The small-scale, family farm and its community as a dynamic livelihood systems

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Material Information

Title:
The small-scale, family farm and its community as a dynamic livelihood systems a slide-tape training module
Portion of title:
Slide tape training module
Physical Description:
1 v. (unpaged) : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Hildebrand, Peter E
Johnson, Todd R
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Florida
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Agricultural systems   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
Peter E. Hildebrand, Todd R. Johnson.
General Note:
Typescript.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 668393769
ocn668393769
Classification:
lcc - S494.5 .S63 1994
System ID:
AA00008167:00001

Full Text


















THE SMALL-SCALE, FAMILY FARM
AND ITS COMMUNITY
AS A DYNAMIC LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM













A Slide-Tape Training Module





















Peter E. Hildebrand
Todd R. Johnson
University of Florida
January, 1994










THE SMALL-SCALE, FAMILY FARM
AND ITS COMMUNITY
AS A DYNAMIC LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM



THIS PRESENTATION DISCUSSES THE SMALL-SCALE, LIMITED RESOURCE
FAMILY FARM AS PART OF A DYNAMIC LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM, AND THE FARM'S
RELATION TO OTHER SYSTEMS IN THE COMMUNITY.

#2,
RELATIONSHIPS DISCUSSED ARE THOSE AMONG HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS, AND THE
INTERACTION BETWEEN THE HOUSEHOLD, THE CROPS, THE ANIMALS, THE
FOREST OR BUSH. OTHER STAKEHOLDERS IN THE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM, AND
INFRASTRUCTURE, IN GENERAL, ARE REPRESENTED HERE SIMPLY AS
MARKETET.

#3.
WE WILL ALSO LOOK AT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MEMBERS WITHIN A
HOUSEHOLD, AND AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN A COMMUNITY.


TO BEGIN THE DISCUSSION OF SMALL-SCALE, FAMILY FARMS, WE WILL FIRST
EXAMINE THREE KINDS OF FARM SYSTEMS IN ASIA. WE WILL START WITH A
SWIDDEN, OR SHIFTING CULTIVATION, EXTENSIVE LAND USE SYSTEM...

#5g.
TO MORE INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE IN THE HUMID UPLANDS...


AND THEN TO A HIGHLY INTENSIVE LOWLAND, RICE-BASED LIVELIHOOD
SYSTEM.


THESE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS REFLECT THE MODIFICATIONS WHICH OCCUR AS
POPULATION PRESSURES INCREASE, ON THE ONE HAND...

#8.
AND AS INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVES, ON THE OTHER. THESE CHANGES
REFLECT INCREASES IN THE NEE FOR OFF-FARM INPUTS AND MARKET
ACCESS, AND THEIR AVAILABILITY. THESE CHANGES ALSO INCREASE THE
NUMBER OF STAKEHOLDERS IN THE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM. ONE KIND OF
STAKEHOLDER INCLUDES THE MIDDLEMEN WHO TRANSPORT PRODUCE TO MARKET.


SWIDDEN IS ANOTHER NAME FOR "SLASH AND BURN" OR "SHIFTING"
AGRICULTURE. THIS KIND OF SYSTEM DEPENDS ON THE AVAILABILITY OF
FOREST OR BUSH IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITIES SO SOME CAN LIE FALLOW AND
REGENERATE SOIL PRODUCTIVITY BETWEEN CROPPING PERIODS.


FOR THIS REASON, SWIDDEN AGRICULTURE TYPICALLY IS FOUND IN ISOLATED
AREAS WITH LOW POPULATION PRESSURES AND VERY LIMITED EXTRA-
COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURAL OR MARKET CONTACT.










#11.
COMMON LAND OWNERSHIP, A LOCAL BARTER ECONOMY AND A STRONG SENSE OF
SHARED RESPONSIBILITY MAKE ALL COMMUNITY MEMBERS STAKEHOLDERS IN
EACH FARM HOUSEHOLD. FAMILY AND KIN TIES ARE POWERFUL SOCIAL
FORCES. OTHER THAN THESE COMMUNITY MEMBERS AND THE FOREST ANIMALS
AND PLANTS, THERE ARE FEW OTHER STAKEHOLDERS.

