tions relating to extension work in ag-
riculture andchome economics in for-
eign countries have been reviewed
under Mr. Stedman's direction and
two reports on this work prepared for
general distribution. The one for the
publications reviewed during the six
months ended December 1, 1923, was
with the office in revising the annual
report form for use by county exten-
sion agents in 1924.
The new report form prepared by
this group of workers and adapted for
use by all county extension agents in
the 48 States is a distinct improve-
ment over the report form used in
1923 and has apparently been well re-
ceived by the State extension leaders.
More nearly comparable information
on extension work throughout the Na-
tion will be available from the 1924
annual reports than has ever been
available in the past.
Field Studies.-To supplement the in-
formation available from reports and
to build up a fund of facts for use as
a guide in the future development of
extension work the Reports and Effi-
ciency Studies Section is charged with
the conduct of special field studies
from time to time. A small begin-
ning has been made in the extension
investigational field during the past
year. Field studies have been con-
N. Y. Plans have
, Oregon, and California dur-
fall of 1924. When several
I records have been obtained
from farmers and home makers in
representative sections of the country
it is expected to issue a printed circu-
lar embodying the results of these
In cooperation with Director Bliss,
of the Iowa Extension Service, a field
study was made of 549 farms in five
townships in Marshall County. The
purpose of the study was to determine
the extent to which farms and homes
have been effectively reached by coop-
erative extension work and the ex-
tension means and agencies directly or
indirectly responsible for influencing
the adoption of improved practices. A
report on the Marshall County, Iowa,
has been prepared but has not
distributed to the field pending
completion of similar studies in
Ju .4 NI$
thirty records were gotten in Che-
nango County, 513 in Monroe, and 382
in Jefferson, making a total of 1,225
records for the State, or more than
200 in excess of the goal set.
The office has employed, in coopera-
tion with other bureaus, 10 subject-
matter extension workers whose busi-
ness has been to act as carriers of
information of an extension nature
from the subject-matter bureaus of
the department to the corresponding
departments and extension offices of
the agricultural colleges of the States,
and as students of the methods em-
ployed in extension for the purpose of
most effectively reaching the farms
and farm homes and getting improved
practices adopted, They also act as a
clearing house of information in their
respective lines and write an annual
report summarizing the extension re-
sults accomplished during the year in
their respective fields for the use of
extension administrative officers. In
some cases where funds have not been
available to employ a subject-matter
specialist the bureaus have designated
some member of their staff to sum-
marize the extension work in their
subject for the year.
For the purpose of supporting the
county extension agents in the States
by way of giving special technical
service when and where needed there
were employed by the States
1, 1923, 803 full-time and I
extension specialists. This
was the equivalent of 700
matter specialists employed o
time basis, of which 80 were
n a full-
in agronomy, 68 in animal husbandry,
80 in daitying, 69 in poultry, 64 "in
horticulture; 25 in entomology (includ-
ing bee culture), 19 in plant pathology,
5 in forestry, 4 in rodent contr
in rural engineering, 48 in farm
agement, 34 in marketing," in
organization, 8 in veterinary
cine, 51 in general home econ(
37 in clothing and millinery,
agronomy extension problems stressed
during the year. Seed improvement
has been developed by
inspection and certifica
of this work was laid
the efforts of
mist and later
of growers who
for the work,
of inspection an
small grains as
a plan of seed
ition. The basis
including the expense
id certification of such
corn, wheat. oats, andl
rye. potatoes, and grass seeds.
The number of demonstrations with
legumes and forage crops, 66,261, re-
agents in 47 States,
s a sligh
such as potatoes and
has been little increase
of work reported, while
agents in 47
t increase over
in the amount
the number of
with cotton has nearly
iere were conducted 13,153 result
onstrations in all phases of corn
ring with adults, while 17,293 boys
girls completed the work pre-
Ked for them in the corn project.
adoption of improved corn prac-
on 171,080 farms were reported
,789 agents. Improved strains of
were planted on 112,561 farms
39,185 tested corn seed for germi-
nation prior to ]
Wok in soil
by 1,980 county
fertility was reported
extension agents in 48
the year 34,550 result
were completed or car-
tried through the year, and 323,009 dif-
ferent farms were reported as having
adopted better soil practices. The ad-
vice of the agents in the ,use of com-
mercial fertilizers was followed on
170,059 farms, and in the use of lime
and limestone on 63,719 farms; 60,743
took better care of farm manures and
under green m
he practice of plowing
ianure crops to increase
lopment of sources
nfl 4 1 4 n-nr n'n r cr f .i n
In addition to making lime accessi-
ble at reasonable rates, one-fourth of
the States have conducted work on
standardizing formulas and interest-
ing b)oth the trade and the farmers
ill the use of high-analysis fertilizers.
To drttain this end conferences were
held with manufacturers of fertilizers.
those in charge of State fertilizer in-
spection. and the agronomists at the
- experiment stations.
Horticulture.- In fruit growing the
outstanding activities have been the
pruning and spraying of orchards.
Pruning and spraying were conducted
U (IV Il
ew York a
in g in the
ce of the
a joint piece of exten-
:he plant pathologist,
d horticulturist coop-
ing and spraying was
paid service, men be-
y orchardists on the
college extension spe-
cialist interested in the work. The
method of pruning followed the usual
teachings of the college of agriculture.
The spraying was conducted in the
commercial orchards with the usual
materials, but the time of application
was determined by weather forecasts
furnished by the Weather.Bureau. In
a few States where home orcharding
is being promoted, spray rings were
formed consisting of as few people as
practicable. They joined in the pur-
chase of the spraying outfit and ma-
terials, and in some cases in the em-
who conducts the
actual spraying operations.
In vegetable production
outstanding lines of work
cooperation with thi
ists was the treatmel
sweet potatoes for t
disease. In addition,
i promoted, with dem
one of the
at of potatoes
the success of these houses in prevent-
ing storage losses. The success of
some of the work in spraying was due
to cooperation of local business firms
in the ilanls of the specialists and
county agents in its promotion. The
of prizes for the best gardens, and
especially those that provide" at least
two fresh vegetables for every day in
the year. Home gardens have pro-
duced in the past year increased quan-
tities of vegetables for eanning for
Plant Pathology.-One of the most im-
portant phases of plant pathology ex-
tension was in the selection of seed for
freedom from disease. This work has
two phases, one in the seed-producing
topritorv. te other in the seed-con-
suming territory. In the seed-producing
territory the work was accomplished,
first, by locating disease-free stocks;
second, by growing these stocks in iso-
lated and closely rogued fields; third,
conducting field and bin inspections;
fourth, tra inng inspectors; fifth, con-
ducting test plots with seed planted for
of farmers' to
duction of dii
ent sources; (
sixth, teaching by means
urs and other agencies.
s necessary for the intro-
sease-free seeds into the
ig territories were, (1)
sts with seed from differ-
2) inspecting seed-source
(3) establishing record
is; (4) establishing by
means of farmers' tours and
agencies the value of disease-free
To assist in the promotion of the
in the producing of better seed
toes a motion-picture film has
prepared to show the process of
ducting the work in seed-prod'
territories. The same plan has
carried out in the production of
Some of the
agencies promoted the
State experiment stations
have produced disease-resistant
ties of cabbage, tomatoes, and
vegetables. Pure-seed stocks
usually been made available 1
States to reliable seedsmen for mi
cation. An effort has been made
form county agents as to the sources
of supply in order that they may fur-
nish the information to farmers on
ttnity seed treatment of potatoes has
been begun in Wisconsin and Minne-
sota. In a few States the pathologist
and the extension entomologist have
met with the extension horticulturist
or the agronomist and have worked
out plans for the preparation and ap-
plication of sprays to control both
diseases and insects.
