Poultry and game bird

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Poultry and game bird small flock management
Series Title:
Poultry science information series ;
Physical Description:
20 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Douglas, Carroll R ( Carroll Reece ), 1932-
Kalch, Lester W
University of Florida -- Dept. of Poultry Science
Publisher:
Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Poultry -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 19-20).
Statement of Responsibility:
C.R. Douglas, L.W. Kalch.
General Note:
Title from cover.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 726880058
ocn726880058
Classification:
lcc - SF487.8.F6 P68 1980
System ID:
AA00008149:00001

Full Text


FLORIDA COOPERATIVE EXTENSIONI SERVICE
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE


Information Series 80-1


$ I


C .R .DOUGLAS


Extension Poultryman
L.W. K(ALCH

Extension Poultryman


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGiRICULTURE AND H(OME ECONOMICS. STATE OF PL.QMIDA. IFAS, UNIV~ERSITY
OF CLORIDA~. U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL.TURIE. AND BOA~RDS OF COUNTY COMMISr~tONERS. COOPERATING


Poulh~y Scietrce


POULTRY


and GAME BIRD


SMALL FLOCK( MANAGEMENT











TABLE OF CE~ITES

A. Skuall Home Chicken Flocks .... ,,,,,.,.............................. 1 9
1. Breieds of Chickens........................... 1


2. Sources of Quality Chicketas, ......s........... ................ .........2

3. Ioeb~bation and Batching Procedures .,........,.,..... ....................... 2

4. Incubation Periods.~ ,,,,,.... ..,~~~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~3

5. Musing ahd Equipment ,.......................,.......... ............... 3
6. Feed and Water ..............,.................................. 6

7. Flock Sealth and Disease Prevention..,................................ 6

8. B~rooding. ................... ................... ........,,......... ..... 7

9. Broiler Man~EEE~~~EEEagement ..........................................,,,,, 7

10. Pullet Management ......................................,........ 7

11. Layer b~anagesent ,..................... .............,..~ ................ .~~ 8

12. Quality Markret Eggs ................... ................... .............. B

13. Poultry Arithmetic ...,....................... ..................., g


B,
~i-scellaneous Poultry .................................... .......9 -14

1. Turk~eys...............................................9 -11

a. Bjajor Pactors Associated With Turkey Production....,............. ... 9

b. Cannlon Varieties...........,,.......................... ............. 9

c. SouCres of Poults........,......... .................................. 9

d. Housing and Equipment ...........................,............... 10

e. Feeds and Feeding .......,,.......................... ................11

f. Management ..,........ ., ,,,,,.,,............,....... .............. ...11

2. Ebbwhfite Quail ........................................... ....... 11-13

a. Selection of Quality Stock ..,................ ....................... 11

b. B~eeder Management .............................................1

c. Thoubstion ..................................,,.. .,.................12








TABLE: OF 00NWTETS (Cont.)




* ~d. Brooding and Rearing ................................................12

e. Flock Health ....,.....................,..............................13

3. Ducks and Geese, ......................................... .,,,.,.... 13-14


a. Breeds................................................. 13

b. Incubation ......,...... ..... ,... .... ....... ...... ...... .... ....... ....13


c. Brooding and Rearing...,............................................. 13

d. Flock Health........,,........... ..................................... 14

C. Diseases.. . . . .14- 17

1. Blackhead ..................... ......... ..... ... ....... ....... ....... 14


2. Chicken Pox or Fowl Pox (Soreheaid),...................................... 15

3. Chronic Respiratory Disease (CHD) ....................................... 15

4. Coccidiosis....................,......................... 15


5. Coryza...................................................16


6. Epidemic Tremo~r. .....................,.,,,,,, ................... ........ 16

7. Fatty Liver Syndramne ....................................................16


8. Fowrl Cholera .................................................. 16

9. Infectious Bronchitis ......,..,........................................ 17

10. Lymphiod Leuoosis ..................................................... 17

11. Marek's Disease ..................,.......................,..............17

12. Newcastle Disease ............................,.......................... 17



D. Parasites ....................................................a

1. I~n~tenal ............................................................... 18




b. Cecal.................................................., 18


c. Capillaria.................,............................ 18

d. Tapewoamrs ................... .........................................18











TABLE OB' 00NI'ENI'S (Cont. )




2. External........... .... .. .. .. ..... ..... .... .... ....... .........18

F. Mlanure Mbanagaunt.. ............. .........................1 19

1. Aids in Keeping Manure Dry ......... ,,.........,..................... 19

2. Use of Poultry Mranute as a Fertilizer .................................. 19

G. poultry Reference Books. ...........,....... ..............,.... .... 19 20












POtLLT~RY AND) GAlvE BIRD SMALL FLOCK MANAGEMENT
C. R. Dougla~s and L. W. Kalch



A. Sirn131 Hon~e Chlicken Flocks These can be divided into the following
two c~ajtlegpp~oris.

Production flocks Snatll flocks kept for production of meat and/or
eggs. These birds should not be treated as pets.