#t12.
BECAUSE OF THE INESCAPABLE NEED FOR CASH, SOME FARM PRODUCE IS SOLD
OUTSIDE THE COMMUNITY. OFTEN, DOMESTIC ANIMALS THAT CAN WALK TO
MARKET MAY BE SOLD OR BARTERED FOR GOODS NOT AVAILABLE WITHIN THE
COMMUNITY. ONE FREQUENT EXAMPLE IS SALT. SOMETIMES, BREEDING
STOCK THAT CAN WALK BACK TO THE FARM MAY BE PURCHASED. MARKET
STAKEHOLDERS DESIRE SURPLUS FOOD FOR SALE TO NON-FARMING CUSTOMERS,
WHILE SHIFTING CULTIVATORS OBTAIN ESSENTIALS NOT GROWN, GATHERED,
HUNTED OR MADE WITHIN THEIR COMMUNITY.


IN THIS ASIAN SWIDDEN SYSTEM, THE HOUSEHOLD MAY OCCASIONALLY SELL
LABOR, TYPICALLY BY MEN, TO THE MARKET FOR CASH TO PURCHASE A FEW
ITEMS FROM THE MARKET. MEN ALSO MAKE AND REPAIR METAL BLADES FOR
KNIVES, AXES, SPEARS AND OTHER IMPLEMENTS. SOME OF THESE MAY BE
SOLD. MOST FARM LABOR IS UTILIZED IN CROP, RATHER THAN LIVESTOCK
ACTIVITIES.

#14.
ALL HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS, EXCEPT INFANTS, TAKE PART IN PLANTING,
TENDING AND HARVESTING CROPS. WOMEN AND GIRLS DO MOST OF THE POST-
HARVEST PROCESSING AND PREPARATION. WOMEN ALSO PLANT, WEED, PICK,
GIN, SPIN, DYE AND WEAVE COTTON FOR BLANKETS AND GARMENTS. MEN
CLEAR THE LAND AND BURN THE FOREST RESIDUE TO MAKE NUTRIENTS
AVAILABLE FOR CROPS. MEN ALSO BUILD AND REPAIR STRUCTURES,
TYPICALLY DURING THE DRY SEASON. SONS GET THEIR FIRST SWIDDEN PLOT
AT EIGHT YEARS OF AGE. YOUNGER CHILDREN OFTEN "PLAY" SWIDDEN.

#c15.
SELECTING A SUITABLE SWIDDEN SITE INVOLVES RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL AND
NATURAL FACTORS. AS MANY AS 40 FOOD CROPS MAY BE GROWN AT ONE TIME
ON SMALL PLOTS. RICE IS THE FIRST AND MOST IMPORTANT CROP,
FOLLOWED BY A STEADILY CHANGING INTERCROP OF GRAINS, VEGETABLES AND
ROOT CROPS. THIS MANAGED SUCCESSION ENDS WITH BANANAS AND FRUIT
TREES PLANTED BEFORE THE PLOT REVERTS TO SECONDARY FOREST FOR A
FIVE- TO TEN-YEAR FALLOW. NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION TAKES PLACE DURING
FALLOW. WILD ANIMAL STAKEHOLDERS ALSO BENEFIT FROM THIS ENHANCED
FALLOW.

#16.
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CROPS AND LIVESTOCK IS MINIMAL IN THE SWIDDEN
SYSTEM. SMALL QUANTITIES OF CROP RESIDUES ARE FED TO CHICKENS,
PIGS, OR GOATS AND ONLY INCIDENTAL MANURE IS AVAILABLE TO THE
CROPS.









#17 .
THE FLOW OF PRODUCTS FROM THE FIELDS TO THE HOUSEHOLD IS MORE
IMPORTANT THAN FROM ANIMALS TO THE HOUSEHOLD. ANIMALS AND CROPS
PROVIDE RITUAL BENEFITS IN ADDITION TO FOOD. THE CROPS ALSO
PROVIDE SOME HOUSEHOLD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS.

#c18.
THE AMOUNT OF PRODUCT THAT COMES FROM LONG-TERM FALLOWS OR BUSH AND
FOREST IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIPS ON A SWIDDEN
FARM. MOST HOUSEHOLD PROTEIN NEEDS ARE MET THROUGH HUNTED GAME
SUCH AS WILD BOAR, FOREST BIRDS AND MONITOR LI ZARDS VITAL
PRODUCTS FROM THE FOREST OR THE LONG-TERM FALLOW ARE WILD ROOT
CROPS AND VEGETABLES, SOIL FERTILITY FOR THE CROPS, LIVESTOCK FEED,
FUEL, CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND GAME. MONKEYS AND OTHER WILD
ANIMAL STAKEHOLDERS ARE ALSO AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE MODEL AND
OBTAIN PART OF THEIR LIVELIHOOD FROM THE CROPS PLANTED BY THE
FARMERS .

