Shopper's guide to U.S. grades for food

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Shopper's guide to U.S. grades for food
Series Title:
Home and garden bulletin ;
Physical Description:
ii, 13 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Ferris, Eleanor A ( Eleanor Ann ), 1921-
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture
Publisher:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:
Edition:
Rev. ed.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Food -- Grading -- United States   ( lcsh )
Food -- Standards -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (p. 14).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Eleanor Ferris.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"Slightly revised November 1962"--P. ii.
General Note:
"U.S. Government Printing Office: 1962 0-854278"--P. 14.
General Note:
"This publication supersedes Miscellaneous publication no. 553, 'A consumer's guide to U.S. standards for farm products'"--P. ii.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004953175
oclc - 659745345
System ID:
AA00008478:00001

Full Text

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CONTENTS


M eats.......


Lamb, Yearling Mutton, and Mutton..
Veal and Calf. . . .
Pork . . . .


Poultry .
Eggs . .
Dairy Products.
Butter .
Cheese ..


- 4 4 4 4 | 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 .
* 4 4 4 *, 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4


Nonfat Dry Milk. .... ........................
Fresh Fruits and Vegetables......................
Processed Fruits and Vegetables (and related products).


Dry Beans and Peas............
R ice .........................
Chart-U. S. Grades at a Glance.
Publications................... ..


* 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
* 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
*. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.
* 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4


". 4 4 4 4 4 *
.4.4.4.4.4.4.4 4 *


* 4 4 4 4 4. .4
* 4 4 4 4 4 4.


Slightly Revised November 1962


This publication supersedes Miscellaneous Publication No. 553, "A Consumer's Guide to U. S.
Standards for Farm Products."











Grades


for


Food


It

I


By Eleanor Ferris, Agricultural Marketing Service


Shopping for food


today is much more


mark; and most consumer grades except for


complicated than it
ceay stores have a
foods; and perhaps
select the particular
want.
Your solution may


brand.
mark.
ture o
U.S. !
ably f
U S.
Thi
summer
along


used to be.
bewilderin
you find it
variety or


Most gro-
Lg array of
difficult to
quality you


be to buy a particular


,or a food that carries an (
The U. S. Department
offers a shopper's aid in
grades for consumers. Y
familiar with some of the
Grade A or AA for eggs,
s publication contains a lii
grades established by
with some U. S. grades ti


min wholesale trading.


officiall grade
of Agricul-
the form of
ou are prob-
ise grades-
for instance.
st of all con-


USDA,


?at are used


meats are designated
Grade A, B, or C.
An explanation of the
the Federal grades, and
able uses for some of th
grades, are also include'


Buying graded
necessarily imply


Grades offi
may pick t
you have
eggs for po


r a cho
;he one
in min(
aching'


letters-U.


meaning of each of
suggestions on suit-


ie foods of
d in this p


foods, of course,
buying only t
ice of quality so
most suitable fo:
d, such as top g
or frving, lower g


kJ tJ7


t-.1


different
amphlet.
does not
he best.
that you
r the use
gradess of
rades for


scrambling or combining with other foods.
The Agricultural Marketing Service is the


USDA


Consumer grades are


agency


standards


responsible


which


these


developing
consumer


designed to be applied to small units of food
such as you commonly buy in retail stores-
for instance, 1 chicken or 5 pounds of po-
tatoes. The wholesale grades are suited to
comparatively large-scale shipments and
they allow a certain percentage of tolerance
for undergrade specimens. And grades, inm
general, apply to quality at the time the
product was graded.
The grades listed here are the only official
grades applied by the Federal Government
to the products named. Most U. S. grades
/h 1 /"-- ., H^, Wl./t .. .,...^.. ^.,M! JJ ..,1 L .... 1-..-L 1..** j -h^.j.,-


grades-as well as the many grades used in
wholesale trading-are based. AMS also
provides grading services, many of them in
cooperation with State agencies.
The use of U. S. grades for consumers is
strictly voluntary. The food processor,
handler, or producer, must request grading
service, if he wants it, and he must pay a


fee for it.
Near the end
find a list of a fe
about wholesale
j-l~ : j


of this bulletin, you will
w of the other publications
and retail grades-some of
n-n-. .3/,+rl. nkn,+-,1 F,





MEATS


Federally


graded


meat


is easy


to identify.


It bears a grade stamp which consists of a shield


enclosing the letters


"USDA


E


grade name, such as Prime, (
This stamp is registered in


Office and


an official


ind the appropriate
Choice, or Good.
the U. S. Patent


grader of


the U. S.


Department of Agriculture is authorized to use it.