Livestok.-During 1923 livestock ex-
tension work, from a production stand-
point, was an uphill undertaking on
account of the consistently low prices
in the livestock markets. These con-
ditions forced the undertaking of eco-
nomic measures, one of which was
more effective methods of feeding.
Increases in the returns from the ani-
mals sold were brought about, to some
degree, through the organization of
cooperative shipping associations.
Other types of cooperation were also
engaged in, such as the marketing of
feeder cattle direct to growers in the
Corn Belt. An outstanding example
of cooperation was found in Colorado,
where 12,500 cattle were handled
through a cooperative organization
dealing with a similar organization in
Iowa, where the cattle were sold.
The general level of the quality of
by the cul
production was also raised
ling of both male and female
animals. The improvement
pastures and the production
of supplemental feeds, with
to the r influence on net re-
re also given much attention.
3, 65;236 different farmers
ienced by extension work to
ter practices in beef produc-
tion, 1,673 result demonstrations were
conducted with adults, and 4,453 boys
and girls raised beef animals accord-
ing to improved methods. Aid was
given in obtaining purebred sires for
4,812 farms and purebred females for
1,781 farms. In cooperation with Fed-
eral, State, and county veterinarians
22,734 farmers were influenced to vac-
cinate for blackleg and 19,356 to test
beef animals for tuberculosis.
The promise of immediate and usu-
alli satistfaretr r.etrns nromnted.
Culling has come to be generally
adopted, and thousands of farmers and
members of their families are doing
the culling unass sted. In one or two
States the farmers have been encour-
aged to employ specially trained per-
sons to do the culling. The demon-
stration farm has become an important
long-time piece of work.
Boys' and girls' club work has been
a very helpful agency in the develop-
ment of the poultry industry not only
in the production of poultry but in the
demonstration of good practices
through home flocks, fair exhibits, and
public demonstrations and talks given
by the boys and girls. Demonstrations
in the building of model poultry
houses have been most successful un-
der the community building bee"
plan where visitors take part in the
The agencies for spreading the in-
fluence of poultry extension were auto-
mobile tours, field meetings, exhibits,
folders, and bulletins. Circular letters,
posters, and calendars also played an
important part in keeping the work
before the people.
More than 73 per cent of the county
agents reporting, or 2,459 agents, men-
tioned work with poultry; 65,359 dem-
onstrations were conducted with
adults; 50,048 boys and girls demon-
strated improved methods of chick
rearing and poultry management; 133,-
911 farmers culled their flocks accord-
ing to improved methods in order to in-
crease efficiency in production; 70,867
farmers were assisted with feeding
problems, and 70.276 in controlling in-
sect pests. One or more poultry prac-
tices were modified on 309,719 farms.
Extension activities with swine were
generally distributed throughout the
Corn Belt, and some work was done
in the West, East, and South, where
the raising of hogs was encouraged to
utilize farm waste and to provide
pork and its products for the home.
The use of better-bred animals has
improved the general level of the type
of hogs raised all over the country.
In the Western or range States,
winter feeding and better range man-
agement were two outstanding fea-
tures of extension work with sheep.
In the Central and Eastern States
the practice of docking and castrating
lambs was emphasized in Kentucky,
Virginia, and Missouri. Although buy-
ers have noted the adoption of this
practice, it has not become sufficiently
general to make large differences in
the lamb market.
One interesting feature in sheep ex-
i work has been the use of sheep,
I as swine, in the harvesting of
crop by turning them into the
1d and allowing them to eat
ars and leaves. The work was
stated with great success in
and Colorado. Each acre of
i the Idaho demonstration pro-
a gain of 482 pounds.
addition to tile problem of pro-
g more home-grown legume feeds
a better quality of silage, the
problem of increasing the milk produc-
tion per cow has been as important
in 1923 as in any preceding year. The
organization of cow-testing associa-
tions and the elimination of the low-
producing cow by
A modification of
number of herds i
expense lessened 1
testing have been
of dairy extension.
the standard cow-
plan by which the
s increased and the
'as been tried with
in a few States.
The second method of increasing
milk production is a comparatively
long-time process in which bull associ-
ations are the principal factor. In
addition to tile bull-association plan
there i : been a general stimulation
incident to the better-sires campaign,
to encourage farmers to purchase bet-
ter bulls whether or not they are
members of associations.
Extension workers have also pro-
better care of mi
other for the who
product, such as ch
cows to obtain one or two
the family milk and butter supply.
This work has been done largely
through feeding demonstrations of
children to bring about normal weight
conditions by the use of a diet im-
proved by the addition of milk.
Some phase of dairy extension work
was reported by 2,247 agents, with a
total of 315,569 farmers taking up im-
proved dairy practices during the year.
There were conducted 21,107 result
demonstrations in dairying with
adults, while 10,473 boys and girls
demonstrated the advantages of im-
proved methods in the care and man-
agement of dairy animals. During the
year, 407 bull associations were or-
ganized with a membership of 6,997
farms. Records of dairy production
were kept on 29,329 farms, 16,552 of
which were members of cow-testing
associations. Extension agents as-
sisted 65,459 farmers in dairy feeding
problems, and in cooperation with
Federal, State, and county veterina-
rians influenced 197,399 farmers to
test dairy animals for tuberculosis.
Farm Management.-Any plan of farm
work and management that lessens
the outlay of money, makes better use
of time and economizes in labor, de-
termines the farm-management pro-
gram. To detect the leaks in these
factors more account books were used
than ever before. The keeping of ac-
counts and the making of simple in-
ventories are necessary to form the
basis for making adjustments. The
books are furnished at nominal cost.