#19 .
THE HUMID UPLANDS REPRESENT A SOMEWHAT MORE HIGHLY DEVELOPED AREA
WITH GREATER POPULATION PRESSURES THAN IS FOUND IN SWIDDEN AREAS.

#20.
MOST OF THE RELATIONSHIPS AND INTERACTIONS IN HUMID UPLAND FARM
SYSTEMS ARE STRONGER AND THE FARM AS A UNIT REQUIRES MORE PRODUCTS
AND A HIGHER LEVEL OF SUPPORT FROM INFRASTRUCTURE. ALSO, LOCAL
MARKETS AND OTHER OFF-FARM STAKEHOLDERS RELY MORE ON PRODUCTS FROM
THESE FARMERS THAN FROM SWIDDEN AGRICULTURALISTS. WILD ANIMAL
STAKEHOLDERS ARE MORE LIMITED IN THESE SYSTEMS.

#21.
BECAUSE OF THE NEED FOR CASH, SALES OF BOTH PLANTS AND DOMESTIC
ANIMALS ARE IMPORTANT. CROP INPUTS ARE ALSO PURCHASED FROM THE
MARKET, ALTHOUGH THIS IS NOT A HIGHLY DEVELOPED ACTIVITY IN MANY
RAINFED UPLAND AREAS. CASH FOR IMPROVED SEEDS, PESTICIDES AND
FERTILIZERS IS USUALLY VERY LIMITED IN THESE SYSTEMS.

#22~.
IN THIS ASIAN SYSTEM, LABOR USE BY AND FOR THE ANIMALS IS MORE
IMPORTANT THAN IN THE SWIDDEN SYSTEM. WATER BUFFALO ARE TENDED BY
THE ELDEST SONS. GOATS, PIGS AND CHICKENS MAY BE PENNED, THUS
REQUIRING CUT-AND-CARRY FEEDING BY THE YOUNGER CHILDREN. CROPS
AGAIN ARE TENDED AND HARVESTED BY ALL HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS EXCEPT
INFANTS. MEN THRESH AND DRY THE RICE CROP WHILE WOMEN DO MOST PRE-
COOKING PROCESSING. SOME AREAS HAVE RICE MILLS FOR HULLING. MEN
AND OLDER SONS COLLECT FOREST FUEL. WOMEN, DAUGHTERS AND THE
ELDERLY GATHER SMALLWOOD FROM AROUND THE HOUSEHOLD FARM. COMMUNITY
WORK GROUPS ARE USUALLY HIRED FOR CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR OF
HOUSEHOLD AND FARM STRUCTURES.

#23.
SOLE CROPPING IS MORE COMMON THAN INTERCROPPING, SO HUMID UPLAND
SYSTEMS IN ASIA HAVE MUCH STRONGER INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CROPS AND
ANIMALS. WATER BUFFALO ARE USED FOR DRAUGHT POWER. MANURE AND










URINE-SOAKED BEDDING STRAW FROM PENNED ANIMALS IS COLLECTED AND
APPLIED TO CROPS AS MULCH OR AS SUPPLEMENTAL FERTILIZER. CROP
RESIDUES FORM AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF LIVESTOCK FEED, WHETHER OR
NOT IT IS CARRIED TO THE ANIMALS.

#24.
FOREST OR LONG-TERM FALLOW IS MUCH LESS IMPORTANT THAN IN THE
SWIDDEN SYSTEM BECAUSE OF ITS INCREASING SCARCITY IN THESE UPLAND
SYSTEMS. HOUSEHOLD FUEL AND BUILDING MATERIALS ARE THEIR MAIN
PRODUCTS. ON-FARM FALLOW AND FIELD BORDERS ARE RELATIVELY
IMPORTANT BY COMPARISON, PROVIDING FUELWOOD AND LIVESTOCK FODDER.

#25.
LOWLAND RICE AREAS HAVE VERY HIGHLY DEVELOPED SYSTEMS WITH HIGH
POPULATION PRESSURES AND GREAT DEPENDENCE UPON MARKETS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE.

