Cropping systems program activities in Nepal for 1982-1983

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Title:
Cropping systems program activities in Nepal for 1982-1983
Physical Description:
23 leaves : ill., (tables), ; 28 cm.
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English
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Integrated Cereals Project (Nepal) -- Cropping Systems Program
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s.n.
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S.l
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Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems -- Case studies -- Nepal   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Nepal

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by the cropping systems staff.
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
Typescript.
General Note:
"Paper prepared for the fourteenth Farming Systems Working Group meeting held in China, October 25-29, 1983."

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 756838554
ocn756838554
Classification:
lcc - S494.5.S95 1983 .C7
System ID:
AA00008197:00001

Full Text


04, o9l





Cropping Systems Proram Activities

In Neal For 1982 '83


Prepared by
Cropping Systems Staff

INTRODUCTION:
The Cropping Systems Program in Nepal has continued research activities
in six cropping systems sites. ( Table 0 presents the characteristics of the
sites. ). It has also increased its involvement in assisting the Department
of Agriculture to expand the pilot production program activities based on
cropping systems technology particularly in the irrigated areas in selected
districts in the Terai of Nepal. In addition, the program has continued to
work with the extension service and several area development projects to
incorporate multi-location testing of technolQgy developed by the Cropping
Systems Program as a part of their on-going adaptive research activities
leading to production programs. This report briefly summarizes the
activities for the past year.

CROPPING PILTTERN TESTING:
Cropping pattern trial results are presented for five sites in this
report. At the Lele site, cropping pattern testing has been phased out.
Pilot production activities and component technology trials comprise the
program at this site. At Chauri Jahari, administrative and manpower problems
interfered with the past year's winter and spring crops causing many pattern
results to be incomplete.

Ratna Nagar
Cropping pattern trials are being carried out in three land types at
Ratna Nagar; irrigated lowlands, rainfed lowlands and rainfed uplands.
Table 1 presents the agronomic performance of the improved patterns
being tested along with results of the predominant pattern grown under

Paper prepared for the. Fourteenth Farming Systems Working Group
Meeting held in China, October 25 29, 1983.













2//2//

farmer praetioa for aach land typ,. Tabl presents tba eeonemig
analysis of' each improved pattern and for the patterns under farmer
practice.

In the irrigated lowlands, Rice-Wheat-Maize, RAoe,-Wheat-I4ngbean and
Rioe.Mustard-Maize produced both marked increases in total annual yields
and returns after variable costs as compared to the farmer practice of
Rice-Wheat-Fallow. The improved pattern, Rice-Wheat-.Dhaincha, with
Dhaincha plowed down for green manure showed higher total annual yield
but lower returns as compared to the farmer practice. Returns to material
costs and labor and power costs were low compared to the other patterns,

In the rainfed lowlands, the improved Rice-Fallowi.Maize was
substantially better in total annual production and economic returns
than the farmer practice of same pattern. Timely spring rains enhanced
the maize yields this past spring. Rice-Wheat-Fallow was only marginally
better than farmer practice. RicoFlallow-Dhaincha, again with Dhaincha
used as green manure, produced a comparatively low annual yield and
extremely low returns. Returns to material and labor and power costs
were exceedingly low.

It seems clear that the economics of the use of Dhaincha as a green
inanure crop, as illustrated in both patterns in the lowlands involving
Dhaincha, is some what dubious. Uhat is still to be documented is the
potential longer term effects of including Dhaincha on the succeeding
crops in comparison with no Dhaincha. Attempts are being made to
determine this aspect.

The results from the three improved patterns in the rainfed uplands
are disappointing especially from the economic stand point. The Maize-
Maize/Wheat pattern indicates that total annual yields can be more than-
doubled, by crop intensification but the economics are tenuous at best.
Returns to both material and labor and power costs are extremely low
which is also the case for the other two improved patterns in this












land type. The sporadic nature of the rainfall pev+en. ea Ratna Zagam,
particularly for the summer crops seriously hampers consistent good yields.
The general drought that occurred during the summer of 1982 bears this
out in the low maize and uplaqd rice yields in the improved patterns and
the concurrent lo3 response to fertilizer inputs.

Sukchaina
Tables 3 and 4, respectively, present the agronomic and economic
performances of the five improved cropping patterns and three patterns
under farmers' practices being monitored in the rainfed lowland, low
production potential areas. It is of interest to note that even though
rice yields were generally low during the summer season of 1982 as a
result of prolonged drought, all of the improved patterns under test
except Rice-Barley-Fallow were superior in economic returns to the
patterns under farmer practices. The Rice-Chickpea-Fallow pattern has
produced by fa: the best results over the past two years. This coming
winter season, a small prod ctio-n program involving chickpea will be
initiated.

The total animal yield and economic returns (negative infact) of
Rice-Barley-Fallow were very poor. These were particularly affected by
the low rice yields which results from farmers allocating the poorest
parcels where barley is to be grown. General lack of interest in barley
will probably lead to the elimination of this pattern in future work,

Bahuwari Tube-well
The Bahuwari Tube-well site provides a situation with relatively
reliable irrigation water supply throughout the year. This in turn
allows the Cropping Systems Program to test intensive cropping patterns
that can demonstrate the production potential which may feasibly be
attained in the Terai of Nepal if and when large areas can be brought
under reliable irrigation systems. Currently, the extrapolation of
results from this site is generally limited to other tube-wells and
to small pockets where small scale year-round irrigation facilities exist.