Hobby flocks Exhibition type standard or bantam birds for shorw
purposes or esthetic value. These should not be kept prinaily for pro-
duction of neat and/or eggs.

Before starting a home flock the following questions should be answered:

--Do zoning laws permit keeping poultry?

--Is there unused labor and nopre important is someone willing
to care for the birds daily?

--Is someone willing and able to process the birds at hone for meat?

-- Is there necessary housing and equipment, or will there be additional
expenses for these?

--Are facilities or proposed facilities designed and located to prevent
causing a noise, odor or fly nuisance for your neighbors and your family?

Do you have a freezer, so that you can makbe best use of the meat birds
you grow?

--Do you have neighbors who would like to buy some "home-pmoduced" eggs
or poultry when you have ar~e than you can use?

1. Breeds of chicken

a. Egg breeds
(1) White Leghorn (WVhite eggs)
(2) ~Leghorn-type crosses whitee eggs)

b. General purpose breeds _(egg and neat)

(1) Rhodec Island Reds (brown eggs)
(2) Sex-Link Czesses (brown eggs)

c. Meat breeds
Broiler crosses









d. Fancy or exhibition

Kept for hobby and show. See An~erican Standard of Perfection
for description of various breeds.

2. Source of Iquality chickens

a. Barby chicks

(1) Florida hatcheries as listed in the Official Directory-
Florida Breeding Flocks and Hatcheries, Florida Dept. of
Agric. and Consumer Services, Tallahassee.

(2) A reliable feed store.


b. Ready to laiy pullets (approxYimately 20 weeks of age -

It may be difficult to obtain small numbers of ready-to- iay
pullets. The best sources are youth with 4-H poultry projects who
often have quality pullets for sale. Contact the County Extension
4-HI Agent for possible sources.


c. Information sources on strains

(1) Florida Poultry Performance Evaluation Trial Reports,
poultry Science Dept.

(2) Report of Eigg Production Tests, Agricultural Research Service,
U.S.D.A.

3. Incubation and hatching procedures:
For those desiring to produce their own hatching eggs and
batch their own chicks the following points should be followed.

a. Hatching egg producction and care.

(1) Keep 1 male for each 12-15 females

(2) Males should be kept with females at least 1 week prior to
saving hatching eggs to insure high egg fertility.

(3) Feed a balanced breeder diet .

(4) Collect eggs at least 3 times per day *

(5) Select eggs for size, shape, shell color, and texture;
23-28 oz. per dozen are best for hatching

(6) Store eggs at a temperature of 50-60 degrees F. relative
htxnidity of 70-75%i and set within 7-10 days.










b. Incubat ion es sent ials

(1) Fo~r construction details of a small display incubator,
see Extension 111blication "A Small Display Incubator"
by L. W. Kalch.

(2) Proper opJerating temperature A still ai3r incubator ~equre
an operating taiperature of 102" to 103" F. at a position level
with the top of the eggs. A forced draft (whiich contains a. fan
for circulating the air) incubator should be operated at 99*
to 1000 F. Do not place the incubator in drafts or direct sun-
light which may cause extreme fluctuations in tanperature.

(3) Sufficient humidity Wet bulb reading of 86"F. For a small
incubator, moisture can be added to the air by plac~lag a small
pan of water under the egg tray. It may be necessary to sprinkle
the eggs lightly with warm water at the time of hatching to pr~e-
vent the chicks from sticking to the shell.

(4) Turning of eg~gsggggggggg~~~~~~~~ Eggs should be turned three times each day.
M~ark each egg as an aid in detennining that all eggs are turned
from one side to the other at each turning.

(5) Follow instructions of incubator manufacturer.


4. Incubation Periodsr

Eggs _Days
Chickens 21
Duck 28
1Muscovy Duck 35335
Turkey 28
Geese smalll) 30
Geese (large) 33-34
Guinea 28
Bobwhite Quail 22-24
Coturnix Quail 16-18
Pheasant 21-24
Peafowl 28-30
Pigeon 17-19
Ostrich 40-42
Swans 42

5. Housing and equipment

Por the homne flock, houses need not and should not be elaborate
and expensive. In most of Florida, housing need only consist of an area
covered by a roof to keep out the hot sun and rain, and enclosed by wire









to confibe birds and exclude predators. Siding may be needed in sone
parts of the state for protection against cold winds and blowing rain.

