Improvement of bean production in Honduras through breeding for multiple disease resistance

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Improvement of bean production in Honduras through breeding for multiple disease resistance
Physical Description:
39, 5, 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Beaver, James S
Freytag, George F
Díaz Donaire, Rafael
Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
University of Puerto Rico (Mayagüez Campus) -- College of Agricultural Sciences
Escuela Agrícola Panamericana
Publisher:
University of Puerto Rico
Place of Publication:
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Beans -- Breeding -- Honduras   ( lcsh )
Beans -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Honduras   ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Honduras

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
principal investigator, James S. Beaver ; coinvestigators, George F. Freytag, Rafael Díaz Donaire.
General Note:
"Project extension proposal submitted to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP by the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus, College of Agricultural Sciences, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708 and the Escuela Agrícola Panamericana, Zamorano, Honduras."
General Note:
"December, 1984."

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 646828479
ocn646828479
Classification:
lcc - SB608.B3 B42 1984
System ID:
AA00008146:00001

Full Text









IMPROVEMENT OF BEAN PRODUCTION IN HONDURAS
THROUGH BREEDING FOR MULTIPLE DISEASE RESISTANCE




Project Extension Proposal Submitted to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP








by



The University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez Campus
College of Agricultural Sciences
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708



and


The Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana
Zamorano, Honduras


DECEMBER, 19814





I


APPLICATION TO: The Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Michigan State University, Management Entity

1. Name and Address of Lead Institution

University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

2. Name and Address of Principal Investigator

James S. Beaver
Dept. of Agronomy and Soils
College of Agricultural Science
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708

3. Names and Addresses of other Participating Institutions and Coinvestigators

a. U.S.

George F. Freytag
Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS)
P. 0. Box 70
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00709

b. H.C.

Rafael Draz Donaire
Department of Agronomy
Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana
Zamorano, Honduras

4. Proposed Title of Research

Improvement of bean production in Honduras through breeding for multiple
disease resistance.

5. Funding Requested for FY 86-88: Amount to be Contributed:


U.S.:

H.C.:


107,121

129,090


$1,035,430


6. Lead Institution Approvals

Department or Unit Head

Name: Miguel A. Gonzdlez Rom'n

Title:Associate Dean and De uty Director

Address:Colg ofi~n:X Agtricultueral cicipnc

Signature (ap, a .


Institutional Representative

Dr.Alejandro Ayala

Dean and Director
University of Puerto Rico
C .0 Aricultural Science
a41 1 Cam us May puz, P.R. 00708












1. Project Rationale

Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a major source of protein in the

Honduran diet. Most of the dry bean production in Honduras is confined to

small farms where inputs such as improved cultivars, fertilizer, and

pesticides are seldom used. As a result, seed yields of dry beans are low

averaging less than 800 kg/ha. Most producers of dry beans on small farms

use the crop not only as a source of income but also for subsistence.

Consequently, these farmers need varieties with the capacity to yield

predictably over a wide range of environmental conditions.

Diseases are one of the principal sources of low and erratic yields of

beans in the Tropics. Several diseases have the potential to cause losses

in Honduras. Moreover, the severity of a particular disease often depends

on the location and time of year in which beans are planted. Therefore, in

order to insure a greater, more predictable level of performance, small

farmers need bean varieties with multiple disease resistance.

There are possible sources of resistance to many of the bean diseases

important in Honduras. However, it is often not known how these sources of

resistance will perform when exposed to the local races or strains of pathogens

in Honduras. Although much of the selection and testing of beans needs to be

conducted locally, bean research programs in Honduras have lacked both the

human and financial resources necessary to support an active bean breeding

program. Another limitation is that known sources of resistance often are

present in genotypes which are unadapted when grown in Honduras or in

genotypes which have seed characteristics which are undesirable to the

Honduran consumer. In order to be useful to the small farmer in Honduras,

sources of resistance to the most important bean diseases need to be

accumulated into adapted lines with acceptable seed characteristics.










The University of Puerto Rico has the capacity to collaborate with the

Escuela AgrTcola Panamericana in addressing some of the problems related

to the development of multiple disease resistant bean varieties for Honduras

Republic. Since 1973 researchers at the University of Puerto Rico and the

Tropical Agriculture Research Station (USDA/TARS) have collaborated on

research designed to accumulate genes for resistance to different bean

diseases into bean germplasm adapted to the Tropics. As a result, the

BeFan/Cowpea CRSP project in Honduras was able to initiate its research with

a multiple.disease resistant germplasm base which has proved to be well adapted

to Honduran conditions. The bean research group in Puerto Rico also has

developed expertise working with many of the bean diseases that are important

in Honduras. This knowledge has proved useful when providing formal and

informal training to Honduran bean researchers and graduate students. The

Bean/Cowpea CRSP also has proved to be beneficial for Puerto Rico since the

multiple disease resistant germplasm developed by the project can be used

by the local breeding program.

