ANNTUL AIRPORT 1969
This report covers the third complete year of the agri-
cultural economics contribution to ICA and National Univer-
sity through the University of Nebraska Mission in Colombia.
Major accomplishments were achieved in Agricultural Sconomics
during 1969. The Department at ICA has progressed to one with
thirteen Colombian professionals, a full time Director, an
active graduate program, and three National Programs for re-
search. The participant training program has been active and
the first four professionals with the M.S. degree have returned
to Colombiar (two will be employed by National University, one
by ICA, and one by the Banco de la RepUblica). The most active
undergraduate program, that in Medellin, ended the year with
84 students. A joint undergraduate program is also underway
in Palmira with the Universidad del Valle and has 60 students
The progress during the year has, in fact, been so remark-
able that when one reads the projections made for 1969 given
in the last Annual Report, it almod seems as if they were for
a different program. The changes which have come about have
been the result of many factors. Undoubtedly, the most important
has been the appointment of Rafael Samper as full time Department
Chairman at ICA. Though young and inexperienced, he has been
the key to the development of a department with a real purpose.
The progress made by the Department is particularly evident in
the graduate program in which the Department of Agricultural
Economics is a leader at ICA. During 1969 the Department met
its goals for graduate students twice over as projected in
the 1968 Annual Report, and will also double its goals for
the 1970 academic year. Although the Department is one of
the newest at ICA, it will have one of the first (if not the
first) graduate student to receive an M.8. degree and was the
first to have students finish course requirements and take
the comprehensive examination.
The research program is also advancing very rapidly, and
the first few publications have been produced. Regional
aspects of the research program were enhanced materially
with the appointment of the first Regional Eoonomist who is
located at Medellin.
Also of significantimportance to the general welfare of
the Department was the acquisition of adequate space in the
new building at Tibaitatt. All factorsbeing considered, it
can probably be said that during the year 1969 agricultural
economics was firmly established as a discipline in Colombia
at National University and at ICA.
The programs at Medellin and Palmira-Cali continued to
expand during the year. The Universidad del Valle has taken
the primary leadership in the joint program at Palmira-Cali.
Here, the UN and Nebraska personnel has been involved primarily
in the teaching of service courses for students in the Faeultad
The program in Medellin received some additional assistance
during the year when ICA appointed its first Regional Iconomist.
An agreement was reached between ICA and National University
that ICL personnel (including the Nebraska oonomist) could
teach one course per semester and devote up to half time in
work involving undergraduate teaching. This represents a re-
duction in the proportion of time spent by the Nebraska Economist
on undergraduate work, but is necessary if ICr is to develop a
sound regional research program. The decrease will be at least
partially offset by the presence of the Regional Sconomist.
As National University is faced with severe budget problems,
recommendations were made at a meeting of the Deans (attended
by various other people) relative to the best use of limited
funds by the University. The suggestion was that the acultad
in Bogota should delay the opening of its career in Agricultural
Economics until the Facultad in Medellin (with a current
enrollment of 84) could be adequately supported financially
and with staff. In order to help the staffing problem, ICA
transferred one of its returning M.S. staff to the Facultad
in Medellin where he will complete hiscontractual obligations
(beca commitment) as a UN employee, Efforts are also underway
to combine the basic economics courses taught at the Mines
Faculty and the Agronomy Faculty to increase the efficiency
of staff time. Similar attempts are being made to reduce
duplication in basic agricultural eeenoamis courses taught for
the various careers in the Agronomy Fatulty itself.
Undergraduate enrollment in December, 1969:
Medellin 84 in 3 semesters (5 year Program)
Palmira-Cali 60 in 2 semesters (4A year Program)
Perhaps the greatest progress was made during the year
in the area of graduate teaching. In Fparuary, the Department
of Agricultural Economics published the first Departmental
Graduate Bulletin at ICA which compiled the current thinking
of the Department and of the Graduate School. Later, after
the Graduate School published its Regulations, the Departmental
Bulletin had to be revised. In the revision, a two year
calendar of courses is presented in which required courses are
offered each year and elective courses every other year. This
calendar permits students entering in January with all pre-
requisites to terminate coursework in one year and have six
months to complete the thesis. Normal tine for graduation
shodd be 18 months, which is the minimum under the Graduate
The Department also published a flyer to advertise its
graduate program. Delays in publication prevented its
effective use for January, 1970, but it is now ready for use
in the future. Nevertheless, the Department had 19 applications
for admitance for 1970. Of these, 17 were approved (6 with
becas, 3 pending becas, one on commission from ICA, and 6 with
no financial support). It is expected that the majority of
those not receiving financial support will not enroll. With
the 11 full time graduate students currently enrolled, Agri-
cultural economics should have about 20 full time students in
January, 1970, of which 7 will be working primarily on thesis
Although the Department still is understaffed and still
lacks stability in staffing, two of our students were the
first to finish all course requirements and to take the
comprehensive examination. A third student will qualify for
the comprehensive examination in January after completing a
semester of work at Oklahoma State University. These three
students, plus four more who will qualify for the comprehensive
examination in July, should finish their theses and receive
their degrees in 1970.