In most of the large-eoale cnanl irr.ie-ted &reasI is onorally oa1y OUlie4
i the enmnor and winner with highly unreliable supply in the spring,

Tables 5 and 6, respectively, present the results of the agronomic
and economic performances of the six improved patterns under test and
the corresponding predominant farmer practice being monitored at Bahuwari.
All the patterns under test, except Rice-Wheat-Dhaincha show increased
total annual yields, and excellent returns after variable costs, marginal
benefit cost ratios and returns to material and labor and power costs.
This is especially true for the Rice-Maize-Maize pattern. Maize in the
winter season in the irrigated areas of the Terai shows tremendous
production potential and is gaining favor in some areas. Market
considerations will determine the future, potential role of winter maize
as compared to the principle winter crop in irrigated areas which is
wheat,

As in Ratna Nagar, the Rice-Wheat-Dhaincha pattern shows questionable
economic validity. In component technology trials at Bahuwari where the
----- effect-of- with and -without-Dhainbha-incorporation- before rice was -
measured, on the yields of the succeeding rice crop, rice yields were
increased approximately 15 Results demonstrating the potential carry.
over effect of the Dhaincha green manure on succeeding crops after rice
are still not available.

Pumdi Bhumdi
Cropping pattern trials are being conducted in three land types at
Pumdi Bhumdi; rainfed uplands, rainfed lowlands with high production
potential and rainfed lowlands with medium to low production potential.
The agronomic and economic performances are given in tables 7 and 8
respectively. In general, the improved patterns in the three land types
show modest increases in both total annual yield and returns after
variable costs. However, noticeable weaknesses in some component crops
in certain patterns are apparent especially for wheat and maize in the
improved Rice-Wheat-Maize pattern. Farmers still show little interest
in the variety Taichung 176 rice in this pattern even though #t produces











//5//'

high yields. -3y9 rioe hba shown good potential in aL of the rice-baaed
patterns, 'is liked by farmers and is being intensively studied this
current season.

It is of interest to note that Purdi BhLmdi has been selected as the
first site in Nepal where work is being initiated to incorporate live-
stock fodder systems into the program on a farming systems basis.
Research is being initiated this current winter season particularly to
determine how several potential fodder species can be incorporated into
feasible cropping patterns and/or be used outside the cropped area.

Khandbari
-U~--- -
Tables 9 and 10, respectively, present the results of the agronomic
and economic performances of the improved cropping patterns being
tested in three land types at Khandbari. All of the improved patterns
are showing promising increases in both total annual yields and economic
returns as compared to existing farmer practices. The two patterns
being tested in the irrigated lowlands look excellent. However, the
area of this land type in Khandbari is very-small, -Most of the lowland
area is rainfed and is planted to Rice-Fallow-Fallow, The double crop
patterns being tested in the rainfed lowlands show good potential.
Increased area planted to wheat or other potential winter crops in the
rainfed lowlands, however, will be hampered by the common practice of
release of farm animals for general grazing during that time of year.
Perhaps, more feasible in the short term will be to try to intensify
cropping in the spring season before rice is transplanted with such
crops as maize or mungbean. Khandbari would be another logical site
to begin to look at the livestock fodder situation to help alleviate
wide spread winter grazing.

MUlTI-.ICATION TESTING:
As mentioned earlier, the cropping systems program is trying to assist
the extension service and several area development projects in utilizing
multi-location testing of cropping systems technology in their areas as a











//6//


part eP thkei adaptive research activities in iarmere fields leading to
production programs. The achievement of this goal has been mixed. Where a
commitment to seriously use the multi-location trials following the training
and advice provided by the Cropping Systems Program has been present, the
results have been very promising especially in the midhills where farmers
have had little previous exposure to new varieties in particular. In some
cases, there has been an almost automatic adoption at least of varieties
that farmers have observed in the multi-location trials leading to small
scale production programs in the following year based on farmers obtaining
seed from the farmers who had the trials or seeking it from the outside.

In the situations where there has been minimal interest and follow-
through by the people supervising the trials, the results, logically, have
been of very limited use. However, our experience shows that this approach
certainly has merit in rapid transfer of verified technology if the proper
steps in implementation and conduct of the trials are followed.


PILOT PRODUCTION PROGRAM:

The Cropping Systems Program has been actively pursuing Pilot Production
Programs in or near to most of our cropping systems sites for the past two
years. As may be expected, the methodologies that are useful in the hill
sites have turned out to differ to some extent compared to those found
useful in the Terai. This is largely brought about by the contrast of the
relative availability of input, credit and irrigation infrastructure in
the Terai as opposed to their general unavailability in the more remote,
less accessible hill sites. Therefore, it is fair to state that, for the
Pilot Production Programs at the hill sites, the Cropping Systems Program
is still trying to develop a strategy that entails more than simply
extending new varieties when such varieties are perceived by the farmers to
be superior. To tie the use of the varieties to a specified input package
(fertilizer etc.) has largely been impractical due to lack of input supply
and credit facilities.








