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CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE~ COMPLEX~
XAVIER UNJIVERSITY, CAGAYAN DE 090 CrITY PHILIPPINES
A M L T I -P RO NG E D
D.E VEL OP M E NT
~1953 -- 83
I N T E G R6TE D
Xever'University, Cegoven de Oro City, Philippines
In 1953 boy the Rev. Wi~lliam F. Malsterson, S.J.' who still rerfains
as the over'ell Director of this multi-pronged Development agency.
College of Agriculture College of Agricultural Engineering
Extension Service. Cooperat ive/P'romotion
Institute of market t Analysis Rural Communication Center
Rural Development Advisory Service Appropriate Technology Center
Southeast Asia Rural Social Leadership Institute ~(SEARSOLIN)
utTo help echieve the fullest human developmient- poss~ible through
increased national growth through improved production end more
equiteble return of t-heenhanced vaelue t~o the prime ry prodauder. "
Education, formal and non formal, to provide for Greater tech~-
nicol competence of the farmers and fishermen,
Forme-tion of a dedic ted sense of social responsibility amongi the
mees of the~people for themselves and their community.
Creation of viable, mess-based and mess-serving, rural. social
-! Area of Operation
For the first 11 years solely with the Philippines.
For the poet 20 years (end of 1983) with 22 other countries, vizr
B n gl ade sh Ghpne Fi j i
Indle Indonesia Khmer
Kore, Liberic L Oos
Hongkong/Macco Malaysia Pakiston
: Popus N~ew Guinee Rwande Somon
Spain Sri Lanka Taiwen
: Theiland .Tonge? Vietnam
50 Full Time Professionals ..
in Animal and Crop Sciences, in Adult and Extension Education,
in Development Communications, in Agricultural Economics, in
Rurel Sociology, in Environment and Natural Resources Meicnese-
ment, in Food Technology, in Appropriate Technology and
City of Ccgeyon de Oro, Is~land .0f Mindoneo (2nd largest island
in the Philippines), with a population of over 16 million.
T HE .C 0 L LE:G ES PR 0 PER
'(Agriculture end Agr~~!trclturl ngieeing *
+ 'The Chief reason for the estchlishment of these two, pr~mal, Be7chelor
degree Progr-nts was to provide the rural areas (where 72%Q of our
people reside) with a scien~tifically competent and socially
concerned and dedicated new breed of AfGriculturist and Rural Comimu
The special appr~oches were built into the curriculum to help engender
this sense of ovocation" to the Land and Leadership of the people
of the land. We designate this uniqueness as tlProduction Education",
'based on i Philosophies, i.e. of men, ~of the L~end, end of work.
c. Emphasis on Field Work, as an important component of the decree
programs. For every 2 hours of lectures weekly in any given Agri-
cultural subjectic 3 hours weekly a~re spent in Field rlork in our
own Experiment Sta~tions, applying in ~practice and observation
the textbook principles, getting~ the~ feel of and love for the
b.- The addition to the normal BAgriculture College curriculum of 3
semesters in SocioloEy, 4 semesters in Philosoph end.5 semesters
in Religious Studies. These are meent to provide'the .staying
o iwer ,for one giving his life to agricultural production (wlith
its myriad problems, risks, etc.) and to Rura~l Leadership (so
`rife with frustrations).
+ This approach, initially, did not make-our College very 'atltractive,
requiring as it.did mtuch more in the amount of study and costs.
He~ had to start with only 13 students, and after four years !Red
reachedd only 95.
Faced especi'ally with the financial capect, beingg a privet college
with no government support) brought us to -embark on one phese of
our work of which we are very proud,. viz. Our larg Shoorhi
Pp~roarm In 1.95? wle started t o-t with 3 Scho'lorships; it hee
Crown to where we are now offering 100 of our own, plus 215 orom
outside entities involving more then P 1,30,0000 (8~ 183,000 yearlys
and almost 2/3 of -our ntudont. body.
.For the most part, these Soholarships ar~e awarrded to individuals from 4milies
with a total income of less than T(8,000~ ($900) annually. Thus 'we insure
as. we ark N(l' an EIACTIST operation, and more important
b. we are substatntially enriching the hunmanpocnhential from the more
remote regions, which otherwise might never have been tapped.,
+ EvXolution of the Areas of Specia~~sa l~izai
From the start of offering fields of concentra~tion in 3 areas, i~e.