The Department has received excellent beca fellowshipp
or assistantship) support during the year. In 1969, there were
5 students on becas (3 financed by the Ford Foundation and 2 by
ICA).' For 1970, in addition to these 5, ICA will provide 4 new
beoas and Ford three. This will provide a total of 12 becas, 6
from ICA and 6 on a matching basis from the Ford Foundation.
On a continuing basis (ICA will pick up the Ford Becas on their
termination) this should provide adequate support for the pro-
gram at least for a few years.
The research program also progressed very satisfactorily
during the year. Of primary importance was the initiation of
three departmental publication series 1) Boletines ~Enurta-
mentales, 2) Informes, and 3) Circulares. The bulletin series
will be used for limited but rapid distribution of major re-
search results, most of which will eventually be published by
ICA or other entities. All will be approved by the ICA editorial
staff as ICA publications. The Informes are shorter reports or
progress reports. The Circulares will generally be one to three
page publications primarily of exteasion intearet.
Published in each series to date areas
Bower, Max F., Prerrequisitos y Potencial para la Bxportacio
de Came en Colombia en la Ddcada de 1970, Boletin Departamen-
tal No. 1, Departmento de Iconemia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata,
Andre% Chris 0., et. al, Problemas de Producci6n y Mercadeo
del Caesiae Colombiano, Boletn Departamental No. 2, Depar-
tamento de Bconowla Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Septiembre 1969.
Lopera Palacios, Jorge y Peter R. Hildebrand, La Brecha en la
Productividad Agricola en Colombia, Boletin Departamental No. 3,
Departamento de 2conomia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitatt, Octubre, 369.
Andrew, Chris 0., Improving Performance of the Production-Dis-
tribution System for Potatoes in Colombia, Boletin Departamental
No. 4, Departamento de Bconomia Agricola, ICA, Tibaitata, Octubre
Dias, Branados, Freddy, "Analisis Icono~aoo de AlguaOs Saitemas
de Alimentacion de Vacas Lecheras en la Sabana de BOoge*, In-
forme AR-1, Departamento de Bconomia Agritola, IA, Tibaitata,
Noviembre 18, 1969.
Rinc6n S., Manuel, "Limitaciones de lI* Coste do Producaao ",
Informed AR-2, Departamento de Econoama Agriela, ICA, Tibaitata,
Noviembre 27, 1969.
"Costos de la Produccion por HectArea Toao**, Circular Ab-l,
Departamento de Sconoma Agricola, 1C, Tibaitatt, oviembre
"Costos de Betableoimiento por Heettrea ALFALFA, Circular
No. AR-2, Departamento de eoonomta Agrisola, ICA, Tibaitat&,
Noviembre 14, 1969.
"Costes de Produccito por Beettrea, Xapinal, Tolima ALGODON"
Circular No, AR-3, Departamento de Ecmeomia Agricola, ICA,
Tibaitata, Diciembre 10, 1969.
Several other major publications are in the final stages
of preparation. Most will be bulletins
1. Production and Marketing of Wool, Lamb and Mutton in
2. economic Analysis of the Production of Potatoes in Colombia.
3. Analysis of 18 Ranching Operations in the Department of
4. Present Status of Colonization in Caqueta.
5. Alternative Methods of Coffee Renovation and Diversification.
6. Economic Evaluation of the Potato Chipping lnduatry in
Bogota and Cali.
7. Economic Analysis of the Distribution System of Beef from
the Farm to the Wholesaler in BogotA.
8. Design of a Central Wholesale Market for Cali.
9. The Relationship of Infrastructure to Agricultural Develop-
As a substitute for the Instructor program, formerly
financed by the Ford Foundation, the Fara Management Program
has acquired a post prelim Ph.D. candidate froe the University
of Florida who will conduct research in capital productivity
and the effect of risk on investment in agriculture. Ris
salary (assistantship) is being paid by the University of
Florida (Center for Tropical Agriculture) and the research
expenses will be paid by ICA.
Research oriented towards assisting IZDM in improving
their agricultural price and market information services
resulted in an invitation by PAO to attend a two weeks technical
conference on price and market information services in Latin
America. Rosa Ilvam Galeano who is working on this project
attended the meeting and jointly with an IDIMA representative
also invited to the meetings, presented a paper on "An Analysis
and Evaluation of Price Information Services in Colombia" which
considered both IDNEM's Wholesaler price Information Services
and Banco Ganadero's Beef Cattle Price Information Service.
During the year the Department participated in three
extension short courses. For use in these short courses, four
lectures were prepared and published
"La Administracion en la Impresa de Ganado de Carne" by Jaime
Delgado U., Manuel Rincon, and Rafael Samper A.
0B1 Mereadeo de Ganado de Came en la Feria de Medellin" by
James L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.
