Eastern caribbean farming systems research and development project

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Eastern caribbean farming systems research and development project
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EASTERN CARIBBEAN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND

DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

I. PROGRAM FACTORS 1

A. Confonaity with National And Regional Strategies 1

1. Agriculture in the Eastern Caribbean 1
2. National Efforts to Support Agriculture 1
3. The Technological Constraint 2

B. Relationship to Agency and Mission Strategy 2

1. Agency Strategy 2
2. Mission Strategy 3

II. DETAILED PROJECT DESCRIPTION 5

A. Perceived Problem 5

B. Project Goal and Purpose 6

1. Goal and Purpose 6
2. End of Project Status 6
3. Outputs 6

C. Project Outline 7

a. Farming Systems Research 7
b. Farming Systems Development 9
c. Institutional Strengthening 10
d. Project Organization and Management 12

III. FACTORS AFFECTING PRIOECT SELECTION AND FURTHER
DEVELOPMENT 14

A. Social Considerations 14

B. -Economic Considerations 14

C. Relevant Experience with Similar Projects 15

D. Proposed Grantee and Implementing Agency 16

E. AID Support Requiremrents Capability 18

F. Estimated Costs and Methods of Fundi~ng .19

G. Design Strategy 19








PAGE


H. Recommended Environmental Threshold Decision

I. AID Policy Issues

ANNEXES

A. The CARDI Overview
B. Sources of External Project Support for CARDI
C. Suggested Priority Interventions
D. Preliminary Logical Framework
E'. Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)


;~~~';r''t i ~!?I


,







EASTERN CARIBBEAN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND
DEVE LOPME NT PROJ ECT
I. PROGRAM FACTORS

A. Conformity With National And Regional Strategies

1. Agriculture In The Eastern Caribbean
Agriculture is a major economic activity in all the countries of
the Eastern Caribbean as demonstrated by the number of people employed, its
contribution to GDP, and value of export earnings. This is particularly true
for the LDC'sl/ of the English-speaking islands in the region, which, along
with Barbados are the participants in this project. With the exception of
Antigua, the agricultural sector in the LDC's accounts for employment of at
least 20%1 of the labor force, more than 20% of the GDP, and is responsible for
more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings from exports.

Notwithstanding the social and economic importance of the
agricultural sector in the region, each country is concerned about the
performance of the agricultural sector in the recent past. Thi s concern is
directed in the first place to the dominance of a single export crop, i~e,
bananas in the Windward Islands and sugar in St. Kitts, that is encountering
progressively worsening terms of trade. In addition, the production and
productivity of food crops and secondary export crops have shown relatively
little growth in relation to incomes and increased demand. As a result, most
LDC's are experiencing substantially increasing trade deficits. While most of
the LDC's continue to have positive net agricultural trade balances, t~he
margin of this surplus is diminishing rapidly.

The LDC island states of the region are looking toward
agriculture to provide a major contribution to economic development. W~ithi no
significant mineral deposits, few forest reserves, and relatively unskilled
labor forces, the LDC's must depend on agricultural activity to exploit the
modest land base. Thus, agriculture together with tourism and light
manufacturing have become the three key sectors for attention b~y most Earstern
Caribbean countries.

2. National Efforts to Support Agriculture
The production, marketing and distribution of agricultural
commodities in the region are performed primarily by independent farmers anrd
pri vate merchants. Only in the case of bananas and sugar -do large pareis~tabral
organizations play major roles. For most commodities, especially food Insp~s,
the agricultural sector is characterized b~y thousands of small and mediaYrr
farmers, market traders, and merchants that appear to approach classic
atomistic competition in a free market system. The role of public sectoar
services has largely been focused on provision of support services in
research, extension, and training. Public sector development banks ;baen
achieved modest success in providing agricultural credit; and public saecrrr
market ng boards for non-traditional export crops have been universallyr
ineffective in stimulating production or in achieving more orderly m~ardhegj~
arrangements.

1/- LDC's consist of: Antigua, St. Kitts/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, st.
Luicia, St. Vincent and Grennad







-2-

The problems underlying the apparent stagnation in the
agricultural sector of the region are both multi-faceted and inter-related.
Problems include production technology, marketing, roads and other
infrastructure, input availability, public policies (including land tenure),
anld~social attitudes toward agricultural work.

3. The Technological Constraint

The key fact that warrants fostering production technologies in
the ~region is that traditional agriculture is characterized by low levels of
production per acre, reflecting poor use of existing agricultural technology.
Varieties of many crops that are grown are not well adapted to local soil and
climatic conditions. Except for bananas and sugar cane, agricultural inputs,
such as fertilizer, are seldom used and when used are often inefficiently
applied. Increased production and productivity per unit of land are
absolutely essential if agriculture is to make a significant contribution to
the countries' economic development and also essential if investments in rural
infrastructure and institutions are to become self-sustaining.

The states of the region are committed to maintaining small and
medium scale farmers as the central factor of the agricultural sector, and the
generation of farming technology to increase agricultural production per unit
of land and per unit of time is seen as a high priority need. However, the
research effort required to generate or to adapt improved technology for the
states of the region presents a dilema to decision makers. On the one hand,
the need for agricultural research efforts that focus on national priorities
is widely recognized; while on the other hand, individual island states simply
cannot afford the cost required to maintain the highly trained professional .. _._
staff necessary to establish creditable research programs. The best available
solution to this dilema is to cooperate with other islands to support a
regional agricultural research capacity. This option was elected in 1975 with
the establishment of the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development
Institution (CARDI). Headquartered in Trinidad, CARDI is actively working in
each of its supporting member states.

B. Relationship to Agency and Mission Strategy

The proposed .Project is based on the conclusion that improved
technology is essential for increasing agricultural production and
productivity in the region. The Project will: 1) assist CARDI to develop
economically viable technological improvements; 21 develop.approaches and
linkages to effectively transmit these technologies with public and private
extension services and the agri-business sector; 3) strengthen CARDI's
capacity to sustain this effort in the long-term. As discussed below, the
proposed Project is consistent with Agency and Mission strategies for
agricultural development.

1. Agency Strategy
The objectives of U.S. food and agricultural development
assistance, as stated in recent AID Strategy Paper, are to enable countries to
become self-reliant in food, to assure food security to their populations and
to contribute ~to a broadly-based economic grow~th.~








AID's policy emphasizes four major, inter-related elements to
accomplish this objective:

i) improve country policies to remove constraints to food and
agricultural production, marketing and consumption;

ii) develop human resources and institutional capabilities,
especially to generate, adapt and apply improved science and technology for
food and agricultural development, and to conduct research on developing
country food and agricultural problems;

iii) expand the role of developing country private sectors in
agricultural and rural development and the complementary role of the U.S.
private sector in assisting this expansion.
iv) employ all available assistance instruments as an
integrated resource.

This Project will contribute to the AID objectives and is
totally consistent with AID's emphasis on developing human and institutional
capabilities to identify, adapt and apply improved technology in agriculture,
with particular emphasis on research.

This Project is also consistent with AID's commitment to utilize
the expertize of U.S. universities and institutions to accelerate technology
transfer.

2. Mission Strategy
The RDO/C strategy objectives in the agricultural sector in the
Eastern Caribbean are to increase the per capital output of food and other
marketable commodities and to expand employment opportunities
for rural farm families thereby increasing farm family income. The focus of
this strategy as outlined in the FY-83 CDSS is to: a) increase the productive
efficiency of traditional export commodities; b) promote commercial
agricultural diversification to achieve greater food production for regional
requi rements.

The RDO/C agricultural strategy includes both regional and
bilateral projects. Regional institutions are used to implement projects when
problems to be addressed are common to the English-speaking Caribbean states,
when cost-effectiveness of project resources can be demonstrated, and when
sufficient institutional capacity exist. RDO/C has successfully provided
assistance for agricultural credit through the Caribbean Development Bank, for
agricultural research through the Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute, and for agricultural extension support through the
University of the West Indies. RDO/C expects to continue assistance in these
functional areas by utilizing the regional institutions mentioned above.

Bilateral assistance for agricultural development is designed to
complement regionally supported projects, while enabling AID assistance to be
focused on immediate high priority needs of individual countries. In
addition, bilateral assistance is purposeful y designed to increase the
individual country'.s capacity to more effectively utilize available resources
and services available from regional institutions.








The regional approach .for this-Project is proposed because it is
the most cost effective method to conduct applied research on agricultural
problems that are common among states in- the Eastern Caribbean. B~y jointly
supporting a regional agricultural research institution, individual islands
have:'access to specialized research skills, (e.g. nematologist, plant
pathologist, animal' nutritionist, etc.) that would frequently be under-
utilized in any one country, and would be simply unaffordable by most
countries on a full-time basis. The regional approach to accomplish
agricultural research is also the most cost effective method to transfer
knowledge from international research centers to local application, and it
facilitates technology transfer among regional states.