The farmers are brought together in
a little group called a farm-account
school, in which each farm enterprise
is discussed with reference to the cost
of conducting it as indicated by the
farmers' own accounts. This work is
particularly for the purpose of devel-
oping the habit of account keeping and
is a guide in the weighing of each
enterprise. The gradual increase of
production per worker in 1920 as com-
pared with 1910 indicates that there
has been an increase of 8 acres of the
EXTEN SION 1
Assistance was given to 16,164 farm-
ers in the keeping of farm accounts;
6,018 boys and girls kept complete or
partial accounts of the business on
their home farms; 6,998 farmers made
recommended changes in organization
of the farm business; 9,546 farmers
were advised concerning leases. Cost
of production records were kept on
14,308 farms. Assistance in making
better use of labor was given on
42,537 farms, and 24.569 farmers were
helped to secure loans made through
farm-loan associations or from local
banks. The farm-account school,
where farmers are brought together in
small groups to take inventories, to
start and close farm accounts, and to
discuss costs of production, farm or-
ganization, labor efficiency, and other
farm-management problems, has in-
creased in popularity during the year.
Marketing.--During the year the Ex-
tension Service rendered assistance in
connection with the
1,853 new cooperative
ciations and gave c
other similar associa
tions, or individually,
ounsel to 4,409
or home makers were assisted with
marketing problems. The total value
of purchases by these farmers was
$43,628,152, with a reported saving of
$4,314,134. The total value of the
sales reported was $277,403,702. with
a profit of $21,158,941.
Forestry.-Forest planting, thinning,
and improving the cutting of timber
have claimed the greatest interest in
forestry extension. A successful for-
est-planting program is somewhat de-
pendent upon the source of cheap and
easily-produred planting material.
This is usually supplied from nurs-
eries maintained by the States. In
agricultural regions of the Middle
West the production of fence posts
has received the greatest attention.
Many windbreaks havi been planted
also in this region. Plantings for the
purpose of stopping soil erosion have
been made in the hilly regions of the
Ett^ *j nt. .1 -- ibf m t -. _.1- !.* .e .s. i A
Demonstrations in thinning and im-
proving woodlands were especially
successful in natural-growth pine.
Many of the trees to be removed are
large enough to be utilized for fuel,
posts, or low-grade, timber, thereby
reducing the cost of the work. The
county agent and the owner lay out
a rectangle of perhaps a half acre.
Each of the boundaries is marked and
a check plot is reserved. As the
demonstration advances the neighbor-
ing farmers are invited to be present
when the trees are marked for cutting.
The actual work of removing the
marked trees is carried on by the
owner and the products are often piled
where they can be measured and
'Ine treating of wood to preserve it
has developed as a forestry-extension
proposition. The fast-growing timbers
decay rapidly, mak
ng treatment with
The initial outlay
) to $100 necessary for construct-
fence-post treating plant has pre-
1 the development of the project
ne degree, but. in spite of this
fact, in Iowa 13 demonstr
wood preservation were made
The object of the demonstrate
show how to set up a farm c
plant and to show the actual
which can be accomplished. .
soting of floor boards made
cottonwood timber has been c
to prevent powder-post beetles
tacking the wood.
A few demonstrations ha
made in the application of 1
c!ples of timber estimating.
er can meet the
terms than he
work have been
;ion is to
features of calculation which
been overcome in part by the a
what is called a cruiser's stick,"
as has been worked out by the Fe
Farm Land Bank of Springfield,
Agricultural Engineering.-The e
sion work in agricultural engineering
i ; :
The lifetime of farm machinery and
farm buildings has been increased by
teaching proper care and repair.
The general agricultural depression
directed the drainage extension work
toward the construction of open drains
rather than tile drains. In many
States drainage districts have been
organized, as in previous years, for
the purpose of planning and construct-
ing a general system to serve an entire
community. The extension specialist
has endeavored to demonstrate the
fact that increased production from
drained land will amply pay for the
improvement. Meetings are held on
the farm during the course of con-
struction of the drains and the prin-
ciples of correct drainage are ex-
In some of the far Western States
demonstrations were made in the con-
servation of flood water by impound-
ing, the development of pumping
plants, and the consolidation of small
were advertised as
in California, and v
the efficiency of one
traction in check or
irrigation with mea
water and various other featl
The prevention of erosion
nearly equal in importance
age. The greatest need fo
ing seems to be found in
ds where t
ed by mea
cost of the
ing out terraces and supervising their
construction. Motion pictures and
still pictures have been used in the
terracing schools to show the methods
employed. Instruction has also been
given in the use of terrace drags,
farm levels, and level rods.
The preparation and distribution of
standard, Many demonstrations have
been made at county and State fairs
where water systems have been ex-
hibited and other mechanical devices
have been used to show the advan-
tages of these conveniences. In one
State water-supply schools were con-
ducted, the demonstration equipment
being carried on a truck.
Nutrition.-Only within the past two
years has there been a general tend-
ency toward dividing home economics
as a general subject into the different
lines of work under such names as
nutrition, clothing, and home manage-
ment. Human nutrition has taken its
place in the field of home economics
as feeding has in the animal-hus-
bandry work in the larger subject of
agriculture, and many of the problems
very closely resemble those in the
field of animal feeding. The factors
of nutritive value, economy in pur-
chasing or production, palatability
combinations, preservation, and cor-
rective feeding may be common to
In the field of human nutrition
demonstrations in improving food
habits have been of prime importance.
In order to contribute to the estab-
lishing of proper food habits five fac-
tors have been considered: (1) The
physical condition of members of the
family, (2) food selection habits, (3)
the family food supply, (4) food prep-
aration, and (5) menu building.
In the first and second cases the
height-weight standards and the score
cards have played an important part
in adding to the information an in-
dividual may have as to the devia-
tion from standards. Consciousness
of this deviation has caused many in-
*t their food habits.
;hortage of certain
the improper prep-
ave been corrected
leafy vegetables in
n addition to those
usually grown, and by having demon
stations in food preparation. It has
quickened the use of the food-nreser-
various features of
type of irrigation
Depth of pene-
basin systems of
sured amounts of
the work has
ns of demon-
sisted in lay-
iduals to correc
addition the s
d supplies and
.tion of food h
home garden i
ter practices and improving
habits of the family.
Nutrition work lends itself
broken up into simple demol
wherein local leaders can bh
trahsmitting it from the h4
f to being
e used in
oristration agent and the specialist to
thousands of persons whom neither
the specialist nor the home demonstra-
tion agent can reach personally.
During the year outstanding work
has been done in the correction of
food habits among club boys and girls
and the children in the public schools,
wlo have been influenced many times
by the interest taken in the work by
p:rent-teacher associations and by
demonstrations made under the aus-
pices of the public-school authorities.