Judging the quality


of most


meats is a


Prime beef is the top quality,
produced from young and well-fed
beef-type cattle. Meat from such
animals has liberal quantities of
fat interspersed within the lean
(marbling) and is juicy, tender


and flavorful.


and loin
tender.


Prime rib roasts


steaks are consistently
You will find little Prime


grade beef in retail markets be-


cause most of it
and restaurants.


is sold to hotels


technical


job requiring much skill and


training.


It is almost impossible to judge quality in small


retail cuts.


That is why the Federal meat grader


grades only whole carcasses or wholesale cuts.
The grader uses a roller stamp which leaves a


ribbon-like


imprint of


the grade


name


and he


applies it in such a manner that there will be an
imprint of the grade name on practically all of


the retail
harmless


cuts.
purple


The stamping is


vegetable


disappears in cooking.
Another purple stamp


juice


you may


done
which


Choice grade beef is of high qual-
ity but usually has less fat than
Prime beef. Most of the high
quality beef in retail markets is
USDA Choice grade, and this is
the grade most consumers prefer.
More Choice beef is produced than
any other grade, and it is usually
available the year round in sub-
stantial quantity. Roasts and
steaks from the loin and rib are
tender and juicy and other cuts,
such as those from the round or


usually


see on meat


chuck,
for bra
should


which are more suitable
sing and pot roasting,
be tender with a well-


developed flavor.


is round in shape and


Insp'd & P'


bears


the legend


"U. S.


" This is the symbol of Federal


meat inspection and assures you


was wholesome


at the


that the meat
was inspected.


Federal inspection is compulsory for meat shipped


in interstate or foreign commerce.


All meat fed-


erally graded must first be inspected for whole-
someness.

Beef

Six official grades of beef may be found in retail


stores.
Standards


They are


USDA


Prime,


Commercial, and Utility.


Choice,


Good,


Two lower


USDA Good grade beef pleases
thrifty shoppers who seek beef
with little fat but of fairly good
quality. Although cuts of this
grade lack the juiciness associated
with a higher degree of fatness,
their relative tenderness and high
proportion of lean to fat make
them the preference of many
people.
Beef of the USDA Standard grade
has a very thin covering of fat and
appeals to consumers whose pri-
mary concern is a high proportion
of lean. It is mild in flavor and,
though lacking the juiciness found
in beef with more marbling, it is


usually relatively
properly prepared.


tender


when


grades,


Cutter


and Canner,


are rarely


ever


offered to customers as fresh beef but are used


in the manufacture


loaves


and other


various


processed


mea


sausages,
t items,


meat
which


are not federally graded.


It does


store
usually


not necessarily


vould c
stocks


arry


follow


all the grades.


the grade


or grades


one


owner
t will


satisfy the majority of his customers.
Beef of any of the grades described here will
provide a satisfactory dish if appropriately pre-


pared.


The degree of quality which is associated


Beef that is graded Commercial is
produced from older cattle and
usually lacks the tenderness of the
higher grades. Most cuts require
long slow cooking with moist heat


to make


them


tender


and to


develop the rich, full beef flavor
characteristic of mature beef.

USDA Utility grade beef is
produced mostly from cattle some-
what advanced in age and is
usually lacking in natural tender-


ness and juiciness.


grade,


Cuts of this


as they appear in retail


stores, carry very little fat but
provide a palatable, economical
source of lean meat for pot roast-
ing, stewing, boiling or ground-
mrpft. dihp Fnr a.t.isnfstnrv






Yearling Mutton, and Mutton


Meat produced from sheep is divided into three
classes according to its age when slaughtered--
lamb, yearling mutton, and mutton.
The official grades for lamb and yearling mutton
are USDA Prime, Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull.
The official grades for mutton are USDA Choice,
Good, Utility, and Cull.


Lamb is much


Americans,


preferred


to mutton


and about 90 percent of


by most
the sheep


Roasting,


broiling, and panbroiling are the usual


methods of cooking.
Typical mutton is dark red in color and because
it is produced from mature animals it may lack


natural tenderness.


Braising or pot roasting is


the method generally used to develop tenderness
and flavor.
The higher grades of both lamb and mutton
are more tender and juicy and have a smaller per-
centage of bone than the lower grades.


produced are marketed as lambs. I
usually light red, and fine in texture.


amb meat is
Since lamb


Veal and Calf


is produced from young animals, most of the cuts
are sufficiently tender to be cooked by dry heat.


The official grades for veal and calf are USDA


Prime


, Choice, Good, Standard, Utility, and Cull.


Typical veal is produced from animals that are
3 months or less in age and which have subsisted


largely on milk.


The lean meat is grayish pink.