The RDO/C agricultural strategy also includes a strong emphasis
on fostering appropriate linkages among regional institutions, as well as
linkages between regional institutions and established centers of excellence
outside the region. RDO/C's utilization of a Title XII university to support
the ongoing Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project, and the current contract
with MUCIA for Technical Support to Mission (TSM) activity are examples of
this strategy emphasis. RDO/C proposes to increase the use of these linkages
in this project. Institutions in the United States and Puerto Rico appear to
have unusually appropriate knowledge and skills to assist in the implementation
of the type of agricultural research project proposed in this PID.

The RDO/C research support for technology generation is one of
six strategy elements specified in the FY 83 CDSS. It is recognized that work
in the other strategy elements of marketing, credit, input supply,
infrastructure development, policy modification, etc., must be addressed, and
AID as well as other donors are actively making parallel strides to overcome -
constraints in each of these areas. RDO/C is confident that research led
technology improvements in production are essential to achieving regional
agriculture objectives, and that activities in other program elements will
enhance the benefits of research efforts.

In summary, the project proposed is totally consistent with
RDO/C's overall agricultural assistance strategy. Identifying and adapting
improved production technology for farmers in the region is of fundamental
importance to stimulating agricultural sector growth, and therefore
contributes directly to AID's assistance objectives and complements all other
AID funded project activities in the agricultural sector.








II. DETAILED PROJECT DESCRIPTION

A. Perceived Problem

CARICOM member states annually import approximately US$800 million in
food and feed grains. Given the limited financial resources of most of the
island states this constitutes a substantial and continuing drain on crucial
foreign exchange. A significant portion of imported food could be replaced
from within the region if productivity is improved so that regional supplies
are price competitive with extra-regional sources. The production of more
marketable cash crops on small and medium scale farms, (e.g., fruit crops,
root crops, grain legumes and vegetables) requires improved technology if
productivity and labor efficiency is to be improved and if the Region is to
arrest the existing trend of rising food importation.

Yields of most farm crops in the Eastern Caribbean are low compared
to known crop potentials and compared to yields in other tropical areas. The
lack of insect and weed control, unimproved planting materials, seasonal water
shortages, and poor agronomic procedures result in low yields and low
productivity. Although farmers are often constrained by factors outside their
immediate control (such as poor transportation, lack of effective extension
services and lack of adequate market services), certain improved technologies,
in and by themselves, can be brought to bear on the farm unit to improve
physical productivity and farm incomes. The identification and adaptation of
improved agricultural technology to the problems of the Eastern Caribbean
farmer is the primary objective of this Project.

While CARDI has been successful in establishing itself as the
predominate agricultural research center in the English-speaking Caribbean and
has established in-country research and development capacity in the small
island states of the Eastern Caribbean, a series of institutional constraints
remain to be resolved if CARDI is to succeed in becoming a cost effective
instrument of agricultural technology development.

A number of these constraints were identified during the in-depth
evaluation of RDO/C's current grant to CARDI (the Small Farm Multiple Cropping
Systems Research Project SFMrCP). Initiated in 1978, the $2.2 million SFMYCP
was to develop recommendations for improved farming systems through adaptive,
farm-based research. (See Section III C for a more complete discussion of
thi s project). While the project was successful in moving CARDI from its
centralized research approach, (based almost exclusively on "station conducted
trials"), to a decentralized research approach conducted mainly on small
farmers' fields, the new approach severely taxed CARDI's institutional
capability.
These institutional constraints revolve around CARDI's management,
financial and administrative support systems for on-farm research efforts.
For example, current financial controls are very weak and financial
information required for management decision-making has not been available on
a timely basis. Short and medium-term planning in terms of allocation of
staff, physical and financial resources were also weak. The issue of
management and communication among CARDI staff in the widely disbursed
territories also has been a problem. Inefficiencies in this area have
hampered decision-making and resulted in unnecessarily high cost operations.









Outside the management area, CARDI has specific additional technical
staff requirements which need to be addressed to complement its existing
capability. An example of this is in the area of agricultural engineering.
Project Goal And Purpose
1. Goal and Purpose
The Goal of the Project is to enable the countries of the
Eastern Caribbean to assure continuing food security to their populations from
a combination of domestic production and importations of food at commercial
thrms paid from foreign exchange earnings.

The Project's purpose is to increase agricultural product vity
and production by institutionalizng a sustainable Farming Systems Research
and Development Program (FSR/D) in CARDI that responds to the agricultural
needs of participating Eastern Caribbean countries. The purpose therefore has
both a productivity focus and an institutional focus. To achieve the
productivity objectives, CARDI will concentrate its efforts on selected crops
of major importance or potential on each participating island, thereby
avoiding dissipation of effort across too wide a spectrum of crops.
Institutionally, the project will build upon CARDI's current capacity so that
by project-end CARDI will have the management and organizational resources to
sustain its overall small farming oriented research program.
2. End of Project Status

The project's purpose will be achieved when the following
conditions are present:

1) Participating country farmers are using economically viable
CARDI FSR/D program-generated technological improvements.
2) Participating countries are supporting the FSR/D approach
to transfer selected cropping/1ivestock combinations to additional groups of
farmers.

3) Participating countries, assistance donors and private
institutions are receiving and using FSR/D program-generated information for
policy and decision-making, planning, and project funding.
4) CARDI's regional and international image in farming systems
research is enhanced as evidenced by member country and external fundi ng
levels, new research requests, and invitations to professional research
conferences and meetings.

5) CARDI is allocating the necessary resources to continue a
sustainable and productive FSR/D program.

3. Outputs
Three inter-related types of outputs will result from the
project: technology generation, technology transfer, and institutional
strengthening.

1) CARDI will develop a number of economically viable farm






-7-

tested and validated technological improvementss-in crops, livestock and
crop/livestock combinations.

2) CARDI will establish a system of close research/extension
and private sector linkages whereby technological improvements can be rapidly
transferred to small and medium scale farmers.

3) CARDI will be strengthened to a point where it can sustain
a productive Farming System Research and Developmlent Program.

C. Project Outline

a. Farmi ng Systems Research

Improved technologies that can be transferred readily to small
and medium scale farmers has proved time consuming and frequently elusive b~y
traditional agricultural research and transfer methods. Known improved
agricultural technologies that can take into consideration the improvements a
small farmer is willing to accept and to incorporate into his small farm
environment can improve food production and productivity in the near term.

Food production can be improved by two methods (a) i ncreasi ng
production per unit of cultivated land and, (b) increasing the amount of land
devoted to agricultural production. Since atrable agricultural land is limited
in the Eastern Caribbean, increased production is mostly dependent on
improving productivity per unit of land over the long term.

Farming Systems Research (FSR) is a methodology which views the
farm or production unit in a comprehensive manner and takes into consideration
the rural household constraints to production. The FSR involves the farm
family, research personnel and extension agents in an inter-related, mutually
reinforcing approach to identifying small farm production constraints.

Traditional research methods still figure importantly in the FSR
methodology since a backlog of research information is needed to be fed into
the on-farm FSR s~ystem. By involving extension services in the FSR system,
learning and communication of improved results by extension agents, can
significantly decrease the time span for information transfers to and adoption
by a wider group of farmers.

FSR activities can, likewise, be tied into other commodity
research programs by reinforcing linkages with other agricultural
disciplines. CARDI, for example, has developed new cropping patterns in St.
Kitts which can be incorporated into sugar cane production by growing various
crops interplanted with cane prior to their being shaded-over. This
modification in agriculture cropping systems allows for a major change in
agriculture policy and promises to utilize sugar cane land more efficiently
than solely for a mono-culture ~system.

Consideration is given to exogenous constraints such as, the
availability of credit, transportation, .supplemental water availability,
information systems and markets, prior to on-farm tests in order to increase
the probability that small farmers will adopt the new technologies.
Endogenous constraints such as a lack of be~:tter cultivars, knowledge of plant
spacing, fertilizer timing and placement ran interplanting of more adaptive









companion plant combinations that confront farmers can be addressed by FSR to
improve production. Improvements in the bio-technical farming systems in
which large groups of farmers can understand and use in the shortest period of
time,, possible is FSR's goal.

The FSR approach moves through four general stages of
research: (a) the descriptive stage, (b) design stage, (3) testing stage, (d)
extension stage, and (e) evaluation and feed-back stage. The participation of
extension workers in this process at each stage of the process is vital to
ensure rapid knowledge dissemination to a wide group of farmers.

During the descriptive stage, CARDI will identify groups of
farmers who are carrying out their farming operations under similar
agro-ecological conditions and growing the same types of crops. The cropping
patterns, e.g. the yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops, may vary
from farm to farm, but within the individual crop sequences, improvements in
production methods can be made. These agro-ecological zones will be further
divided into recommendation domains (groups of farmers with similar problems)
for classification of research priorities.

Once the priority constraints to production are identified,
on-farm tests will be designed by CARDI and carried out to improve farm
productivity. Those production components which will show the "best-bet"
(components which indicated a high probability of success) possibilities in
preliminary field trials will be enlarged upon for verification by additional
field test among a larger group of farmers. The verification stage identifies
those production improvements which can be promoted by extension agents.