#26.
OFF-FARM STAKEHOLDERS INCLUDE MANY PERSONS IN LOCAL URBAN CENTERS
AND FREQUENTLY EXPORT AND IMPORT MARKETS.

#c27.
IN PARTICULAR, A HIGH DEPENDENCE OF THE CROPS ON THE MARKET IS
DEVELOPED IN THESE SYSTEMS. SEEDS, FERTILIZERS, AND PESTICIDES
MUST BE PURCHASED FROM THE MARKET AS THEY ARE NO LONGER AVAILABLE
IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY FROM THE FARM SYSTEM ITSELF. NOR ARE FUEL
AND BUILDING MATERIALS AS AVAILABLE FROM THE FOREST OR BUSH FALLOW.
THIS, IN TURN, CREATES A DEPENDENCE BY THE HOUSEHOLD ON SELLING
PRODUCTS FROM THE FARM TO THE MARKET FOR THE NEEDED CASH. LOWLAND
RICE SYSTEMS TEND TO BE IRRIGATED, AN ADDITIONAL INFRASTRUCTURAL
DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP.

#28.
BECAUSE OF POPULATION PRESSURES AND MORE DIVERSE MARKETS, CROPS
WITH HIGHER MARKET VALUE TEND TO BE RAISED. THESE CROPS GENERALLY
REQUIRE HIGHER LABOR INPUTS, OR ELSE SUBSTITUTION OF MACHINERY FOR
LABOR. EITHER CASE NECESSITATES MORE CASH FOR PURCHASES FROM OFF-
FARM, OFTEN FOR LABOR DURING PEAK LABOR PERIODS.

#29.
IN THESE SYSTEMS, THERE IS A HIGH LEVEL OF INTEGRATION OF CROPS AND
ANIMALS. MOST POULTRY AND LIVESTOCK ARE CONFINED. LITTLE OR NO
FOREST OR LONG-TERM FALLOW IS AVAILABLE. THE IMPORTANCE OF FIELD
BORDERS IS DIMINISHED BECAUSE OF INTENSE LAND-USE PRESSURE. THIS
IN TURN PARTIALLY EXPLAINS THE DEPENDENCE OF THE CROPS ON THE
MARKET FOR PURCHASED SOURCES OF FERTILITY TO AUGMENT FERTILITY FROM
THE LIVESTOCK.









#30.
A NUMBER OF IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS AND RELATIONSHIPS WERE SHOWN
IN THIS SEQUENCE OF THREE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE
NATURE OF THE FARM SYSTEM, WHILE COMPLEX IN ALL CASES, IS
CONDITIONED VERY HEAVILY BY THE INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT AVAILABLE
TO THAT FARM AND UPON WHICH IT COMES TO DEPEND. AS POPULATION
PRESSURE INCREASES, INFRASTRUCTURE EXPANDS IN RESPONSE TO THE
DECREASING CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL FARM SYSTEMS TO MAINTAIN INTERNAL
SELF SUFFICIENCY. THIS DECREASING SELF SUFFICIENCY IS PARTLY IN
RESPONSE TO DECREASING AVAILABILITY OF FOREST AND BUSH. AS MARKETS
INCREASE, THERE IS AN INCREASE IN CASH CROPPING WHICH RESULTS BOTH
IN A FURTHER DECREASE IN SELF SUFFICIENCY AND MORE EXPANSION OF
INFRASTRUCTURE. THE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM OF INDIVIDUAL FARMS EXPANDS
INTO A DEPENDENCY RELATIONSHIP WELL BEYOND THE CONFINES OF THE FARM
AND ITS SURROUNDING FOREST AND BUSH.

#c31.
IF A FARM HAS ACCESS TO MARKET ONLY BY RAFT OR CANOE, VERY LITTLE
DEPENDENCE OF THE FARM ON THE MARKET WILL BE SEEN. THE LOWER
POPULATION PRESSURES IN ISOLATED AREAS USUALLY ALLOW THE FARMERS TO
OBTAIN MANY OF THEIR NEEDS FROM THE FOREST OR FROM LONG-TERM
FALLOW. FERTILITY CAN ALSO BE OBTAINED FROM THIS SAME SOURCE AND
DOES NOT NEED TO COME FROM THE MARKET. THE RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO
FARMS IN SUCH AREAS ARE LARGELY FIXED IN QUANTITY AND ARE FROM THE
FOREST, THE BUSH, LONG-TERM FALLOW, OR THE FARM ITSELF. FEW
VARIABLE RESOURCES SUCH AS FERTILIZERS OR CASH FOR OTHER INPUTS ARE
AVAILABLE .