The higher grades are more thickly fleshed than
the lower grades which gives them a higher pro-


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..............
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N-2 236
Figure .-A Federal meat grader stamps the grade name-
in this case USDA Choice--on the beef carcass with a
roller which leaves a ribbon-like imprint. When the carcass
is divided into retail cuts, the grade stamp will appear on
most of these cuts. The stamping fluid is a harmless
vegetable compound.


portion of meat to bone.


The higher grades also


have more fat than the lower grades and thus are


more juicy and flavorful.


However, none of the


grades has enough fat intermingled with the lean


to make cooking


dry heat practical.


Moist


heat methods are needed to insure juiciness and
development of flavor.
Typical calf is produced from animals between


3 and 8 months old, and


which have subsisted


partially or entirely on feeds other than milk for


a substantial period of time.


Calf is intermediate


between veal and beef in its color, texture, flavor,


tenderness


, and juiciness.


and their


The small size of the


proportion


of lean


to fat


contribute greatly to the popularity of this kind
of meat.
Pork
No federally graded pork is available to con-


sumers


at the


grades have been


present


time,


although


published which are


Federal
used by


some States and by some individual buyers and
sellers in grading live hogs or pork carcasses.
The official Federal grades for pork carcasses


are U.


S. No. 1


U. S. No.


U. S. No. 3


, Medium,


and Cull. These grades are based on differences
in proportionate yields of lean and fat cuts and


reflect


for leaner po1


the increasing consumer preference
rk. However, if pork carcasses were


marked with these grades in the same manner as
hapf carcasses, the marks would likely be removed min


Lamb,






POULTRY


Poultry which has been graded for quality can
be identified by the shield mark of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture which shows the
official grade. This grade mark may not be used
unless the poultry has first been inspected for


years. In either case, the processing plant using
the inspection service must comply with the
rigid regulations of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. Poultry processed in such plants
and identified with the inspection mark is eligible


wholesomeness
approved plant
editions.
Since January
been compulsory
state commerce.
spected under
which has been


Lnd has been processed min
under prescribed sanitary


1, 1959, Federal inspection 1
for all poultry moving in int
Other poultry may be
a voluntary Federal progr
in operation for the past


The inspection mark, a
circle, may be used only
on ready-to-cook poultry
that has been examined
by a Government in-
spector and passed as
wholesome food. This
mark denotes whole-
someness only-not
grade (quality). It may
be used without the
grade mark.

The grade mark, a shield,
tells the quality (U. S.
Grade A, B, or C).
Poultry may carry the
grade mark only if it
has been inspected for
wholesomeness. The
shopper who buys ready-
to-cook poultry bearing
this mark is assured of
a high-quality, whole-
some product.


for Government grading. The identify
are illustrated below.
Much of the ready-to-cook poultry
spected is also graded for quality.
quality, the grader takes note of th
conformation of the bird, the amount


or "meat:
under th
bruises,
Minimum
been set u
applied t
chickens,
U.S.


ying marks


that is in-
In judging
e shape or
of fleshing


iness," amount of fat distributed in and
e skin, and the absence or extent of
tears, discolorations, and pinfeathers.
i standards for each of these factors have
p for each of the three grades. Grades are
) all kinds of domestic poultry, including
turkeys, ducks, geese, guineas, and squabs.
Grade A ready-to-cook poultry is the


finest quality. Birds in this grade are of excellent
table quality, have a high proportion of edible
meat, and are well processed.
U. S. Grade B ready-to-cook poultry is of-good
table quality. As a rule, the birds are not so well-
fleshed as those in Grade A or they may have some
dressing defects.
U. S. Grade C ready-to-cook poultry includes
birds that have relatively less meat in proportion
to bone and have meat of lower quality than birds
in Grade A or B, or they may have more serious
dressing defects than those in Grade B.


SFederal State Graded






EGGS


You have undoubtedly seen graded eggs in your


food store.


The use of consumer grades for eggs


has become quite


extensive as


a result of


enactment of laws by a number of States requiring


that eggs be sold at retail on a graded basis.


Many


State Departments of Agriculture have adopted


the Federal standards and grades.


Some States


have set up their own grading systems; in general,
they follow the Federal standards rather closely.
Commercial plants that have their eggs graded
under the Federal-State program are permitted
to use the official grade mark designed by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture. It is used,


under the supervision


cartons


that may


of a licensed


also include


grader,


the brand


firm names.


Grades-Fresh Fancy
and U. S. Grade A egj


a large


proportion


Quality


U. S.


Grade AA,


are of top quality.


of thick


white


They
which


stands up well around a firm high yolk and they


are delicate


in flavor.