In terms of research priorities, CARDI has identified a total of
18 crops and 5 livestock on-farm tests which are priorities in 6 of the
islands, which participated in the SFMCSP. The list of these priorities is
contained in Annex C. CARDI is expected, by the end of this year, to validate
a number of these crop/livestock priorities as being economically viable and
potentially acceptable to farmers. From this list, CARDI will develop a
sub-set of priority areas focusing on those crops and livestock tests which
are in short supply and/or have the potential for import substitution in the
Region. An illustrative list of priorities is as follows:

o Interplanting of sugar cane and cotton with
legumes in St. Kitts.
o Carrot nematode infestation decreases by rotations
and resistant varieties in St. Vincent.

o VYirus free yam interplantings with various companion
crops in each participating country.

o Peanut yield/variety 'improvements in St. Vincent, St. Lucia
and St. Kitts.

o Variety selection for vegetables in each participating
country.









o Sweet potato varietal improvement in Windward Islands.

o Edible oils such as sunflower safflower, corn in Antigua,
St. Lucia and Barbados.

o Improvement of grain legumes for interplanting in each
participating country

o Development of small gravity flow irrigation systems for
.cash crop vegetable production.

o Mulching of vegetable crops for weed control/water
conservation in Antigua and St. Kitts.

o Leucaena as a protein feed bank for cattle in Antigua and
Montserrat.

o Improved sea island cotton production package in Antigua
and Montserrat.

o Evaluation of improved hand tools for increasing labor
efficiency in all participating countries.

o Alternative weed control methods by interplanting
in all participating countries.

o Production of cassava for livestock feed in Barbados and
St. Lucia.

From the above examples a final list of priorities will be
developed during the design of the Project Paper. For each crop/1ivestock
system selected in each country, CARDI will utilize its professional staff,
its inter-disciplinary country teams and participating farmers to conduct and
validate tri als.

Closely related to the technological improvements is the
carefully refined and scientifically documented methodology that is expected
to result from project activities. The FSR methodology itself will be
validated in the Eastern Caribbean agricultural context and is considered a
significant result of the project.

b. Farming Systems Development

(i) Technology Transfer Through Research/Extension Linkages
This component of the Project, in particular, will involve
intensive research and extension linkages at the regional, country team and
farm level. These linkages are fully anticipated in the AID funded Caribbean
Agricultural Extension Project, with MUCIA and UWI, and are currently being
developed by CARDI country teams.

Since FSR on-farm trials can only be carried out with a
small representative group of farmers, to be effective, the extension of
improved technologies following the verification stage to a larger number of
farmers is essential if national productivity is to be effected. Therefore,









METHODS OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH-EXTENSION LINKAGES


EXTENSION SERVICE
TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY





FARM
CHARACTERIZATION

FARMER KNOWLEDGE & CIRCUMSTANCES
RESEARCHER KNOWLEDGE


RESEARCH R IDENTIFICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL STATION I DEVELOPMENT
KNOWLEDGE 'CONSTRAINTSTEHLOY


1. TRADJITIONAL
AGRI CULTURAL
RC5EARCH
APPRO49CH


DESCRIPTIVE


DESIGN


TESTING


EXTENSION


2t. FARMING
SYSTEMS
RESEARCH &
DYLPlENT






-10-


the project will focus on the "technology tranj-fer" issue from the outset.
This transfer component is what is referred to as the Development element of
Farming Systems Research and Development Approach. At the core of this
approach are strong research/extension linkages.

Extension agents are the most important link between the
on-farm trials and the spread of technology to a wider group of farmers. The
importance of FSR methodology lies in the coordination of researcher,
extension agent and farmer during the initial stages of testing, and continued
coordination through the verification stage. The extension agent takes over
after the CARDI researcher has concluded that cost effective improvements are
ready for fancer application. The familiarity the extension agent has gained
in working at close range with the fanner and researcher will facilitate this
transfer process.

One of the most useful methods of transferring crop
improvements is by the demonstration technique. Organizing farmers into groups
and demonstrating the package or sets of improvements on farmers' fields is
the key to successful extension transfer particularly in countries where
resources are limited. ~Both CARDI personnel and Extension Service personnel
will be involved in establishing and managing the demonstration plots.

It is envisioned that workshops will be conducted by CARDI,
at the local or village level for groups of~farmers, to explain and show
production improvements in demonstration plots on farmers' fi el ds. Workshops
will be coordinated with and supported by the MUCIA/UWI Extension Project.

(ii) Private Sector Involvement

The private agri-business sector serving the farm community
constitutes a potentially vital force for increasing farm level productivity.
The proposed project will strengthen CARDI's ability to respond to the
identified ways in which the private sector can be utilized to contribute to
the objectives of the Project.

One method that has been identified to achieve this
desirable goal is the establishment of a Private Sector Agribusiness Research
and Development Fund. The Fund would encourage the private sector community
at large, and the agribusiness community in particular, to tap CARDI's
resources. As envisioned, the Fund would cover a portion of the costs for
every private sector funded research activity commissioned to CARDI. For
example, an agro-chemical distributor in Dominica or St. Vincent may want
on-farm tests of pelletized fertilizer new to the island, to identify farm
level constraints which must be addressed on his promotional campaign. CARDI
is uniquely suited to undertake this type of research. RD0/C will further
analyze the feasibility of the Fund and other suitable mechanisms for
strengthening additional private sector linkages during the intensive review.

c. Institutional Strengthening

The establishment of effective agricultural research programs in
the Eastern Caribbean will require a long-term commitment on the part of AID
and other donors. The approach proposed in the project is to address CARDI's






-11-


long .term institutional strengthening requirements as well as the national
research needs of participating countries. The challenge of the proposed
Project is to determine the proper mix of technology and institution building
consistent with the needs of the Region.

In addition to the "improvement b~y performance" approach, the
proposed project will address both management and technical areas of CARDI
that require strengthening if the objectives of the Project are to be
achieved. Using AID grant funds to link CARDI with an appropriate U.S.
institution to foster a long-term association will be an important option to
be explored during intensive review.

(i) Management Requirements:
As a result of the Project, CARDI's research administrative
capabilities and operational performances will be improved. Areas identified
for attention, include financial management, research administration and
personnel. CARDI will soon contract the services of an independent firm to
conduct a comprehensive management audit of its operations. The results of
the audit which is expected to be completed in January 1983, will be an
important guide during the intensive review to determine the type of
assistance and duration of assistance needed to attain management improvements.

It is envisioned that a Jong-term agricultural research
administration specialist funded in this project will assist CARDI's Director
of Research and Development in the areas identified for improvement. The
presence of this long-term advisor will be supplemented by short-term
assistance as required to establish specific management, and operational ----
systems and procedures, along with appropriate short-term training programs
for relevant CARDI staff.

(ii) Technical Requirements:

Although CARDI has an impressive number of professional and
sub-professional staff, the core staff needs strengthening in such disciplines
as: plant protection, agricultural engineering, post-harvest loss technology,
plant breeding and weed control. The staffing of an agricultural engineer is
particularly important to develop small implement technology and supplemental
irrigation systems which could decrease the drudgery of farm labor and ensure
adequate year round water for supplemental irrigation.

In addition, it is envisioned that a long-term farming
systems research advisor will be funded to assist the CARDI project manager. in
establishing effective FSR programs. The assistance of the long-term FSR
advisor will be supplemented by short-term assistance in specific technical
areas. It is envi sioned that short-term train ning programs .for CARDI country
teams, extension agents and selected farmers in FSR/D methodology will be
undertaken to increase the understanding and upgrade the capabilities of
country teams and national extension and research services in the FSR/D
process.

To further develop long-term expertise and coordination
between basic agri-cultural research carried -out by UWI and CARDI's adaptive
on-farm research, ~UI graduate students will be trained by CARDI in the
disciplines relevant to FSR. Additional training may be provided for selected






-1 2-


CARDI field personal at the B.Sc. degree level in Caribbean universities and
for advanced graduate training in FSR disciplines at a U.S. university.

Professional liaison-and exposure with other international
agricultural organizations are needed by CARDI to participate in FSR exchanges
and dialogue. It is envisioned that participation in international
conferences and reviewing other FSR projects will be a part of the training
assistance funded for CARDI's professional staff.

By strengthening CARDI's research management, FSR
methodology, staffing and communications, a more effective institution will be
functioning by the end of the project. The introduction of FSR methodology
into each participating country's research and extension development program
will further strengthen CARDI's support from fanners and host governments.

FSR does not preclude the necessity of performing research
functions on traditional research stations. There is clearly a need for
on-station research in the Caribbean and this is consistent with the FSR
methodology. It is envisioned that the Project will assist'CARDI in upgrading
its two-regional research centers in St. Lucia and St. Kitts to make them
comparable with CARDI's FSR program.

d. Project Organization and Management
It is envisioned that CARDI's-D~irector of Research and
Development will be the CARDI Supervisor of the proposed Project. The
Director of Research will also have overall responsibility for technical
guidance supported by the research administrator advisor and by a Resource
Management Group in CARDI. The Director will be located at CARDI Headquarters
in Trinidad.