Clothing and Milinery.-The proper se-
lection of clothing materials was
taught in 8,683 demonstrations with
adults and 10,967 demonstrations with
juniors. As a result the improved
practices taught were adopted in 46,-
156 homes. There were conducted 67,-
294 junior demonstrations and 46,177
adult demonstrations in sewing and
garment making; in 207,889 different
homes use was made of the informa-
tion taught in these demonstrations,
and 57,952 dress forms were made as
aids to better construction. Remodel-
ing and renovating old garments and
articles to make them better suited
for present use were taught in 7,428
32,002 homes practice
of this work during
Hat making has c
a strong appeal with
adults and 4,483
girls, while in
al use was made
continued to have
rural women and
girls both from the standpoint of
economy and satisfaction with the fin-
ished product. The methods taught
in the 21,238 demonstrations con-
ducted with adults and the 6,847 dem-
onstrations completed by the girls en-
rolled in club work were applied in
"DEVELOPMENT OF COUNTY EXTENSION
a... ~ r.t~
*i 1 mfl..n'A.i~n~r'n tnr rr In 0. trr ro n nn
.- .... .-..
written in connection with requests
for information. More than 16,000,000
persons were reached in the 420,737
meetings arranged for or participated
in by the county workers.
e were conducted
ces were re-
5,462,526 farms or homes throw
influence of the extension force
The 2,310 county agriculture
carried on organized extension
23,213 communities and were
!n such work by 125,071 volunteer
leaders; 282,395 demonstrations were
carried on with adults and 128,705 with
juniors, and 3,860,437 farmers or home
makers were influenced more or less
directly by the agricultural agents to
adopt better agricultural or home eco-
Organized extension work was car-
ried on by the 949 home demonstra-
t:on agents in 13,377 communities.
Through the influence of 438,099 re-
sult demonstrations with adults and
254,006 with juniors, 1,546,256 home
makers adopted improved practices in
connection with the various activities
centering in the home.
459,074 boys and girls were
associated with extension
per cent of whom carried
k to completion. Of the
idertaken by these boys and
tier cent of the 722E508
projects were finished. This was an
increase of 120,000 over the number
of projects completed by boys and girls
in 1922. As in previous years, the
corn, potato, cotton, vegetable garden-
ing, dairy, poultry, swine, food prepa-
ration, food preservation, and clothing
projects received greatest emphasis
with juniors as measured by the num-
ber enrolled. Of the 3,338 agents sub-
emitting annual reports,
per cent, mentioned work
The 264 negro men
agents obtained the active
t4! 1IA OfW? l1/r nnAtr nilnrnAv
2,747, or 82
n .nm i rn-t n A
same plane and along about 1
lines as at present. Now that
expansion has ceased, attenti
ing centered more and more
ciency in the methods employ
fuller utilization of all the
for extension, such as the p
tour, the campaign, the local
munity fair, charts, lantern sl
tion pictures, and exhibits.
ing attention is likewise bei
to the psychology and the art
ing. It is recognized, howe'
the extension system is only
complete, and in the near fut
must he taken to strengthen
home demonstration work
boys' and girls' club work.
on is be-
? on effi-
ed and a
OFFICE OF MOTION PICTURES
The Office of Motion Pictures
continued under the direction of
W. Perkins, without change of
sonnel. Definite accompIishments
ing the fiscal year include the
Completion of 26 new motion pictures
of one reel or more, the total number of
reels being 37.
Revision of 35 old films.
Beginning of scenario or production
work, or both. on 23 new films.
Addition of 240 new prints, totaling
368 reels, to the department's stock avail-
able for distribution. bringing the total
number of reels to 1,537.
Circulation of department films through
extension workers and others to a parti-
ally reported audience of 2,281 739. and
to a total audience believed to be in ex-
cess of 8,000,000. *
Authorization of sale of 251 prints. total-
ing 310 reels, at a rest to purchasers of,
Adoption of definite policies in the con-
duct of the motion-picture work.
Publication of a new indexed list of
our 182 subjects, and preparation of manu-
script for a new circular on the use of
motion pictures by extension workers.
GROWTH IN FILM DISTRIBUTION
The actually reported audience for
our films during 1924 was considerably
smaller than that reported for 1923,
but it is believed that the audience
has continued to grow. The number
nr f l i olr ,n nmf -f i thk lahTrmo-nxr
chasers outnumber the copies owned
and circulated by the department it-
self, the estimated total of 8,000,000
is believed to be conservative. Cireu-
lation of portions of our films through
the theatrical film "news weeklies"
is not figured in this total. Circula-
tion through this medium has been
obtained several times in the past
year and would add millions to the
The purchase of prints by author-
ized persons and institutions has con-
tinued to be active, although the total
of purchases during the past year is
about 15 per cent less than in the
previous year. Among the purchasers
have been State agricultural colleges,
agencies of foreign governments, and
other institutions likely to give wide
and advantageous use to the films.
NEW FILMS COMPLETED
The following motion pictures were
completed and placed in distribution
during the fiscal year:
Sir Loin of T-Bone Ranch
(3 reels, Bu-
reau of Animal Industry).
The Woolly West (2 reels, Bureau of
Clean .Herds and Hearts (4 reels, Eu-
reau of Animal Industry).
Bob Farnum's Ton Litter (2 reels, Bu-
re u of Animal Industry).
Where Uncle S: m Raisrs Poultry (1 reel,
Bureau of Animal Industry).
Beets from Seeql to Sugar Bowl (1 reel,
Bureau of Plant Industry and Bureau of
Sugar Cone and Cane Suear (1 reel.
Bureau of Plant Industry and Bureau of
Blister Rust--A Menace to Western Tim-
ber (2 reels. Bureau of Plant Industry).
Hidden Foes in Seed Potatoes (1 reel,
Extension Service and Bureau of Plant In-
(1 reel, Ex-
(1 reel, Extension
Casscina (1 reel, Bureau of Chemistry).
Trees of To-morrow (2 reels, Forest
Forests Green or Forests Gray (1 reel,
The pictures named above number
26, two less than were completed in
the preceding year. The smaller num-
ber is due to the greater emphasis
placed on adequate preparation and
better quality. As a result, our pic-
tures are winning an excellent reputa-
tion among educational films.
NEW FILMS IN PREPARATION
New films, on which considerable
preparatory or actual photographic
work has been done and which should
.be completed within the next four
months, include the following:
The Green Barrier (Bureau of Animal
Salvation of Strawberries (Bureau of
Hog Breeds and Hog Management (Bu-
reau of Animal Industry).
Beans or Beeties (Bureau of Entomol-
SThe Horse and Man (Bureau of Animal
Southern Forest Insects (Bureau of En-
Planting Pines for Profit (Forest Serv-
Dual Purpose Trees (Forest Service).
From Seed to Sawmill (Forest Service).
Weighed in the Balance (Bureau of
Thi T avels of a Banded Duck (Biologi-
,Laying Lumbricus Low (Bureau of Plant
Wheat Smut Treatment (Bureau of
Weather Bureau Work (Weather Bu-
Pan-American Highway Tour (Bureau of
Boys' and Girls' Club Work (Extension
Cotton Variety Standardization (Exten-
sion Service and Bureau of Plant Indus-
Satisfying Farm Life (Extension Serv-
Clean Milk Production (Bureau of Dairy-
Farm Accounting (Bureau of Agricul-
Household Organization (Bureau of
Sheep in Psalm and Sage.