AGRCNGLY ANIMXL .HUSBNRY AGRICULTURAL E;C(NOMICS
WE HAVE GROWN INTO OIFFErRING MAWJCR FIELDS, NCWJ IN 7 AREAS, including
SOILS FOOD TECHNOLOGY DNEVELOPME~NT CGBINUNICATICN
+ The Alumni
a. Close to 50 percent of t~he some 80_ _a.1umni-_aoare acuall working
in _Acri cult ural_ Prod~uction.
b. Often, we finid we are, unable to supply numbers of roequests we receive
for our graduates.
:-+ Agri~cultural_ Researh,
a 50~ is a fact often lamented that the great preponderance of basic
agricultural research is carried on outside the Developing (Th~l~rd ,
b. Since research is so expensive, and not being in the slightest
government funded, we.find it necessary to confine our research efforts
to the so-calle~d "'Applied Resear;ch", i~e. running tests to measure the
suitabilityr/adapt ability of major basic research breakthroughs t o the
Asian2 World,.ecologically, agronomically, economically and culturally
Examples of a few of some such "Applied Researoh"g currently under-
way are . .
i. A-new breed of Coconut,. bearing after 3~ years instead of the
.common breed which is at least 7 years before bearing,
ii. Patterns of double or triple tiered Agriculture together with
These last -two specifico "researches" are highly important for
the Philippines which is the largest Cooonut producer in the
iii. Wider incorporation of leguminous orops in land enrichment prog-
rams, both to make up for Soil depletion due to so much mono-
oulture, and wholesale denuding of our forests; and also to
effect to a considerable degree some of the expenses entailed in
inorganic fertilizer use,
iv. Checks on the multiple use of a leguminous tree, "Leuc~aena".*
which oan be rationed indefinitely, and apart from enriching
the soils as a leguminous plants also produces leaves high in
protein suitable for animal feeds, or for mnulching,i and: pro-
lific seeds which can be ground for animal food, all the while
its truck and large branches make excellent charcoal and firewood,
both so critical in the energy crunch so devastating more so in
the Developing world,
Types of other varieties of research are indicatedd in the explanation of
some of our other units, v~g. Institute of Market Analysis, Rural
Communications Center, Extension Service, Appropriate Technoblogy Center.
THE E X TE NS I 0N SERVICE
+ Since the avowed objective of the College of Agriculture is an immediate
impact on the rural areqs_, our first 6 years (1953-59) we're q;;ui;u~~ te
discouraging as far as the number of our graduates available to move
into rural, agricultural activities was concernedly In' our 4th, 5th and
6th years we had a total of oaly' 22 graduates. Yet, the situation among
the remote, rural peoples was a desperate one, Elearly, we had to move ..:
right away into educating and organizing these people. Thus was born
our own Extension Service.
+ For the years, beginning in 1959, the-professors and apper-olassmen spent
their weekends in the ooastal and mountainous towns tea:Maing the small,
techatoally-backw~ard farmers in improved crop.and animal sciences pro>-
ductbions in? better soil management, in cooperative production an~d ma~rket-
ing, 'etc. In this way, we sought to prove out the validity of our approach
to a continu~ing improved production program
Satisfied that our approach was a viable mne, in 1961 we formally launched
our.,Extension Service, with a few full-time professional personnel In- *
bhe course of the ~past 22 years we have had as marUy as 30 in~ the field
at arg one time, depending on the amount of the funds as hand.
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+ The service has been made available to g Provinces in Mindanao, Pres~ently,
with more government E~xtension agents now operating, we concentrate our
eff~orLs: in our two immediately neighboring provinces of Misamis dt~ientlal
a~d Bukidnon with a combined population of above a million people. In
the present operation, others are 2.2 young men and women Exrtensionists,
+ Inclinations of the type of- work being promoted- by the Extension Service can
be seen from the accompanying special brochure, which gives a very
accurate picture of examples ofT the Extension Service Activities.