A CARDI Project Manager will have overall responsibility for
managing, supervising, monitoring and reporting of all project activities.
Working with the farming systems advisor specialist, the manager will ensure
that an interdisciplinary team approach is used at all project levels in the
implementation and evaluation of project activities. The manager will be
responsible for maintaining close research/extension linkages at all project
levels, for responding to participating country requests, and for interfacing
with other donors and private sector institutions. The manager's staff will
include one administrative assistant responsible for financial management and
i nte r-i sand communi cati on s. The manager will be assisted in developing
project implementation and management systems by external consultants.

At the country level, CARDI will have Country Teams (CT) ahead~ed
by a CT Leader and supported by a field technician and several research
support staff. The CT's will manage in-counry operations calling on suiB-
regional specialist teams and research station staff to conduct field work and
provide technical back-up support. The CT's will include participating
country Ministry of Agriculture staff assigned to the program. It is
anticipated that in-country project activities will be monitored by a Country
Coordinating Committee made up of members from both the public and private
sectors and the representatives .of the Caribbean Agricultural Extensi on
Project. The CT's will employ a participatory approach to involve farmers and
other key private and public local organizations in the FSR,/D process.






-1 3-

As stated above, the option of. contracting with a U.S.
university will be explored during the intensive review. Such an arrangement
would add significantly to CARDI's research management capability by providing
at least two long-term advisors to work directly with CARDI's Project Manager
ahd Lould establish a long-term, supportive institutional relationship between
CARDI and the U.S. institution.














PROPOSED F5R/D PROJECT ORGANIZTION


if


I


I


- Project Manager
(-T.A. Fanning Systests Adv.)
- Administrative Staff

* Technical/Analytical/
Management Support


FSR/D SPECIArLIST TEAM


WINIWARDS SUB-UNIT
(INST. LCIA
S- Technical Coordinator

S- FSR/D
Technical Staff

S- Support Staff


tp ~


Par~ticipatin Participating
Islands Islands


I ///


'r I I


* Flannrs Participating in On-Farin Tests
* Frnersr Involved in Transfer (Adaptaltion and
Validation) of Technological lalproveunts

(Small and Mecdval S1izd East Caribbean Fareer)


CARDI (PARENT ORGANIZATION)
- Executive Director & Board
* Director of Research & Developanmt
(- T.A. Research Management Advisor)


AID-RD0(C (DONOR)

* Dlrretor

- Support Staff
* Agri. Project
/IOfficer


JI


(PROJECT ORGANIZATION)


/


* Other A\IDSupported
Projects
Extension/WII
CATCO



















Private Sector
Supplies
Agri-Business


- CARDI Support
Field Stations
*Resource
Staff
Other CARDI
Projects


LEEWARD-C SUB-UNIT
(IN ANTIGUA)
- Technical Coordinator
- FSR/D
Technical Stisff

* Support Staff -.


- Ministry of Agrt.'s
- In-Country
Development Efforts


I







-14-


III. FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECT SELECTION.AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
A. Social Considerations:

.7 One of the key factors for the development of the FSR
methodology is that it takes a holistic approach to research by working
through multi-disciplinary teams to take account of the various economic,
social and cultural variables which influence farm behavior. Therefore,
condeptually the FSR methodology fits the needs of farmers by farm testing
improved technologies under on-farm conditions. CARDI under the SFMCP was
able to establish creditability both with ministry officials and with
representative farmers. Indeed, as the evaluation pointed out, this is one of
the primary beneficial effects of that project.
The utilization of country teams in CARDI's FSR methodology is
another key factor that contribute to social acceptance. CARDI country team
members are often originally from their respective states; many are in fact
active fanners. The interaction of team members with CARDI's
multi-disciplinary FSR approach will foster recommendations that will prove
acceptable.
The interaction between CARDI, extension services, the private
sector and the farmer will establish a two-way system of communication
essential for maximum outreach and impact of developed technological
improvements.
Two characteristics of the small and medium farming sector that
will receive careful analysis in the design and implementation of the Project ----
are the part-time nature of farming in many LDC's and the number of female
farmers. These aspects have significant economic as well as social
implications for acceptance and spread of technological improvements. The
Project Paper will carefully analyze the implications of women and part-time
farmers for the project and the results of this analysis will be incorporated
in the Project's final design.
Other standard social and behavior factors associated with
changes in agriculture will also be studied and incorporated into the project
design. This will include how farmers view on-farm adaptive research; to
breadth of farm related factors considered by farmers (thus FSR/D) when making
decisions; past experience in adopting new technologies, responding to income
incentives, etc.
B. Economic Considerations:

It is generally accepted that the economic returns to
agricultural research are extremely high. However, the creation and
strengthening of the institutional capacity including development of the human
resources needed for effective institutions, often requires a long-term
commitment and effort. It takes time to develop and test new technologies and
to strengthen CARDI and the national and local institutions required to adapt
and apply technologies to local conditions.

The proposed project is of particular importance to the LDC's of
the Region. While CARDI is and will remain the predominate agricultural
research institution in the Eastern Caribbean, AID support has been primarily





-15-

responsible for enabling CARDI to establish a significant resident capacity in
the smaller states that in turn enhances the utilization of CARDI's core
scientist in its Trinidad headquarters., Without continued AID support, CARDI
would be forced to substantially reduce its services and activities in most
LDC 's and Barbados.

FSR is considered preferable to traditional agricultural
research; while more expensive to conduct than traditional research, FSR
speeds the acceptance and transferance of interventions. Nonetheless, the
cost effectiveness of FSR as opposed to traditional research methods has not
been established. This is one of the primary considerations for including
strong extension linkages in the Project. It is generally accepted that the
establishment of effective systems of technology transfer, in conjunction with
effective FSR programs is a cost effective method of providing technological
improvements. The Project Paper will explore the cost-effectiveness of the
FSR/D) approach in the Eastern Caribbean context.
C. Relevant Experience With Similar Projects

1. Small Farm Multi-Cropping Project (SFMCP)
In 1978, RDO/C entered into a $2.2 million grant with CARDI
to develop its on-farm research capability specifically on the Eastern
Cari bbean LDC's. The grant's PACD was N~ovelIber 30, 1982. The purpose of the
Project was to develop recommendations for improved farming systems through
adaptive, farm-based research which fanners can and will use, extension agents
can explain and credit institutions will finance.
The central feature of the Project was its emphasis on
research conducted on farmer's fields, which was part of a broad program of
agricultural research and policy analysis designed to improve the production
and incomes of small farmers. This approach differed radically from that
utilized by CARDI previously.
An in-depth evaluation conducted in April, 1982 brought to
focus many weaknesses inherent in both the design and implementation of the
project. Conceptually, the project was~ over-ambitious in expecting CARDI to
develop a functioning on-farm research program in a number of states in a
four-,year period. This process normally requires a much greater period of
time to achieve. Many false starts were encountered in implementation as
CARDI attempted to transform itself from a traditional research organization
to one capable of performing on-farm adaptive research. CARDI, prompted by
political concerns, attempted to move too swiftly in establishing its program,
instead of phasing its work in a few islands and then expanding its efforts
from the lessons learned. In addition, during this period crucial management
and financial control systems were over-extended.
.As discussed above, RDO/C and CARDI are fully cognizant of
the experience, both positive and negative, of the project and the design of
the proposed project does address these institutional and technical problems.
Foremost among these basic design changes in the emphasis being placed on
linking CARDI to a .suitable.UcS. institution to provide the kind of long-term
collaborative relationship which will nurture CARDI's management of the FSR/D
research approach.






-16-


2. Other AID Projects

The proposed project has a direct and important
relationship to the $5.4 million Caribbean Agricultural Extension Project
(CAEP) with Midwest Universities Consortium for International Activities
(MU'CIA) and the University of the West Indies (UWI). Indeed, both projects
complement each other, and the success of one, will to an extent, be dependent
on the success of the other. CARDI is an important member of the Technical
Joint Action Committee which is established under CAEP to provide the vital
research/extension linkages which will be necessary to increase agricultural
production in the long run. In addition, CAEP will play a vital role in
developing, along with CARDI, systematic approaches to transferring
technological improvements throughout the Region.

The Project also has an important relationship with other
regional and bilateral AID initiatives in the Eastern Caribbean. These
include the agricultural structural adjustment projects RDO/C is proposing for
St. Vincent and St. Lucia. In both these bilateral programs the knowledge and
technology recommendations of CARDI will feed directly into national commodity
expansion programs and diversification activities to be supported with AID
fundi ng. CARDI resident country teams in St. Lucia and St. Vincent have
participated actively in conceptualizing the bilateral projects, and specific
activities for CARDI such as varietal testing, seed multiplication, and
training in support of the bilateral projects have been identified.

D. Proposed Grantee and Implementing Agency

CARDI is currently a regional agricultural research center wi~th._.,
the best established agricultural research and development capacity in the
Eastern Caribbean LDC's. CARDI operates under three mandates established by
the Standing Committee of Ministers of Agriculture in Belize in June 1976.

These are:

1) to improve the productivity of the agricultural sector and
to minimize the dependence of the Region on foreign food imports;

2) to seek additional sources of funding from external donor
agencies;

3) to decentralize its operations.

