''J U13 'DEP~1OSTRYY
i ~~Code fr the Cleaning and Dyeing Industry
Apra sterely reflects. the proposal of the above-ntentioned
sai rhee of the prooisionsr contained therein are
fiarJePorledas' having rseciaed the approval of
M Na~Yti~Jeonidrecv Administration
Icc ; as agy~plyfrg at c this; industry
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BL RECOVERYi ADMINISTRATION
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CODE OF FAIR
ON AUGUST 23, 1933
ANING AND DYEING
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NATIONAL; ABSOCIATIO)N OF ~DIERS AND CLEAP~NERB~I
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~i~~1~ FARCOM\LPEnTITON FOR THE CLEANING AND
'NA liONA ~A~ssocIATION OF DYERS AND CLEANERS
e~tuae the policy-~and broad purposes of Title I of the Na-
Todust~rial Recovery Act, the following provisions are estab-
"~'ii'~as Ntional Industrial. Recovery Code for the Cleaning and
g Industry :
Co CleanfinLg a~nd dyeinlg indcus~try.--The term cleaning and
ag 'industry as used herein is defined to include any and all
and dyeing establishments.
.,9.~~ Cleaning1 anad dyein~g establiFshnunt.--The term cleaning
dye~ing establishment as used herein is defined to include any
too~ ~ ~ n whr n rile o earing apparel, household furnishings,
fbriafur, nd eaherofany kind whatsoever, are dry-
espotte~d, wetcleaned, dyed, processed, and,'or finished for
:an~3d/or such service is offered for sale or resale., Nothing in-
'harei nshall pre~vent. an indlividull frolm pulrsungln t~he voca-
ofd manual labor.
as~,~e~1. 3. Drycleaninilg.-Dryclean ing is the process of cleaning
,, .aipprel household furnishings, rugs, fabrics, furs, and
a ay kd whatsoever, by the immersion and agitation of
apt~lesin volatile solvents, such as those of the petroleum dis-
e:'t~ype, the coal-tar distillates type, or the chlorinated hydrocar-
typ~ea, .and processes incidental thereto, such as spotting, wet-
gfinishing, etc. Minimum standards will be set by a tech-
comm~itftee appointed as hereinafter specified.
4, Eptting.--Spotting is the operation of removing spots or
:whrjich may remain. in fabrics after any of the above-mentioned
'pingprocesses have been applied, except those chemically de-
Sdby the technical committee of the Nationa~l Association of
a and. zh&Cleaners as unremovable without injury to the fabric or
Au 5,Finihin.--inishin$ is the operation of pressing and/or
ashpin .an article of wearmg apparel, household furnishings,
su~gg fabbie~s, fut~s, and leather of any kind whatsoever, either by
Top&~ or by .machines through the use of heat, steam, air, or other
aps, with aj~ the shape, dimensions, and contour of the article re-
isred ias nearly .as possible to the condition in which the article was
IIIII' I:6X g. CTleanqing, lat A~.-a cleaning plant consists of equipment
pp cl~q meaning any~art cle' ofe wearing apparel, household furnishings,
Ir g,. dabrics~,.~~i~s fuyrs,~ and. leathier of any kind whatsoever, by immer-
ups~;and~ agitaton invodl~atile ol~vents, such as those of the petroleum
which sells more than 23 pf~iiekeenE ;Jits pioduc t or service to r
at wholesale prices for:~t~re-ag~ tbyheretRailers to thea;tr
summer under the retailers' own names.
ART. ii. Red'aildO'':A 1.. Eqailr is .Rny reta i ..OU OLt,. '8,
orI stores or both, owpned,and Iperate~d by a yls~arpt, anB als~o
ent retail tatilors an~ prre~ss' shops not own~ed a lnt
chase cleaning an/dor ~dyemng service frma ps .~ant
it to the consumer under the retailer's own name.