Brooder houses need to be closed up to preserve heat for the first
few weeks, however, even small chicks need fresh air.

a. Uses of houses

(1) Brooder houses hold chicks for the first few weeks or for the
entire length of the growing period.

(2) Broiler or pullet houses are large brooder houses.

(3) Laying houses (floor or cage) bold the laying and breeding
flock.

b. Floor space

(1) Broilers or pullets 1 square foot per chick.

(2) Floor layers 3 to 4 square feet per bird.

(3) Cage layers 60 to 90 square inches per bird.


c. Equipment

(1) Brooders

(a) Hover-type

Follow manufacturer's direction. Starting tanperature at
the edge of the hover should be 95" F. for the first week
and reduced 5* F. each week.

(b) Infra-red heat lamp

See Ag. Engineering Fact Sheet AE-3, Infra-Red Chick
Brooding.

(c) HNome mlade brooder

An inexpensive method of supplying heat to a few chicks is
to place a 100-watt light bulb inside a gallon tin can
and place the can on the floor of the brooder house.
(2) (hick iad

In cold weather, use a solid chick guard (18 inches high made
of carboard or sheet netal~) around the hover or heat source to
keep chicks from straying and to prevent floor drafts. In warm
weather a wire guard may be used. Place the guard two or three
feet frzom the edge of the hover. Remove it at the end of 7 to
10 days.









(3) Feeders For floor layers

Age Spiace

Day old -Feed on paper placed on litter. Be sure the
paper is not slick.

2 drays-2 weeks 100 linear inches/100 chicks

'}-6 weeks 175 linear inches/100 chicks

7-12 weeks 300 linear inches/100 chicks

Layers 5 linear inches/bird

(A four-foot feeder open to birds on both sides provides 96 linear inches)


(4) Waterers


Day old 2 weeks -

3-12 weceks. -

12-20 weeks -

Layers -


Spiace
tw 1 gallon fountains or 20 linear incher/100 chicks

-tw 3 gallon fountains or 40 linear inches/100 chicks

80 linear inches/100 chicks

1 linear inch/bird


(5) Nests

(a) Allow one individual nest for each four hens. The bottom of
the nest should be 14 inches square, with the front six inches high,
sides and back 15 inches high.

(b) Cournunity nests are constructed two feed wide and any disired length.
Allow -two nests each 2 feet x 6 feets for each 100 hens.


(6) ae

Normally cages are 18 inches deep and 16 inches high in the following
widths :

(a) 8 inches wide one bird per cage

(b) 10 inches wide can accommodate two layers per cage.

(c) 12 inches wide can accone~date ~tw or three layers per cage.

(d) Although more than one bird per cage can be housed, for anatll flocks
only one bird per cage is recaumended for the following reasons:
cleaner eggs, fewer cracked eggs, usually higher production, better








bird plumage and less cannabilism. Manure ~maagenant is much easier
since the rmnure is not so concentrated thus aiding in drying and re-
ducing odors and fly problems.

6. Feed and Water

All feeds are compo0sed of important groups of ingredients which are
called nutrients. The essential nutrients are: water, minerals., proteins,
carbohydrates, fats and vitamins. A good poultry feed contains a proper
balance of nutrients which will satisfy the chicken's requirement and
meet the need for which it is fed (growth, meat or eggs).

Feed a good connercial all-mash starter feed for the first 6 to 8
weeks. Faom 8 to 20 weeks feed a grower feed. Starter and grower should
contain a drug for prevention of coccidiosis. At 20 weeks switch to a
layer feed and continue throughout the laying life of the hen. Grower
and layer feed can be in all-mlash, crumble or pellet form.

Keep feed before the chickens at all times; however, avoid feed wastage.
Feed troughs can be full durring the first day or two of the chick's
life. From then on, feeders should be filled from 1/2 to 2/3 full.
Occasionally you can allow the birds to eat all the feed fm~m the troughs
to prevent accumulation of dirty, dry and stale feed.

About 15-20 pounds of feed (starters plus grower) are required to
grmw a pullet from 1 day to 20 weeks of age. Laying hens will eat
about 1 1/2 to 2 pounds of feed per week.

Water is one of the m~ost important requirements for poultry. Be sure
that chickens have a supply of clean, cool drinking water at all' times.
Clean all waterers daily. Keep them in the shade and avoid leaks and
spills. Keep the area around the waterer as dry as possible.