+ Three very important~ elements in the success of the' E~xtension Service are .c
a. readiness of our Extension workon to get his hands soiled and' feet
muddi ed ,
b. His being available urnder all -circums~tances,. his making his residence
right~t in the midst of the people (sh~aring; their many inconvreniences
instead of commuting from the capital* city), literally scores,of
kilometor~s in tge in~tox.ion~:, r. way ,hor:c a orT days' hikingS through
c. Professional support of the Agricultural Fa'culty and our Experiment
Stations, and other units of the Complex, vis, the Institute of
Market, Analysis, the Rural Communlications. Center, the Appropriate
Technology Center., the Food Techniology Research . a very
substantial multiplier effect in the face of our always too few
full-time field agents.
C 0 OP ER aT I VE ;PR 0 M 0 TI ON
+ We felt that we had to make Cooperati;ve Piomotion a key element in our
Rural Development program, for two reasons -*
a.~ the absolute need of the Cooperative enterprises for the small,
poor farmer . .
b. to effect the so recurr~ing failures of previous Cooperative undertakings,
+ RegarEdina ~(a)
Ik> ot~en in the D~eveloping world the small ~farmer is the victim of
.lmiddle-men exacting viciously usurious payments leading to degrading
grwovlling dependehoe or almost sycophante slavery,
When our College of Aigriculture, moved into direct involvement with
the small, leaderless farmers, a study undertaken by as showeJd~t~hat the
primary producer was getting only 16/o of the final conrrumer value 'of
his product. Orie reason't in our area as many as 8 middle-men were
sluicing off the. lion a share of the final sale value of the' commodity.
SThis' s~imp~ly had to be brought under control. The former had to be shown
that h~e ould (and how') gradually become "Masfte of His Own Destiny."
The tpool was at' hand, vis. The Coop~eratives
+ REefardinff (b)
To really get a viable Cooperative off the ground, we believei would
require three thingss. if it~won''t be doomed to failure.
i. _A_. lowt edu~cttozati~ponalproess inculcating first the firm foundation
of -idividual and community responsibility. The insistence on a
1.ong, tedious education extending over:10 to 12 weeks allowiigg
the farmer to really question and understaind.:the implications cd?
the Cooperative idea, Not~ some over-nightl "hoopla" and then
i doing outd funds (no-t his own sai'ng~-is) from outside. This latter
is gupr~anteed to sure failure With education would go an in<
sistehoe an all initial funding com~inP from the members of the
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ii. A patient, recurring- training in management skills. These very
ordinary people to have among them those capable of management.
This is our experience,
iii. The promoters must~ be over ready for a colantiu~ed, year by year;
renewal process, not just one shot deals. They must .bo sensitive
to the fact that the Cooperative is not just a financial insti-
tution. In our vfiew its validity will be found also in its edu-
oat~ional and social role in the Communityr
+ In.25 years of such Cooperative Promotion we~ have been instrumental in
helping to establish some.50 Cooperative enterprises, .in production, in
*supplies, (Fuel, fer~tilizers, farm chemicals., improved seed, etc.) in
marketing, in credit, all over the Philippines,
INS'T'I TU TE OF M AR KE T A A LY SIS
+ Ekrom thE start of our E~xtension Servic~e the objective was not merely to
enable the small farmer to improve -the amount and quality. of subsistence
orops but also to enable him to provide for the wider, fully legitimate
*range of human concerns, i~e. ;better housing, health, clothing, edluca~tion,
etc. through his increased 'agricultural returns.
+ Clearly, that meant we had to have an accrt picture of the market
situation before we encouraged thousands -of farmers to move into certain
commercial crops product~ion. Otherwise, we might be encouraging steps
which would wind up, in a short while, in a glut situation.
+ The information needed was:.not, in the mlid-60s, generally. at hand. Thi s
led to our establishing our own data collecting and analysis and infor-
mation dispensing agonoy, in 1965, under the title of INSTITUTE OP MARKET
+ To help in its triple function the Institute incorporated into its operation
a Masteris Degree program in Agricultural Economics, for which a minimum
of 10 Gr~adua~te-Atssis~tanitships!:are award~ed~for.every two year period
(This ypar, 19803 there are 14 such dradua~te.A ssistannts).