2. Statement of five-year objectives

A. Research

1. U.S. Institution

a. Identify sources of resistance to the most important bean diseases
in Honduras.

b. Develop populations with a greater frequency of major and minor
genes for resistance to the more common bean diseases.

c. Closely related species of Phaseolus vulgaris will be screened
for resistance to important diseases that are not available in
adequate or durable forms in Phaseolus vulgaris.

d. Develop and release breeding lines and cultivars with high levels
of multiple disease resistance.












2. Host Country

a. Field test the available cultivars and breeding lines for multiple
disease resistance under the principal farming systems in the
major bean production regions.

b. Initiate a breeding program to transfer multiple disease resistance
to the standard bean cultivars of the Host Country.

B. Training

1. Provide formal and informal training for H.C. project personnel in
order to enhance the research capabilities in bean breeding and bean
pathology.

C. Anticipated impact on H.C. populations

1. The research capacity of the national bean research program will be
strengthened. As a result, the program should be more effective in
developing bean varieties and management techniques which will
increase bean production in the country.

2. Promising bean germplasm will be tested on small farms. If the farmer
likes one of the lines, he will be free to keep some seed for his
own use. Data from the small farms will be used to determine if one
or more of the lines are worthy of release on a regional or national
scale.

3. Major Accomplishments

a. Research

1. Screening of 810 lines from the bean germplasm collection at the
Escuela Agricola Panamericana for adaptation and disease resistance.

2. Trials conducted on small farms provided valuable information
concerning the stability of performance of promising germplasm and
the frequency and severity of bean diseases.

3. Several populations have been developed from crosses between sources
of resistance to bacterial blight, rust, and BCMV and genotypes
having the "Zamorano" seed type. These populations will be tested
and selected in Honduras.

4. Phaseolus coccineus genotypes with resistance to BCMV, BGMV, cowpea
mosaic virus, and bacterial blight were identified. Interspecific
crosses with Phaseolus vulgaris have been made in an attempt to
transfer these resistances.









5. Promising germplasm from CIAT, Brasil, and the U.S. have been
screened for adaptation and for resistance to rust, common blight,
bean common mosaic virus, bean golden mosaic, and root rots.

6. Techniques for conducting a field crossing block using drip
irrigation were refined. This is needed because bean research
programs .in countries such as the Honduran Republic generally
do not have adequate resources to construct and maintain green-
houses and screenhouses.

7. Several red-seeded lines selected from populations derived from
crosses made by Dr. Pablo Paz are in the advanced stage of testing.

8. The project has cooperated with the bean research programs of the
Ministry of Natural Resources and the Extension Service by increasing
seed of lines to be used for small-farm trials.

9. Efforts have been made to document project supported research
achievements. Three manuscripts are in preparation for publication
in scientific journals and five papers have been presented at
professional meetings.

b. Training

1. Completion of a B.S. degree in crop protection from the University of
Puerto Rico by Luis del Rfo. Mr. del Rfo plans to initiate a M.S.
program in crop protection at the University of Puerto Rico in
January 1985.

2. Informal short courses given to Honduran project technicians
concerning research techniques in bean breeding and pathology. These
short courses permitted project personnel in Honduras to initiate
research. The University of Puerto Rico staff is well qualified
to train technicians with little or no background in English.

3. Anticipated completion of M.S. degree in Crop Protection by Hirdm
Valez. Upon completion of his studies Mr. V61ez plans to work with
the project in Puerto Rico.

4. A field day has been conducted in Honduras for the bean research
personnel of the Ministry of Natural Resources. Participants
discussed research techniques and observed promising bean lines.

c. Actual impact on H.C. populations

1. Five technicians, including one woman, have received short-term
training at the University of Puerto Rico dealing with research
techniques in bean breeding and pathology. This short-term
training enabled these technicians to be effective in carrying out
project activities.











2. Trials have been conducted on several small farms in the Danlf and
01ancho Departments. These trials provide an opportunity for the
cooperating farmers and their neighbors to.observe the performance
of multiple disease resistant lines. The farmers have been able
to keep seed of any line which they find to suit their needs.

C. Three-year (FY 86-88) project extension goals for U.S. and H.C.

1. Research

a. U.S. Institution

1. Identify additional sources of resistance to the most important
diseases in Honduras.

2. Utilize germplasm derived from interspecific crosses between
Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus and interspecific crosses
between P. vulgaris and P. acutifolius in order to attempt to
transfer resistance to bean golden mosaic virus, bean common
mosaic virus, and common blight into a P. vulgaris genetic
background.

3. Utilize recurrent selection to continue to develop large-seeded
bean populations with a greater frequency of major and minor genes
for resistance to the more common bean diseases found in Honduras.

4. Develop and release breeding lines and cultivars with multiple
disease resistance and improved agronomic characteristics.

b. Host Country

1. Strengthen the local breeding program with special emphasis on
the selection and testing of multiple disease resistant lines
with seed characteristics that are acceptable to the Honduran
consumer.

2. Continue testing cultivars and breeding lines on small farms in
order to measure the effectiveness of different sources of disease
resistance and to monitor the frequency and severity of bean
diseases.