7. Flock health and disease prevention

Home flock owners can maintain healthy birds best by:

a. Starting with high quality, disease-free chicks or pullets.

b. Using a good brooder.

c. Feeding a good commerciall feed.

d. Providing cool, clean drinking~ water.

e. Following good management practices.

f. Keep birds free of internal and external parasites.

g. Vaccination The home flock owner cannot afford nor is it necessary
to follow an elaborate vaccination program as followed by the connercial
poultryman. He should, however, vaccinate for fowl pox when birds
are 6 to 8 weeks of age. Follow the manufacturer 's directions.













8. Brooding:

13efore chicks arrive, the brooder houses should be thoroughly cleaned
and disinfected. Hot lye water (one can of lye to 12-15 gallons of water)
is one of the bet~tttttttttttttttttt disinfecting agents available. After cleaning, allow
the house to dry thoroughly before putting in litter material.

Wood shavings, sawdust, peanut hulls, sugar cane bagasse, or chopped straw
can be used for litter material. Use only dry, clean litter which is free
of any aold. Cover the floor with 4 to 6 inches of litter.

Make sure the brooder is working properly and adjusted. Put do~wn feed
and water before chicks arrive so that the water can adjust to room temp-
erature.

Watch the chicks closely the first day and night to see that they are
comfortable. Then observe them at least four times each day-early morning,
noon, late afternoon and at nighlt before bedtime. Chicks that are evenly
distributed over the floor and are busily eating and drinking are comrforta-
ble. If they droop their wings and keep their mouths open, the brooder is
too hot. When the chicks huddle together, pile up and emit a loud chirp,
they are chilled and m~ore heat is needed. Overheating and chilling can result
in a high mortality rate.

9. Broiler Mianage~ment

Follow the same brooding reconmendations as above. Since b-rilers are
being reared for meat it is important thay they always have an adequate
supply of high quality bmoiler feed.

As the birds get heavier, they will need a~re floor space and ventilation.
It mayr be well to use all night lights equivalent to 15 watts per 200 square
feet. This allows birds to eat at night and help prevent pile-ups.

Keep litter dry to help prevent breast blisters. Provide anple cool,
clean water.

10. Pullet ~anagement

a. Follow the same brooding recommendations as above.

b. Feed starter and grower feeds as outlined under Feed and Water
section .

c. Keep young and old birds separated. If it is necessary for one' person
to care for young and old birds, care 'for young bi~tds first each day.

d. Reno~ve any unthrifty pullets.

e. I~ep birds free of parasites.


f. Keep complete and accurate records.












11. Layer Mdanagement

a. Clean and disinfect laying house before placing pullets in it.

b. If floor management is used, put in 4 to 6 inches of clean litter.

c. House only well developed, well fleshed pullets.

d. Use artificial_ light to provide 14 ours of total_ light per day-one
40 watt bulb per 200 square feet, hung 8 feet above floor.

e. Use a feeding program as outlined above.

f. Keep birds free of parasites.

g. Keep complete and accurate records.

h. Remove obvious cull.

Characteristics Good Layer Cull

Vitality Vigorous, active Weak sluggish
Comb3 & wattles Full, red, glossy Shriveled, pale, du~ll, dry
Eye Prominent, keen Listless sunken
Vent Larg5e n~oist small, dry, puckered
Pubic bones Thin, well spread Thick, close together
Abdomen Soft, pliable, Firm, thick coarse skin
thin skin
12. Quality Make Eggs

a. Production and handling
(1) Keep binis healthy.
(2) Provide enough nesting space.
(3) Keep nesting material clean and dry.
(4) Keep cage bottom clean.
(5) Collect eggs 3 or 4 times daily to reduce breakage, and to obtain
cleaner eggs.
(6) Use clean, warm (100*-1207F.) water with a detergent sanitizer
to clean dirty eggs.
(7) Store eggs in @, cooler at 50* 60* F.wyith a relative humidity of
70-8030.
(8) Candle to determine interior quality.
(9) Grade for size.
(10) Pack in clean cartons.
(11) Market eggs at least twice weekly.

b. Egg ;Law- grades and standards
Secure a copy of Florida Egg Law from Department of Agric. and
Coslaner Services, Miayo Building, Tallahassee.











13. Poultry Arithmetic

a. One sack of feed (100 lbs.) will feed 13 broilers to slaughter weight;
seven Leghorn or five general purpose pullets to laying age; cjr one
layer for one year.

b. One broiler consumes 7-8 lbs. of feed in 8 weeks.

c. One pullet consumes 15-20 lbs. of feed from 1 day to 20 weeks.

d. Oine layer consumes 84-96 lbs. of feed in 52 weeks.

e. One layer should produce at least 240 eggs per year.

f. One pound of broiler can be produced on 2.0-2.25 lbs. of feed.

g. One dozen eggs can be produced on 3.5-4.0 lbs. of feed.

h. Feed consumption per bird

(1) Layers -.20 to .25 lbs. per day.
(2) Broilers 1 1/2 lbs. first four weeks. 3 lbs. next three weeks,
3 lbs. last two weeks.
(3) Pullets At four week intervals, feed consmlp~tion is 1,3,4,5,
and 6 lbs. to 20 weeks of age.