Since its inception, due to a large part to AID support under
the Small Farm Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project, CARDI has:

o conducted research geared at increasing productivity;
o 'broadened its funding base;
o decentralized its operations;
o attracted new, highly qualified staff.

(a) Productivity:

CARDI has contributed significantly to improving
agricultural productivity by conducting research programs on a number of crops
and cropping systems, as well as by assisting member countries with training
























































-'refU~IPP'oe s CoI 2.* 3
; i ;Wes cet.f ed






-18-


states has increased from US$1.1 million in 1975 to US$2.5 million in 1982.
CARDI expects this budget to be increased to US$3.5 million in 1983.
(c) Decentralization:

CARDI now has scientific teams in all twelve of the states
it .how serves. These are as follows:

Table I: Location of CARDI Professional Staff
1975 1982
1975 1982 1975 1982

Antigua -6 Jamaica 2 9
Barbados 4 7 Montserrat -.1
Belize 3 St.Kitts/Nevis 4
Dominica -2 St. Lucia c 5
Grenada 1 St. Vincent 4
Guyana -. 3 Trinidad/Tobago 18 18
In addition, through external funding, CARDI has completed
or is in the process of completing field stations and field office facilities
*in eleven of its member countries in support of this decentralization. The
results of this decentralization effort har been the transformation of the
organization from a wholly Trinidad centered research center focusing on pure
research to one focusing on the real problems of the farmers in its member
country es. In 1975 almost all of CARDI research was conducted on stations in
Trinidad. Today, significant proportion of CARDI's research is conducted
on-farm in member countries.

The CARDI teams, often comprised of ministry personnel,
have identified the major constraints to higher production in each island and
have prioritized each major crop which needs researching. Potentially viable
strategies for example, have been determined for carrots, sweet potatoes and
peanut improvement on St. Vincent whereas, sea island cotton improvements will
be researched in Antigua, Nevis and Montserrat. The implications of price and
mRarkets are examined for each strategy to ensure farmer acceptance.

(d) Professional Staff:
CARDI staff currently numbers 156, and includes a research
and development staff of 63, and a clerical and technical support staff of 93.
In summary, the proposed project will build upon a
significant proven institutional capability.

E. AID Support Requirements Capability:
RDO/C foresees no major problems in implementing the proposed
Project. A Project manager in RDO/C's agriculture and rural development
division will jointly monitor both the C~ADI project and the Caribbean
Agri cul tural Extension Project. 'During the intensive review, the design team
will establish periodic monitoring procedures to assure the Project is on
t~rack and that it is adequately coordinated with the extension project.
Design consideration will also spcifyi the role and relationships of







-1 9-


anticipated Title XII advisors in project monitoring. Particularly, during
the crucial initial, start-up phase, the technical project manager will be
supported by adequate back-stopping through RDO/C's development resources
division and controller's office. No substantial AID/W input in project
implementation is foreseen at this time.

F. Estimated Costs and Methods of Funding
Based on preliminary cost estimates RDO/C recommends that $7.0
million in grant funds over a five-year implementation period be approved for
more intensive development. The CARDI and recipient country contribution is
estimated at $6.0 million over the proposed life of the project. A breakdown
of the project budget is presented in Table A.

G. Design Strategy
Development of the Project Paper will begin immediately
following PID approval, and is expected to be completed by the end of April,
1983. It is crucial that implementation begin under the proposed Project by
June, so that CARDI can begin work with the next cropping season. Work to be
accomplished for final project design will focus on the following elements:

1. Project Management Systems:
Based on the CARDI management audit, an extensive
institutional review of the CARDI management system will be undertaken. This
review will result in the design of the Project's organization and management
system and operational and monitoring procedures. Detailed staffing,
technical assistance and training requirements for the Project will be
determined. As part of the institutional review, the design team will conduct
a feasibility study and make recommendations for funding a low cost computer
linked communications network. If this network proves cost effective,
consideration will be given to funding the network under the Project.

2. Technology Generation:

A detailed review will be undertaken to determine a list of
commodities by island on which the Project will focus. Based on this analysis
the geographic spread of the project will be determined for selected LDC's,
and MDC's if this proves warranted. Additional analysis on the potential
impact to the Region, as well as, the potential impact on U.S. exports will be
undertaken.

3. Project Linkages:
The design team will determine the most appropriate
operational linkages between CARDI, UWI, and public and private sector
extension agencies and international centers of excellence. The team will
determine the best ways for training activities to be complementary with those
planned under the AID funded MUCIA/UWI Extension Project. In addition, a
detailed analysis will be undertaken to foster additional linkages with the
private sector.







TABLE A


.CARDI FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
SUMMARY BUDGET

( $000)


CARDI/HOST
COUNTRIES
TOTAL


AID FUNDING
BY PROJECT
YEAR


AID
TOTAL



2,000

1,400


2,300


ITEM I


FY-1

600


FY-2

500


FY-3

400


FY-4

300


FY-5

200


Personnel


1.


5,000


PROJECT
TOTAL



7,000

11,400


2. Technical Assistance
.and Training

3. Operating and
Administrative Cost

4. Equipment and
Faci lities

5. Specific Research
Programs


280 350 420 210 140

345 460 575 460 460


2,80p


500


200 150 100


500


500

100


500

600


50 120 180 120


100

300


6.


Private Sector
Development Fund


10 20 30 30 10


400

200

12,900


7. Evaluation

TOTALS


10

1,495


50

1,650


80


20


40

880


200

7,000


1,785 1,190


5,900


-tPr-' t~31p






-20-


4. Project Analyses:

The design team will focus attention on the social impact
of the project particularly concerning part-time farmers and this potential
impact on the proposed Project. A detailed analysis will be conducted on the
cost-effectiveness of the FSR/D methodology proposed.

The level of effort required to accomplish the final
Project Paper design is estimated to total 47 work weeks. Total estimated
cost under Mission PD&S funds will be approximately $30,000. Specific kinds
of expertise required are:

AID Direct Hire

RDO/C Agronomist 6 weeks
RDO/C Project Development Officer 4 weeks
RDO/C Program Economist 1 week
RDO/C Private Sector Advisor 1 week
RDO/C Controller 1 week
RDO/C Legal Advisor 1 week
AID/W Agricultural Economist 2 weeks
TE wee ks

Contractors

AID S&T Centrally Funded Farming Systems
Project Farm Systems Specialist 6 weeks
AID S&T Centrally Funded Development
Project Management Center -
Implementation and Management specialist 6 weeks

Agricultural Research Economist 4 weeks
TEbweeks

CARDI

Agronomist .6 weeks
Research Specialist 2 weeks
Anthropologist 2 weeks
Program Planner/Economist 3 weeks
Financial Analyst 2 weeks
T5 weeks

H. Recommended Environmental Threshold Decision

The Project focuses on the development of improved farming~
systems which will contribute to the attainment of increased agricultural
production and self-reliance in the Region. The Project will also strengthen
CARDI; both administratively and technically, to sustain this effort a~te~r the
life of the project.

All of the research activities envisioned under this project
will be under carefully controlled conditions primarily based on farmers
fields. While the project will contribute toward extension programs, CAAST4~
will not directly extend the production packages found to viable. It ~is; aARDI







-21-


policy to ensure that all pesticides and toxic-substances conform to standards
establi shed by EPA. AID will closely monitor the use of pesticides which may
be used, to ensure conformity with EPA recommendations, to safeguard the
health of project personnel and the quality of the local environment.

A negative dermination is recommended for this Project. An IEE
is attached as Annex C.

I. AID Policy Issues

1. Policy Determination 71

Because of the tropical nature of Caribbean agriculture, early
consideration will be given to the selection of commodities upon which
research will be undertaken to conform with AD-71 concerns with sugar, citrus
and palm oil. It is not anticipated that project activities will involve
research in sugar or coconuts. Activities may include research on citrus
production, particularly for the Windward Islands. The final project design
will fully analyze what effect, if any, proposed activities in citrus and
other crops, such as peanuts, may have on the U.S. economy.

2. Balance Between Institution-Buildi ng and Production

The project purpose has _both an i nstitution-building and a
productivity focus. At this stage in project preparation, the balance between
those two objectives in terms of AID resources is not clear. This will be a
key issue in the intensive review and will be analyzed in the Project Paper.




ANNEX A
Page 1 of 8


THE CARIBBEAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE

AN OVERVIEW (1982)

In 1974, following a two-year study and reorganization exercise, the
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute was formed as the
successor organization to the Regional Research Center. Several major changes
distinguished CARDI from the RRC. `These are:
1. CARDI became an autonomous regional organization, but is still
affiliated with the University of the West Indies.

2. All member states of CARICOM became financing members of CARDI.

3. Linkages were established with relevant regional organizations
and member states with a Board of Directors consisting of repre-
sentative~s from:

()Member States;
()University of the West Indies;
(c) CARICOM Secretariat;
Id) Caribbean Development Bank; and
e)University of Guyana.
4. -Besides research, development was added as an integral function,
requiring an outreach capacity to the territories of the member
states, particularly the LDC's.