//'7 //


In the Terai, on thb- -oth .b hand. and espeoi3y-i~rthe d-rrgated. areas~g,
extensive progress has been made. Currently in Parsa and Chitwan Districts
(near to the Ratna Nagar site) approximately 1200 hectares are in Pilot
Production Programs in the Rice-Wheat-Fallow pattern using technology
developed by the Cropping Systems Program and also using the extension
methodologies developed by the Cropping Systems staff are ongoing. These
programs have had sufficient impact on the decision makers, so that a
Special Production Program of 17,000 hectares in five Terai Districts is
being initiated this coming winter season. The predominant cropping
pattern will be Rice-Wheat-Fallow but Rice-Maize-Fallow, Rice-Wheat-Dhaincha,
Rice-Wheat-Mung and Rice-Wheat-Rice, will be present in some areas. The
Cropping Systems Program has been requested to assist the Department of
Agriculture in implementing thij Production Program by training staff in
the methodologies that have been used in the Pilot Production Programs in
Chitwfn and Parsa.

UPLLTD CROP VARIETY TRIALS:
This past year several sets If mTungbeX-n, cow'ea, peanut, soybean and maize
variety trials were supplied to Nepal. The objective has been to cooperate
withthe-- respective--Commodity Progr-amns--i Kpal to a first test these trials
under the relevant conditions on experiment :+taticns. A few superior
varieties that are identified would then be tested in the cropping systems
sites. Unfortunately, at the time of sowing t;..al3 before rice this past
spring, this cooperation was not achieved. Therefore, the trials were not
planted under that situation. Some trials were planted at Khumaltar in
upland conditions and the results are not available at this time, It appears
that this problem can be solved. Some trials have recently been planted
after rice in appropriate conditions and it is hoped that in the future the
routine screening of the trials under appropriate conditions will go smoothly.

During the spring of 1982, one mungbean trial from IRRI was planted
before rice at the Ratna Nagar site. Four promising varieties were
identified and were tested this past spring at three cropping systems sites
in the Rice-Wheat-Mungbean pattern. Table 11 presents ,he results of these,


~"";"'~'''"" '`~"''`~"' ~~""-"'" '--'~";'' "-~~'~
------------















S: trials It appears that the oiset) o M and CES-55 offer mo smj pBm-
moQb as compared to the local checks.

RICE WHEA ROATIION TRIAL:

Two' sets of wheat varieties for the Rice-Wheat rotation trial were
planted in Nepal this past winter season6 One set was planted at the
Bhairahwa Agricultural Farm, headquarters of the National Wheat Development
Program. It is located in the Te'rai at an elevation of 105 m.a.sl. The
trial was planted on December 9, 1982 with a fertilizer rate of 80-4Q-20
(NhK) kgha. It received three irrigations and total rainfall during the
crop period was 46 mm. Insect damage was negligible and disease incidence
was moderate.

Table 12 presents the results of this trial. The range in days to
maturity was modest. The variety Abasolo 81 looks overall quit~ promising,
It has acceptable plant height, is early in maturity, has a high 1000 grain
weiht, and high yield. All varieties were infected with the Helminthosporium
leaf blight pathogen in the range of 65-85 readings. The varieties most
infected with the brown leaf rust pathogen were Sonolika, Texcoco, and Siete
Cerros 66 (40 MS/S); Mexicali 75 and Zaragoza 75 (20 MS/S); Nacozari 76 and
Celaya 81 (10 S); and Ciano 79 (5S), The remaining varieties did not show
brown leaf rust symptoms.

The second trial was planted at Khunaltar Agricultural Farm which is
located in the mid-hills in the Kathmandu Valley at an elevation of 1360
m.a.s.1. The trial was planted on December 13, 1982 late compared to
surrounding farmers practice. Fertilizer rate was 80-4U-20 (NPK) kg/ha.
No irrigation was applied and the total rainfall during the crop period
was 264 mm. Insect and disease incidences were negligible.

Table 13 presents the results of this trial. Yields were low and
attributed to both late planting and no irrigation. All varieties were har-
vested at the same time so relative differences in maturity are not known,
Considerably longer time to maturity was required for these varieties at













SKh riatav --oompared to Bhairahwa as a result-of-the Mbheelev~tioB-an
co, observation.













I.ADCIDS: ds
o0c. 4, 1983
-"^-*'-?*'"









Description of Craping S2tems Sites in Nepal


Elevation Rain- Rainfall Distri- Major Soil Average
Si tes fall Montbi Month Major land Types MCI** IUI+ Farm Size
m.a.s.l. (mm) Wet Dry Orders Ha/Farm
Upland, Rainfed
Bhumdi 750-1270 4000 6 5 Inceptsol d Rainfed168 56 0.87
Lowland, Fainfed
Isrrig.) 150 1500 4 8 Loil d rlrrigated 185 65 0.85
Parsa (Rainfed 150 150 4 8 i Lowland, Rainfed 150 55 0o.5
SUpland, Rainfed
Upland, Rainfed in
Chairi Jabari 700 1100 3 8 Alf~l t Summer, Irrigated 179 61 0.91
in Winter,
Lowland, Irrigated
.. .. -... .. .. '...n 0.rid, Rainfed
L e 1 e 1300-1500 100 4 6 Incept~isrl io,.and, Rainfed 186 71 0.63
Lo.4land, Irrigated
,. : s c ^ Upland1 Rainfed
Khandbari 460-1109 1200 2 6 U sol Lowland, Rainfed 139 48 1.10
-'I0 Lowland, Irrigated
Upland, Rainfed
Patna Naga, 305 1000 4 8 Inceptiscl Lowland, Rainfed 179 60 -0.68
Lowland, Irrigated
Mont~- wet refers to those months receiving more than 2C mI rainfall. Months dry means those receiving
..Mon+ wet refers to those months receiving more than 200 m i rainfall. Montbs dry means those receiving