B. Miscellaneous Poultry
1.. Turkeys
a. Mahjce Factors Associated With Turkey Production

At present there are no turkey processing plants in Florida.
Therefore, no commercial turkeys are grown. Although m~ore difficult
to raise than chickens, home flock of turkeys can be raised and p~ro-
cessed at home if good management is practiced.

b. Common Varieties

:(1) Broad Breasted Bronze
~(2) Broad Breasted White
(3) Small White

c. Source of Poults

A limited numbJer of hatcheries in Florida sell turkeys. These
are listed in the Official Directory of Ha~tcheries, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallabassee.










d. Housing and Equipment


(1) In planning for location of house, apply principles used with
chickens .

(2) Permsanent 24 to 30 feet wide, any length.

(3) Portable 10x 12 feet for brooding 125-150 poults to 8-10
weeks of age.

(4) Range Shelters, portable, any size,to be used 8-15 weeks of age.
After this age, growing turkeys on range requires little or
no shelter other than for shade.

(5) Floor space -


Space
1-1 1/2 sq. ft./bird
3-4 sql. ft./bird
6-8 sq. ft./bird


1-6 weeks
6-12 weeks
12 weeks to market


(6) Equipment

(a) Brooder Use one 500 capacity brooder per 250-300 poults.

(b) Feeders


Space


1 day 2 weeks
3-10 weeks
10 weeks to market
Breeders


2 linear inches/bird
5 linear inches/bird
6-8 linear inches/bird
8 linear inches/bird


(c) Waterers


Age
1 day 2 weeks

2 10 weeks


10 weeks to maEuirket
and Breeders


Space
50 linear inches or two 1-
gallon waterers/100 birds
100 linear inches or three
1-gallon waterers/100 birds


200 linear inches/100 birds


Nests for Breeders
Provide one nest for each five hens with each nest;
24 inches high x 24 inches deep x 20 inches wide.













e. Feeds and Feeding

(1) Use a good, commercial turkey starter for the first 8 weeks.
(2) Turkey developer frpn 8 weeks to market age.
(3) Turkey breeder from one month prior to breeding season.

f. Management

(1) Grow turkeys entirely separate from chickens.
(2) Brood in lots of not more than 250-300.
(3) Rem~ove any unthrifty birds.

g. For moore information, see "Tur~ke-y Production in Florida"(Poultry
Sci. Aept. Info. Series 76-1)

2. Bobwhite Quail

a. Selection of Quality Stock

(1.) Birds should be free of disease.

(2) Obtain birds from producers with good reputation.

(3) Check birds for uniformity in size, color and shape.

(4) Newly hatched chicks should be alert, active, vigorous, and
free fron abnormalities.

(5) Batching eggs should be uniform in size. Amnove very large and
very small eggs.

(6) Always start more birds than needed so that considerable culling
can be done.

b. Breeder Management

(1) Cage system Either a pair per cage or a colony cage with ma~le:
female ratios fron 1:1 to 1:4. Use a solid partition between cages
to prevent fighting. Use 0.5 sq. ft. per bird.

(2) Floor system Allow 1 sq. ft. per bird use 1 male per 2 females.

(3) Age of matturity With light stimulation, somre breeders will lay
a~t 16 weeks of age. Miost hens, however, will begin to lay a~t 24
weeks and reach settable egg size in 2-3 weeks.

(4) Artificial light Tb obtain year-round or out-of-season production,
provide a total of 17 hours of light per day.

(5) Feed Place breeders on a good quality commercial game bird
breeder feed about 2 weeks prior to onset of production. They
will consume about 4 1/2 pounds of feed per 100 birds per' day.


































d. Etooding and Rearing

(1) Space requirements
1-10 days


Egg Production and Egg Care Cull hens that begin to lay
very late or lay at a low rate. Production for a 64month breeding
season sh-ould average 50%0. Gather egg 2-3 times per day, store
in cooler at 55 -65"F. and 75-90%1 relative humidity. Set within
7 to 10 days for best hatchability.


c. Incubation


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(1~0)


Follow manufacturer's recommendation.
Period of incubation
Incuta~tor temperature 0-20 days
Hatcher temperature 20 days-hatch
Incubator: temperature (still air) 0-20 days

Hatcher temperature (still air) 20 days-hatch
Incubator wet bulb temperature
Hatcher wet bulb temperature
Turning (during incubation-ist 20 days)
Egg position


22-24 days
99 3/4oF.
98 3/4og.
102 1/20-
10 30 7
1000 F.
84-860 F.
87-90aF.
3-24 times/day
Set small end
down .