3. Screen promising germplasm for resistance when exposed to local
races or strains of pathogens.

4. Measure the effectiveness of different sources of disease resistance
when tested under different management systems.

5. Determine how multiple disease resistant material can be most
effectively utilized by small farmers.









2. Training

a. U.S.

1. Provide support for a U.S. graduate student to initiate a M.S.
degree program at the University of Puerto Rico to study the
effect of cropping systems on effectiveness of different sources
of disease resistance.

2. Provide support for short-term training at CIAT for a UPR
agronomist in germplasm preservation and seed technology.

b. Host Country

1. Provide support for Rafael Dfaz to initiate a Ph.D. degree program
at Mississippi State University to study problems related to seed
production by small farmers in Honduras.

2. Provide support for Luis del R~o to continue a M.S. degree program
at the University of Puerto Rico in crop protection.

3. Provide support for Johnathan Cerna to complete a B.S. degree in
Agronomy from the University of Florida. Upon completion of a B.S.,
Mr. Cerna will come to the University of Puerto Rico where he will
initiate a M.S. program in agronomy or plant protection.

4. Effort will be made to identify a woman to initiate a M.S. degree
program at the University of Puerto Rico to study agronomy, crop
protection or agricultural economics.

5. Provide partial support for undergraduate students at the Escuela
Agricola Panamericana.

6. Provide support for short-term training at CIAT for EAP technicians.

7. Sponsor a workshop on farming systems research techniques for
project personnel in the U.S. and Honduras.

D. Anticipated contributions of project extension goals

1. Contributions to the Bean/Cowpea CRSP

Diseases are one of the major factors limiting bean production on small

farms in the Tropics. In order to be useful to small farmers, bean

varieties must possess resistance to the most serious diseases. Small

farmers benefit from multiple disease resistance through increased and/or

stabilized bean yields. Multiple disease resistance also decreases the

cost of production of small farmer by reducing the need for pesticides

to control diseases or their vectors.











Disease resistance affects many other areas of investigation

supported'by the Bean/CowJpeaCRSP. Attempts to improve the yield

capacity, biological nitrogen fixation, tolerance to stress, or seed

quality of beans are jeopardized by diseases. In order to fully

realize the benefits from these other areas of research, these

characteristics will need to be incorporated into an adapted,

multiple disease resistant germplasm base.

2. Contributions to U.S. agriculture

Bean production in the Tropics and the U.S. are threatened by

many of same diseases. Research sponsored by this project is

directly beneficial to U.S. agriculture because sources of resistance

to diseases identified in the Tropics often are found to be effective

in the U.S. In fact, screening for disease resistance in the Tropics

can be more effective because disease pressure tends to be greater

for some diseases.

3. Anticipated impact on H.C. populations

a. Bean varieties with multiple disease resistance and seed characteristics

preferred by the Honduran consumer will be released and made available

to farmers. In order to measure the potential impact of these

varieties, limited quantities of these varieties will be multiplied

and distributed to groups of small farmers in the principal bean

growing regions. Project personnel will monitor the performance

of these varieties and attempt to measure the degree of their

acceptance by the small farmers.











b. Additional members of the bean research team at the Escuela Agricola

Panamericana will complete informal training and graduate studies and

return to Honduras. As a resul t, H. C. bean research capab ilities

will be enhanced.











PART 11. DETAILED WORKPLAN

A. Detailed objectives, methodology/experimental plan.

1. U.S. Institution FY 1986

a. Objective 1: Identify additional sources of resistance to the
most important diseases in Honduras.

Field Screening

Promising bean germplasm from CIAT and other bean research programs

will be tested in Puerto Rico for adaptation and disease resistance.

Cooperative nurseries from CIAT will include the International Bean

Rust Nursery, a Bacterial Blight Nursery, the International Bean Golden

Mosaic Virus Nursery, and an Adaptation Nursery for seed types used in

the Caribbean. The experimental plans and methodologies utilized for

these nurseries will be those outlined by CIAT.

Germplasm from other bean research programs will be evaluated in

separate nurseries. Promising bean lines will be evaluated for rust

at the Isabela Research and Development Center during the winter months.

In order to insure a uniform infection with rust, spreader rows of a

variety susceptible to rust will be planted approximately two weeks

before the other bean lines are planted. The potential productivity

of bean lines will be evaluated at the Fortuna Research and Development

Center during the winter months. During the summer months bean lines

will be grown at the Fortuna Research and Development Center where

they will be evaluated for common blight, root rots, and performance

under a longer photoperiod. In order to insure a uniform infection of

common blight, the summer planting at Fortuna will be inoculated with a

suspension of the common blight bacterium 2-4 weeks after planting.









A randomized complete block design with 2-4 replications will be used

for the trials. Most lines will.be grown in single rows 3-4 m in

length. Rodrigo Echdvez, Hirdm Vdlez and James Beaver will be

responsible for the conduct of these trials.


