Code of fair competition for the hide and leather working machine industry as approved on March 6, 1934


Material Information

Code of fair competition for the hide and leather working machine industry as approved on March 6, 1934
Portion of title:
Hide and leather working machine industry
Physical Description:
p. 485-495 : ; 24 cm.
United States -- National Recovery Administration
United States Government Printing Office
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Leatherwork -- Equipment and supplies -- United States   ( lcsh )
Hides and skins -- Equipment and supplies   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
At head of title: National Recovery Administration.
General Note:
"Registry No. 1399-27."
General Note:
"Approved Code No. 320."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004931461
oclc - 646181311
System ID:

Full Text







- f l f l f l t


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 centm

Approved Code No. 320

Registry No. 1399-27

This publication is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.C., and by district offices of the Bureau of Foreign
and Domestic Commerce.
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New Orleans, La.: Room 225-A, Customhouse.
New York, N.Y.: 734 Customhouse.
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Pliil:nl,.lllhi;i. Pa.: 422 Commercial Trust Building.
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Portlnud, Oreg.: 215 New Post Office Building.
St. Louis, Mo.: 506 Olive Street.
San Francisco, Calif.: 310 Customhouse.
Seattle, Wash.: SO'.0 1-'tvd lr l l-t ffi.e i;iiling.

Approved Code No. 320



As Approved on March 6, 1934



An application having been duly made pursuant to and in full
compliance with the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for approval of a Code of
Fair Competition for the Hide and Leather Working Malchine Indus-
try, and hearings having been duly held thereon and the annexed
report on said Code, containing findings with respect thereto, having
been made and directed to the President:
NOW, THEREFORE, on behalf of the President of the United
States, I, Hugh S. Johnson, Adilnini.trataor for Industrial Recovery,
pursuant to authority ves-ted in me by Executive Orders of the Presi-
dent, including Executive Order No. 6.543-A, dated December 30,
1933, and otherwise; do hereby incorporate by reference .-aid annexed
report and do find that said Code complies in all respects with the
pertinent provisions and will promote the policy and purposes of
said Title of said Act; and do hereby order that said Code of Fair
Competition be and it is hereby approved.
A dJminl strator for t Recovery.
Approval recommended:
Division A dminbi stIrator.
March 6, 1934.

44404 -- 425-35----34



The PlEsinDrNT,
The White Howse.
SIR: This is a report on the Code of Fair Competition for the
Hide and Leather Working Mahline Industry, as revised after a
Public Hearing held in Washington on January 22, 1934. in accord-
ance with the provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act.


Employment is limited to 40 hours per week, 8 hours per day and
6 days in any 7 day period, with the following exceptions: Execu-
tives and salarfi field service men rece.viving :..00y per week and
traveling salesmen. Watchmen may work .56 hour- and heating
firemen 44 hours per \\week. To provide for miilerg'en\y production
demands a tolerance of 5 hours per week is allowed. Overtime for
emergency maintenance will be paid for at 11/2 times the regular
\Males. and females may be employed at a minimum rate of 40
cents per hour except that office and clerical w\\rkers may be paid
at a minimum rate of $15.00 per v.eek and office boy-. girls and
Ii.--'llngrl may be paid at the minimum t-te of $12.00 per week.


In 1929 this Inldustry, which comprises approximately 40t firms,
employed about 360 factory workers. In October, 1933, the aver-
;Iag w\rk week was reported at 42 Ihoiur. The adoption of the
40 hour welek( as provided in this Code will show an estimated in-
crease in employment of about 5% and will benefit about 40Ic'" of
the employees in the Ind(lltry.
During the past 5 years the average invested capital has been
$1,877.000 and the avera'el: annual value of products has 1been
FI N iI N(;S