II)


11 days-6 weeks After 6 weeks


Floor Space
Feeder Space
Water Space


4 birds/sq. ft.
0.5 in./bird
0.25 in./bird


3 birds/sq. ft.
0.8 in./bird
0.25 in./bird


2 birds/sq. ft.
1 in./bird
0.3 in./bird


(2) Brooder house- Prepare house and manage using same procedures
as with baby chicks.

(3) Brooder Operate on same temperature as with chicks. If heat lamps
are used, reb bulbs are best to reduce light intensity which helps
reduce cannibalism.


(4) Debeaking Debeak quail chicks a~t hatching
by touching both upper and lower portion of
blade until beak is removed 1/4 distance to


with electric debeaker
the beak to the hot
nostrils.


(5) Growing period (5 to 16 weeks) If brids are to be grown for
hunting preserves, they can be housed during this period in more
open housing. During the last 4 weeks, they are usually pl~ac~ed in
flight pens to allow them to develop flying ability.












e. Flock Health Quail are susceptible to nost diseases and parasites
which afflict domestic poultry and some additional ones. Some of
the aore cannonl diseases are:

(1) Ulcerative Enteritis Certain drugs and antibiotics can be
used as an aid.

(2) B~lackhead Use preventative drug in feed.

(3) Coccidiosis Use coccidiostat in feed.

(4) Quail Bronchitis No specific treatment or vaccination.
Use good management .

(5) Pox Vaccinate at 6 to 10 weeks of age.

(6) For a general discussion of disease see section D.
f. For nore information, see Bobwvhite Quail 1Productionl (Poultry Science).
Dept. Info. Series 75-1)

3. Ducks and Geese

These waterfowl are not raised crmrercially at present in Florida.
The following is directed to honre flocks.

aL. Connone Breeds

(1) Dulcks White Pekin, Muscovy, Khaki Canrpbell, White Ru~nner, Rownen

(2) Geese Toulouse, Eanden, African, Chinese, Canada,Buff

b. Incubation

(1) See page 3 for incubation periods.

(2) If artificial incubation is used follow same instructions as
for chickens except provide a higher humnidity for geese eggs
sprinkled with water during incubation.

c. Brooding and Rearing

(1) Houlses Any small building can be used for brooding that can
be kept warm and dry and will keep birds in and predators out .
Allow 1/2 sq. ft. per bird for 2 weeks then increase to 1-2 sq ft.
per bird.

(2) Tenperature Start with 850 900 F. for the first week, then
reduce 5"F. each week.

(3) Feed and Water- Use connrercial duck or goose starter for the first
2-3 weeks, then switch to grower. Pellets are reconnended over
natsh. A good share of goose feed can be pasture after they are
5 or 6 weeks old. Clean drinking water should be available
at all times.











d. Flock Health -

Dulcks and geese raised in small numbJers and in relative isola-
tion suffer little from diseases. Use good managenant for good flock
health .

C. Disease

Small flock owners should make every effort to prevent diseases
because of the difficulty and expense of treating sick birds. The
best defenses against diseases are good m~anagement and sanitation.

Poultry diagnostic labs are located throughout Florida for disease
diagnostic help. The l~abs, under the diction of the Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services, are located at the following
places.

(a) Cottondale Laboratory, P.O. Box 37, Cottondale, FL
32431 (904-353-4461).

(b) Live Oak Laboratory, P.O. Drawer O, Live Oak, FL
32060 (904-362-1216).

(c) Dade City Laboratory, P.O. Box 1031, Dade City,FL
33525 (904-567-5176) .

(d) Kissimnee Laboratory, P.O. Box 460, Kissinnee, FL
32641 (305-847-3185)

(e) M~iami Springs Laboratory, 8701 N.W. 58th Street,
Miamri, FL 33166 (305-888-8238).

There is no charge for diagnostic service. Birds may be sent
to these labs by express or by person. Birds should not be shipped
to arrive on weekends. Three or four live birds shoJwing typical
symptoms of the condition prevalent in the flock should be sent.
The shipment should be accompanied by as much information concerning
the flock and sick birds as possible such as: age, duration of
illness, previous history of illness and vaccination, size of flock-
rate of mortality, m~edication administration, feed intake, production
patterns, etc. All birds submitted as well as containers will be
dispolxsed of at the lab.