Greenhouse Screening

Elite bean germplasm will be evaluated in the greenhouse for

resistance to bean common virus and bean golden mosaic virus. Inoculations

will be conducted with the proper strains of bean common mosaic virus to

confirm "I" gene and recessive resistances. Segregating populations will

be screened to measure the strength of the association between the violet

seed color and the "I" gene source of resistance to bean common mosaic

virus. Reaction to the bean golden mosaic virus will be conducted using

a grafting technique developed by Mildred Zapata. The greenhouse

screenings will be the responsibility of David Unander.


b. Objective 2: Utilize germplasm derived from interspecific crosses
between Phaseolus vulgaris and Is. coccineus and interspecific crosses
between P. vulgaris and {>. acutifolius in order to attempt to transfer
resistance to bean golden mosaic virus, bean common mosaic virus,
and common blight into a P. vulgaris genetic background.

Populations of Phaseolus coccineus have been identified which

show good levels of resistance to bean golden mosaic virus, bean

common mosaic virus and common blight. Interspecific crosses have

been made between P. vulgaris lines and the resistant P. coccineus

populations. Due to problems with sterility and poor adaptation

several backcrosses to P. vulgaris will be required before these

populations can be used directly in the breeding program. Genotypes

with a small red seed type will be used as the recurrent parent in

order to develop lines with seed types that are acceptable to the

Honduran consumer. The backcrosses will be conducted by











Dr. George Freytag and Hirdm V61ez in greenhouses at the Tropical

Agriculture Research Station. The resulting populations will be

tested for adaptation at the Adjuntas Research Substation.

Adapted lines recovered from these populations will be screened

in the greenhouse for resistance to bean golden mosaic virus and

bean common mosaic virus by David Unander. The lines also will

be screened in the field for resistance to common blight using the

methodology previously described.

The project also will utilize common blight resistant bean

germplasm developed at Cornell University by Dr. Robert Wilkinson.

Some of these populations were derived from interspecific crosses

between P. vulgaris and P. coccineus. In addition, common blight

resistance populations derived from crosses between I'. vulgaris and

('. acutifolius will be utilized. The populations from Cornell are

more fertile and better adapted than the populations available in

Puerto Rico. As a result, these populations can be immediately

incorporated into the breeding program. A subordinate agreement will

be made with Cornell University to provide funds for Dr. Wilkinson

to screen populations for common blight resistance in growth chambers

and to make crosses among resistant lines during the winter months

when conditions are unfavorable for common blight in Puerto Rico.

Those populations found to be most resistant to common blight in New

York will be tested in a field nursery conducted during the summer

at the Fortuna Research and Development Center. This collaboration

should result in a more rapid accumulation of genes for resistance

to common blight.










c. Utilize recurrent selection to continue to develop large-seeded
bean populations with a greater frequency of major and minor genes
for. resistance to the more common bean diseases found in Honduras.

A form of recurrent selection has been and will continue to

be utilized to accumulate major and minor genes for resistance.

The base population of this recurrent selection scheme consisted

of a group of bean genotypes that were considered sources of

resistance to common blight, bean common mosaic virus, rust and

root rot and a group of small red bean varieties used in Honduras.

Each cycle of selection requires two years to complete. Approximately

20-30 of the best lines will be intermated in a crossing block which

will be conducted at the Isabela Research and Development Center

between January and April of the first year. The FI generation will
be advanced during the summer months at the Fortuna Research and

Development Center. The F2 populations will be planted at the

Isabela Research and Development Center in October. There will be

an attempt to grow at least 500 plants of each F2 generation.
Individual F2 plants will be selected on the basis of plant type.

Plants will be chosen from all populations in order to preserve

genetic variability. After harvest, F3 lines will be selected on

the basis of seed size and type. Between January and April of

the following year the selected F3 lines will be grown at the

Isabela Research and Development Center in individual rows 3 m

in length. Each line will be evaluated for adaptation, agronomic

characteristics, and reaction to rust. Seed of the selected lines

will be bulked. The F4 generation will be grown at the Fortuna

Research and Development Center during the hot and humid summer months

where each line will be evaluated for adaptation under a longer










photoperiod, agronomic traits, and resistance to bacterial blight

and root rot. Each Fq line will be grown in paired plots 3 m in

length. The experimental design will be a randomized complete

block with three replications. Individual plants will be harvested

from the selected Fq lines. From September to December of the second

year, the selected F5 lines will be evaluated in the greenhouse for

reaction to bean common mosaic virus and bean golden mosaic virus.

The information obtained for each line will serve as the basis for

the selection of parents for the next cycle of selection. James

Beaver will be responsible for the management of the recurrent

selection populations.

d. Objective 4: Develop and release breeding lines and cultivars with
multiple disease resistance and improved agronomic characteristics.