AnIT. 8. Route salesaniI.-A route ishlkiinfin is any, prson emj
ployed, either on a salary or commission: basis or both,b.b a d
and dyeing estab~ilishmenit, to call for, solicit, abi~d deli~ver~~ itr
and,'or collect for sams. ;
Ana. 9. Soicitor, bobtail, or combia~~siohner.-AA soici~tok bo
or commissioner is anyg person who solicits cleaning, dye~ing, Q
regularly employed by any d'leani~ng ari~d dyreing esta~blI~ishidit.~. :;;
Any. 10. Tailor.--A tailor is anj7 retailer who makes' lothe
order, or repairs, alters, and`/or presses th~em, in addition tr PeeditiJ
garments for cleaning and dyeing.
SECTION I-AD1WIN ISTRATION
ARTICL~E i. Th6 Netistnal Association of 'Dyers andd
thereby diesignatedl as t'he agency for administering, su arjit~IE
promoting..., and enforcing the performance of th pI~rovanonsi~:s of ,i:
Code by t~he members of the cleaning a~ndl dyleinig mndistry.-'
Ana. 2. (a) The Boardl of Directors ,:of ~the Nif~tional As ocksta~E
of Dylers and Cleaner~s Ehall establish a Recove~ry Eiecutiv4" 'O
mittee, responsible to the Board of Directors of thh Na~t~ibhbY A
cia~tioln and to thre National Recovery ;Admizi~Bisati--oto foi~ thre *1
plete and proper administration, supe-v~ision, ~roniotish, jliltid
forcemuent of the provisions of this Code. This Rheovlfer; 1E~icidditv
Committee shall have authority (1) to d~efne, ifrtie3prd;, ~a~id rdil
unfair trade practices as outlinled in Seationl I~V of thiis Codie; (
to determine the basis for calculating and the form for rlepr
costs; (;3) to require the sub~missioil. of dbst; andl o~ther ststistibef
as provided for in Section 7 of this Codei; .(4) -to sliplybd:
any special regulations which may b~e inip osed upbn mnb
the cleaning and dyeing inditsticy by' the' Nktibnal Recti dry iny
tration; (5) to delegante power to au~thorize.cokhinitthe boFii
state, sectional, and/or local a'ssociliioris 'withift the! indit~~~st
to determine, publish, and enforce fair minimum prices; (T t
scribe fair ratios between wholesale and retail; Shhrges.
(b) As a protection to the consumer i'ad to nrs,whae'diiifkri~o ##
ards of workmanship, the Board of DI~irk~toreof~f!':theA ti
shall also appoint a. technical comini~t;tde, clotiposd8a i:6; Jhe'%
member of the National Association of Dyers and 'l~eanes atd
-~~ja~pda~rd of utlity .for cleaning, finishing, aixd other
pa:~idso: of ~the impossibility of knowingh nav rsat this timle
r r no~t `~this'Co~de will meet all situations wihmyaie
i~pil obaiton of. Dyers and Cleaners herrebY reserves the
isid~atejaplica~tion through the Recovery Executive Committ~e
i1 iciata~oxis, amendmdatts, or changes in it as may be advisable
vr;. his tode or any agreement made thereunder, or any
e tipproed', described, or connected therewith, is subject to
stnd or mo ~icati~on bly th~e President of the United States in
ice y~ith:S~ec~tion 10. o~f the Act. Subject to the arpproval
i ~ Presiaent,this Code may be amended by a vote of the majority
IJCR~ecoey Execu~tive Committee.