5. Teaching functions of CARDI staff were restricted to the
supervision of post-graduate programs relevant to the research
needs of the member states.

6. Research programs were reorganized on a commodity basis with a
multidisciplinary team approach to suit the developmental needs
of the region.

CARDI's initial work program was devised after considering the following
factors:

1. The needs of the region for increased production, import substitution
and the development of non-traditional expert commodities.

2'. Requests from member states for research and services.
3. Current research interest of the Faculty of Agriculture, UWI to
avoid duplication and encourage complementing. For example,
pigeon pea was excluded from CARDI's work program since the
Faculty of Agriculture had a comprehensive program on this
conmmodity. Further, CARDI's work on yam was restricted to
investigations on virus diseases to complement other efforts
by the Faculty of Agriculture on this crop.
4. Current research efforts which are being carried out byv international
institutes and other centers of excellence (e.g. cassava, bean, corn,
soybean, peanut, cowpea, etc.). CARDI is expected to mzke3 best use
of the materials and methods by these institutions.





ANNEX A
Page 2 of 8

At their last meeting in Belize. in June~of-1976, the Standing Committee
of Ministers of Agriculture gave the management of CARDI three major directives.
These 'were:

:(a). to improve the productivity of the agricultural sector to minimitte
the dependence of the region on foreign food imports;

()to seek additional sources of funding from external donor agencies;
and

(c) to decentralize its operations.

1. Productivity

Some of the highlights are:

Yams

CARDI has developed a technique to produce "virus-free" yams,
increasing its yields by approximately 30 percent. Internal
brown spot has been controlled thus reducing losses in storage
and improving the quality of yams. Distribution of this improved
. planting material to farmers has started.
Tomato

A high yielding variety of the disease resistant "Calypso"
tomato has been developed and CARDI has assisted in its
commercialization.

Peanuts

An improved production system for achieving 5,000 1bs. of peanuts
per acre of new selected varieties was successful, and prototype
mechanical planter, lifter and sheller suitable for local fabri-
cation were designed.

Cow pea
A cowpea variety, "Laura 8", relatively resistant to mosaic virus
was bred.

Fo rage

High yielding varieties of forage legumes and grasses suitable for
varying conditions were selected, and conservation methods suitable
for small farmers during the dry season were developed. Seeds of
forage legumes and grasses are provided through the assistance of
the Chaguaramas Agricultural Development Project.

Sugar Cane
Control of the sugar cane moth borer, arm~y work, diamond back moth
and the sugar cane mealy-bug has been achieved.





ANNEX A
Page 3 of8S

Cassava

Selected varieties of cassava have been improved for greater yield.

Irrigation

Simple irrigation systems and low cost water filters suitable for
local manufacture have been designed and tested for small banana
farms.

Vegetables
Selected improved varieties of vegetables and production techniques
suitable for small farmers in St. Kitts and Belize have been developed
and demonstrated. Development and testing of Homeyard vegetable pro-
duction systems have also been achieved.

~Corn/Soya
CARDI has devised and improved an appropriate fertilization program
for the CARICOM Corn/Soya Company for the Intermediate Savannahs in
Guyana.

Training
In the realm of training -- workshops, seminars-and courses were
given for personnel of Ministries of Agriculture, commodity organi-
zations and regional organizations in weed control, plant diagnosis,
pest control, disease control, pesticide management, research and
experimentation and farming systems research. Lectures were given
to farmers, special interest groups and to students at secondary
schools, farm schools and institutes, and to the University of the
West Indies. Post-graduate students were supervised for degrees at
the University of the Wlest Indies.
Technical Assistance

Technical assistance has been provided on many matters to personnel
of Ministries of Agriculture, other Government agencies, commodity
organizations, regional agencies, international agencies, training
institutions and to individual farmers and farmers' groups. A few
examples to illustrate the nature and diversity of the assistance
provided:
herbicide recommendations for citrus (Belize)
attractive training and extension materials .(Tr~inidad & Tobago)
plant quarantine regulations (Grenada)
draft legislation for control of sugar cane smut (Barbados)
members of Commission of Enquiry on the banana industry (St. Lucia)
control of diseases of hydroponic tomatoes (Barbados)
* member of agricultural panel of Caribbean Examination Council
* agricultural relief coordination after Hurricane David (Dominica)
* accelerated emergency food production after Hurricane Allen
(St. Lucia, St. Vincent)





ra~c -t vr u


Services

A total of 70,765 analyses were done. In addition 479 energy
determinations were made and 95-chloride samples analyzed (1980).
A method for determination of oxalates has been developed. Details
of the analyses are shown in Table I.

CARDI has produced and distributed improved planting material of
yams, sweet potato, forage legumes and grasses to various regional
an.d international governments, institutes and agencies. CARDI has
also reared and released parasites of major pests in several
Caribbean islands, as well as making shipments to international
institutes and agencies.
Information

Ninety-five publications were printed over the period 1977 '80.
Of these, thirty-two were produced by the CARDI/USAID Small Farm
Multiple Cropping Systems Research Project and forty-four were
reprints also based on the Small Farm Systems. A total distribu-
tion of these publications was approximately 33,325 copies.

2. External Funding

The growth of the institute was due to a great extent to. externally
funded projects. Total funds remitted on completed and ongoing projects
amount to TT$27,657,504. During that same period core funding was:

Fiscal Year 1975/76 TT$ 2,713,307
1976/77 2 ,713,307
1977/78 2,713,307
1978/79 5,436,386
1980 4,575,174
1981 5,558,208

TT$23,709,689

This is indicative of the confidence of these donor agencies in the
institute's capability and ability to carry out the program envisaged as well
as that of the continued support of the participating Governments.

The Board of Directors is confident that'CARDI will continue to
receive support as long as it remains responsive to the needs of the Government's
agricultural policies and programs. Management will continue to mobilize
resources from donor countries and international agencies who support agricul-
tural research and development. Several of these institutions have indicated
an interest in CARDI, its objectives and role in the region and where possible,
will, it is felt, make significant contributions. However, it must be remem-
bered that the extent to which CARDI receives external support will depend
largely on how the donors perceive the support being given by the Governments
to the work of the institute and to the quality of CARDI's staff.

3. Decentralization

The proccess of decentralization has been carried out.. In the mai n,






TABLE I


1980

No. Analyses

1505~ 10,644

' 1703 3,919

Nil Nil

533 533

55 96


1977/78

Analyses

17,467

15,237

1,367

Nil

~Nil


1978/79

No. Analyses

624 1,140

1012 14,004

Nil Nil

1184 4,856

155 242


No.

2410

3282

1367

Nil

Nil


Soil

Plant

Trace Elements

Livestock Feeds

Other .


Total

Pesticides

Grant Total


7059 '

305

7364


34,071

305

34,376


2975

S406

3381


20,242

S406

20,648


3796

549

4345


15,192

549

15,741


x
cn
st
o
3,
09








this has gone well and CARDI now has scientific _teams in all of the twelve
countries that it serves. It is recognized that some countries would like to
see a~greater CARDI presence and every effort will be made to consider this
within the context of the resources available for the institute's work. It
must be recognized that there is a cost to decentralization -- both financially
and admini strati vely. The CARDI teams service both the national and regional
programs. The location of professional staff is shown in Table II. Through
externall funding, CARDI has completed or is in the process of completing field
stations and field office facilities in t-timilve of its member countries in
support of this decentralization.

TABLE II: Location of Professtional Staff
.of CARDI: 1975, 1982


Antigua -6 Jamaica 2 9
Barbados 4 :7 Montserrat -1
Belize --3 St. Kitts/Nevis -4
Domi ni ca -2 St. Lucia 5
Grenada -1 St. Vincent 4
Guyana -3 Trinidad & Tobago 18 18

N.B.: Only 38 of -these are paid from CORE. Twenty-five are paid
from external funds.

4. Professional Staff


5. Organizational Changes

The technical capability of CARDI has kept pace with its growth and
was a calculated decision on the part of management. This capability is
largely attracts funding. Currently (1982) th~e administrative and finan-
capability are being strengthened. CARDII has becorme a mini-contglomerate


Page 6 of 8


1975 1981


1975


1982


agri cultural research
support staff of
include the following


CARDI currently has a high quality professional
and development staff of 63 and a clerical and technician
approximately 93 people. Professional staff disciplines
fields:


Agri cultural Economics
Agri cultural Engi neering
Agricultural Marketing
Agronomy
Analytical Chemistry
Animal Breeding
Animal Nutrition
Animal Production
Biometrics & Statistics
Commun icati on s
Entomology
Forage Agronomy


- Information Systems
- Irrigation Agronomy
- Management
- Microbiology
- Nematology
- Plant Breeding
- Plant Pathology
- Primatology
- Rural Sociology
- Social Chemistry
- Systems Agronomyr
- Virology
- Weed AgrononUI


this
what
cial




Page 7 of 8


and it is becoming increasingly evident that the- Executive Director cannot and
should not be unduly involved in the details of day-to-day operations. The
accompanying chart, shows an organizational arrangement based on a managerial
delegation/decentralization philosophy.