Promising F5 lines obtained from the recurrent selection program

will be tested in replicated yield trials at the Isabela and Fortuna

Research and Development Centers. The experimental design will be

a randomized complete block with four replications. Yield plots

will consist of four rows, five meters in length with a 60 cm

spacing between rows. Those lines with the best overall performance

will be sent to Honduras for field testing. Lines found to have

superior levels of multiple disease resistance, desirable agronomic

traits and desirable seed characteristics will be considered for

release as breeding lines or varieties. Lines found to have good

levels of multiple disease resistance and desirable agronomic

characteristics but seed types unacceptable to the Honduran consumer

will be crossed with the small red varieties of Honduras. F2

populations of these crosses will be sent to Honduras for use by









the local breeding program. James Beaver and Rodrigo Echdvez

will be responsible for the development and testing of advanced

lines.

2. H.C. FY 1986

a. Objective 1: Strengthen the local breeding program with special
emphasis on the selection and testing of multiple disease resistant
lines with seed characteristics that are acceptable to the Honduran
consumer.

Dr. J. Silvio Zuluaga and Dr. Juan J. Alan recently joined the

Agronomy Department at the Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana. Both have

several years of research experience with beans in Central and

South America. As a consequence, the project should be in the

position to strengthen its activities in the development, selection,

and testing of bean populations in Honduras for local adaptation and

for multiple disease resistance. This work should be particularly

effective because the bean populations will be exposed to Honduran

races or strains of pathogens. The plant breeding activities in

Honduras will concentrate on those populations which have the greatest

potential for producing lines with useful levels of multiple disease

resistance and seed characteristics that are acceptable to the

Honduran consumer. Screening of the early generations will be

conducted at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana at Zamorano. Lines

will be selected and advanced using the pedigree and/or the single

seed descent breeding methods. During FY 1986 segregating

populations will be supplied by the University of Puerto Rico.

However, a field crossing block will be conducted in Honduras in

FY 1986j to produce segregating populations for the following year.

Testing of advanced lines will be conducted in cooperation with the













Ministry of Agriculture Natural Resources in the Danlf and Olancho

departments. The experimental design for the advanced line trials

will be a randomized complete block with 2-4 replications.

b. Objective 2; Continue testing cultivars and breeding lines on small
farms in order to measure the effectiveness of different sources
of disease resistance and to monitor the frequency and severity of
bean diseases.

Field trials will continue to be conducted in cooperation with

the Ministry of Natural Resources on small farms in the major bean

producing departments of Danlf and Olancho. The trialsiwill include

standard cultivars, promising breeding lines, and genotypes which

are considered as possible sources of resistance to diseases

common in Honduras. Each genotype will be grown in a single row

2-4 m in length. The experimental design will be a randomized

complete block with 2-4 replications. The beans will be planted

using cultural practices similar to those utilized by the cooperating

farmer. The lines will be evaluated for agronomic traits and disease

resistance. Data from the different locations will provide a

measure of the degree and range of effectiveness of different sources

of disease resistance. These trials will be coordinated by project

agronomists.

c. Objective 3: Screen promising germplasm for resistance when exposed
to the local races or strains of pathogens.

Resistance can be most effectively identified by exposing

promising bean germplasm to local strains or races of pathogens.

Nurseries for several important bean diseases will be conducted in

Honduras. The International Bean Rust Nursery, a Bacterial Blight

Nursery, and an Adaptation Nursery for seed types of beans used in










Central America from CIAT will be conducted at the Escuela AgrTcola

Panamericana (EAP). These trials will be conducted by the project

staff at the EAP. A nursery from CIAT to screen lines for resistance

to web blight will be conducted by project agronomists located in the

Danlf and Olancho departments. The experimental plans and methodologies

utilized for these nurseries will be those outlined by CIAT.

Nurseries will be conducted at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana

to screen bean lines from the bean germplasm collection of the EAP

for adaptation, agronomic traits, and disease resistance. Depending

upon the quantity of seed available, these lines will be grown in

single or double rows 3 to 5 meters in length. The experimental

design will be a randomized complete block with 2-4 replications.

These trials will be conducted by project staff located at the EAP.

Experiments also will be conducted to screen bean lines for

resistance to angular leaf spot. The lines will be inoculated with

strains of the angular leaf spot fungus collected from different

regions of Honduras. This should provide important information

concerning the variability of the pathogen. This research will be

conducted in a greenhouse located at the EAP.

Advanced lines from Puerto Rico will be tested in Honduras. The

initial screening will be conducted at the Escuela Agrfcola

Panamericana in Zamorano. The lines will be grown in paired rows

3-5 m in length and the experimental design will be a randomized

complete block with 2-3 replications.











d. Objective 4: Measure the effectiveness of different sources of
resistance when tested under different management systems.

Beans are grown in Honduras using a wide range of management

systems. Rotation, crop association and cultural practices have

been shown to influence the effectiveness of certain forms of

disease resistance. The ideal would be to identify management

systems which enhance or make more durable genetic forms of

disease resistance. Therefore, research will be conducted to

determine how the most common management systems used in Honduras

affect the disease resistance of the most promising bean lines.

Field tests will be conducted on experiment stations using

conventional agronomic research techniques. A three-year study to

measure the effect of crop rotation on the frequency and severity

of bean diseases will be conducted. A split plot arrangement of a

randomized complete block with 3-4 replications will be used as the

experimental design. Whole plots will be the rotation treatments and

the sub plots will be the bean lines. These trials will be conducted

at the Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana and the Danlt and Olancho

Departments.