lest than 100 mm. rainfall.
** 1ME Multiple Cropping Index : The sum of the areas
yea# divided by the total cultivated area times 100.
+- ID1 = Land Utilization Index : The number of days di
a Jear, divided by 365 and times 100.


pl2nte to different crops harvested during the

rin the year which crops occupy the land during


Ta le 0e :






.-IP -~


Agonomic Performance of Cropping Patterns at Ratna Nag for Summer Crops 1982


Winter Crops 1982/1983 And


Spring Crops, 1983


-I .L ILZ I t- S


SImn- fQtr ns


Variety


E ert.
I-ate


Yield
T/ha


Variety


Water Grans


Fert.
Rate


Yield
T/ha


Variety


Fert.
Rate


Yield
T/ha.


Total Aruil
Yield !
(Ton/h)


M. SRKGATED LOWIANDS Pusa-
1. Rice-Wheat-~ungtbe Laxmi 60-0-0 _413 lnumbini 80-40-0 4.01 ,1isa~ii 20-20-0 3.54 8.68
S2. Rice-Wheat-Dhainch DurgL 63-0-0 3.02 UP 262 80-40-0 3.48 Local 0 G.M. 6.50
(.60-0-0 i 6fThS03C 2.L 1 G..07
.- RIice,'ustard-Maize ~Jan.iu 60 -0-0' -4.3 l -20 2 0. 53 R. C',- 60-30-0 3.62 8.53
o. FARMER PRACTICE IN

.1 Rice-Hheat-Fallow Masuli 10-0-0 2.92 RR 21 32-11-0 2.10 .02
u. RINFED LOWIANDS
1. Rice-Fallow-Maize Masuli 60-0-0 3.90 j I.C.* 60-30-0 4.16 8.06
2. Rice-Wheat-eFallow Masuli 60-0-0 3.76 UP 262 40-20-o 2.48 6.24
; Rice-Fallo-.Dhaind.Masuli 60-0-0 3.18 Local 0 G. .* 3. 8
FARMER PRACTICE IN
SRAINFED IDWIANDS
1. Rio -Fallow-Maize Mabuli 10-0-0 2.92 Imprved 3 2.40 5.32
RAINFED UPWANDS
1. Maize.Mastard-JFaTow Bampr C. 60-30-0 2.80 Local 20-20-0 0.56 3.36
2. Up.Rice+Maize- 60-30-0 1.60 Local 20-20-0 0.77 3.94
Mustard Rarpur C. __ 1.57 ___
3. Maize-Maize/ beat Rampur C. 60-30-0 2.30 Arun 60-30-0 2.41 UP 262 40-20-0 3.49 8.20
F. FARM PRACTIE IN
SRAINFED UPIAZNDS
1. Maize-Jbstard-Fa31ow Improved 0 2.34 Local 22-16-0 0.57 2.91
S- G.M. = Green Manure I
-* R.C. = Rampr Composite.


Patterns


-I -----iLIICllu _- -_--LI--LIII-I~~---


-* ", ,4 p v .


S ring Cro s


9ppping












Economic Performance- of Cropping Patterns at Ratna Nagar in Table 1.*


Total Gross Material Labor & Total Returns Marginal Returns Returns to
Annual Ret- Power Varia- After Vari- Benefit to Mate- Labor and
Cropping Patterns Yeld Costs Costs ble Co able Costs Cost rial Power
T/ha. R/ha Rsba. Rs/h, ts (R/h) Rs/. Ratio Costs Costs


IRRIGATED IOWLANDS
1. Rice-Whaat-Mungb.a
2- Rice-Wheat-Dhfnc


SR-i -~Wheat- SN~ize


.Rice-Muazd4Haize


GATED LOWLANDS






) FAM PRACTraCE IN
1i Rice-V'heat-Fallow
C. RAINED JOWIAJDS
1 Rice-Fallow-Maize
2. Rice-Wheat-Fallow
3 Rice-llowYmxneoa
FARMER PRACTICE IN
RAINFED IOWIANDS
1- Ri Re-Fallow-Maize


t 8.68
r6.50


10. 37


8.53


5.02


8.06
6.24


25,


055


I17 04
'2,.045


25,020


15.790


4 .-'-- t---


24 180
18,720


I--~--~-- ---t
Ir^ I hi


3.18


2,575


21 2
2. 70
2.770/


2,263


1,006


*1,c42
1, 509


12, 21-


10,397
13. 21"
8 2;620


8,6c
0"P O'1~.-


"0, 53
1 (,39
Injo -i


I


31;--8, -- -- I- '


5.32


15.960


428


. -L..