+ Together with 5 full-timet advanced degree professors and the Graduate
Assistants, detailed studies in both price and market .situations are
under continual review, resultinge in radio programs providing spot
news on price and markets of some dozen major commercial crops, and
in depth profitability reviews of important commodities with.4igests
of the same supplied to agricultural planners as well as producprse
+ In line .with most developing countries concerns about -export crops to help
generate the international reserves needed for diversification in
their economies, the studies of the Institute ~of Market Azalyrsia cover
also some possible foodL markets in East Asia,
RU R AL C O ~ZMMU NI C AT I ONS C E N TER
+ After g years of Exctension work, with up to 30 full-time people in the
field, we were still disturbed by the vast number for whom -so little
was being done. As a private (non-government aided institutions) fund-
ing for multiplying field personnel simply: was .nol; at h~ihid
+t In the meantime, opportunities for mass -msdia use were openinggup more
and more.. Radio and the press were eager to carry the message -' of
Development, if some agency would supply them with really presentable
+ So, in.9 Aggour Rural Communications Center was born, with a dual role
a. As a Mass Media Production entity, and .
br As a Development Communications Training Unit.
+ _Regard~ing (ta) .
1. Consequent upon field surveys, including 'farmer taped interviews,
calling upon the expertise of mur 35 professional, agricultural
faculty, several areas of special need were selected for subject
matter for series of."Farmers' Sohools of fhe Airs', v~g. Pasture
Improvement, Improved Cooonut.Managements Alternative Energiesc, eto.
Each subject was covered with a 5. broadcasts weekggl ($ hour.) for
from 10 to 15 weeks. The subject is presented in a skit formats
which our R 0 0 staff write and tape. These are done in the chief
dialect of Mindanao and part of the Central Philippines, spoken by
more 'than 20 million people. The tapes are multiplied and made
available for many stations.
To help insure that they will be listened to, with profit, we enlist
the support of theo Churches, the Sohools, the' Extonsion Services to
sign u~p those interested to join in a sort of correspondence school
~ajpproac~h, with the our and G~overnment Extension agents visiting' those
enrolled to see if their f~armning praotices evidence any improvement
and to help establish closer rapport between the remote farmers
and various agencies, government and.private, at his service.
2, Ot~herT less formal audioevisual approaches employed are through
making and presentation of slide _lectures fims_ puppet _shoes~
3. Ohe~aPs print~e~d materiai-~ls all in the local dialect, ar~e prepared and
4 Weekends (Thursday .evening; to Monday morning) find 50 to 60 mature
farmers caught in the old ways of produolpg, representatives or.
the local farmers as~socia~tionsr, coming to our Trainiing Center.
'for a live-in, concentration dose of instruction and exposure (on
the Experiment Station of the College of `Agriculture) in improved
production. Hopefully, they will on return to their respective areas
be setting up a sort of mini-echo presentation among their fellow-
+ Regaa~rdin (b) .'
~oe often hears wonderingsng" about ~the relatively small scale of
acceptance of thie new ways the Extension agents hope to get across.
Repeated observation of such Eitension agents at work show that,
while knowledgeable in agricultural arts, his limited results can be
Sin many instances traceable 'to his in~adequate communicatiio~at~ion skills
To help remedy that deficionoy our R OC conducts periodic Seminars
and Workshops basic and-renewal types for various o~adres e~nlgage
This function of the R oc has' evolved into a major field of
concentration' within our degree course in the College of Agri-
oulture, i.e. D~levelopment _Communicationsc In this rough exposure~
to the distressing, real rural situations, practice in~visual-aid.
design and construction are emphasized.
R U RAL D E V EL 0 PM~ENTJT A D VIS 0 R Y SE~:R VIC E
+t For almost ~20 years we have been called .upon by various geographic and
jurisdictional divisions of Government (Cities, Provinces) and of
the Church (Di~ooceses and Decanorips) to help in the formulation of
Alternate Development Plans for their regions, rather than permit
just at Stop~sy" ike growth which has so much charact~erized Third
World rural grJowth and become a~ physical and~ human blight instead
+ CBviously, the formulation of such integrated plans call for a TEAM
AlPPRCACH, embracing the productive, economic and sociological/
cultural sciences, studios' of such a, team will ofton dictate an
evolution of AiLTERNAiTE plans in view of the topographicall~ soil
quality, economic conditions and human equations,
+This approach fits in hand and glove with our basic steering emphasis
of Development as a ~simult aneous, multi-prongoi9~e2~ effort. With our
faculty in full agreement with that, it has not boon difficult to
field. balanced teams of'oxperienced professors -to.evaluarte'the
potential of' an area and to program how such can be made a reality.