These


high-quality


are good for all uses, but you will find that their
upstanding appearance and fine flavor make them


especially


appropriate for poaching, frying,


cooking in the shell.
U. S. Grade B and Grade C


though
several


they
ways.


differ from
Most of


higher


the white


s are good
quality eg


spreads over a wide area when broken.
is rather flat, and may break easily.


and

eggs,


is thin


The yolk


Eggs of the two lower qualities have dozens of
uses in which appearance and delicate flavor are


less important.


The official grade mark
for eggs is in the form of


L A


a shield.


It always car-


ries the grade name (such
as U. S. Grade A), the


letters "USDA,


" and the


words "Federal-State


Graded"


or a similar


term.


'.4


They are good to use in baking,


in thickening sauces and salad dressings, and com-
bining with other foods such as tomatoes, cheese,
or onions.
Weights--Six U. S. Weight Classes cover the full
range of egg sizes. Only 4 of these 6 classes are
likely to be found on the retail market-Extra


Large,


Large,


Medium,


two are Jumbo and Peewee.


The Fresh Fancy Qual-
ity grade shield identifies
eggs produced and mar-
keted under a quality-
control program adopted
by USDA in September


1959.


. PRODUCED and MARKETED
S, u4der FEDERAL- STATE
Si'UAclITY CONTROL PROGRAM
*<' Es"ra.oLM








*


The program


quires special controls' to
assure freshness and high
quality in eggs carrying
this grade mark.


and Small.


The other


Each of these size


names refers to a specific weight class, based on
the total weight of a dozen eggs.


The grade letters (U


quality


only.


S. Grade A, etc.) indicate


The weight class is stated sepa-


rately and it indicates the weight of the dozen min


ounces.


Grade


have


whether they are small or large.


ence is weight.


large


the same quality
The only differ-


Grade A eggs are not necessarily


large eggs are not necessarily Grade A.


flWAflflfl





DAIRY PRODUCTS


Dairy


products


which


may find


bearing


When you see


the letters AA, A, B, or numerical


U. S. grade designations include butter, cheese,
and nonfat dry milk.
In addition, cottage cheese may carry a shield-
shaped mark stating that it is "Quality Approved"
by USDA. Rigid specifications have been set to
cover its manufacture and quality. Several firms
are now packaging and selling cottage cheese under
the U. S. inspection emblem-which means that
their operations are carried on under the super-
vision of a Federal inspector.


Score 93, 92, or 90, on the package without the
prefix "U. S." the butter has not been certified
by a Federal butter grader.
Some States have enacted laws requiring that
butter be grade labeled and in these localities the
letters or grade names on butter cartons denote


State standards, applied by State graders
State grades do not carry the prefix "U.
may show the State name or seal.


A grade


mark


on the package


prefix "U. S." or State identi
manufacturer's or distributor
quality. This butter may be
since it is not federally graded
"1 -l 1 l 1" "1


necessary rely on
it meets the quality
U. S. grades for
(U. S. 93 score), U.
U. S. Grade B (U.


the distribu


without


Such
" but

t the


fiction reflects the
's own standard of


tor


y designation o
butter include
S. Grade A (U.
S. 90 score).


good quality but
e consumer must
's statement that
n the package.
U. S. Grade AA
S. 92 score), and
"Score" refers to


the total
basis of t
but also
To be


number of points allotted a sample on the
he quality of several factors, chiefly flavor,
including body, texture, color and salt.
rated U. S. Grade AA, butter must have a


fine, highly pleasing aroma and a delicate sweet


. .. :


0 TAGE CN^


N-43615
Figure 4.-The "Quality Approved" USDA emblem
appears here on the cover of a cottage cheese carton. It
may also be printed on the sidewall of a carton. This
emblem is the shopper's assurance that the product has
been manufactured under quality control service.

Bufftter
Butter is the dairy product most widely sold on
the basis of U. S. grades.
When you see the letters "U. S." before the
grade mark on a butter carton or wrapper, you
know that the butter has been graded by an au-
thorized grader of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, at the request of the manufacturer or


*~


N-43614
Figure 5.-The U. S. grade designation is plainly marked
nn these butter cartons. It may also be found on paver





flavor.
cream.


It is made from high quality fresh sweet


Other grades for Cheddar include U. S. Grade A,


U. S. Grade B,U


S. Grade C. and U


S. Grade D.


U. S. Grade A butter must have a pleasing and
desirable flavor and it is made only from cream


that has such flavor.


Although it rates second to


Grading is based on the factors of flavor, body,


and texture.
formation.


Swiss cheese is also rated on


"eye"


the top grade, it will please even discriminating
consumers.
U. S. Grade B butter is generally manufactured
from selected sour cream and is readily acceptable
t many consumers though it lacks the fine fresh
flavor of the top two grades.

Cheese
Official grades for Cheddar cheese and Swiss
teese have been in use for many years by indus-


ry in commercial trading.