1 7?kr 10,265


0552 _- P 1 49918


15 920
15. o t



9,6 o


12, 500


911, "


9, 2 7


-r5

.120


11,(6 )
r-6" 14


6. 733


1,81


1,27


i,. i2


LZ99


3.12


5.85


1.8/,


1. 2


I- 4 J


".71


-. ,,


2,51


1.03


5.39 1.78
,, ,


7.08


7.01


5,52


0


1.71


2.11


1.66


-, -*.-1 -0 -3 -


1.27


1o13


1-27 1_13


16.73


1.77


, R AMNFED UPLANDS
1, Maize-Musbted-Fadov 3.36 11,760 1,238 9,343 10,581 l 1,179 -? 0.95 1.13
2, Up.Rice+Maize- -25) 0.95 113
Mustard 3094 1/130 1,55 12,700 14.155 (-25) 098 1.00
S3.3 MaizeMaizei/heat 8.20 15,177 2,722 12,200 12,922 2,255 1.06 1.09 1.02
* FARMERS PRACPCICE IN
RAINFED UPIANDS
.Mai aJstard-Fallow 2.91 10 651 7.786 8,437 i 2,003 -** .08 1,26


S-. 1%.8 Nepali Rupees = 1 US $
- Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio not calculated.
MBCR for corresponding patterns being tested
t Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio is negative.


Information in this pattern used
in same land type.


to calculate


9. 5'40


t6U


--'-"I'-~---~----c-I


"~-- ~-^ ---- --~ --~


4


I


~I ___ I


1'Z7 3.42 1:52.


. ... .


.


'


3, 045
Rice-Wheat-Maize 10 -. 7


"`--~C-L--T--





;-3- i- r~-+r~r~ C-*-s----- -- 1.71_





table -:


1,











le 3: Agronomic Performance of Crpi Patterns at Sukchaina f r Smmer Crop 1982 and Winter


,I(opping Pattern


1


fh Pp T.rF'PT T .rjj ,,Tn"


f Ri ce-Wheat-Fallow
* g.R uice-Lntiti aLLow
) Rict;-.4ust ard-Fallow
4, Rice- Chickpla-Fallow
5. Rice-Barley,-Fallow


FARMER PRACTICE IN
RAi FED W.UJe-LANtS
T, Rice-Wheat-Fallow


Bindeshwari


sUmmer crops


Variety


Fert.
Rate


60-0-0


1.94


winter Urops


I I -


TYhald


Variety


Fert.
Rate


Yield
T/ha.


RR 21


2.21


Total Annual
Yield
T/ha.


4.15


- .---.-- t-4 -~


60 0-0


2.44


T 36


0.44


-,--~~ ~ r Y-r-l-----C 9 1-_r --


60-0-0


2.06


Local


20-20-0


0.49


-, .. *-----t--*--- -. -. P


*- -


Biadleshwari


6U-0-0


b6-U-0


2.65


1.29


1.54


. 0.332


20-40-0


t -- I -4. 4"--


Imp-rved


30-30-0


19-14-0


1.62


1.17


..


1.32


. Rice-lentil-F'allow I 20-0-0 1.54 L ocar 0 U.30 1.84
:.. .. ,, .~~ ~~ ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ,,. ...... ,!- .. .


3, Rice-Mustarld-Fallow


d2U-0U-


1.54 I


Local


11-11-i.)


0.38


-& J. I -


- '. 4 ~---- -- 4 4 _____


2.,8


2.55


4.27'


246


2.86


1.92


- ---- 7-, -- -


- I i Ill I-





nHB-56










Economic Performance of Cropping Patterns at Sukchaina Described in Table 3,*


Total Gross Material Labor & Teqal Vari Returns Marginal Returns Returns
rArmaT Reta- C s Power able Aft-Vbr Benefit to Mat- to Labor
roppi)g Pattern Yield rrs Costs Costs able Ccsts Cost erial and Powei
S/ha. Rs./ha. Rs./ha. Rs./ha. Rs./ha. Rs./ha. Ratio Costs Costs
RAINFED IWLIANDS
LW PROJDUCION POTENTIAL
1.,Rice-Wheat-Fallow 4.15 9,256 1,456 6,177 7 76.3 1,623 1.38 2.11 1.26
21 Rice-Lentil-Fallow 2.88 7,396 1,345 5,OC 6, 347 1,049 1.47 1.78 1.21
3i Rice-Mustard-Fallow 2.55 8,276 1,140 5,995 77,135 1,141 1.21 2.00 1.19
Rice-Chickpea-Fallow 4.27 16,080 1,783 5,002 6,785 9, 295 5.05 6.21 2.86
B Rice-Barley-allow 2.46 6,606 1,161 6,177 7,338 (-732) 0.37 0.74
B. WARMER PRACTICE IN
R AINFED IOWLADS.
1. Rice-4heat-Fallow*** 2.86 7,128 944 5,148 6,092 1,036 2.10 1.20
1, Rice-Lentil-FalloW** 1.84 4,746 372 4,168 4,540 206 -1 .55 1.05
3. Rice-Mustard-Fallovw** 1.92 6,280 490 4,996 i5,486 794 2.62 1.16
4 14.8 Nepali Rupees = 1 US $ (Dollar)


f*


- Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio is negative.