O IJie. Rdoovery Executive Committee shall have authoritY
Ticege~ary fees oil all those engaged in the cleaning and dyeing
tr or 'idzttnistering this Code 'and for carrying out. the intent
.S.Any- organization in the textile maintenance field may be-
aE ~te of t~he National As~sociation of Dyers and Cleaners
I! res to cqoo2eperte therewith, and bear a, pr;oportionat~e share
9."(i ~he effective date of this Code shall be one w~eek after its
a.?~~~l hep reid~ent'.
ii;~.I..SECTLON III---ABQR PROV'ISIONS
'Ci~ r.a Employees shall have the right t~o organize and bargain
t irly hrogh e resentat~ives of their own choosing, and shall
ee indiid to ''iziter erence, restraintn, intimidation, or coercion ofE
~jEon or persons, or their agents', in the designation of such
ntives or in self-organization or in other concerted activ-ities
~i~~~;ja rpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or pro-
n~i 'N emYployee aid. no oie~ seeking employment shall be re-
:;is si pfition of enpf;oyzrifent to jomn any company urnon or
refginfroh ocitgorgamizing, or assiisting a labor orgammzat~ion
Ihis bwd choosillg. mlyr hl opywt h aiu
ous f labor, minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of em-
h~~~~S;jjilSht; ph proved or ~prescribed by "the President.
~;'A~i'~ .d 9 N. per~son shall be employed in any cleaning plant or retail
9.no (a}~ r~o Miinm a es d toplant employees in the clean-
li~!j ~ dying ixdus~y shall be 33 .per hour in cities of; over 500,000
tend ~eni theh*mnidit trade areas (as determined from the
Federal Census); 300C per hour in cities of between 100,000 and
800,000 ~popult~ion. and their immediate trade areas; and 274 per
thir: cP'~kities..ofbeEPsj ~tha~n. 00 000 popul~ationi and their inunediate
e:~~~~ areas; ,excpt in ~the Sout erxz territory, where minimum wa~ges
.,il;~jig ~ 80Q ,4C'iii and 2.: ie hisur~, reqgpectevel for the. thre~ea tore-
me:::ntjlidnd cLsss of e~it~ib nd thei~~r;' ~n(imedia tee tirade areast.
dyeing industry shall. be not' less. than $~1S4030 per. week;dij
tliDVi 500,000 population and. their indedae trade area~J
'than $13.50 per week in cities at fitom 100,000 populla,6idm~
population and their immediate Ltraide areas; not less thai~p
week in cities of less thaur.100,i000 popullat'ion; except: ~the~t
wages for office employees sha~illbe $1.00 less per week Orali~
quoted rates in the aforementioned, Southern section.-
For purposes .of this pr'ovialogy dS~t ice- ein~ployees are,,dns~j~
clude all clerical, accounting, anid service employees wi~~~E;t'i5~
office of any cleaning and dyei~ng establishment,; andi- zi rtaii~F
used as collection and del2ivery outlets. ?
SAny:, 4. Thte Recovery Exedig~~e Committee may, afe. t
and tabulating more complete. payjr-oll. statistics.frfoui the.;
large, and living cost statistics from governmental a encies,'~~
minimum percentages of net 'vilumne which shall b~ ~~e paid~
provided that in any case the rmmimum wage shall not be~ii~~i
amounts prescribed in Artic~le 3 above.
Asr 5. The maximum alterage number of working hoira re d
for productive labor and ofi~ce employees shall be 45,~but so
extended to 50 hours per week; to take care of seasonal!flu
vohume, provided that sugicient hour-credits have been
prior thereto by the emnployee. This ;claus~e requiring prir
lation of hour-credits shall not become effective until Dcm
The maximum average number of working hours per weeki~
engineers, firemen, and maintenance employees. shall be .51,, bu
can be extended to 56 hours per week, provided ;thiat,.suffleien
credits have been accumulated prior thereto by the emp~Flojee.:
clause requiring prior accumulation of hour-redi~ts shall not.B
effective until ~December 1, 1933. WJatchmen are notin
Ana. 6. All route salesmen, whether on stra~iglit salq~.a~ry 3 i n:
commission, or straight commission, shall: wor: -not .more the~~i.
maximnuml hours of business prescribed 'for retail ointlets.
ART. 7. Clerks employed in retail stores sh~a~ll be required ~,pbl
no more than 48 hours per week.