Another set of field tests will be conducted to measure the effect

of multiple cropping and cultural practices on the frequency and

severity of disease. A split plot arrangement of a randomized

complete block with 3-4 replications will be used. The whole plot

will be a factorial arrangement of the association and cultural

practice treatments and the sub plots will be the bean lines.

These trials will be conducted at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana

and the Danlf and Olancho departments.









The project staff at the EAP will coordinate the conduct of

these trials. Results of these experiments should aid in the

interpretation of results obtained from the trials conducted on

small farms.

e. Objective 5: Determine how multiple disease resistant material
can be most effectively utilized by farmers.

In spite of the best efforts by the Ministry of Natural Resources

to promote the sale and distribution of new varieties, most of the

bean seed planted by small farmers continues to be grown by the farmers

themselves or obtained from neighbors. Therefore, it is important

to determine how newly released multiple disease resistant varieties

will perform when handled by small farmers.

The project will cooperate with the extension service in

distributing a few kg of seed of 3-4 of the most promising bean

varieties to at least 50 farmers in the Danlf and Olancho departments.

At least one of these varieties will be black-seeded. The farmer will

be requested to plant this seed using the same practices he would use to

plant his traditional variety. The extensionist and a member of the

Bean/Cowpea CRSP project will visit the farm during the growing

season to compare the disease resistance and agronomic traits of the

newly released varieties with the traditional variety used by the

farmer. The project also will cooperate with the extension service

in the preparation and publication of a type of bulletin describing

techniques that a small farmer could use to improve the quality of

home grown seed. The project will be able to measure the impact

of the newly released varieties on these small farms by conducting

a study the following year to measure degree of acceptance of the

new varieties by the farmers. These results should provide










valuable information to the local breeding program concerning the

preference of the small farmer in Honduras. This research will be

coordinated by Rafael Draz.

B. U.S. Institution FY 1987-88

The development of bean populations with improved levels of multiple

disease resistance requires several years of research. As a consequence,

many of the project activities at the University of Puerto Rico will not

change greatly from year to year. Project personnel will continue to

perform similar functions during FY 1987 and FY 1988. Promising bean

germplasm from CIAT and other bean research programs will continue to be

tested for adaptation and disease resistance using the procedures outlined

for FY 1986. The backcross populations derived from the interspecific

crosses will be screened for resistance to bacterial blight, bean golden

mosaic virus, and bean common mosaic virus. The bacterial blight resistant

populations derived from interspecific crosses will continue to be selected

and intermated. Since two recurrent selection populations are maintained,

the procedures outlined for objective 3 are repeated each year. Moreover,

the testing of advanced lines is conducted each year.

c. H.C. FY 1987-88

The local breeding program will continue to evaluate and select

segregating populations during FY 1987-1988. However, increased emphasis

will be placed on the testing of advanced lines. During FY 1987-88

advanced line trials will be conducted at 3-4 locations in the country.

The small farm trials will continue to be conducted. These trials are

important in monitoring the effectiveness of different sources of

disease resistance and in the evaluation of the performance of lines

that are serious candidates for release as varieties. Promising germplasm











for disease resistance becomes available each year. Moreover, the

relative importance of different races or strains of pathogens can

change over t~ime. As a consequence, screening for disease resistance

will continue during FY 1987-88. Since management studies are long-term

in nature, the rotation and cropping system trials will be repeated during

FY 1987-88. The second and third year of the extension also will be used

to conduct surveys on the small farms that grew the newly released

varieties in order to measure the variety's impact on the farmers and

their families.

2. Methods of Data Analysis

Data from experiments conducted in Puerto Rico will be analyzed using

a Digital DEC 10 computer located at the Mayaguez Campus of the University

of Puerto Rico. Statistical analyses will be conducted using the statistical

software package SPSS. Most experiments will be analyzed using analysis

of variance, regression or correlation. Qualitative treatments such as

varieties will be compared using multiple comparison procedures. The

Department of Agronomy and Soils also has an Apple Ile microcomputer which

is available to the project. The project has purchased the MSTAT statistical

software package for this microcomputer and has used this program for the

analysis of simple experiments, layout of experiments and for the management

of breeding records. James Beaver will coordinate the analysis of

experimental data in Puerto Rico.

Data from experiments conducted in Honduras previously were analyzed at

the University of Puerto Rico. However, the Escuela AgrTcola Panamericana

purchased an IBM microcomputer during FY 1984. As a result, future

analyses of field experiments will be conducted in the Escuela Agrfcola

Panamericana using the MSTAT statistical software package. Rafael Ofaz









has taken a short course on the use of MSTAT. Moreover, Dr. Leonardo

Corral will assist in the analysis and interpretation of the data from

the field experiments and on-farm trials.