Pan and Ceres in the Movies.
NEEDS OF THE WORK
Motion pictures have become impor-
tant instruments in the extension, edu-
cational. and nublicitv work of the
sonnel. A reasonable addition to per-
sonnel and to operating funds will give
results worthy of the expenditure.
During the fiscal year the exhibits
activities of the. department, which are
under the direction of J. W. Hiscox,
were segregated into the following
divisions, with an officer in charge of
each: (1) Administration, (2) opera-
tion, (3) planning and designing, (4)
production, (5) distribution, and (6)
engineering and warehousing. The
adoption of this plan of organization
enables the office to conduct its work
in a more systematic and economical
manner than heretofore.
An information service was also
started, which procures and records
material on exhibits from outside
sources and studies books, periodicals.
and equipment relating to exhibits
work. Special attention has been de-
voted to expanding the information on
such subjects as the application to
exhibits of the principles of visual
appeal, materials for the making of
models, special reproduction processes,
and lighting effects.
DEVELOPMENTS IN TECHNIQUE
veloped during the year
of showing two or there<
same space by having
solve into another by m(
and controlled electric
ated by a flasher. Se
hibits were constructed,
was unusually success
standpoint of attract
holding interest, and
A second method of
scenes within the same
developed through a
was a method
e scenes in the
one scene dis-
eans of screens
veral such ex-
each of which
;ful from the
space has been
study of the
effect of lights of different colors on
colored surfaces. Through the use of
this method, combined with a device
for chanainr the color of the light
OF DEPARTMENT OF
as the edges are less noticeable. To
facilitate removal of dust and finger
marks and avoid frequent repairing
and scrubbing, varnish and other
waterproofing surfaces have been tried
on exhibit panels with considerable
Several new types of exhibits have
been developed, including one which
furnishes the same wall space as the
older type and which when packed for
shipping is 30 per cent lighter. An
exhibit booth was constructed which
gives 33 per cent more wall space than
the type now in use and requires 25
per cent less floor space. This special
e of booth consists of five
by 4 feet instead of three
4 by 8 feet. The panels of
h are so constructed that both
be used for presenting sub-
ter. This increased the effi-
the new booth as compared
old type by about 56 per cent.
the panels of the new booth
ler, they can be packed much
mpactly for shipment. The
re lighter and more easily
handled, and express and freight costs
will be reduced about 27 per cent.
The department is gradually build-
ing exhibits of recognized excellence.
However, the responsibility of the de-
partment in disseminating information
through exhibits does not end with the
construction of a piece of exhibit ma-
terial, nor are its aims thus attained.
The aim of the Office of Exhibits 4ur-
ing the past year has been to obtain
more adequate presentation of exhibits
through cooperation with State exten-
sion workers and State and other
local agencies. Circulation is impor-
tant, but the department is limited in
its selection of places or occasions at
which to exhibit by its appropriation
for this work, which provides only for
exhibitions at State, interstate, and
international fairs and expositions.
However, exhibits prepared for show-
ing at State fairs were loaned for use
It accomplishes much, however, and
until the limiting language of the ap-
propriation is changed there can be
little selection of exhibition points.
Adequate distribution can not be ob-
tained until exhibits can be sent to the
points where they may be seen under
appropriate conditions by the maxi
mum number of those whom it is de-
sired to reach.
Financial Cooperation.-During the fis-
cal year 78 fairs and expositions de-
posited with the disbursing officer of
the department $9,238.73 to cover cost
of transporting and installing exhibits.
The transportation cost was prorated
and each fair deposited with the dis-
bursing officer of the department msus
ranging from $98.75 to $182.77, depend-
ing upon the size of the exhibit re-
ceived, for disbursement by hitm A
considerable saving in transportation
costs was accomplished for the de-
positors, due to the liberal concessions
secured from the transportation corn
panies, giving free return on a large
number of exhibits from their last
point of display to Washington, D. C.,
or to Alexandria, Va.
project of a
The average u
ing the year,
department for par-
fairs and expositions
year was approin-
Adding to this the
al fair" funds of
total for the entire
cost of the 160 ex-
therefore about $732.
uits.-Circuits of carload
arranged as usual dur-
and 50 of the 160 ex-
made in this way. One
or more department
were at each of thesr
men were detailed
of the department
subject matter o
Through this coopers
enabled to make exl
at least twice as m
twice as m
e exhibition points
from the bureaus
interested in the
f the exhibits.
ition the office was
hibits available to
any places and to
y people as other-
estimated attendance at the
tion was 90,000, including d
attending tbhe World's Dair"
gress from many foreign co
These representatives unan.
expressed their approval of the
ment's exhibit, and it created
favorable comment from lea
educational work and in the
tural press. A special featu
a scenic exhibit 90 feet long, s
in three sections the develop
dairying from a primitive to
vanced stage. Size and realism
this exhibit unusually att
Other exhibits which contain
jects or had motion were also
At the International Livesti
position at Chicago the depth
had what many thought was t
Effective exhibit of the year.
tl:e effect of those factors wI
tract was demonstrated.
light objects, and demons
were combined with most sati
results. Probably the best
features here was the display
steers and hogs, representing t
ous market grades, with wholes
i retail cuts of meats from simi
males. There was no idle time
demonstrators in this exhibit.
ibiits Other than at Fairs.-
tions have been made before a 1
riety of organizations and at ou
of widely differing character.
and expositions are the largest
exhibit occasions, ranging front
expositions and shows through
specialized expositions to the
agricultural fairs. Textile, c
electrical, canning, automobi
fire-prevention expositions are
those which call upon the dep
for exhibits. Twelve exhibition
made at colleges. Medical societies,
banks, schools, and museums were
among others which asked the depart-
ment for exhibit material. Numerous
applications were of necessity declined.
Another enlarging opportunity for
exhibits is their use on agricultural
demonstration trains. Several appli-
cations were received during the year
from large railroad companies. Ths
trains planned to carry the informa-
tion developed by the department and
the colleges directly to the farmers, as
well as to business men, bankers, and
others who are interested in agricul-
tural progress. Many farmers and
others who would never attend a fair,
institute, or short course will visit a
schools with lectures
tions reach the heart
unities and provide
the spread of agricult
often more valuable
at fairs, because they
of farming corn-
are more readily
accessible and because the distracting
elements often common at fairs are
Applications for exhibits at other
occasions than State and interstate
fairs were met by asking the payment
of handling, transportation, and in-
stallation expenses. Even this service,
however, causes such a drain on the
time of the office personnel as to inter-
fere seriously with State-fair work.