The following section was written for commercial producers and
is only included in this small flock series to famriliarize small
flock owners with certain poul try diseases.

1.Blackhead

a. Cause A pmotozoan parasite. Chiefly a disease of turkeys but
it also can be a problem in chickens.

b. Synptoms; General weakn~ess, unthriftiness, canary yellow droppings.
Characteristics lesions are round, yellow ulcer like depressed areas











on the liver and large distended ulcerated ceca filled with a thick cheesy
matss. Mortality may be high.

c. Treatment Enrtryl soluble powder for the drinking water, Emtrymrix in
feed, Ipropran in feed.

d. Control -Good management and sanitation. Keep turkeys away from
chicken .

2. Chicken Pox or Powl Pox (Sorehead)

a. Cause A virus.
b. Transmission Mosquitoes are considered the chief means of transmission
of pox.

c. LeRsions Wart-like nodules covered with brown scab on the bare parts
of the head. Rarely, cankers, yellowish cheese-like areas miay occur on
the inside of the neuth.

d. Treatment None.

e. Control All birds intended for laying purposes should be vaccinated.
Birds whose resistance has been weakened through any condition or disease
whatsoever should not be vaccinated. Only flocks in good condition should
be vaccinated.

3. Chronic Respiratory Disease(CR~D)

a. Cause Stress factors and bacteria. Egg transmitted.

b. Synptoms Mild respiratory distress, sniffing, sneezing. Cloudy
air eacs. Lesion in trachea, bronchi.

c. Treatment Tylosin phosphate and high levels of certain other
antibiotics in feed or water.

d. Prevention Buy only Mycplsm gallisepticum free hatching eggs or chicks.

4. Coccidiosis

a. Cause A protozoan parasite, coccidia, nine species infect the upper
intestine and one infects the ceca or blind pouches. Spread in contaminated
feed and water. Coccidia rmst sporulate to become infective. Under
optirmum conditions of moisture, temperature and oxygen they sporulate
and become infective for the next chicken.
b. Synptonrs The main symptom of cecal coccidiosis is bloody droppings.
The ceca are distended and filled with a m~ass of coagulated blood. Acute
intestinal coccidiosis results in unthriftiness, bloody droppings and
considerable mortality. In chronic coccidiosis, nutritional deficiencies
and secondary conditions often develop.
c. Treatment Sulfa drugs and am~proleumn.











d. Control Use of coccidiostat in the feed. Good management
and sanitation. Raising and growing chickens on wire.

5. Coryza

a. Cause Sinple coryza, the cannmon cold, is usually caused by im--
proper management in which birds are subjected to undue exposure.
Infectious coryza is caused by specific microorganism and occurs
as a secondary disease in birds subjected to resistance lowering
factors such as intestinal parasites.

b. Synptomrs Some respiratory distress accompanied by watery and
sw~ollen eyes and unthrifty condition.

c. Treatment Sinrple coryza responds to correction of undue exposure.
Antibiotics are beneficial. Infectious coryza sometimes responds to
Erythromycin, Streptomycin and sulfonamides if treated early.

d. Control Depopulation of farms and starting with clean chicks.
Elimination of exposure to cold producing stresses.

6. Epidemic TremoDr

a. Cause A virus.

b. Synptoms A disease of chickens under 6 weeks of age. Incoordination
of gait, staggering, falling to one side, occasional tremors of the
head. Excitement intensifies synptons.

c. Treatment and Control No treatment except isolation of affected
birds. Vaccinate breeder flocks for irnmunity to baby chicks.

7. Fatty Liver Syndrome

a. Cause Unknown.

b. Symptoms Occurs after layers reach peak pleduction. Mortality
is high. Massive fat deposits are found among intestines, gizzard,
kidneys, and liver shows extreme infiltration of fat. Henorrhages
beneath the liver capsule.

c. Treatment Treatment with high levels of vitamins has been used with
varying success. Adding rice hulls to the diet has also proved
successful occasionally.

d. Prevention Since cause in unknown there is no known prevention
except good mlanagem~ent and eliminate stresses.

8. Fowl Cholera

a. Cause A bacterial organism and subjection of birds to stress.

b. Sym~ptoms Sudden death, greenish diarrhea, high temperature, com~b





and wattle purple and swollen wattle.
c. TreI[~~ atmen_?t Sulfa~uinoxaline

d. Control Sanitation and building resistance. Depopulate and useosne
age bird farms. Bacteria vaccination mayr be used by many fanters
as an aid.