Until recently, how-


ever, there was only limited use of grade designa-


All official USDA grading of cheese is done by


inspectors licensed by the


Agriculture.


U. S. Department of


Approved plants using grading serv-


ice must operate under regulations and the rules


sanitation


Department.
Although no U.


packing


specified


S. grades have been established


for process cheese and cheese foods,


appreciable


quantities are being processed under Federal in-


section, in


accordance


specifications


pared by the Department of Agriculture.


r


pre-
Phese


products are also marked with the official inspec-


tjuns


consumer-packaged


Cheddar


USDA has now granted the use of the U


cheese.
S. Grade


A official grade mark on consumer packages.
J avor of Cheddar cheese, an important index


o quality


has in the past been very difficult for


tke average consumer to judge.


The new USDA


gade mark offers a valuable guide to dependable,
uniform flavor and quality in Cheddar cheese.


N-19822
Figure 7.-The official USDA inspection emblem can be
seen on these packages of process cheese. Shown here are
a five-pound loaf of pasteurized process American cheese,
a two-pound loaf of pasteurized cheese food, and a half-
pound package of process cheese slices.


tion shield.


: N-42100
Figure 6.-This natural cheese has been graded and packed
under the supervision of the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, as the shopper can see from the emblem and
printing on the label. Natural cheese is packaged and


Processing procedures, including care-


ful grading of the natural cheese and examination
of the other ingredients used in the manufacture
of process cheese, are under the inspection of a
Federal grader.
As in the case of butter, the official grade shield
or inspection mark on cheese assures the customer






Nonfat Dry Milk


C
~flte


K


rL W HT AL.B


jj^NAME


You may be one of the millions of Americans
now buying nonfat dry milk to use as a beverage
or in cooking. Its low cost, its keeping quality
and its ready availability make dry milk popular


many


people.


Since


the introduction


"instant" nonfat dry milk-a form which mixes


quickly and


easily with


water-there


has been


an even greater demand for this product.
U. S. grades have been established for nonfat
dry milk for many years but have been used
mainly for commercial trading. Increased use of
reconstituted nonfat dry milk as a beverage is
accompanied by keen interest on the part of some


V
S

I


consumers in


the quality of


this milk.


Conse-


quently some distributors have expressed interest
in making available to consumers nonfat dry milk
which has been manufactured and packed under


USDA


inspection.


present


a limited


amount of nonfat dry milk is being packed and
labeled with USDA grade labels.


appearance of


the official


emblem


on a


package of nonfat dry milk, as on the other prod-


N-43816


ucts


mentioned,


assure


customer


Figure


8.-This carton of nonfat dry milk,


which will


make eight quarts of reconstituted milk, has been graded
U. S. Extra Grade.


dependable quality and compliance with sanitary
requirements.


FRESH


FRUITS AND


VEGETABLES


Most fresh fruits and vegetables are packed and
sold on the wholesale market on the basis of U. S.


These grade names would not be of concern to
most food shoppers except for the fact that you


grades.
There are 84 standards, for 71


often will see small


different fruits


consumer-sized packages of


apples, or potatoes, marked with


the wholesale


and vegetables, provided for use of growers and
shippers at the wholesale level and 13 "consumer


grade.


As you can see, from the, list of grades


given above, the top wholesale grades for these two


standards"


developed for use at the retail level.


Wholesale grades
in most cases, as U


These
produce


grades


vary


are designated


numerically,


S. No. 1, U. S. No.


somewhat


from


product


For instance, the top grade for apples


S. Extra Fancy, the next best is U.


followed by U.


S. Fancy,


S. No. 1 and several other grades.


U. S. Fancy is the top grade for potatoes, with
U. S. No. 1 as the second best and U. S. Commercial


products are U


not U


S. Extra Fancy and U.


S. Fancy,


S. No. 1 as you might think.


Consumer standards use alphabetical designa-


tions for grade names.


U. S. Grade A and U


Grade B potatoes are further divided, min consumer


standards, on the basis of size.
these designations: U. S. Grad


Grade


A-Medium;


e


U. S. Grade


There are 8 of
A-Small; U. S:


A-Medium


r~. A'-~ 1 A *t I ii





4.
Grades for fresh fruits and vegetables are deter-
mined on the basis of the product's color, size,
shape, degree of maturity and freedom from de-
fects. Defects may be caused by dirt, freezing,
disease, insects, mechanical injury, or other means.
There is no marked difference in the nutritional
value of a first grade fruit or vegetable and a
second grade product. The difference is mainly
in appearance, waste, and preference.