Ana. 8. Employees acting entirely or largely ma suprs
executive capacity and receiving $30.00 per~ week or more la
are exempt from the wage and hour provisions ofthis Code.f
Ana. 9. Employees shaUl not be coerced to purchase stod 11
employing company. ip
AnR. 10. Wages shall be paid promptly when .due, at .
and regular intervals.
SETI~rON IV--UNFAIR TRAdDE AND COMPETITIVE RAi~~SCti iL.
The following shall be considered unfair trade coii
practices in the cleaning and dyeing indulstryr '$;..~.15~
u~arateazOg averseng.-rnl'e use or, participation anni
shnor broadcasting ariy untrue, deceptive, or misleading
e, eprebentation or illustration, in an effort to sell cleaning
Thefaa~ir aompJetitive claims.--The use of superlatives in
ing~anchas to advertise one's cleaning or dyeing service as
t o the Oni~lest."
.,Deferk~ationr -or dispara~gemenrt of competitorsa.-Falsely
ntocompetitors dishonorable conduct, inability to perform
isque~stiona~ble creditastanding, or false representation con-
g the grade or quality of their pr~oduct.
rcli .95 i't adersellinlg claimu.--Adverti sing which lays claim to a2
:8r -continuing practice of generally undierselling competitors.
i~~~~. 5. Misleadinlg guaran~tees.-Guarantees when offered shall be'
ifit~its ~to the nature and extent of the guarantee, and shall be
4.un6. It sharll be mandatory for all those engaaged in the clean-
and dyeing indu~stryr t~o carry at all times adequate Bailee In-
ijrtn ce covering fire, theft, explosion, or establish their ability to
t~I:iliid any claims t at may arise from causes covered by such
Ana''f~R 17. MisleadEizg statements concerning insur~ance.-T~o adver-
tii:: se t the effect; that garments are insured, when full and adequate
projtection is not provided for the benefit of the customer.
10Altfi. 8.- Disolai~rrer. -To attempt to evade proper responsibility
for e~i~' kticlesr~e left for cleaning or dyeing, either by verbal agreement;
Ior by the use of any printed form of disclaimer other than those
G,: r~iioved~l by~ the courts.
-AM.*'ilQ. 9. Afierepr!esernta~tion of prices.-T~o represent certain prices
an;~d terms as special ", when they are in fact regular prices and
ri' regular terms. Also, to imply that quoted prices apply to comn-
I,::. pletely finished work, when in fact they apply only to partially
C. processed work.
e.:.-AnaT 10. T.Infair merchLandising devices.--a. Free work, including
-,f~tinhg, to- anyone except an approved charity.
~?; ,bl;Foupon~ books or discount coupons.
;l:at Premiums and: lotteries.
Ii:..:rld. 1Gomniissions to any person or organization not identified with
,k; th;~e in~dutstry for soliciting of cleaning or dyeing.
ed T;~srder~ storage.
?~!IPB~nn 11, Acdde~d chargse.-To offer to clean or dye work at a stated
*i;~~ite and then later to attempt to secure an additional charge for
eeradication of certain spots or stains.
An i~l~aT. 12. Secret: rebates, etc.--The secret payment or allowance to
anyji~ customer or their employees of rebates, refunds, commlissions, or
disieounts, whether in the form of money or other wise, or secretly
atte,::nding to certain purchasers special services or privileges. This
f:Einc~lxwudes also tr~j falsevoicilng. It further includes secret rebates un-
darthe'guise~uis of allowance for lost, misplaced, or damaged articles.
,flfBrrela. Interference wi~th competitors' em~ployees.--To entice
adhy.ro~~ erpiloyees of competitors with the purpose and effect of ham-
Siu ingp injuring, or embarrassing them. Further, to incite, aid, or
a,~~btet, ~directly or indirectly, singly or together with others, anything
governing samitary and.wporlung conattie~ps an,.ole~ana ang e
establishments and/or retail outlets and to fEail to provld6 a
eassities as will. protect the efliciency.~~~ sild te comf~~ort oft~.