It has become necessary, therefore, to
decline applications of such character
until a way to finance the work has
been provided. This decision is made
with regret, for some of the very best
exhibit opportunities come under this
type. It will mean also that there
will be a decided drop in the number
of showings made during the coming
lst otf exhibits held during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1924
Al banyt-rp Ow -____ -
A.~~~~I I .... ~m r T Ar.
New York State Veterinary Medical Society.
Santiam Forest Exhibit L_ ...------......--
*TTt: 4n O4"I-.&4n3l *elfj^ -x Orf_._..3 9 -.- Jj -1.r*j-ti
June 9-10, 1924.
Sept. 3-6, 1923.
year ended June S0,
Billings, Mont -
Buffalo, N. YI .-... -
Chapel Hill, N. C.__.
Chattanooga, Tenn ...
Do .--. ... .
Cleveland, Ohio .....
Columbia, S. C--_-_-
Columbus, Ohio ......
Coronado, Calif .....
Crystal Falls, Mich _._
Denver, Colo ..._
Des Moines, Iowa..--
Detroit, Mich -......_
Dufur, Oreg_ --. ...-
Edenton, N. C.....
Elgin, Oreg .- -
Fallon, Nev ........
Fargo, N. Dak ........
Ferry, Wash .....
Fort Worth, Tex,....
Gainesville, Flai- .
Do ... .. _
Grand Forks, N. Dak.
SHarrisburg, Pa .......
Harrisonburg, Va.- --
Hartford, Conn ...- .
Henderson, Ky --
Hot Sprirgs, Ark....
Hot Springs, N. C...
Huron, S. Dak..--.
Ithaca, N. Y.--.-
Kansas (State) ..
Kansas City, Mo....
Do -----..--- ---
Kingston, R. I .-...
World Motor Transport Congi
Armistice Day Parade 1.----
Edenton County Fair__----
Whitman Forest Exhibit -
Nevada State Fair ........
Ferry County Fair IL
Southwestern Exposition anC
Fresno District Fair ...._
Farmers' Week, College of Agr
University of Florida ..
North Dakota State Fair_...-
Farm Products Show .......
State Dairymen's Show ......
Connecticut Dairy Association
Eckert Packing Co. ----
Pure Food Exposition ..--.....--
Milk for Health Campaign ...
Forest Production Week...-..
Hot p-ings Schools_- p-
South Dakota State Fair ......
- -------------------- h-
d Pat Stock
i u u e --- -
- --- -
----- -- -
- -- --- -----
----.. .. ..
Department of Forestry, Cornell Univei
Ja kson County Fair 1 ... ---__
DI iry tnd livestock train, Missouri Pa
K nsas City Auto Show-__---.-....
Missouri State Poultry Show -....-.
Rhode IslHnd State College.......----
M- -- ,-
--- W --
Dec. 3-9, 1923.
Apr. 11-12, 1924.
Oct. 29-Nov. 4, 1923.
Sept. 4-8, 1923.
Sept. 18-21, 1923.
Oct. 29-Nov. 3, 1923.
Oct. 6, 1923.
Jan. 21-26, 1924.
Sept. 20-Oct. 7, 1923.
Jan. 8-10, 1924.
Aug. 3, 1923-Mar. 31,
Baltimore Poultry Show..----- ----------
Engineering Show, Johns Hopkins Univer-
Maryland Academy of Science (conserva-
North Missouri District Fair.-------
Midland Empire Fair.. .------ -
International Textile Exposition .--... -
Public Health Exposition --.......----------
National Canners' Association------- ........
National Safety Counsel -.----- -----.-
State Dairymen's Convention-------
University of Maryland (county demon-
State Forester (educational exhibits)----..-
Chattanooga Interstate Fair--------
Southwest Washington Fair- -...--.........
American Medical Association-- ---.--
Chicago Auto Show.. ...........
Good Roads Show--- --.-----------..
International Livestock Show 2 -...
Association of Ice Cream Supply Men .---..
Cleveland Trust Co------------
Madison County Poultry Association_ --
South Carolina State Fair___---------
Bureau of Animal Industry---
Midwest Drug and Health Show.__ ....
Ohio State Fair_
League of California Municipalities .........
County Fair ..------- ...------------
National Western Stock Show.---------.
Des Moines Third Annual Building Exposi-
Iowa State Fair and Exposition -.---.-.....
Michigan State Fair 2_...- ---e ---
. 11, 1923.
. 12-14, 1923.
. 13, 1923.
. 8-15, 1924.
. 24-29, 1923.
* 6-12, 1923.
. 24-46, 1924.
. 1-30, 1923.
. 12-15, 1923.
. 31-May 25,
r 4A^ int
Sept. 25-Nov. 17, 1923.
Sept. 29-Oct. 6, 1923.
Aug. 20-25, 1923.
June 9-13, 1924.
Jan. 27-Feb. 2, 1924.
Jan. 14-27, 1924.
Dec. 1-8, 1923.
Oct. 22-27, 1923.
Nov. 9, 1923-Mar. 13, 1924.
Dec. 6-9, 1923.
Oct. 22-28, 1923.
July 18-Oct. 1. 1923.
Apr. 21-26, 1924.
Aug. 27-Sept. 1, 1923.
Sept. 10-14, 1923.
Sept. 12-15, 1923.
Jan. 19-26, 1924.
Mar. 24-29, 1924.
fsc year ended June
Mankato, Kans ....-.-
Meridian, Miss .. .
Miller, S. Dak.......
Mount Morris, N. Y_
Muskogee, Okla .....-
Nashville, Tenn...... -
-Do-.... ....- ....
New Haven, Conn....
New York, N. Y......
Norfolk, Va- .---..-.
Oakland, CaliEf ...
Okanogan, Wash --
Phoenix, Ariz .......
Pomona, Calif .....
Portland, Oreg --
Providence. R. I--.....
Pueblo, Colo .--.---
Pullman, Wash .-. .
Raleigh, N. C- ......
Raton, N. Mex -......
Reading, Pa ...--...
Do- ....--... ---
Rochester, N. H---....
St. Louis, Mo......--
St. Paul, Minn... ---
Salem, Oreg -.-..-
Savannah, Ga- ....
Shreveport, La .-..
Sioux City, Iowa--.
Spokane, Wash .....
Springfield, Ill--- ......
Springfield, Mass.. -
Syracuse, N. Y --
Tampa, Fla ......
Texas State-, -.......
Tieton, Wash ..
Topeka, Kan ...
Trenton, N. JL....
Waco, Tex ....
Washington, D. C
Do .. ...' ^
Do .... ---....
- -- -*
-- f--* -n,--
- i- ->*- >- -
:- -- -- --~ .^ -
- m-w i-- ,^ -: -
- :- .- :-
- -- fff- ------__
1 -F-- -- *- '- -
- --- -- -
- a -- -
Mankato County Fair .. -..----- -.--.
Mississippi-Alabama Fair_ .................