+ The teams will spend a few weeks at a time on the spot maybe returning
for further inquiriestr fr~eparatory to their being ready to submit
detailed. specific plans. In most cases a number of alternate plans
+ Such plans have bean requested by and submitted to 19 areas in the
+ Qur work in this area is a by-product of our College of Agricultural
Engineering, now~ in its 8th year~.
+ With the energy cost consciousness growing in the mid and late 701s,
f~Iour-A.T.0; gravitated first of all into alternate, renewable energy
,rresources, within the reach of the small individual farmer, and even
~more so that of his community.
These have been chiefly .
BICGAS SOLAR WIND WATER
not through any startling innovations but rather in awakening the
minds of the small farmers to capitalizing; on this resources at
his every day command.
Since we a~re working in the Tropical regions, we can count to a consider-
able extent on some year round growth, with plenty of sunshine ant
tuornity more than aldequa~te rain. So, we have the bases. for renew-
able energy, so to speak, right at their feet. Cnly they are not
cognizanit of that.
+ So, our A.T.0, works on low cost models in how to use such lavish forces
in nature in the Tropics . .
a Methane Eroduc~tionl, from animal and agronomic wastes, for fuel for
their cooking (firewood has become quite expensive with 04r wwhole-
sale denuding of the forests) and lighting needs (the waste of 40
mature hogs can supply such needs for a community of 300 people),
- 8 -
while the water drained off in the process canr be used for fish
ponds or rice padd'ies, and the sludge left from the process used as
fertilizer. Even engines (small water pumps, small hand tractors)
can be modified to run on methane.
.b Solar Energy harnessed in concentrated force for,' v~g. much better
drying of grains than the normal process of ~:just' scattering them.
on the ground; or for running small pumps to raise drinking or
o.,Wind Mills fo power for light, pumps for small scale irrigati-on.
de Water, cheap wayrs of daming up small streams to'capture the power
inherent therein, taking advantage of the frequent drops in the
hills and mountains.
+ E uipment Designs _Modificavtion _ad _F~abri~c~ai on
Since our associations are substantially with the small farmers, i~e.
1 to 5 hectar~es, people ~who canno~t;thirik of real, mechanized farming
(Crith such areas not suitable fo~r mechaniztationi which would also be
far beyond their financial capability), wue must assist in the testing
and promotion .of equipionet suitable to the pro~uc~tion'size and within
the financial ability of the small farmer.
This has brought us to the fabrication of such items as weeding; and culti-
vating tools, ~of a' type which the farmer himself cani be taught to
duplicate, with very little .inves~tmen~t.
We are anxious to push our equipment interest into "some of the processing
stages of agricultural and fishery products. For example, we are
field testing a soap making machine of different stages from the
coconuts, i~e. better coconut meat drying., better oil extracting etc.
Again, another area in which we have been working .is home scale fdba
Tlhis equipment of the ATQ has been expanded quite a bit by the end of this
year with a programmed g~rant from the Europea~n Economic Community
and three major.counterpart s-ources totaling~ p62,200,000 (42,350,000).
This 'expanlded operation will provide more tool fabrica`ting equipment
and more and larger training facilities for groui~ps of'up to 32 farmers
at a time.
(Southeast Asia. Rural Social Leadership Institute)
;tBy the mid-60's there was a growing questioning in the Developed Nations of
the practicabilityr, the value and the expense of transporting mny~
thousands from the Developing World to North Aimerica and Eurrope to
'be -trained for field level Rural Third World Development in an ecolo-
gical and cultural background so entirely different from their home-
lands of Africa, Asia and Laztin America,
Granted that such thousands were urgently needed, it~was, by then,
thought to be far more useful For the training needed,to be carried
on within settings much more related to Third, World o'onditions and
cultures, hu ando,,t aedb olg
+t Along that line, the German Cuc n oenetakdteCleeo
Agriculture of Xavrier University whether we could set up just such a
training center for Rurral Leaders of Southeast Asia, They felt that
our previous, somewhat pioneering years in Rural Development should
enable us to organize a distillation of that experience to pass
along a packaged, proven program, kindred-~t to.Sotheast Alsia
So, the star-t .of "'SEARSOL;IN" in 1964, following our earlier
trainingS of 6 of our staff at the renowed;Co~ady International
Institute, in Nova Scotia. Our 'first group contained -18 trainees
from 5 nations, in a 19'2 month session.