"B1 Mercadeo de Ganado de Carne uilense en la Feria de Cali"
by James L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.
"l1 Mereadeo de Ganado de Came del Caqueta en la Peria de
Cali" by James L. Driscoll and Rafael Samper A.
The new departmental publication series will aso be useful
in extension work. However, little else has been accomplished
in this area partly due to lack of personnel and partly due to
lack of clear extension objectives within XCA.
ADMNISTRATIVl AND ORuANIEATIONAL
Two important and critical changes occurred during the
year with respect to the organisation and administration of
First, early in the year during one of the extended
absences of the part time Director of the Department, the
Program Directors and their Nebraska advisors organized a
"Comit6 Internzo to function in an advisory and operational
capacity and to try to provide an orientation to the Department
which to that time had been lacking. The second, and sometime
later, was the appointment of a full time Director of the
As has been mentioned previously, the new Direetor has
made a tremendous difference in the functioning of the Department.
The *Comite Interno" continues to operate and is working smoothly.
Most important decisions which the Department makes are discussed
in detail by this oomittee. This provides training for the new
departmental personnel as well as a more sound means of king
decisions by examining various points of view.
Also important to the Department was the initiation of the
Regional ; conamiat program, with the placement of the first
economist in Medellin. Additional economists will be appointed
as soon as personnel are available (many will cen from our own
During the year a total of 12 participants travelled to
the U.S. for advanced study. Of these, one is sponsored by
National University in Bogota, 3 by National University in
Medellin and 6 by ICA. One of the othea travelled on his own
expense and is studying Xnglish. If he qualifies in English
he will be awarded a beoa (sponsoring agency is Banco de la
Reptblica). The twelfth is a student in the ICA graduate Pro-
gram who is stuaqng one semester at Oklahoma State University.
SPONSORING EXPECTED STUDY DATB OF
WMAg INSTITUTION DBG, t INSTITUTION DRPARTUNI
Jorge Torres U. Nal. Bogota M. S Kansas State Jan.
Fabian Ramires U. Nal. Medellin M.S. Oklahoma State Jan.
Jaime Baby U. Nal. Medellin M.S. Nebraska Feb.
Gonsalo Aristimabal U. Nal.Medellin M.S. Iowa State Mar.
Edierth Restrepo ICA-Bogott M.S. Missouri June
Rodrigo Tascan ICA-Bogota M.S. Missouri June
Carlos Forero ICA-Bogott M.S. Kansas State Aug.
Jorge Vargas ICA-Bogota M.S. Oklahoma State Aug.
Jesus Sierra ICA-Bogo~ 1 M.S. Colorado State Aug.
Jorge Lopera ICA-Bogota Ph.D. lowa State Aug.
Roberto LOpes Fedeeaf Oklahoma State Aug.
Ricardo Buenaventura Boo. de la
Rep~blioa M.S. Texas A&M July
Five M.S. candidates from among those originally selected
still can choose to go to the U.S. for graduate study, but
emphasis is now going to be on support of the UN-ICA Graduate
School. The five candidates, all of whom have been pending
candidates for some time were unable to leave earlier because
of work commitments, allowing other participants t leave sooner.
Of these five, 3 are from ICA and one each from ON in Palaira
and Medellin. One candidate from ICA, Xdulfo Castellanos, has
elected to enroll in the UN-ICA Graduate School in January, 1970.
The others will probably all leave in the summer either for
Boulder or for the orientation course in Lincoln. One of these,
Iduardo Pelaew, from Medellin, may qualify to immediately study
for the Ph.D.
One participant front ICA working on a Ph.D. degree at the
University of Nebraska returned to the staff at ICA after one
year's advanced study. As he does not have an M.S. degree he
has applied for the UN-ICA Graduate Sohool. Be, along with 3
other present members of the staff will be allowed to take one
course per trimester during 1970. If they do well, they can
qualify to enter the school full time in 1971 to complete degree
requirement while on commission from ICA.
Other new M.S. staff for ICA and the UN faculties can be
chosen from among the graduates of the UM-ICA Graduate School.
During the year, four candidates returned from the U.S. with
the M.S. degree. In February, Rector Muroia returned from
Oklahoma State and is working at UN in Bogota. Valderrama
(University of Nebraska) and Vles (Oklahoma State) returned
during the summer and axe working with ICA and the Banco de
la Reptblioa (Medellin) respectively. n Deaember, Jaime
Bernhardt returned from Iowa State and will work with UN in
Additional staff with advanced degrees include Rafael
Sauper, Manuel Rineon and Jorge Suea ot with ICh and Arturo
TobOn with UN. Pellowing is a summary of staff with advanced
degrees as of the end of 1969.
Ag. Xoon. Dept.
Farm Mgt. Prog.
Ag. economist UN-Bogota
Ag. Beonomist UN-Medellia
Ag. conomist Un Medellin
Becas received from programs predating that of Nebraska