Hand County Corn and Grain Show... ..---
Wisconsin Products Exposition....--........
Wisconsin State Fair- -..-.-----------.-- ---
Dairy and livestock train, Missouri Pacific
Livingston County-Farm Bureau...........
Oklahoma Free State Fair..... ......
Tennessee State Fair-......- ... ..........
Tennessee State Highway Department. ....
Connecticut Forestry Association Meeting. -
Fire Prevention Exposition..- -. -----
New York Auto Show..-..............m -_
Great Norfolk Fair ...._- m
Pacific Slope Dairy Show-.----- -----
OkanoganCounty Fair _....................
A rizona State F air ......... ........... .
Los Angeles County Fair -...........
Pacific International Livestock Show .----
Hospital Trust Co-.---...........----.......
Colorado State Fair .
Forestry Fair, State College of Washington 1
North Carolina Industrial Association......
Northern New Mexico State Fair-.-.-----
Berks County Conservation Association -...
Richmond"' Ninth Auto Show-..... .....
Holstein-Friesian Association Meeting_.....
Virginia State Fair ..,_. ...........
Rochester Fair ..--.............. ..........-
California State Fair_............_-- ------.
Saginaw County Fair-_~._--- --
Tenth Triennial Convention of Council of
Family Budget Demonstration, University
Minnesota State Fair -. ---......
Oregon State Fair_---.__- -__ -
Savannah Tri-State Fair- ._-_-...-- -_ -
Southern Forestry Congress ---- --
Louisiana State Fair- --......... .---
Interstate Fair -----.--..-----
Spokane Sportsmen's and Tourists' Fair..-..
Spokane Interstate Fair------ ._.. _...-..-.
Bureau of Animal Industry: ....___. ..
Eastern States Exposition .. .1..
Skamania County Fair I _.. ..............
New York State Fair .-.---..-..---. -.
World's Dairy Congress and National Dairy
South Florida Fair- ....------- ......... .
Baltimore & Ohio Poultry Show- .......
Agricultural train, St.Louis Southwestern
Railway (cotton exhibit).
Tieton Fair 1 -- --------.--
Maryland State Fair- --.-----_ --.......
National Farmers' Exposition ..-...........
Kansas Free Fair ............. .. ... .. ..
Mercer County Health Week ...............
New Jersey State Highway Department- ...-
Texas Cotton Palace ----------
Wallowa County Fair 1---- ----.....
American Association of Museums .....
Eastern High School ---- -----.-
General Federation of Women's Clubs ......
XhTt +nnnl It'Ant Anl cn .cnnmn-lnnn flnnrnAn +onni
Oct. 10-15, 1923.
Oct. 8-13, 1923.
Dec. 6-8, 1923.
Dec. 1-8, 1923.
Aug. 27-Sept. 2, 1923.
Mar. 31-May 25, 1924.
Aug. 6-Sept. 30, 1923.
Oct. 1-6, 1923.
Sept. 17-22, 1923.
July 25, 1923-Feb. 28, 1924.
Jan. 26, 1924.
Oct. 8-13, 1923.
Jan. 5-12, 1924.
Sept. 3-8, 1923.
Oct. 29-Nov. 3, 1923.
July 2-4, 1923.
Nov. 12-17, 1923.
Oct. 16-20, 1923.
Nov. 3-10, 1923.
July 20-Sept. 30, 1923.
Sept. 24-29, 1923.
Nov. 17, 1923.
Oct. 23-27, 1923.
Sept. 11-14, 1923.
Jan. 12, 1924.
Mar. 8-15, 1924.
June 1-7, 1924.
Oct. 1-6, 1923.
Sept. 25-28, 1923.
Sept. 1-9, 1923.
Sept. 10-15, 1923.
Nov. 11-16, 1923.
Mar. 8-Apr. 29, 1924.
Sept. 1-8, 1923.
Sept. 24-29, 1923.
Oct. 27-Nov. 3, 1923.
Jan. 28-30, 1924.
Oct. 18-28, 1923.
Sept. 16-22, 1923.
June 1-7, 1924.
Sept. 3-8, 1923.
July 18, 1923-Jan. 30, 1924.
Sept. 16-22, 1923.
Oct. 12-13, 1923.
Sept. 10-15, 1923.
Oct. 5-13, 1923.
Jan. 31-Feb. 14, 1924.
Dec. 10-14, 1923.
Feb. 18-Mar. 21, 1924.
Oct. 12-13, 1923.
Sept. 3-8, 1923.
Dec. 7-15, 1923.
Sept. 10-15, 1923.
Mar. 31-Apr. 5, 1924.
Feb. 13-16, 1924.
Oct. 20-Nov. 4, 1923.
Sept. 29-30, 1923.
May 10-13, 1924.
Nov. 5-10, 1923.
Jan. 7-12, 1924.
YTfl. nn TIOT,,r A IOOA
' Since the organization of the Agri-
cultural Instruction Section in 1906,
the aim has been to encourage and
stimulate the teaching of agriculture
in secondary and elementary schools
where facilities were available for
carrying on such work. No attempt
has been made to organize and admin-
ister instruction in agriculture in the
schools, the service rendered being
more of a cooperative nature. Since
the passage of the Smith-Hughes Vo-
cational Education Act the adminis-
tration and supervision of agricultural
work in the secondary
under the direction
Board for Vocatior
cooperation with thi
education in the sev
vise the teaching of
y schools has been
of the Federal
lal Education in
e State boards of
reral States. The
t does not super-
agriculture in ele-
mentary rural schools.
The work of the office has been di-
rected in recent years primarily (1)
to the making of studies of methods of
teaching and the content of subject
matter for use of teachers of agri-
culture in secondary and elementary
schools and (2) to making available
to both teachers and students of agri-
culture useful agricultural information
accumulated by the Department of
Agriculture and the State agricultural
colleges and experiment stations. The
office work of the staff has been con-
fined more particularly during the
year to the preparation of subject-
matter material in form which can be
used immediately by teachers in both
secondary and elementary schools; to
aid teachers in obtaining publications
of the department classified by this
service for their use; to loan lantern
slides; and to suggest sources of other
available illustrative material.
When the vocational educational
work in the schools was formally es-
609 schools began
I agriculture under
teachers and 15. 43
$2,036,502.12 in 1924. The gradual in-
crease from year to year in the num-
ber of schools teaching agriculture and
the number of students taking the
course are splendid evidences of the
extent to which this type of education
is being approved by the general pub-
lic. As a result of the rapid growth
of this movement there has been an
increase in the number of requests
for the department's material useful
to teachers and students. As teachers
of agriculture in the secondary
are graduates of agricultural
where professional training
are required, they are looking
latest scientific facts and the most up-
to-date methods used in teaching agri-
culture. It has been the aim of this
service to keep the teachers in touch
with helpful suggestions and informa-
tion along these lines and to make
studies and prepare publications espe-
cially for their use.