ANNEX A
Page 8 of 8


CARDI 'S ORCANI SATIOZNAL- STRU CTURE





Page 1 of 3


SOURCES OF EXTERNAL PROJECT SUPPORT
FOR CARDI


Canadian International Development Agency

-Control of nutmeg wilt (1) 1979-80


Caribbean Development Bank

-Farm records -1977-79
-Testing of animal feed blocks 1978-80
-Trickle irrigation for bananas 1977-80


Food and Agricultural Organization

-Regional Survey of food legumes 1977-78

Ford Foundation

-.Travel to promote international
contacts 1977-78


Overseas Development Administration (UK)

-Control of yam virus 1975-79
-Appropriate experimental designs 1975-79

United States Agency for International
Development

-Field Station development 1976-78


International Development Research Centre
(Can ada)

-Production of forage legume seed 1977-80


Barclays Bank International, Development
Fund

-Integrated pest control (1) 1978-81

-New production technology
(St. Vincent) 1980-82


US$8 22,000




20,000
24,000
88,000




5,000




12,000




169,000
210,000




249,000





90,000





25,-000


25,000



































































:


__ _


Pag~e 2 of 3


-Production of "How to do it"
materials
-Integrated Pest Control (II)


Canadian International Development Agency

-Control of nutmeg wilt (II)
-Control of burning disease of
tannia
-Internal parasite control in
sheep


1980-82 US$ 74,000
1981-84 170,000 cn




1980-81 18,000

1980-81 18,000

S1980-82 20,000 amaxe


Caribbean Development Bank

-Cableways for bananas (includes
New Zealand Technical Assistance) 1978-81
-Control of monkey crop damage 1980-81


106,000
47,000





60,000





1,950,000
85,000
305,000 anarr

500,000 camre


Consortium for International Crop
Protection

Pesticide management workshop


1980-81


European Economic Community

-Equipment, vehicles and
buildings 1979-82
-Production of forage legume seed 1980-81
-Production of virus-tested yams 1980-83
-Improved peanut production
systems 1980-83


Food and Agricultural Organization

-Development of regional programme
for food legumes


International Development Research
Centre (Canada)

-CARDI literature service

-Milk production systems


1980-81





1981-84

1982-85


35,000





232,083

314,750


";'





ANNEX B
Page 3 of 3


1978-81 US$ 746,000


1978-82


1980-81
1980-81


2,200,000

(3,200,000)
100,000
36,000


3,035,000


United Nations Development Programme
CDB

-Farming systems and commodity
improvement


United States Agency for International
De velopme nt

-Farming systems
-New headquarters building
(soft loan to UWI)
-Accelerated food production
-Food forest survey


European Economic Community

-Forage seed production and
forage utilization
-Improvement of aroids
-Soil and water management


3 years
4 years
4 years


Caribbean Development Bank

-Asssessment of solar
powered water pumping


1-1/2 years


50,000


12,485,833















NEVIS ANTIGUA MONTSERRAT DOMINICA ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT


I. Animal Nutrition XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX
Interventions A & B
(Cotton seed in the
Wi ndward Islands and
bananas in the Windward
Islands)

II. Animal Health XX XXX XX X X XX

III. Genetic Improvement XX X X X X XX

Cattle
Sheep & Goats (Leeward
Islands & Carriacou)
Pigs (Windward Island's)
Poul try

IV. Animal Management XXX XX XX XXX XX XXX

V. Policy and Institutional
Interventions X XX X XX X XX

VI. Farm Management XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX .


Note: The interventions for spezcifit territories have been ranked for purposes of
implementation. Highest Priori~ty XXX; Moderate Priority XX;
Low Priority X.


AN~NEX G

SUGGESTED PRIORITY INTERVENTIONS


ril
OP
cp





ANNEX C

DISTRIBUTION OF PRIORITY CROPS ACCORDING TO COUNTRY


ANTIGUA ST. KITTS NEVIS MONTSERRAT DOMINICA ST. LUCIA ST. VINCENT


_ 1 I I I f I


Fibre Crop


Root Crops




Vegetables





Cereal


Grain Legumes






Fruit crops


Sea Island Cotton


Sweet potato
Yam
Cassava


Onions
Tomato
Carrot
Eggplant


Corn


Peanut
Pigeon pea
Red kidney bean
Lima bean
Mung bean


Papaya
Passion fruit


Elephant grass
Leucaena


L,
r/
r/

I


v'


Forages





5. Policy environment on-
courages private sector in-
vestment in profitable, new
agricultural ventures.


PrpLErt End of. Project Stntus (EOPs)


LOGICAL FRAMEWORK SUMMARY[
EAST CARIBBEAN FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND DEVECO)PRENT PROJECT


MOV'S '


Narrative Summary


OVI'3


External Conditions


Goal

To enable countries of the Eastern
Caribbean to assure continuing .
food security to their populations
from a combination of domestic pro-
duction and importations of food
at commercials terms paid from
foreign exhange earnings.


Purpose to Goal

1. No drastic shifts occur in
international and regional
economic policie3 and markets.




2. Haoro agro-olimatio changes
do not seriously impede spread
of technological improvements.


3. Expanded availability of
agricultural inputs creditt,
farm implements, seeds, in-
formation) in response to in-
oreasing demand.

4I. The governments of the
Eastern Caribbean continue to
implement viable farming
systems development programs.


1. Gross Domestic Product
from crops and livestock
Increases in participating
Caribbean countries



2. Dependency on food
imports decreases
particularly from extra-
regional sources.

3. Net farm Incomes and
productive employment
increase for small and
medium farmers.


S. Farm family nutrition
improves


1. Agriculture Statistics






2. Agriculture Statistics


3. Farem Surveys '





4. Fara Surveys


Output to Purpose

1. Agriculture inputs in
support of technological
improvements are available.













2. Agro-olimatical conditions
do not disrupt on-fare testing
and transfer activities.


To increase agricultural pro-
ductivity and production by
developing a sustainable -
Farming Systems Research and
Development Program in CARDI
that responds to the Agri-
cultural needs of partici-
pating Eastern Caribbean
countries.
To strengthen the institutional
capacity of CARDI to implement
effective adapative research
programs responsive to the lonE
term needs of participating
Eastern Caribbean countries.


1. Eastern Caribbean small
and medium farmers are usinS
economically viable
technological im-
provements.


1. Ministry
surveys


of Agriculture


( 2
usam
0 0
CD


2. Public and private
sootor institutions in
Participating East
Caribbean countries are
supporting the farming
systems approach to


2. Ministry of Agriculture
institutional analysis





End of Project Status (EOPa)

transfer technological
improvements to
homogeneous groups of
farmers.

3.Participating countries,
donors and private *
enterprises are using
farming systems research
information for improved
policy making and planning.

4. CARDI's regional and
international image in
adaptive research is im-
proved as evidenced by
country and external funding,
research requests,
international invitations.

5. CARDI is committed to
continuing a productive
FSR/D program.


Narrative Summary


OVI'S MOV'S


External Conditions


4


Purpost


Output to Purpose


3. Policy Survey






4. Institutional viability
analysis.






5. CARDI institutional .
analysis


3. USAID supported CAT00
project is operating as
planned.




9. USAID supported UNI
Extension Project is
operational as planned.





5. CARDI will incorporate
the FSR/D approach in other
projects.


Dutputs/Categories

1. A number of econmically
viable farmP tested and
validated technological
improvements in crops,
livestck and crop/
livestock combinations
are developed*


Input to Dutput

1. CARDI able to recruit high.
; quality personnel for FSR/D
positions.

2. Ministry of Agricultures
in participating countries
assign qualified staff to work
with CARDI country FSR/D
teams.


la. Technological ta-
provements for
cropping, livestock
and combinations
identified, tested and
documented,


la~. CARDI PSR documents
and field surveys. .


lIb. CARDI FSR methodology lb. CARDI PSR methods
for choosing locating, documents/publications.
selecting potentially
acceptable technological
improvements and conducting
on-farm trails (as adapted to
various country conditions)
refined, documented, and
disseminated.

A sa)ge~mlaie approach for 2a. CARDZ PSR/D documents
transferring (adapting and
validating) technological
improvements on large numbers
of fairly homogeneous farms
developed jointly with MOA, CAEP
and related personnel.


'rn
cPZ
O~


CrOs 8pbstmatt aplprohacs and Lae
irapages with extension and
private sector will
be established





Narrative Summary


OVI'8


MOV'S-


External Conditions


Output to Purpose


~Purgose


End of Project Status (EOPs)
2b. CARDI country team staff
and cooperating personnel
trained and supervised in
applying and documenting
experience with the
technology transfer
approach.

20. Effective linkages with'
the Eastern Caribbean pri-
vate sector.


2b. CARDI and M0A documents.


Outputs/Categories


Input to OUtput


3. Effective institutional
support and management systems
developed within CARDI for the
farming systems reserarh and -
development program.


3a. CARDI Headquarters,
Field stations, and
country teams upgraded,
developed and supported.