The Deputy Administrator in his final report to me on said Code
having found as herein set forth and on the i1,:-i of all the lprceed-
ings in this matter:
I find that:
(a) Said C,,,o is well design, d to promote the policies' and
purposes of Title I of the National Indn-t il;; Recovery Act, includ-
ingl removal of obstructiin- to tih, free flow of iinteir.-tat and foreign
rO11mnIere', which tend to diminish the amount tlireof and will
provide for the general welfare by promomting the org.iniza/ition of
industry for the nirlp,- of (oolier.'tive ad inn : nIi the trade
groupp, by indltuing and nmainta;ining united action of labor and


management under andeql lte governmental sanctions and supervi-
sion, by elimiinating unfair competitive practices, by promoting the
fulle-t possible utilization of the present productive capacity of
industries, by avciliing undue restriction of production (except as
may be temporarily rI'clireid), by in!'Trca-'lin the consumption of
industrial and agricultural products through incir.;I-iL ., purchasing
power, by reducing and relieving unemployment, by improving
.tanldards of labor, and by otherwise rehabilitating industry.
(b) Said Industry normally employs not more than 50,000 em-
ployees; and is not classified 1b me as a major industry.
(c) The Code as approved complies in all respects with the perti-
nent provisions of said Title of said Act, including without liniita-
tion Sub-ert ion (a) of Section 3, Subsection (a) of Section 7, and
Subsection (b) of Secti on 10 thereof; and that the applicant group
is an industrial association truly represent;ilti\t of the aforesaid
industry; and that said i--uciation imposes no inequitable restric-
tions on admissi',on to membership therein.
(d) The Code is not d(l.ign-Id to and will not permit monopolies
or monopolistic pral'tices.
(e) The Code is not de-igned to and will not eliminate or oppress
small enterprises and will not operate to discriminate against them.
(f) Those engaged in other steps of the economic process have
not been deprived of the right to be heard prior to approval of said
For these reasons, this Code has been approved by me.
MARCHI 6, 1934.


AlTI( LL. I--PtIr',,iE

To effectuate the policies of Title I of the National Indulitrial
Recovery Act, the following provisions are established as a Code of
Fair Competition for the Hide and Leather Working Machine Indus-
try, and shall be the standards of fair competition for -iich Industry
and shall be binding upon every membnder thereof.


The term Indul-tr y", as used herein, shall be defined to mean
the manufacture, repair or relnilding, for sale or lease, of machinery,
nelchani-it-, and mechanical devices, used in the processingr of hides
and leathers.
The term Eimployee ", as used iherein. iiiiludes anyone engaged
in the Industry in any capacity receiving compensation for his
service-. irrespective of the nature or method of payment of suiwh
v' compensation .
The term Eimployer ". as used herein. inchlules any one by whom
any such employee is conlip.ii-ated or employed.
The term Member of the Iindlui-ty ", as iue-l herein, includes any
iIt' e.11nga ed' in the Industry as above defined, either as an employer
or on his own behalf.
The term "Association ", as used herein, shall imean the Nationnal
Hide and Leather Working IMachine Association.
The tern "Apprentice ", as used he ein, shall de'.ig'nate any one
regularly indentured for a sufficient length of time to -y-tiiiimitically
learn the various operations in any one of the trades or occupations
in the Indli-trv.
The terms Pr'esident ", "Act and "Administrator ", a; used
herein, shall iiwr;ii,. respectively, the President of the United Stater,
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the Adminis-
trator for Indii-tri;ial Recivery.


SECTION 1. No emplloyee shall be permitted to wiork in excess of
forty (40) hours in any one (1) week. or eight (8) hou-rs in any
twenty-f ur (24) hourv period, ex\'pt n- herein otherwise provided.
Si. 'Iox 2. To cover any mer-pIicv production deniiind which
cannot be met by hiri ng addlitinnaal eiimplhyees,, an allowance above
the iii:i\inliui hours fixe-d in Section 1 of not to exceed five (5)
ho iur in any one (1) wrk shall be penrmnitted; provided that one
and one-half (11.) times the r''i.ulair rate of pay .shall be paid for
such hours.