+t Over the years circumstances dictated that SEAR~SOLIN should open its
doors- to the small island nations of the Central and Southwest
Pacific, as well as to the countries of South Asia.
.And now, within the last five years, by way of exception, par-
ticipantsf frord 3 African nations have be cetd
In all, SEARSOLIN has been working with the peoples of 23
nations. (ben the present 82-83 session ia-~completed we w~ill
have trained 796 in the full course. -The accompanying SI;AEZSOLIN
brochure gives the breakdown by countries as of '1983.
In between thee 7 month sessions yearly, the staff and. facili-
ties of the Institute have been involved in scores of special-
ized training programs of varying lenghts, 3 days, 1 week,
2 weeks, and one month. These include such. subjects as Coope-
ratives, Community Development, Urban Development, Research
Design and Management, Man~Lgement of.Rural Projects. Altogether,
over 3,500 have attended" such.
The -content of the maini SEARSOLIN course is.shown in.the accom-
'An-id'ea of the results is seen in the attached list of acti-
vit~ies of the Alumni, culled from our latest Alumni survey,
Foremost amont .such has becen the organization and direction
of nationwide Credit Un~ion Le-agues in Thailand end Taiwan; the
es~tablishoont of substantial TrainingF C.enters for Rural work
in Taiwany, Korea, Thaila~nd and Sri` La~nkan which have tlrained-
literally-several thiousa.nd in the lo7st decade and a ha~lf.
+ A special feature of .. ':~'SOLIN~ has been the extraordinary associa-
-tion with ISRAEL, over the past 10 years. This takes the form
o'f a team of Ex:t~ension experts~to lecture for a montA at
SE~ARSOLIN, and thon to-proceed to lecture for a week or so .:"u
other countries at programs arranged by our Allumni. Moreover,
ISRAEiL.has provided further, specialized. training in matters
of Agricultural Developsment for 20 o-T ou~r SLEARSOLINJ Alumni.
+t The Geiman Church and Government have continued through 19 years
to fund more thann 705: of the expenses entailed, as well.aus
have underwritten the cost of building the TrcaininG Center.
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R E C 0 G N I T I O N
+ Honorars Doctorates have been conferred on the Founder/Director of the
College of Agriculture Comiplex, by
I 1- The Ateneo de Manila. University, Ma~nila, Philippines, 1966,
:j 2. Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 1976.
.3r Fordham University, New York, N.Y., U.S., 1981.
j;+ Asia'L~Ms t MotPrestigioUs3 Award, the MAtG~LaYSAY WARD was conferred on
Father Masterson in 197tl.
+t The XAVIER AWRD_, a distinguished American Catholic Alward was received
in New York,.in 1978.
+ The ATPEN:O DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ANAIRD', conferred by the Ateneo
de Davao University in 1965.
+t Medalpst Citations and Decorations~_o have been received from organizations
in Korlej, Taiwan, Israel, the Philippines and the Vatican.
+ The Dirootor -of the Agricultural College Complex has twice represented
the Vatican at the 1s~t anid 2nd World bong~resses' of the FAiO, Also
a, member: of the Vatican delegation to the FAO, ILO, UNESCO, Wiorld
Conference on Aigricultural Educa~tion.
Also was one of the speakers 'at the NGO~ Forum connected with the UN Conferenpe
.on Science, Technologfy.and Developments 1980,
+ The people, of the following Nations have underwritten and continue
Zto; substantially maintain the 9 components of the College of
Agriculture Complex of Xavier University, Cagayan de Cro City,
~D;ENMARPK NEWJ ZEA~iLANlD
UNITED STATES SITZERLANDJ