U.S. GRADE U.S.GRADE
~A NO. I






In general, the grade factors for U. S. No. 1
(or other top grade) in the wholesale standards
are comparable to those for U. S. Consumer Grade
A, but the requirements for the top consumer
grade are made stricter by reducing the allowance
for defective specimens and raising the require-


mnents for cleanness and some o
Consumer standards have be
greens, broccoli (Italian spr
sprouts, carrots, celery, corn (hu
cranberries, kale, parsnips,
leaves, tomatoes, and turnips.
is very little consumer gradi
available in retail stores.


their facto
en issued
outing),
isked, on t
potatoes,
Howeve


rs.
for beet
brussels
;he cob),
spinach
r, there


e-marked produce


A


BLUE

4- WHITE

- RED


There are many problems connected with apply-
S
ing consumer grades to fresh fruits and vegetables.
The perishable nature of the commodity is the
most severely limiting factor. A package of fresh
tomatoes, for instance, might meet the require-
ments for a certain consumer grade at the time it
is packed, but by the time it reaches the store
counter, the product may have deteriorated to
the point that it will no longer measure up to
the standard.
The phenomenal growth in recent years of the
prepackaging industry may provide a way to
make the use of consumer grades more practical.
Some of this prepackaging is done in terminal
markets, making it possible to offer produce for
sale in retail stores the day after it was packaged.
Such quickly marketed produce would not be
likely to fall below the grade marked on the pack-
age.
Even though you may not be able to buy fresh
fruits and vegetables marked with consumer
grades, the widespreadd use of wholesale grades does
work to your, advantage. Today you generally
are getting much better fresh fruits and vegetables
than were available in stores in years past. This
is possible because of better grading of these
products, faster transportation, better refrigera-
tion, and improved packaging.


t N-2091l
igure 9.-A shopper buys consumer graded
tatoes. These 10-pound packages are
iarked U. S. Grade A Medium to Large.


= .. .
* .
*^ **
S>*.
.. *; -
^ .... -
= -.==e
='' =%
*m =.\


I






PROCESSED FRUITS


AND


VEGETABLES


(and related products)


Grades have been developed for a wide variety
of processed fruits and vegetables-canned, dried,


and frozen


-and a number of related products such
11* Sn *I *U *s


as peanut butt
honey, and dehy
The grade nar
U. S. Grade B
Standard, and I
are used for mos
are a few except
the grade names
to conform to
standing. But f
foods, the letter


In general, G
excellent quality
Grade A produ


er, jams, jelln
rated orange
nes U. S. Grad
or U. S. Choi
U. S. Grade C
t of these prodi
tions. For a
deviate slightly
commercial
or most of this
grades A, B,
rade A (or Fa
in processed
cts are very u


es, pickles, olives,


JUicE
e A c
ce oi
or I
eucts,
very


yfr
pra
gro
fnd
rncy
fruit
nifo


om
ctic
)up


Fancy,
Extra


Standard,
ough there
products,
his pattern
of long-
f processed


C apply.
) represents an
;s or vegetables.
)rm in size and


color, are practically free from blemishes, and are


. .


the proper degree of maturity or tenderness.
This quality is most suited for special uses, as in
desserts orf salads, when appearance and texture
are of prime importance.
Grade B (or, usually, Choice for fruits, Extra
Standard for vegetables) is a good quality and a
high proportion of processed fruits and vegetables


are of this grade. Such products may not
uniform in size and color or as tender or free
blemishes as Grade A products. This grade
be termed a general-utility grade and is
satisfactory for most uses.
Grade C (or Standard) processed fruits
vegetables are a fairly good quality. The'


be as
from
may
quite


and
Share


just as wholesome and may be as nutritious as
higher grades and they have a definite value as a
thrifty buy for use in dishes where appearance or
tenderness are not too important.


'. -I
40






Department


inspects


and certifies


these


products as to quality and condition upon requests
of processors, buyers, Federal and State purchas-


departments,


or other


interested


parties.


grade designation (such as U. S. Grade A) on their
label, as well as the statement "Packed under con-


tinuous inspection of
Agriculture."


the U. S. Department


These applicants pay the cost of inspection.


Some


canners


, freezers,


and distributors


use


grade designations on their labels. Labels may
also carry additional information descriptive of the
product, such as the number of halves in canned
peaches or pears, the sieve size of peas, strength


>
0


0
L


of sirup


in canned


fruits,


irits, number of serv
Jr frozen vegetables,
dietetic foods.


sweeteners


in frozen


ings, cooking instructions
or special statements for


It'


:Any processor or distributor may use the terms
4rf.dA A "G(rnda R or "Grad. 0C" on labels to


Describe
iot they
thus labe
Departm
otherwise
l beled.
Some p
uinder co
tlhe U. S.
fee to pa
selected
that they
essors wh
tZin4uus ix
these plan


0h
0 K
0
N0
-l ^i
KKK KK K



NliiiCciiy i


the quality of his products,
have been inspected. Howe


whether or
rer, products


iled must meet the specifications of the
ent's standards for the grade claimed;
the products may be considered as mis-


processing plants are operating voluntarily


itinuous inspection-a service offered by
Department of Agriculture at a nominal


ckers.