S- In farmer practice patterns, Rie-Wheat-Fallow was uSed to calculate the marginal benefit cost ratios
for the Rice-Wheat-Fallow and Rice-Barley-Fallow improved patterns. Likewise, Rice-Lentil in the
farmer practice was wed for Rie-Lentil anr Rice-Chickpea f-r improved and Rice-Mustard was used
for improved Rice-M~stard.


Table. a :















T : Agronomic Performance of CroppigjLPattc s at Bahuari Tube-Well in Parsa District for Sunmer
Crops 1982, Winter Crops 1982/83 & Spring

Cr 1983


Pattern


A. iRcIGAeTED IdWLMaiS
S1. RRice Mustard-Maize


~, Rice-Maize-'gaize

3 Rice-.i.ize-IMogbean
'i


RJ e'e-Wheatr-4ungbean


5. Rice-Wheat,-i)h&cha


6. Rice-Wheat-Rice


Varie y


Suumer Crops


Fert.
Rate


4.-1


SJanaki


Laxmni
Bind. ""
Sabitr4


Janaki


Eo- '0-0
(0.O-c-


6')-0- C
Eo-0-0


60-0-0


T/h?..


; ,'I-. "


Co50


w:.ntcer *O- s :'ry!"


V,.L'j ety



Local




*' 2b62


S spring Urops


a l~rilty
,p. "
I-4I

2-.0 0 00.82 Coiporite
.T-..45-.-C 6,41 A!.''n
.. i -- P -~^-, --

i^^ 15 lL
i' so l3r Lclf


Bind.**


Fert.



80-40-0


Yield
T/ha.


3.07


- .- 4-4


60-30-0-
20-20-0


20-20-0


2.31
0.95


S.-.-


0.83


Anrmal
Yield



8.08


13 227
9.00


7.88


IL Ir 7.4


60- 0-0


B. WIC=L PRACTICE IN

Rice-Wheat-Rice Masuli 28-0-C 1.88 UP 262 5-20-0 3.04 Local 2- 0-0 3.04 7.96

R. = Rampur Yellow
Bind.= Bindesh'ari

a GM. = Green Manure.


Cropping


?i~n5inli


2.95 I-l'abini


3.79


-- ---- -------- --


I


--


- I .--*~~1


-- --- --


--


L


- -i -~ZLll~


I


0 G.M. 7.34





60 .-0 .









e 6 Economic Performance of Croppg Patterns at Bahwari Tube-Well in Parsa Described in Table 5,*

Total Gross material Labor & Total Var- Returns Marginal Returns Returns tc
-opping Pattern IAnnual Retu- Costs Power able AfterVa- Benefit to Mate- labor and
Yield rms Costs Costs riable Cost rial Power
T/ha. RsAa. s./ha Rs/ha/ha. Costs Ratio Costs Costs
IRRIGzTUED LWdLANDS
1. Rice4Mustard-Maize 8,C8 25,00! 2,052 9,48 :1, 13..4 223 5 22
P, Rice-Maize.-aize 13.27 38.; `, 2,6-i0 6 '-" ,. 1' 3'45. 10.31 3.07
,, Rice-4aize4iungbean 9.00 27,616 2, 26i1 7.949 2.6
4. Rice.-Weat--Nungbean 7.88 22,090 2,372 7,570 $.9k v? :~') 6.12 2.60
5, Rice-WheatDhaincha 7.37 18, 681 1,925 5.938 7, 863 1, 1;18 -*3 6.62 2,82
6, Rice-Wheat-Rice 9.68 25,233 2,511 9,023 11, 34 13,699 1.92 6.46 2,52
*. FARMER PRACTICE IN
IRGiTJTED LWL5OEDS
1. Rice-Wheat-Rice 7.96 0,674 1,635 7,519 9,154 1,520 -*** 8.05 2.53
14,8 Nepali Rupees = 1 Ub Dollar
** marginall Benefit Cost Ratio is negative
** Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio not calculated. This pattern in farmer practice was used to calculate
Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio of improved patterns.











Fble 7: Agronomic Performance ofCriLpnR Patterns at Pumdi Bhumdi for Summer Cro_198 Winter Crops
1982/1983 and Sin Crops 1983


S5vmmer Crops Winter Crops Spring Crops Total
dropping Pattern .-Anal
Dropping Pattern Fert. Yield Fert. field Fert. Yield Annual
Variety Rate T/ha. aiety Rate T/ha Variety Rate T/ha d