#32.
IN HIGH POPULATION PRESSURE AREAS, ON THE OTHER HAND, PRESSURES ON
THE LAND, THE NECESSITY TO PURCHASE FUEL FROM THE MARKET, AND THE
CLOSE PROXIMITY TO INFRASTRUCTURE RESULT IN A FARM SYSTEM WHICH HAS
MUCH MORE DEPENDENCY UPON THE MARKET AND INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT.

#33.
NEXT, LET'S LOOK AT A FARM SYSTEM TYPICAL OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN
HIGHLANDS. IT HAS MANY OF THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS AS THE HUMID
UPLANDS SYSTEMS IN ASIA.

#c34.
IN THIS GENERAL CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHLANDS SYSTEM THERE IS MORE
DEPENDENCY ON CROPS FOR INCOME AND LESS ON ANIMALS THAN IN THE
HUMID UPLANDS OF ASIA. THERE IS ALSO SOME DIFFERENCE IN THE CROPS
RAISED AND IN THE PARTICULAR LIVESTOCK THAT ARE PRESENT. THESE
DIFFERENCES CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO CULTURE, THE GENERAL REGION OF THE
WORLD AND TO SOILS AND CLIMATE. IN THIS GENERALIZED MODEL OF FARMS
IN THE CENTRAL AMERICAN HIGHLANDS, THE MAIN CROPS ARE MAIZE AND
BEANS, THE STAPLE FOODS, PLUS POTATOES, WHEAT AND SQUASH. SWINE,
SHEEP, CATTLE AND HORSES ARE OFTEN FOUND. THOUGH DECREASING IN
AVAILABILITY, FUEL MAY STILL COME FROM OFF-FARM FORESTS.









#35.
NOW LET'S LOOK AT A REAL FARM IN THE HIGHLANDS OF GUATEMALA. IT
PRESENTS A VERY INTERESTING AND DETAILED LIVELIHOOD SYSTEM, BUT
UNFORTUNATELY, DATA ARE NOT AVAILABLE ON GENDER-RELATED
RESPONSIBILITIES AND BENEFITS. THIS DAIRY-ORIENTED FARM HAS
STRONGER TENDENCIES TO SELL LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS AND PURCHASE
LIVESTOCK INPUTS FROM THE MARKET THAN THE GENERALIZED MODEL. THIS
FARM ALSO HAS ITS OWN FOREST AND GRASSLAND AREAS RATHER THAN ACCESS
TO OFF-FARM FOREST OR LONG-TERM FALLOW AREAS. A COMPLETE LIST OF
CROPS ON THIS FARM INCLUDES THOSE SEEN IN THE GENERALIZED MODEL
(MAI ZE BEANS WHEAT POTATOES AND SQUASH) BUT, IN ADDITION,
INCLUDES MEDICINAL HERBS, OTHER GARDEN VEGETABLES AND FRUITS.

#36.
MAIZE IS AN IMPORTANT STAPLE ON THIS FARM. OF THE MAIZE PRODUCED,
10 PERCENT IS SOLD DIRECTLY, 19 PERCENT IS USED AS FOOD IN THE
HOUSEHOLD, 70 PERCENT IS FED TO THE LIVESTOCK AND 1 PERCENT IS USED
FOR SEED. ON THE USUAL FARM IN THIS AREA, A MUCH HIGHER PROPORTION
OF THE MAIZE IS USED AS FOOD THAN IS FED TO LIVESTOCK. THE MAIZE
STOVER IS USED AS BEDDING AND FEED FOR THE LIVESTOCK, AND
APPROXIMATELY 50 PERCENT OF THE MAIZE STOVER IS RETURNED TO THE
CROP IN THE FORM OF COMPOST. THE MAIZE COBS ARE USED AS FUEL IN
THE HOUSEHOLD.