SECTION 3. Watchmen shall not be permitted to work in excess
of fifty-six (56) hours per w-cek.
SECTION 4. The provisions of this Article limiting hours of work
shall not apply to salaried field service ni'.;. or to I -'r'ons employed
in a managerial or executive capacity who earn not less than thirty-
five ($35.00) dollars per week, or to traveling salesmen.
SECTr~xN 5. The maximum hours fixed in Section 1 shall not apply
to any employee on emergency or et-.r,'gny repair
work involving breakdowns or protection of life or property, but
in any such special case, at least one and one-half (11/) times his
regular rate shall be paid for hours vwoi k-,1 in excess of the maximum
provided in Section 1 of this Article III.
SECTION 6. No employee shall be permitted to work imre than
six (6) days in any seven (7) day period.
SECTION 7. No employer shall knowingly permit any employee to
work for any time which, when totaled with that already performedc
for another employer or employer., exceeds the maximum permitted
SI:CTION 8. Employers who personally perform manual work or
are engaged in mechanical operations shall not exceed the pre-cribed
maximum number of hours.
SECTION 9. In addition to the maximum hours provision of Sec-
tion 1, there shall be a ten (10'' ) percent tolerami:e in respect to
engineers and firemen.


SECTION 1. No employee shall be paid less than at the rate of
forty (40) cents per hour, except as herein otherwise provided.
SECTION 2. No employee engaged in clerical or office work shall
be paid less than at the rate of fifteen ($15.00) dollars per week,
except as herein otherwise provided.
SECTIoN 3. This Article establishes a minimum compen-.ation rate,
irrespective of whether an employee is actually compensated on a
time rate, piece work, or other basis.
SECTION 4. The minimum wage that shall be paid to office boys and
girls and messengers shall be not less than eighty (80%) percent of the
minimum established in Section 2 of this Article, but the number
of office boys and girls and messengers compensated at less than the
rate prescribed in such Section shall not exceed five (5%) percent
of the clerical and office employees; provided, however that at least
one such employee may be so compensated regardless of the number
of office employees.
SECTION 5. The wage rates for all operations and duties which are
in excess of the minimum herein prescribed shall be equitably ad-
justed and in no case shall they be decreased. The action taken by
each member shall be reported to the Code Authority not later than
thirty (30) days after the effective date and to the Administrator
at his request.
SECTION 6. Apprentices shall be regularly indentured for a suffi-
cient period of time to be systematically advanced through the vari-
ous operations in any one of the trades or occupations. The number
of apprentices shall not exceed a ratio of one (1) such apprentice to


ten (10) competently skilled journeymen employed by any member
of the Industry. Copies of all applurevtive contracts shall be filed
with the Code Authority and be subject to review by the Adminis-


:. "*-nit 1. No per-,li u111ndr sixte.l (16) years of age shall be
employed in the Industry. No person under eighteen (18) years of
age shall be employed at operations or occupations which are hazard-
ous in nature or dangerous to health. The Code Authority shall
slllmlt to the A'liiiini-trator, within sixty (60) days after the
&tffl'ctiv date, a list of "iich occupjationf..
In any State an employer shall be deemed to have complied with
this provision as to agee if he shall have on file a certificate or permit
duly signedll by the Authority in such State empoweired to issue em-
plyiient or age certificates or permits showing that the employee
is of the requiired ag'e.


SECTION 2. In compliance with Section 7 (a.) of the Act it is
(a) That employee-v shall have the right to organize and bargain
collectively through representatives of their own choosing, and shall
be free from the interference, restraint, or coercion of employers
of labor, or their agents, in the designation of such repre-enta.-tives
or in self-olganizat;ion or in other concerted activities for the pur-
pose of collective Lbarg;iiniiai or other muntii I ;,ii1 or protection;
(b) That no employee and no one -eekingl eImployment shall be
require, as a c(nlition of employment to join any company union
or to refrain from joniing, n orgaiziing. or a-i-ti- t a labor oraaniza-
tion of his own choos-in g': anl (i ) T'l'at employic- shall comply
with the maximum hours of labor, miniimumii rates of pay. an, other
c.iiilitiinii, of temploylent approved or prescribed by the Pireidihnt.
Si ruN o 3. No employer shall reclassify employees or duti- of
occupations performed or enigagll e in any other subterfiiuge for the
purpose of lefe:itiitg the purposes (or provisions of the Act or of
this Code.
St.I a 4. Every employer shall make reasonable provision for
theI saflr. and health of his cliployees at the place and during the
hours of their enmploym iet. Stand ards for -;ifly( and health : 1hll
I1 submitted by the Code Authority to the Administrator for p-
pr'oval within six (6) ioniitlhs a fter the etllcilive date of this Code.
Src-imoN .'. Within ten, (10) Oday, of the (effIti\ l late, ea;il em-
pllo'.r 11:i1l post and( tlher-;iftt.r maintain, in iii-pi,.ous, places
I '-,*(--ibli to employees full copies of tilii Code and any amenmellt nts
or iiodi,,, ;(tini- which imay later be aplpri'ed1.
STl sx 6. The pir\ i-iii-, of this Codle -'sh:i1 not .s Ii)I 'e-1 any
pro \i-iiin in a collective labor e.'eri.ritl. now in florl'. establi-hing
shorter homiur- or hiher w .g,,- tlha, are prio idehd for in thii- Code.