These plants have been carefully


and thoroughly inspected to make sure


meet strict sanitary requirements. Proc-
o operate their plants under USDA con-
ispection, or distributors who buy from
its, may use the prefix "U. S." before the


'.









N-20867
Figure 11.-These frozen vegetables have been graded U. S.
Grade A and have been packed under the continuous
inspection of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Only
fruits and vegetables packed under USDA continuous


inspection may be marked ,with the U.


S. grade.


DRY BEAN


0T1


. ~Gr
fato
foreij
0 *::* *::*:: *::*:: ^ ^ ^ -
:i li :* fT0


e U. S. standards for dry edible beans and
are widely used by the trade, but the grades
y appear on consumer packages.
ades for beans and peas are based on such
bs as color and presence or absence of defects,
gn material, and beans or peas of other classes.
cts may be those caused by weather, disease,
ts or mechanical means.


4.*


I


IS AND PEAS

There are special "Handpicked" grades for beans
which are well adapted for consumer sales. The


top grade is U.


Choice Handpicked, followed


by U. S. No. 1 Handpicked,


U. S. No.


picked, and U. S. No. 3 Handpicked.


Hand-


In other


than the handpicked grades, grades for beans are


simply


numerical.


Grades


for dry


peas,


whole and split, are also numerical.

RICE


There are Federal grades for both milled (white)
and brown rice. Retail packages sometimes carry
these grades. For milled rice there are six numeri-
cal grades, but usually only grades U. S. No. 1 and


U.S.


No. 2 are used in the retail trade.


There are


The grades are


based


on such factors as the


presence or absence of defective kernels (broken


kernels or those damaged by heat,
sects); mixed varieties (which may
qualities); and objectionable fore


water, or inm-
affect cooking


~ign


material.


norn]i a.nnnrn.nn.s a.nd fmlnr ars also considered






U.S.


GRADES


GLANCE


Product


Lamb


Yearling
Mutton


Mutton


1st Grade


USDA Prime


USDA Prime


USDA Prime


USDA Prime


USDA Prime


2d Grade


USDA Choice


USDA Choice


USDA Choice


USDA Choice


USDA Choice


USDA Choice


3d Grade


USDA Good


USDA Good


USDA Good


USDA Good


USDA Good


USDA Good


4th Grade


USDA Standard


USDA Standard


USDA Standard


USDA Utility


USDA Utility


USDA Utility


5th Grade


USDA Com-
mercial I


USDA Utility s


USDA Utility '


USDA Cull

USDA Cull


USDA Cull


Butter


Cheddar
Cheese


Swiss Cheese

Nonfat Dry
Milk


Cottage
Cheese


Grade AA
S93 Score)


U. S. Grade AA

U. S. Grade A

U. S. Extra Grade


Grade A
92 Score)


U. S. Grade A

U. S. Grade B

U. S. Standard
Grade


Grade B
S90 Score)


U. S. Grade B

U. S. Grade C

. . .


U. S. Grade C

U. S. Grade D


No Grades-May be marked USDA "Quality Approved"


Poultry


U. S. Grade
Fresh Fancy-
Quality
U. S. Grade


U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade


U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade C


Milled Rice


Brown Rice


Dried Beans


Dried Peas


U. S. No. 1


U. S. No- 1

U. S. Choice
Handpicked
U. S. No. 1


U. S. No. 1


U. S. No.


U. S. No. 2

U. S. No. 1
Handpicked
U. S. No. 2


U. S. No.


U. S. No. 3


U. S. No. 3

U. S. No. 2
Handpicked
U. S. No. 3


U. S. No. 3


U. S. No. 4


U. S. No. 4


.U. S. No. 3
Handpicked


U. S. No.


Cl DS~ill o


(and related
products)


U. S. Grade A
(Fancy)


U. S. Grade B
(Choice or Ex. Std.)


U. S. Grade C
(Standard)


Three lowest grades are USDA Utility. Cutter, and Canner.