3b. FSR project management
and implementation system
developed and operational
for planning, controlling,
and evaluating progress.


3a. CARDI. documents.


3b. Project management
records.


Activities


Project Costs:


($000)

CARD:
5,000


500

5,500


AID
2,000
1,000
1100
2,300
1 300
7,6000


Personnel
Technical Assistanoe
Training
Operational Expenses
Other Costs


1. Participating countries
agree to FSR/D Project.

2. Qualified staff within
CARDI will not move to other
institutions.


rC)
fD (7


Preconditions














Project Location:

Proj ect Title:


Funding (Fiscal Year and Amount):


Approval of Environmental Action
Recommended


Disapproval of Environmental Action
Re~comm~ended


Annex E

Page 1 of 5


c C


INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION (IEE)


Caribbean Regional

Eastern Caribbean Farming Systems
Research and Development Project

FY 83 $6.0 million

Four Years




Edward WG. Birgells,
Assistant Project Development Officer

November 12, 1982


Life of Project:




IEE Prepared by:


Date:


Recommended:


A Negative Determination


Date


Concurrence :


Morse
Director


'Ted D.
Acti ng


Assistant Administrator's Decision:


AA/LAC


Date


Date





Annex E

Page 2 of 5


NATURE, SCOPE AND MAGNITUDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


A. Description of the Project

The P'roject focuses on the development of improved farming systems which will
contributee to the attainment of increased agricultural production and self-
reliance in the Region. Th~e Projec~t will also strengthen CARDI; both
administratively and technically, to sustain this effort after the life of
project. AID assistance to CARDI will include:
Sa) personnel operating and administrative expenses
b) technical assistance;
c) training;
d) agricultural research centre upgrading; and
e) evaluation

Over the four year life of the Project CARDI will use these resources to:
a) ~develop potentially viable crop and livestock packages within the
context of FSR
b) develop and implement' the methodology to extend these packages; and
c) develop the capability to sustain the efforts after the project
terminates


B. Identification and Evaluation of Environmental Impacts

All of the research activities envisioned under this project will be under
carefully controlled conditions primarily based on farmers fields. While the
project will contribute toward developing a methodology for extension, CARDI
will not directly extend the production packages found to viable. It is CARDI
policy to ensure that all pesticides and toxic substances conform to standards
established by EPDA. AID will closely monitor the use of pesticides which may
be used, -to ensure conformity with EPDA recommendations, to safeguard the health
of project personnel and the quality of the local environment.

C. Recommendation of Environmental Actions


A negative determination is recommended for this Project.

























-----

-----

-----

-----


- -


-----------------------

------------------------


See Expanatory Notes for this form.

Use the following symbols: N -No environmental impact
L 1ttle environmental impact
M -Moderate environmental impact
H High environmental impact
U -Unknown environmental impact


Annex E

Page .3 of 5


,. C


IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION FORM




Impact Areas and Sub-areas 1/

A. LAND USE

1. Changing the character of the land through:

a. Increasing the population --------------------

b. Extracting natural resources -----------------

c. Land clearing -------------------------------

d. ~Changing soil character ---------------------

2. Altering natural defenses ------------------------

3. Foreclosing important uses -----------------------

4.. Jeopardizing man or his works ------------------

5. Other factors


Impact
Identification
and
Evaluation 2/







N

N

N'

N

N

N

N


B. WATER QUALITY

1. Physical state of water -------

2. Chemical and biological states

3. Ecological balance ------------

4. Other factors


N

N

N

















----------------------------------------


-----------------------------


- -- -- - -


Annex .E

Page 4 of 5


IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION FORM


C. ATMOSPHERICC

1. Air additives --

2*. Air pollution --

3. Noise pollution

4. Other factors


N


N

N


D. NATURAL RESOURCES

1. Diversion, altered use of water ------------

2. Irreversible, inefficient commitments -----------------

3. Other factors


N

N


E. CULTURAL

1. Altering physical symbols

2. Dilution of cultural tradj

3. Other factors


N

N


F. SOCIOECONOMIC

1. Changes in economic/employment patterns ---------------

2. Changes in population -------------------------------

3?. Changes in cultural patterns -------------


N

N

N


























-----------------------

----------------------

-----------------------


-----------------------------....


1. OTHER POSSIBLE IMPACTS (not listed above)


Annex E

Page 5 .of 5


IMPACT IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION FORM



4. Other Factors


G. HEALTH

1. Changing a natural environment -

2. Eliminating an ecosystem element

3. Larger program impacts --------i-

4. Other factors


N

N

N


H. GENERAL

1. International impacts

2. Controversial impacts

3. Larger program impacts

4. Other factors


N

N

N








Date
ROUTING AND TRANSMFITAL SLIP
01/03/83
TO: (Name, ofme symbol, room number, Initials Date
building, Agency/Post)
i. LAC/CAR:JFrancis (3 copies)

2. PPC/PDPR/PDI :PO'Farrell (2 coPies)

3. LAC/DR/RD;D~te

4, LA'C/DP:DBroome

& LAC/DR: RBurke
Aciono Fil INoteand Retur
ApprovalFor Clearance Per Conversation
As ReqestedFor Correction Prepare Reply
CirclateFor Your Information I See Me
Commentinvestigate ISignaatur

REMARKS
6. GC/LAC:BMeighan
7 `LAC/DR: CH Leon ard

Please find attached the Eastern Caribbean
Farming Systems Research and Development
Project (538-0099) PID. An Issues Meeting is
scheduled .for :00- p~m., Thursday, January 13.
he i~-DAEC Review is scheduled for 9:00 a~m.,
January 17.

SPlease provide Larry Armstrong with any issues
or comments you halve by COB January 8 .





DO NOT use this form as a RECORD of approvals, concurrence, dispoosal,
cloearacoe, and similar actions


Room No.--Bldg.
2252 NS
Phono N.9


F~ROM: (N org. s rbol, Agency/Post) '

Richard Whelden, LAC/DR
5041-102


~2/Lr~~162


_ _


OPTIONAL FORM 41 (Rev. 7-76)
Psescrbed bY GSA
FPMR (41 CFR) 101-11.206








































































Silnature


19. ACT! ION EER~ENE


AID 13342 (679)


MM DD YY
SDt ipd1/21 3101 812


MM DD Y
j


20^. ACTION D.ATE


2. COUNTRY /LNTITY 3. PROJECT NUMBER
Regional Development Office/Caribbean .I t538-0099 3
4. BUREAU/OFFICE I PROJECT TITLE maximumm 40 characters)
~A. Symbol B. Code
Latin Aericii/aribben LA ~0 ~ C Eastern Caribbean Farming Systems

6. ESTIMATED FY OF ~AUTHORIZATION/OBLIGATION/COMPLETIION 7. ESTIMATED COSTS (000 OR EQUIALEN, $ =
FUNDING SOURCE LIFE OF PROJECT

B.hn 1 .
B.FinalN FY 7. cr L
c. Host country 5, 900
C.c PACD D. Other D~onor(s)
TOTAL 6eP12,900
8. PROPOSED BUDG::T AID FUNDS ($00
A. APPRO* B. PRIMAnRY C.PRIMA~RY TECH. CODE D. 1sT H 83 & LIFE OF PROJECT
PRIATIONPURPOSE
CODE 1. Grant 2. loan 1. Grant 2. Loan 1. Grant 1 Loan
()ARDN 10 080 1,495 7,000
(2)


ToTA.Ls e 1,49 7,000
9. SECONDARY TECHNICAL CODES (maximum 6 c~3~-podes ~iof osition ach 10. SECONDARY PURPOSEE CODE,

1L SPECIAL CONCERNS CODES (maximum 7 codes of 4 positions each)
A. Code
B. Amount
11. PROJECT PURPOSE (mazrirnsm 480 charactr)


To increase agricultural productivity and production by
institutionalizing a sustainable Farm Systems Research and
Development Program in the Caribbean Agricultural Research
and Development Institute (CARDI).


C


I


16. PROJECT DOCUMENT ACTION TAKEN

SA l Approved laenr
D =Disapproved


CA I Conditionaclly Aiprovd
DDflDcisionDeferrd


_ __ ~_


-C---------~-- -------


~ I~


---~I~-CLII-III~--I


_ ~ _I_


; i.1SACTION: CODE
A= Ad Rviio N
c= change


;DOCUEME
ICODE
]


AtLiC PoI suN' *WATrlowAL DeVasUorusesy
Cm i' PROJECT ID)ENTIFICATION DOCUMENT
FACESHEET (PID)


13. RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR PROJECT DEVEIDPMENT
staff: S&T Funded Farming System and .
Management Specialist 6 wks each
Agr. Research Economist 4 wks
Funds PD&S: $30,000


Mission Staff 16 wks
SARDI Staff 15 wks


15. DATE DOCUMENT~ RECEIVED IN;
AID/W, OR FOR AID/W DOCU.
MENTS, DATE OF DISTRIBUTION


17. NTS
ura er: E. Bi rgell S, J. Hughes, W. Baucom.
RDO/C Review: T. Brown, T. Carter. T. Liercke,
;] TUle 8




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