3. Project logistics

a. Sites

1) U.S. Institutions

a) University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus

(1) Offices, general library, computer center, laboratories,
and greenhouses

Mayaguez Campus

(2) Laboratory, greenhouses, and field plots

Isabela Research and Development Center

(3) Field plots

Fortuna and Adjuntas Research and Development Centers

b) Tropical Agriculture Research Station

(1) Offices, laboratories, greenhouses, and field plots

2) Host Country

a) Department of Agronomy
Escuela Agricola Panamericana

(1) El Zamorano: offices, laboratories, greenhouses and field plots

(2) Rapaco II: field plots

b) Ministry of Natural Resources

(1) Headquarters: Tegucigalpa

(2) Field stations

(aZ Estaci6n Experimental las Acacias: Jamastran

(b) Estaci6n Experimental: Talanga

(c) Estaci6n Experimental: Siria

(d) Estaci6n Experimental Raul Rene Pineda: Catacamas, Olancho











b. U.S. and H.C. Resources

1) Presently available

a) U.S. Institutions

(1) The University of Puerto Rico

The unit of the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus,

to be responsible for the project is the College of Agricultural Sciences

through the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Departments of Agronomy

and Crop Protection. A well equipped plant pathology laboratory, one regular

and two mini greenhouses are available when needed. The computer center also

is located on the Mayaguez campus. The Agricultural Library and the Finance

Office are located at Rio Piedras. An office, a laboratory, greenhouses,

and cold storage for seed are available at the Isabela Research and Development

Canter. Field plots are available at the Adjuntas, Fortuna, and Isabela

Researchi and Development Centers. Adjuntas is located in the western central

mountains at 750 meters above sea level. The climate is cool and moist and

disease levels are usually high. Fortuna is located near the southern coast.

The location is characterized by deep fertile, loamy soils and little

rainfall. Disease pressure is usually low and beans yield well. The Isabela

Research and Development Center is located on the northwest plateau at

approximately 150 meters above sea level. This location is used for screening

beans for rust and root rot resistance.

(2) Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS)

Researchers at the University of Puerto Rico and the Tropical

Agriculture' Research Station have collaborated in bean research since 1973.

This effort has resulted in the development of a valuable multiple disease

resistant bean germplasm base. The Tropical Agriculture Research Station

facilities will continue to be available for cooperative research with the











USDA-ARS bean genetics program directed by Dr. George Freytag.

The Tropical Agriculture Research Station is located on a 180-acre

track of land, of which approximately 40 acres are tillable. TARS also

maintains an experimental substation at Isabela. The facilities at Mayaguez

include a principal office building with space for 12 scientists. Well equipped

plant pathology, genetics and biochemistry laboratories are located in the

same building. Equipment in the plant pathology laboratory include a culture

transfer chamber, dissecting and research microscopes with apochromatic objectives

and integral cameras, incubators and refrigerators and autoclaves. A laboratory

is available for handling seed and a cold room is available for seed storage.

There are two other rooms which are used for the storage of materials and equipment.

The Tropical Agriculture Research Station also has a Radio Shack Model 16 micro-

computer with statistical and data base management software packages. The

greenhouse complex at TARS consists of six glass and screened houses, five of

which contain evaporative coolers for climate control. A screened area of about

1500 sq. ft. is located nearby and is seasonable available. Mist inoculation

chambers also are available. Vehicles stationed at TARS will be available when

required for cooperative research. In addition, field plots and irrigation

equipment are available at Mayaguez and Isabela.

b) Host Country

The development of bean varieties for Hondaras with multiple

disease resistance and desirable agronomic traits has been chosen to be a

priority research activity of the Agronomy Department of the Escuela Agrtcola

Panamericana (EAP). The facilities at the EAP serve as an excellent center

from which the Bean/Cowpea CRSP project can base its operations. At present,

the EAP is providing office and laboratory space for the project. A cold

room also is available for storage of seed. In addition, a well equipped

plant pathology laboratory and an air conditioned greenhouse are available









to the project when needed. An IBM personnel computer is available for the

analysis of experiments. The EAP has excellent facilities for the

multiplication, handling, and storage of seed. These facilities will be

particularly useful when the project reaches the stage when it has~ decided

to release a new variety. The EAP also has several vehicles which are

available to the project when needed. A soils laboratory, an entomology

research team at the EAP are available to support project activities. Several

hectares of irrigated land are available for research at the EAP in El

Zamorano. In the Danlf Department, field experiments are conducted on the

Villa Ahumada school farm and in the 01ancho Departrent, field trials are

conducted on the farm of the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura at Catacamas.

Bean research also is conducted by the Ministry of Natural Resources

(MNR). The project will cooperate with the bean research program of the MNR.

Experiment stations operated by the MNR in the different regions of Honduras

will be available for project experiments. The MNR bean research also will

cooperate in the testing of advanced lines which are considered candidates

for release as varieties.