9. Infectious Bronchitis

a. Cause A virus.

b. Symptoms Respiratory distress, sneezing and rattling. In laying
birds, a drop in egg production, moissbiapened eggs with low quality.

c. Treatnenlt None.

d. Control Vaccination

10. Lynphoid L~eucosis

a. Caus A virus of the leukosis-sarcoma couaplex. .Occurs mainly in
laying hens.

b. Synpto~ns Extrenely enlarged liver; firm sihooiii~~~iith tuno~rs on liver,
tumors on bursa of fabricius, mable bone.

c. Treatment None.

d. Control Development of resistant strains by poultry breeders.

11. Marek 's Disease

a. Cause A herpes virus. Occurs mainly in chickens under 16 weeks
of age.
b. Synptons L~eg paralysis, high mortality, tunrrrs on visceral organs.

c. Treatment None.

d. Control Vaccination of chicks at one day of age.

12. Newcastle Disease

a. Cause A virus.

b. Synoptous Respiratory distress, gasping followed in 1 or 2 days
by a paralysis of legs and wings and head down between legs or
straight back over shoulders, twisting of neck (star gazing). In
adult birds, loss of production, sone respiratory distress, paralysis
after 4 to 6 days.

c. "ra~tmaE~t None.


d. Control Proper vaccination.










D. Parasites

1. Internal

a. Connon roundwo~msj

(1) Synptoms Unthriftiness, emaciation, lowered egg production.

(2) Diagnlosis Denonstration of womrrs in intestine.

(3) Treatment and Control Piperazine wormer.

b. Cecal Worm

(1) Synptom General signs of unthriftiness although not severe.
Their importance is that they serve as a carrier of the organism
causifng bjlackthead.

(2) Diagnosis Denonstration of worm in ceca.

(3) Treatment and Contmol Piperazine wormer .and phenothiazine.

c. Capillaria

(1) Symptoms- Sam3e as oconmon rmundorm. i
(2) Dingnosis -DuelF to small size they are difficult to see. When a split
intestine is placed in a glass jar of water, the worms float out like
the fringe of a rug and appear as if attached to the intestine.

(3) Treatment Hygramycin is the best but not always effective.

d. Tapewonums

(1) Synptons Same as common roundworms.

(2) ni n gomi 9 Danonstrat ion of flat segmented worms in intest ine.

(3) 'Prea~tmnst. and Control Clean up intennediate hosts such as flies,
alggy beetles, etc. Worm with dibutylin dilaurate.
2. External
For control and treatment see Poultry section of "Florida Insect
Control Guide".

E. Manure Mdanagement

The purpose of good manumre management is the control of odors and house flies
and the retention of valuable nutrients.

TIhe amrount of moisture in the maur is the key factor and most poul tryman
attempt to dry the manure as nuch as possible to eliminate fly breeding and odors
and to retain the nitrogen.





11


19






1. Aids in Keeping ~Maure Dry

a. Maintain watering system and roof in good repair to eliminate
leaks and wet spots.

b. Use side curtains, when practical, to keep out blowing rains.

e. Maintain birds in good health to prevent enteritis and other
causes of wet droppings.

d. Excess salt, in feed or water, can cause wet droopings.

e. Maintain noved sod around poultry house to absorb heat and allowv
for good ventilation. High weeds prevent good air m~ovlenant.

f. When cleaning mlanure from cage house, leave a forur inch pad of
dry m~anure under cages. With small flocks, it may be desirable
to renopve manure from the house once each week and use to fertilize
plants.

h. In floor litter houses, apply and maintain four to six inches of
dry litter material (wood shavings, peanut hulls, bagasse, chopped
straw, etc.).

2. Use of Po'ultry Mlanure as a Fertilizer

Corn, pasture grasses and vegetables can utilize from 5 to 15 tons
of poultry m~anure (cage or floor litter) per acre per year.

F. Poultry Reference Books

For Coulnty Extension personnel and your clientele who want additional
detailed information on poultry production the following books are
reconnonded :

1. "Connercial Chicken Production Manual"
by M~ack O. North (1972)
The AVI Publishing Comrpany, Inc.
Westport, Connecticut

2. "Poultry Science"
by M. E. Ensminger (1971)
The Interstate Printers & Pilbliishers,; Inc.
19-27 North Jackson Street
Danville, Illionis

3. "Poultry Production"
by L. E. Card & M. C. Neshelm, (1966)
Lea and Febiger
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania




























































This public document was promulgated at a cost of
$.gi~.88 or 2)#j cents per copy to provide in-
formatioz't on small flock management.


4. "The American Standard of Perfection" (1974)
The American Poultry Association, Inc.
1026 East Oak Street
Cushing, Oklahom~a 74023