ART. 15. Unfair telrms.--To accept ~cleaningf and/o dyxEi
orn a cash basis from alny customer whose, credit st~aning is nis
be poor, with the intent and/or eff~ecit of preventig or.hn
collection of optsta~ndig a~ccontsi ..sElurther, to .extend a long~e;
of credit to any customer than: reommended ,hy the.o el, co
based upon its credit investigations, r~l~
AnR. 16.. Unduly long~ howeosoN o plant, branch oilice,.or.rn~f
outlet may be open for business more than 12 hours on any
(Saturdays, 16 hours), or at any time whatsoever on Su~Jn~days
legal holidays. The time for opening and closing suchL outlets.
be reg~ulate~d by local committees. -,.
ART. 17. Imitation of compe~titore.-T~o simulate or copy a style:I
store front and signs or advertising of a competitor with the 1i4844
tion of deceiving customers of said compstitor.
Ana. 18. To do work for a solicitor, bobtail, or conunissionen
defined in Section I, Article;.O.. ..c
An., 19, Identif'eatio of sales ou~tletis.--Each retail-sales.he
shall be required to post in a conspicuous place the, namje and~Q awddeI'
of the owner or operator of the outlet. I v
Ana. 20. Dwnapings.-No cleaning plant or outlet shall 'sell 019i~I~
ing and/or dyeing service in any trade area at a price less th~a E~
established price in said area. il
ART. 21. Selling beloze east.--
SECTION V--REPORTS AND STBTarrsa los.f^~
ARTICLE 1. The National Association, through its Becovery 6t~~~f
tive Committee, shall have authority.to require any'.cleaning plazt
or outlet to submit reports of costs and. production at lany tinurti
covering any period, in. ordei to insure against violations iif Roi~'
provision of this Code regarding th'e selling of product brel~ow cog~e~~'j~
or for t~he pulrpose of fulrnishingr desired information tio.th~e aid
Reecovery Admlinistration. Among other things, these repoirts th
include data, on:
b. Hours of labor. i?; .!
c. Rates of Pay.
d. Costs and prices.
e. Dollar-volume of sales.
f. Productive capacity.
Ana. 2. The National Associattion of Dyers. and Cleaners, tr
its Recovery Executive Committee, shall. have authority top
yenerral plans and methods to be followed. by cleaning plantsr
keeping records of and preparing reports on costs and.other nd
~~i~iHlain WnlEU COnrMITuUUBs cosU 18 Rny tr(le area.
4a. For the term of the National Industrial Recovery Act
Natsbionasl ABssociation of Dyers and Cleaners, through its Recov-
ilIExecutive Committee, shall have authority to decide the need
addi~jt~ional production capacity and additional retail outlets.
ThiF~Se Recovery Executive Committee shall arbitrate all disputes be-
wi~holesalers, retailers, and retail outlets, which cannot be settled
land the decision of the Committee shall be binding, subject
th~We National Recovery Administration.
Th'~iile Ex:Iecutive; Committee of the National Association of Dyers
Adr'Cleaners shall appoint a Board of Arbitration in each trading
sea for the final settlement of all unsettled claims arising from the
Un~sumers, the cleaning and dyeing industry, or the retail merchants
St~he trading area. The Board of Arbitration shall be composed
# twao retail merchants, two members of cleaning and dyeing indus-
r and: one representative of the Better Business Bureau, Chamber
5 Commerce, or some similar consumer organization.
SECTION VII -MonoroLr
No ~provision in this Code shall be interpreted or applied in such a
mannerr as to promote mzonopolies, permit or increase unfair compe-
ECi~on, or to discriminate against small enterprises.
UIERSITY OF FLORIDA
all ag Ilula ulMB~11
3 1262 08582 8241
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