SECTION 7. No provision in this Code shall supersede alny State
or Federal law which impose, on employers more striiingent r.,cllire-
ments as to age of employees, w;iL.'.-, hours of wi, k. or as to safety,
health, anlitalry or general wiirking conditions., or insurant e or
fire protection, than are imposed by this Code.



SEr:TION 1. (a) This Code and all the provisions thereof are ex-
pressly made subject to the right of the President, in accordance
with the provisions of Subsection (b) of Section 10 of the National
Inldu.-trial Recov ery Act, from time to time to cancel or modify
any order, approval, license, rule, or regulation issued under Title I
of said Act and specifically, but without limitation, to the right of
the President to cancel or modify his approval of this Codle or any
conditions imposed by him upon his approval thereof; and, (b) This
Code, except as to provi.iiion required by the Act. may be modified
on the basis of expericr- or clhainget, in circumstances, such modi-
ficationlls to be bas.d upon application to the Administrator and such
notice and hearing as he shall spr-lif., and to become effective on
approval of the Pre-idlent.


SE< '* l-, 2. The Code Authority shall cause to be formulated, -iib-
jectt to the approval of the Administrator, an accounting sy.te.m
and methods of cost finding and/or estimating capable of use by all
members of the industry. After such system and methods have
been fl'riuiilated, full details concernimin them shall be made avail-
able to all members. Thereafter all members shall determine and/or
estimated costs in accordance with the principles of such methods.


SECTION 3. No employer shall sell or exchange any product of the
Industry, manufactured by him, at a pm ic. or upon terms and con-
ditions which will result in the purchaser paying for the goods
received less than the cost thereof to the -idler, determined in accord-
ance with the system and methods of costing formulated under the
provisions of Section 2 of this Article VI; provided, however, that
dropped line-, or secoiu~l,. or inventories which must be converted
into cash to meet emergency neCed. may be disposed of by any em-
ployer at any price and on any terms and conditions, but only if
such employer, not less than two (2) weeks before such di-poa .l has
filed with the Code Authority a statement in writing setting forth
the facts of, and reasons for, such proposed disposal, and the Code
Authority has not. before the termination of such two (2) weeks'
period, in writing disapproved the proposed disposal; and provided
furtlur, tlhat a member of the IiiTlu-tryv selling, or wishing to sell,


below his own cost to meet the competition of a competitor whose
costs are lower, or to meet competition from products of equivalent
de,-ign, character, quality, or specifications, manufactured outside
the United States, may do so provided that he has first reported to
the Code Authority and in siu.'h report has cited the competition
which caused him to take such action.
SECTION 4. Nothing in this Code shall be construed as prohibiting
any member of the Industry from exercising all his lawful patent