R. RINFED UPIANDS Kumal
1, Maize/F.mille+t- tand Local 0 2.15 Local 20-20-0 0.30 Yellow 20-0-0 4.04 6.49
B. -'iPR T'RCTICE IN
FufllED UPLJIDS local &
1. Maize/F.millet-Wheat8 lIocal 0 2.15 RA 21 0 1.75 Local 0 2.46 6.36
C. RlINFED L'II4JIDS, HIGH-
PRODUCTION POTENTIAL.
1, Rice-Wheat-.iaize T-176 60-0-0 5.01 IB 21 60-30-0 1.93 Irun 45-0-0 2.42 9.36
D. FORMER PRACTICE IN
RAINFED JZJLaNDS HIGH
PRODUCTION POTENTIAL.
1. Rice-Wheat-Maize Loc.l. 0 2.40 RR 21 0 2.18 Local 0 2.66 7.24
E. RAINFED ILML.DS, MEDIUM
PRODUCTION POITEIIAIL
1. Rice-Fallow-Maize K-39 60-0-0 3.94 I Arun 60-30-0 2.94 6.88
2. Rice-Broadbeanrlaize K-39 60-0-0 2.44 Local 0 G.M.+ run 60-30-0 3.19 5.63
F. FARMER PRACTICE IN
RAINFED LJIANDS. MEDIUM
TO LOW PRODUCTION
POTENTIAL
1. Rice-Fallow4Maize Local 0 2.40 lrun 12- 0-0 2.56 4.96
S- Finger Millet is Summer Crop, Mustard is Winter Crop and Maize is Spring Crop,


* Finger Millet is Summer Crop,
+ G.M. = Green Manure.


Wheat is Winter Crop and Maize is Spring Crop,












Economic Performance of GCro-iYrg Patte-n? s for Pumdi Bhumdi Described in Table 7.*


Croppi :4 Pattern


SRA- -
im : i'T ct- .L' t ]"


1 izo/f' .i.i -Une,
D .] L -TT,''lDS HICG

I s--we.oat--.ize

PE TI C ITi



IE *TNFED LOVWINS MEDND ,
IDW PRCIDU CTIONf

SR,. e-F jllow-4aize


S Rice-Broadb an-Mai
, P RiceRll IN
FFED ALWI-MDS


Rice-allowdiaizO


.ze


Tot; l.

YLjl
T/b -


HRea-S

R:/h;


~~tftc ':iLU.,


Lal1jor -c
cme;C-'
JO3t43,


/ ~ 1791
~


. 36.' ', 0__1 8)


9. 6


2V, 1OC


7.24 21, 62 26 6782.-
6, 7832


6,88 224 132


563 122.1/7


1.340


1, 56


7,42.
8, 000


-------- ---- --- --- ---J


10i 352
10 352
7 (


8.
9, 58I


Ti ot-: I
Thri.-
able
,I.b. )
u '6pi '."


Returns

riaLe Co-
sts(Rs/h)


Marginal
Benefit
U ost
Patio


Returns to
to a [,e-
rial
Coc s


Returns to
Labor and
Power
Costs


11,.... 1 __6X 3 ,7
1j, 6 2J.r83 15.77 3,74


10, o54. L .- 12.86 3.96


17,838


13. 7- '


1,5 3~
CI 2; --


2. 46


.- *}


2./4
1 10


- ~i '-- -1t~ ~~1


4.96


18.91L


449


6,232


12,261


c.06 (


16.09


12.40
8.92


3 19


3.06


3.06
2.57


28.31 2.98


S- 14.8 Nepali Rupeeo = 1 US Dollar
- Labor and power costs for Fingr Millet not incl ed
, Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio nct calculated. Information in this patter: used to calculate the
S Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio for improved pattern in corresponding land -ype.


\L S


6.651


---~------------


- ------- -


1


,


I -t--~' -7"------5"`~ r


C---~;--)-cr-


.
I I t


, ... T-3 .


-1 -- -- --- -- -- --


&** ...-







I

3T, _:; Agronomic Performance of the Cropping Patterns at Khandbari for Summer Cr oS 182. Winter
Crops 1982/1943 And Spring Crops 1983

Summer Crops Winter Crops Spring Crops Total
:)pping Pattern Fert. Yiel Fert. Yield F ert. Yied
Variety Rate T/ Variety Rate T/ha Variety Fte Yield
R_.ateED JPI_ Rate T Rate T/-a.. -

t .z-ze-Maize-Fallow Compoaste 60-30-0 2.61 Arun 60-30-0 2.9 5.56
..A'tER PRACTICE IN
.LJFED) UPLANDS
MaizeMaize-Fallow local 0 T.7 local 0 1.86 383

R ITGATED LOILAItOS
;. Rice-Wheat-~ize T-176 40- -0 3.5 RR 21 60-30-0 3.15 Arun 60-30-0 2.87 9.57
SRice-Wheat- MTngbeai Ch-242 40- 0-0 3. T5 UP 22 60-.' 0 ... B. 3* 2020-0 0,86 6.67

- --- ----
R' Eice-Fallowul'Uize K-39 40- 0-0 1, 5 .',2 60-30-0 2.87 4.82
T, Rice-Fallow-bingbean K-39 40D- 0~.0 2 55 .- P.B.* 20-20-0 0.86 3.41
j. Rice-Wheat-Fallow K-39 40- 0-0 3. 60,5O' 3-0 2-33 5.56

. FAMiJIR PRACTICE IN
KI'NFtED laI-Lg.'
1. Rice-FallowFallow Local 0 2' a-a

P.B. z Pasa Baisakhi.


s0
'- .











bl 10: Economic Performance of Croping Patterns for Khandbari Described in Table 9.*


ERINFED UPLAITDS
1. Maize-Maize-Fallow


SFARME PRACTICE IN
RAINF -) UPLANDS
1, Maize-hMaize-Fallow
__ ----


IRRIGATED IlOWIOlDS
1. Rice-Wheat-Maize
2. Rice-Wheat-Lungbe an


Material
Costs
Rs/a.