S. GRADES AT


A GLANCE


Product


Beet
Greens
Potatoes


Broccoli
(Italian
Sprout-
ing)
Brussels
Sprouts


Carrots


Corn
(Husked,
on the
cob)
Cranberries


Parsnips


Spinach
Leaves


Tomatoes


Turnips


Celery


Consumer


1is Grade


U. S. Grade A

U. S. Grade A
Large
U. S. Grade A
Medium to Large
U. S. Grade A
Medium
U. S. Grade A
Small
U. S. Grade A



U. S. Grade A

U. S. Grade A



U. S. Grade A



U. S. Grade A

U. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade A



U. S. Grade A


U. S. Grade A




U. S. Grade AA




None


Grades


2d Grade


U. S: Grade B
Large
U. S. Grade B
Medium to Large
U. S. Grade B
Medium
U. S. Grade B
Small
U. S. Grade B



U. S. Grade B

U. S. Grade B



U. S. Grade B





U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade B



U. S. Grade B


U. S. Grade B




U. S. Grade A
(3d Grade-
U. S. Grade B)


None


Wholesale


1st Grade


U. S. No. 1

Ur S. Fancy







U. S. Fancy



U. S. No. 1

(Topped
carrots)
U.S. Extra No. 1


(Green corn)
U. S. Fancy


U. S. No. 1


U. S. No. 1


U.S. Extra No. 1



U. S. No. 1


(Topped
turnips)
U. S. No. 1


U.S Extra No. 1




U S. Extra
Fancy


2d Grade


U. S. No. 1







U. S. No. 1



U. S. No. 2

U. S. No. 1



U. S. No. 1





U. S. Com-
mercial

U. S. No. 2


U. S. No. 1



U. S. Combina-
tion

U. S. No. 2




U. S. No. 1




U. S. Fancy


Grades *


3d Grade


S. Com-
mercial


U. S. No. 2




U. S. No 2


U.S. No. 2

U. S. No. 2












U. S. Com-
mercial


U. S. No. 2


U.S. No.


U. S. No.
U. S. No.
Cookers
U. S. No.
Early
U. S. Hail
SGrade s


4th Grade


U. S. No. 2







* .




.... .




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

I3 1262 08856 128611111 111
3 1262 08856 1286 J


PUBLICATIONS


Information


compiled min


this publication


was


gives


information


on buying


developed by the Livestock, Poultry, Dairy, Fruit
and Vegetable, and Grain Divisions of the Agri-


cultural Marketing Service.
issued other publications
and more detailed inform


vii


These divisions have
rich provide further
ion on the subjects


covered.
A list of some of these publications, along with
a brief description of each, is printed below. Single
copies of any of them may be obtained free by


writing the Office of Information,


ment of Agriculture,


Washington 25,


requesting the ones you want.


S. Depart-
D. C., and


Be sure to list the


serial numbers, if any, of the publications desired.
Beef Chart (8 x 10% in.)-Shows wholesale and
retail cuts of beef.
Check List of U. S. Standards for Farm Products
(AMS-210)-Lists all of the 361 U. S. Standards
for farm products in effect (both wholesale and


consumer standards).


Tells how copies of any of


these standards for grades may be obtained.
Cheese Buying Guide for Consumers (MB-17)-
Offers information for menu planners and shop-


pers on


the major cheese varieties.


Serves


to suit


a guide in making the
particular needs.


How to Buy Eggs by USDA Grades and Weight
Classes (L-442)--Illustrates USDA grade marks


best selections


poultry, including the different cli


Esses.


Know the Eggs You Buy (PA-70) Chart (12
in.)-Shows in color the appearance of va
grades of eggs, broken out of the shell, fried,
poached; gives weight classes and weight
dozen.


Know


Your Butter Grades (MB-1


2)-


butter grades, explains their meaning
how to protect butter quality.
Lamb Chart (8 x 10} in.)-Shows who
retail cuts of lamb.


s
p1

re(
(,


slY

~Wus

pbr


-Descte?
, and es

lesa alda--


Standardization and Inspection of Fresh Erus


and Vegetables (MP-604)-Describe
ment of standards, how they are ap
inspection service for fresh fruits and v


Turkey on the Table the


Year Round


Gives suggestions on buying turkey;
sizes and breeds; gives instructions for
preparing,, and cooking; recipes.


USDA Poultry


guard
using


Inspection, A


(PA-299)-Gives


poultry;


describes


deelop-
ied. aptd
G-t41ii:
cl^'s"^liiI


d thn
cribes
Contains


Consumer's Sw
I on buying a


USDA


marks; their importance, where to fin


U. S.


Grades for Beef (MB-15)-Des


illustrates grades and


cuts of beef.


for eggs,


describes and illustrates quality grades


chart of wholesale and retail beef cuts ariWh


and weight classes, gives tips on buying, storing,


cooking


guide


showing


appropriate


cooking


and using


eggs.


methods for each cut of beef in each


How to Buy Poultry by USDA Grades (MB-1)-
Describes and illustrates USDA grades for poul-


Veal Chart (8


x 10%


in.)-Shows wholesale and


retail cuts of veal.