The following practices constitute unfair methods of competition
for members of the Industry and are prohibited:
(a) Defamation.-The defamation of competitors by falsely im-
puting to them dishonorable conduct, inability to perform contracts,
questionable 'rdclit standing, or by other false represenitations or by
the false disparagement of the grade or quality of their good.
(b) Se.ret Rebates.-The secret payment or allowance of rebates,
refunds, commissions, credits, or unearned di.-couits, whether in
the form of money or otherwise, or the secret extension to certain
purchasers of special services or privileges not extended to all
purchasers on like terms and conditions.
(c) Inaccurate Labelling.-No member of the Industry shall brand
or mark or pack any goods in any manner which is intended to or
does de-c-ive or mislead purcha .ers with respect to the brand, grade,
quality, quantity, origin, size, sub,-taji:ce, character, nature, finish,
material content or preparation of such goods.
(d) .1,/rl n .pr( station n or False or, adis~ Advertising.-The
making or causing or knowingly permitting to be made or published
any false, materially inaccurate or deceptive statement by way of
advertisement or otherwise, whether concerning the grade, quality,
quantity, substance, character,, origin, size, finish, or prepara-
tion of any product of the Industry, or the credit terms, values,
policies, or services of any member of the Industry, or otherwise,
having the tendency or capacity to mislead or deceive customers
or prospective r'u-t<'ini:'rs.
(e) Commercial Brib, r/.-No memb ler of the Industry shall give,
permit to be given, or directlyy offer to give, anything of value for
the purpose of influencing or rewarding the action of any employee,
tueljt, or representative of another in relation to the business of
the employer of such employee, the principal of such agent or the
represented party, without the knowledge of such empl,iyer, prin-
cipal or party. C(omm I ercial bribery provisions shall not be con-
strued to prohibit free and general distribution of articles cinimonly
iu.-(lI for advertising except so far as such articles are actually used
for coii nuii rcial bribery as hereinabove defined.
(f) Other Unfair Trmle Practic.s.-Nothing in this Code shall
limit the effect of any adjudi-cation by the Courts, or holding by the
Federal Trladt Coal iiiinion on complaint, finding, and order, that
any practices or method is unfair, providing that such adjudication
or chilling is not inconsistent with any provision of the Act or of
this Code.


S).IrTIrS 1. Orjlii ':,tion and Contfitution of the Code Author-
ity.-(a) The Code -\Autliority shall consist of -'\'. i (7) individual al:,
or siuih ntlic.r IInumLber as may be approved from time to time by the
Ailiiii-tr 1t:r', to be as hereinafter set forth. The Admin-
i-trator, in his discretion, may appoint not more than three (3)
additional members (withlout vote) to represent the Admiinistrator
or .stiili groplJl) or interests as ias a be ;iL,, 1id upon.
(b) Six (6) members of the Code Authority shall b., elected by
lmn(eiJ'lis of the Industry who are members of the A--~ciition.
This ele,'tion shall be held at a mIrting of the Association, such
iineting to be calledd by the A--'ociation within fifteen (15) days
after the effective date of this Code.
(c) Notice of lil Iiieeting, -;all be sent to all members of the
A-,ociation aIil each member shall be entitled to such vote or votes
as determiniied by the By-Laws of the Association, said vote or votes
to be cast in person or by proxy or by letter ballot.
(d) A plurality of the number of votes cast shall be necessary fr
election, and individual so elected shall serve for one year at the
end of which tile there shall be another election conducted in the
same lmannler as above set forth.
(e) One (1) member of the Code Authlority shall be elected, if
clesiiredt by iieniher- of the Industry who are -not members of the
A-,~ceintion, but who lagret e to pay their proportionate share of the
expeins-e of admiiiiitratin of the Code, at a meeting duly called for
them by the Association. within ten (10) days after the effective
date of the Code.
(f) Every member of the Industry ont-ide of the Association who
is regi-tered with the A--'ciation or whose identity and address can
be ascertained through diligent inquiry, shall be notified by the Asso-
ciation of the time and place of such nmeeting- by regi-tered in;dil. at
least ten (10) days in advance of the election and each of the non-
niejiiber-s shall be entitled to one (1) vote, said vote to be cast in
person, by proxy, or by letter ballot.
(g) A plurality of the number of votes cast shall be necessary for
election and the individual so elected shall serve for one year, at the
end of whi'-h time there shall be, if desired, another election held in
the soan!e manner to elect a successor.
(h) Any individual elected to the Code Authority shall be eligible
to re-election.
(i) If, however, selection by the Indii-t ry is impossible for any
rea.soi, the memberss of the Code Authority shall be appointed by the
Pre-ident. Vacancies in the Code Authority shall be filled by elec-
tions conducted in the manner set forth above.
SEe.TION 2. Ea cl trade or industrial association directly or indi-
rectly participating in the selection or activities of the Code Author-
ity Ilhall: (a) Impose no inequitable restriction- on membership. and
(b) submit to the Admiii itrator true copies of its articles of asso-
ciation. b-laws, r'egiul2ltin and any amend illlVents when made
thereto, together \itlh such other. information as to membership,
or;I n izat on. and : t i it i- as the Ad imiiiit rate r may deem necessary
to eftlct;uate the purposes of the Act.