#37.
WHEAT IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY CASH CROPS. SIXTY PERCENT OF THE WHEAT
IS SOLD DIRECTLY TO THE MARKET, 20 PERCENT IS USED IN THE HOUSEHOLD
FOR FOOD, AND 20 PERCENT IS SAVED FOR SEED. THIS HOUSEHOLD
CONSUMES MORE OF ITS OWN WHEAT THAN IS USUAL IN THIS AREA. AS IS
THE CASE OF MAIZE, WHEAT STRAW IS USED FOR FEED AND BEDDING FOR THE
LIVESTOCK AND APPROXIMATELY HALF THE STRAW IS RETURNED TO THE CROP
AS COMPOST.

#38.
ANIMALS ON THIS FARM INCLUDE CATTLE, SWINE, CHICKENS, BEES AND
DOGS. MORE THAN HALF THE CHICKENS THAT ARE RAISED ARE SOLD
DIRECTLY TO THE MARKET AND 42 PERCENT OF THE CHICKENS ARE CONSUMED
IN THE HOUSEHOLD. FEATHERS, A BYPRODUCT OF THE CHICKENS, ARE
UTILIZED IN THE HOUSEHOLD FOR MAKING FEATHER FLOWERS WHICH ARE THEN
SOLD IN THE MARKET. THIS USE CONSUMES 20 PERCENT OF THE FEATHERS.
THE OTHER 80 PERCENT IS USED IN COMPOST AND IS RETURNED TO THE
CROPLAND ALONG WITH CHICKEN MANURE.

#39.
TWO PERCENT OF THE MILK PRODUCED BY THE CATTLE IS SOLD, 10 PERCENT
IS CONSUMED IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND 88 PERCENT IS USED AS RAW MATERIAL
FOR MAKING CHEESE. TWENTY PERCENT OF THE CHEESE IS CONSUMED IN THE
HOUSEHOLD AND 80 PERCENT IS SOLD AS A CASH CROP. NINETY-FIVE
PERCENT OF THE WHEY, PRODUCED WHILE MAKING CHEESE, IS FED BACK TO
THE ANIMALS, 3 PERCENT OF THE WHEY IS CONSUMED IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND
2 PERCENT IS SOLD AS A CASH CROP.










#c40.
BESIDES MANAGING THE CROP AND LIVESTOCK ENTERPRISES, THIS FAMILY
PRODUCES FURNITURE AND SWEATERS AND SOME OF ITS OWN CLOTHING. OF
THE MEDICINES REQUIRED BY THE FAMILY, 75 PERCENT IS PURCHASED AND
25 PERCENT COMES FROM THE FARM ITSELF. PRODUCTS TRANSFORMED IN THE
HOUSEHOLD AND SOLD ARE CHEESE, WHEY, FEATHER FLOWERS, FURNITURE,
SWEATERS AND SOME HOUSEHOLD LABOR.

#41.
WE HAVE DISCUSSED SOME GENERALIZED SYSTEMS AND ONE REAL FARM CASE.
NOW LET'S SUMMARIZE WHAT WE HAVE SEEN.

#42.
SMALL SCALE, LIMITED RESOURCE FAMILY FARMS ARE HIGHLY COMPLEX
LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS...

#43.
WITH A LARGE NUMBER OF DIFFERENT ENTERPRISES.

#44.
THEY HAVE A HIGH DEGREE OF INTERRELATIONSHIP AMONG THE INDIVIDUAL
ENTERPRISES.

#45.
THE DEPENDENCY OF THESE SYSTEMS ON INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPORT
INCREASES AS POPULATION PRESSURES FORCE HIGHER AND HIGHER MARKET
ART ICULATION .

#L46.
THESE SYSTEMS, AT ANY ONE POINT IN TIME, CAN SEEM TO BE UNCHANGING.
HOWEVER, THEY ARE NOT. TRIGGERED BY INCESSANTLY INCREASING
POPULATION PRESSURE, IMPROVED COMMUNICATION CAPABILITIES, AND OTHER
OUTSIDE INFLUENCE, THE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS IN A COMMUNITY ARE
CONSTANTLY RESPONDING AND CHANGING OVER TIME. ANALYSIS OF THESE
SMALL-SCALE, LIMITED-RESOURCE, FAMILY FARM LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS
REQUIRES AN UNDERSTANDING NOT ONLY OF THE SYSTEMS AS THEY EXIST,
BUT ALSO OF THE PRESSURES ON THESE SYSTEMS FROM THE GREATER GLOBAL
SOCIETY AT LARGE.


AGG5813/SMFMSYS