labor
Power
Costs
RI/ha


& total Va-
riable
Costs
Rs/ha


Returns
After Va-
riable Cos-
ts (Rs/i)


Marginal
Benefit
Cost
Ratio


t f-+-- .L I


15, 290


______________ -- I- -


RAINFETD CIk AIDS
10 Eies 'alcl.4aizo


2. Rice-Fallow-Mungbean

3. Rice-Whet-3ta1llow


FARMER PRACTICE IN
RAINFED LCMLio Al
1, Rice-Fallow-Pallow


15,174
11,503
17, 504


1, 352


464


2,28g4
-T;,W,-~--


1,280
875

1,504



158


4, 231


3,526


5,173



3, 821


3,456


1,421


* 14.8 Nepali Rupees = 1 US Dollar


5, 5-3


3, 990


7. 547



5, 10!
5.059
1. 579



-a-
1-5 'i


9,707


6, 542


283.90
I .


;10, 73
,6,444

S2,944



5, 269


2.90


**H


-"* 77
--.*---


2. 36
1.34
3,57


. .'I -...


Returns
to Mate-
rial
Costs


8.18


'Returrn to
labor arid
Power
Costs


3.29


15.10 2.85


13.39
9.05


8.87
8.36
9.60



34.34


6.47
3.82


3.63
2.54
5.24



4.70


* Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio not calculated. Information in t s pattern used to calculate the
Marginal Benefit Cost Ratios for improved pat'crns in dorrec iding land type.
** Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio not calculated s6Yin. iata for a -ropping pattern under farmer practice
not available for this land type.


Lpping


Pattern


xotal
Anrual
Yield
T/ha


rms
OS/ha.


5.56


3.83


10, 532


- I 9 -


9.57
6.671


35,747
2Z3~ -~i


_ 4.82


3.41
5.56


a --I- -----


2.49


6,848


; 1 -7 r i-,, I I


---


- ----------------


- -- -------------------













( 21)
-Tal a J Q Performance of Selected .Mngean Varieties Obtained ~
the _UpLnd Varietal TestingPrgrm in Several Croppin
Systems Sites in Nepal in the Rice-Jheat-Mungbean Patterg
During_Spring Season 1 9 8 3.


Average Yield (T/ha.)*
variety Bahuw ri Tube-
Variety Khandbari** Ratna Nagar*** Bahuwari Tube
well, Parsa***
CES-N-6.4 0.62 0,46 1,13
M 350 0.30 0,74 1.13
ES-.55 0.82 0.53 1.17
S6M6-1773 0.58 0.50 1.13
PS-7 # 0.64 0.77 0.97
Pusa Baisakhi# 0.73 0.57 0,87

S Two pickings were carried out for each-- raiety-iin each site
Only one location
Average of three locations
/ Local Checks.














(22)
Table 12: Performance of Wheat Varieties in the Rice-Wheat Pattern
Trial Planted at Bhairahwa Agricultural Farm, Rupandeh
District Nepal



SPlant Ht.* Days to Days to 1000 Grain Yied
Variety (cm.) Heading Maturity Wtt (gm) Yid (Tena)

Sono;Lika 90 73 115 42 2. 0
Celaya 81" 80 71 109 40 3.98
Abasdol 81 89 71 110 50 1440
!Mexicali 75 81 76 117 64 1,2i
Texcoco 91 72 109 37 '8
Nacozari 76 84 80 112 33 5.22
Ciano 79 81 80 115 31 3,11
Vee-#5-(87 B)--- ---84844 7 114 32 3.1-
'enaro 81 87 86 116 29 2.98
avon ,76 91 83 115 32 2.98
Clennson 81 84 86 115 33 2.75
Tjres 81 84 87 115 30 3.06
\Siete Cerros 66 E7 82 115 31 2.85
Zaragoza 75 68 91 118 38 2.17
Lumbini 85 72 110 38 2.88
( Local Check)


* Ht, = Height
- Wt. = Weight














(23)


Table 13: Performance of Wheat Varieties in the Rice-Wheat Pattern
Trial Planted at Khumaltar A iecul ral Farm, Ialitpur
District, Nepal



Variety Plant Ht.* Days to Days to* 1000 Grain Yield (T/ha.)
V ty (cm.) Heading Harvest Weight (gm)

Sonnlika 67 124 181 43 0.91
Celaya 81 57 124 181 37 1.71
Abasolo 81 56 124 181 45 1.37
Mexicali 75 63 129 181 39 1.42
Texcoco 71 119 181 37 2.01
Nacozari 76 55 125 181 33 1.64
Giano 79-- -- 60 -- -127 181- 31 2.04
Vee #5 (87 B) 55 130 181 32 1.41
Genwro 81 45 130 181 30 1.48
Pavon 76 61 131 181 28 1.62
Glennson 81 69 133 181 31 1.53
Ures 81 49 130 181 31 1.63
Siete Cerros 66 52 125 181 26 2.03
Zaragoza 75 40 128 181 31 1.57
Lerma Rojo 76 126 181 31 1.76
(Local Check)


* Ht. = Height
**!- All varieties were harvested on the same date,