SECTION 3. In order that the Code Authority shall at all times
be truly representative of the Industry and in other respects comply
with the provisions of the Act, the Administrator may provide
such hearings as he may deem proper; and thereafter if he shall
find that the Code Authority is not truly representative or does
not in other respects coinlply with the provisions of the Act, may
require an appropriate modification in the method of selection of
the Code Authority.
SECTION 4. If the Administrator shall determine that any nation of
the Code Authority or any agency thereof may be unfair or unjust
or contrary to the public interest, the Alnini-trator may require
that such action be suspended to afford an opportunity for investi-
gation of the merits of such action and further consideration by such
code authority or agency pending final action which shall not be
effective unless the Administrator approves or unless he shall fail
to disapprove after thirty days' notice to him of intention to pro-
ceed with such action in its original or modified form.
SECTION 5. Each member of the Industry shall furnish to the
Code Authority such information and statistics regarding hours of
operation, wages paid, and prices, as may be required by it with a
view to keeping the President of the United States and the Admini-
strator informed as to whether the Code Authority is taking appro-
priate steps to effectuate in all respects the declared policy of the
National Industrial Recovery Act.
SECTION 6. In order to provide data necessary for the administra-
tion of this Code, all members of the Industry shall furnish to the
Code Authority such information or reports as may be required,
subject to the approval of the Administrator. Such information
as may be submitted by a member shall not be revealed to any one
not a member of the Code Authority, but shall at all times be avail-
able to the Administrator.
.( TION 7. Mliimbers of the Industry shall be entitled to partici-
pate in and share the benefits of the activities of the Code Authority
and to participate in the election of the members thereof by assent-
ing to and complying with the requirements of this Code, and sus-
taining their reasonable share of the expenses of its administration.
The reasonable share of the expenses of administration shall be deter-
mined by the Code Authority, subject to review by the Administra-
tor, on the ina-4is of volume of 1,-iineCs and/or such other factors,
as may be dieniled equitable, to be taken into consideration.
SECTION 8. In addition to the information required to be sub-
inittedl to the Code Authority there shall be furnished to Government
Agencies -icJi sttatistical information as the Administrator may deem
necac.alry for the purposes recited in Section 3 (a) of the Act.
SECTION 9. The Code Authority shall have the following further
duties and powers to the extent permitted by the Act:
(a) To adopt By-Laws and rules and regulations for its procedure
and for the adminisiitration of the Code.
(b) To represent the Industry in conferring with the President
or his agents with respect to the nadlrini.stration of this Code and in
respect of the National Industrial Recovery Act and any regulation
issued thereunder.


(c) To hear complahiti and lattEnipt to adjust the -aline. under
sich rules and re g.,ulations as may be prer.iled by the Administrator.
(d) To c'ordli :te the a llhin]itration of this Code with such
codes, if anv. as may be adopted by any subdiviion of this Industry
or any 'rlatfd Industry, with a view to providing joint and harmo-
niouis actioll on all matters of Criniiiio interest, all with the approval
of the .Adiiiiiistrator.
(e) To -tu'ly the effect of the varion, plrvi-ion. of this Code on
the Indii:l ry and con:lidei piropo-al,- for amendments or modifications
and make r(co'uniendliations from time to time thereon which amend-
mnwnts or modifiHation -, will become effective as part of the Code,
upon aplpv'mIl of the Administrator after .-iir1i notice and hearing
as he nma specify.
(f) Tjo Jmae rules al1 regulations necessary for the administra-
tion and for facilitating the enforcement of this Code, under such
rule., and regulations as may be pr}.-crilbed by the Administrator,
subject to the right of any affected person to appeal to the Admin-
NX provision in this Code shall be so interpreted or applied as to
permit monopolies or monopolistic prnicti, e-. or to eliminate, oppre.--
or dis-erimiii:ite ;ai. inst small enterprise-.

This Code shall heco ie effective the second Monday after its
approval by the President.
Approved Code No. 320.
Registry No. 1: 99-27.

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