The teachers of agriculture in the
rural elementary schools have not, as
a rule, been as well
as the teachers
schools. This serve
cial efforts to reach
ers by preparing
lines for their use
trained for service
in the secondary
ice is making spe-
this class of teach-
simple lesson out-
and by supplying
them with leaflets telling how teachers
may use Farmers' Bulletins. Various
sources of illustrative material and
publications are sent these teachers
from time to time. While many of
the teachers of the rural elementary
schools have had some training in
agriculture, and there are some ex-
amples of splendid work being done,
the great majority have had no train-
ing along this particular line. The
States, moreover, are interested in
having some of the simple agricul-
tural principles and practices taught
in the upper grades of the better type
of rural schools. A recent study of
this question revealed that 32 of the
48 States had enacted specific legisla-
designed to procure for rural
Is that type of education espe-
adapted to rural needs, empha-
....WtL- ..*.- !i. .I 1J t J -.* iL *lI. .. M-. L .. ... jl J-L. -J .: .^L.f--.-. jli.ilt -^-^ .^jL Jk
servation, prnetical demonstrations,
and the use of textbooks and other
By means of cooperation with spe-
cialists of the different bureaus of the
department up-to-date suggestions and
material are procured and made avail-
able for agricultural teachers through-
out the United States. In work of
this character a service is being ren-
is not being duplicated
agency of the Govern-
a has been continued dur-
*i at --
year wit' the roilowing agen-
side the Department of Agri-
(1) With States which desire
prepared courses of study in
iry agriculture for rural
(2) with the Federal Board
for Vocational Education in making
studies in the analysis of farm enter-
prises and in preparing publications
for the use of agricultural teachers,
(3) with heads of teacher-training di-
visions by furnishing them with lan-
tern slides and sources of other mate-
rial and by giving suggestions on anal-
ysis of farm enterprises for the teach-
ing curricula, and (4) with teachers in
service by supplying them with results
of studies in agricultural education,
copies of publications, lantern slides,
and classified lists of material pre-
pared especially for their use.
Pn cooperation with the States in
the preparation of courses of study in
elementary agriculture tor rural
schools at the request of State de-
partments of education, the office has
cooperated with the departments of
education and the agricultural col-
leges of Virginia, Maryland, North
GCarolina, Ohio, Wisconsin, Arkansas,
Oilahoma, Missouri, and Utah. The
courses of study for Utah and Okla-
loma have been practically completed
during the year, and the one for the
Missouri schools is now in the process
of preparation. In the preparation of
these courses, close cooperative rela-
tionship is maintained with the col-
leges of agriculture, officials of the
there was established between the Fed-
and the Uni
for Vocational Education
ted States Department of
through the Office of Ag-
nstruction a cooperative
which has enabled the
instruction staff of the de-
apartment to keep in close touch with
the vocational-education movement
under the Smith-Hughes Act, and to
render a service for the department to
vocational education in agriculture by
means of eight different studies, the
results of which were published by the
Federal board and are being exten-
sively used by teachers of agriculture
in the secondary schools. Two of the
studies were courses in crop and ani-
mal production prepared especially for
agricultural teachers in negro schools,
and the remainder dealt more particu-
larly with detailed job analyses of cer-
tain farm enterprises, such as the pro-
duction of swine, poultry, potatoes,
corn, truck crops, etc. In the prepara-
tion of each of these studies the manu-
scripts were submitted to the subject-
matter men of the Department of Agri-
culture for criticisms and suggestions
before being published. The object of
these research studies is to analyze
the job-unit operations in agricultural
show the p
practical skill as
those who want
a a *
competency in arming as a
Members of the staff have
annual regional and State cor
of supervisors and teachers
tional agriculture called by
agents of the Federal board a
officials, and have appeared
ill as the
programs. Frequent conferences are
held with regional agents and the chief
of the Agricultural Education Serv-
ice of the Federal Board for Voca-
tional Education regarding the latest
and best procedure in developing
courses of study in vocational agricul-
ture. The office was represented at
the National Society for Vocational
Education and the Rural Division of
1-ha ?Jotinn PH Io rlnnotin n A d annh -rain
OF DEPARTMI ENT
Visits have been made during the
year to a large number of teacher-
training divisions and to individual
schools where vocational work is car-
ried on. Requests have come from
teacher-training divisions for criti-
cisms and suggestions on analyses and
studies of enterprises as the basis of
the teacher-training program. By
means of visits to vocational schools
many opportunities are offered to ob-
tain first-hand information as to the
progress of the work and new ideas
are acquired with reference to ways
by which better service can be ren-
dered. It is evident that the agri-
cultural teachers throughout the coun-
try regard the Department of Agri-
culture as the source of much useful
information, and numerous requests
are received in this office for various
kinds of available information.
In our cooperation with teachers
in service the aim has been to meet,
so far as possible, the needs of
teachers who are now engaged in
teaching. The publications prepared
in cooperation with the Federal board
have served to guide many teachers
the secondary schools in the
ion and presentation of their
; material. Teachers of
re in the rural elementary
ve been supplied with publ
the office in simple lesson
im. Leaflets offering suggest
.chers regarding the use of
*mers' bulletins have bee
buted to large numbers of t
its of various kinds of r
ve been sent to the two gr
.chers. These teachers are s
th those publications of
at believed to be best adapted
has been a great demand dur-
year for illustrative material
form of lantern slides. This
receives numerous requests for
slides from individual teachers
and from agricultural colleges where
circuits have been formed for the dis-
tribution of slides within the States.
The distribution of slides has been ex-
tensive, in niany instances the re-
quests being greater than the supply.
The older series of slides are being
revised from time to time and new
series are being prepared. During the
year attention has been given to the
preparation of two series of slides for
agricultural teachers dealing with the
swine and poultry enterprises.
Cooperation with the Association of
Land-Grant Colleges was continued
through its committee on instruction
in agriculture, home economics, and
mechanic arts. The committee made
its report at the annual meet ng of the
association in 1923 on the following
-topics: (1) Means of adapting in-
struction and rrte of progress to the
ability of students, with particular
reference to the stimulation of scholar-
ship; (2) status of vocational courses
in agriculture in high schools operated
under the Smith-Hughes Act; and (3)
the relation of the land-grant colleges
to rural-school improvement.
In cooperation with the above com-
mittee a member of the staff vis ted
during the present year a large number
'f the State agricultural colleges to con-
fer with presidents and deans in connec-
tion with a study being made by the
committee with reference to (1) meth-
ods of conducting examinations in
work of the office has remained
the general supervision of Dr.
True, formerly director of the
Relations Service. His able
1 and suggestions have been
and followed on all important
matters pertaining to the work of the
land-grant colleges and (2)
character, and duration
courses as they are now con
the land-grant colleges.
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