2) Equipment to be purchased.

a) U.S. FY 1986

(1) Low temperature Incubator
(2) Nursery plot thresher

b) H.C. FY 1986

(1) Two motorcycles*
(2) Seed counter*
(3) Nursery plot thresher
(4) 4WD vehicle
c) U.S. FY 1987-88

(1) Cooling system for two greenhouses located on the Mayaguez
Campus of the University
(2) Light microscope
(3) Centrifuge
*Purchase has been approved by AID.













(4) pH meter
(5) Spectrophotometer
(6) Balance

3) Resource/Support Activities and Sites

a) U.S. Institutions

(1) Dr. James S. Beaver, Associate Professor, Department of
Agronomy and Soils, College of Agricultural Sciences RUM,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708. Dr. Beaver will be responsible
for the overall direction, coordination, and administration
of the project. In addition, he will be responsible for
the plant breeding aspects of the project including varietal
~development and population improvement. Dr. Beaver also will
be available to consult other members of the project concerning
the design and analysis of experiments.

(2) Dr. George F. Freytag, Research Geneticist, TARS/USDA/ARS,
Box 70, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00709. Dr. Freytag will
coordinate the research with the interspecific crosses. He
also will evaluate populations of Phaseolus coccineus and
P. acutifolius for resistance to diseases of P. vulgaris L.

(3) Dr. David Unander, Assistant Professor, Department of
Horticulture, College of Agricultural Sciences RUM,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708. Dr. Unander will be responsible
for screening promising bean genotypes for resistance to
the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean golden mosaic
virus. He also will study the nature of the relationship
between the "I" gene source of resistance to BCMV and purple
seed coat color. Most of Dr. Unander's research will be
conducted at the Isabela Research and Development Center.

(4) Dr. Robert Wilkinson, Professor, Department of Plant Pathology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Dr. Wilkinson will
develop populations with enhanced levels of resistance to
common blight. He will screen lines for resistance to common
blight in growth chambers at Cornell University during the
winter months. The most resistant lines subsequently will
be intermated in the greenhouse. Progeny of these crosses
will be sent to Puerto Rico where they will be tested in
the summer for field resistance to bacterial blight.

(5) Mr. Rodrigo Echdvez-Badel, Assistant investigator, Department
of Crop Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences RUM,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708. Mr. Echdvez-Badel will conduct
the screening trials for aerial fungal pathogens and root rots.
He also will be responsible for the disease evaluations in













the advanced line trials. Mr. Echdvez-Badel will have the
responsibility of coordinating informal training in Puerto
Rico.

(6) Mr. .Luis Ernesto Rivera, Assistant Investigator, Department
of Agronomy, College of Agricultural Sciences RUM,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708. Mr. Ernesto Rivera will assist
the project in the conduct of field trials at the Fortuna
Research and Development Center.

(7) Mr. Hirdm Vdlez-Martfnez, Research Assistant, Department of
Crop Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences RUM,
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Mr. V41ez-Martfnez will be
responsible for conducting the bacterial blight nurseries.
He also will assist Dr. Beaver in making crosses and Mr.
Echdvez-Badel in the conduct of the field trials and
screening nurseries.

B. Host Country

(1) Professor Rafael Draz Donaire, Department of Agronomy,
Escuela Agrfcola Panamericana, El Zamorano, Honduras.
Mr. Diaz (Co-Pi) will be responsible for the organization,
supervision, and coordination of project activities in
Honduras. He also will supervise the conduct of the
management trials and the plantings on small farms. He
will be responsible for collecting and sharing data with his
counterparts in Puerto Rico and will assist in its analysis
and intrepretation.

(2) Drs. J. Silvio Zuluaga and Juan Jos6 Alan, Department of
Agronomy, Escuela Agricola Panamericana, El Zamorano,
Honduras. Drs. Zuluaga and Alan will be responsible for the
varietal development program at the EAP. They also will
coordinate the testing of advanced lines and will participate
in the evaluation of the disease nurseries. Dr. Zuluaga
will assume the responsibilities of Principal Investigator
during FY 1986 when Rafael Dfaz leaves Honduras to initiate
a Ph.D. program at Mississippi State University.

(3) Dr. Jorge Chang, Department of Agronomy, Escuela Agrtcola
Panamericana, El Zamorano, Honduras. As department head,
Dr. Chang will assist in the administration of the project.
He also will provide assistance in the planning and conduct
of the management trials.












(3) Dr. Leonardo R. Corral will assist in the analysis and
interpretation of the data from the field experiments and
on-farm trials.

(4) Ms. Denie Espinal, Mr. Johnathan Cerna and Ms. Laura
Rodrfguez will assist project agronomists, plant pathologists,
and plant breeders in conducting field research. Technicians
at other experiment stations will be available to assist the
project when needed. Mr. Ram6n Escobar will replace Mr. Cerna
when he leaves to begin his studies.


B. Training program

1. U.S. Students

The project plans to provide support for a U.S. graduate student

to initiate a M.S. degree program at the University of Puerto Rico

during FY 1986. His or her thesis research will deal with the effect

of different cropping systems on the effectiveness of different sources

of disease resistance.

2. Host Country Students

a. The project will provide support for Rafael Diaz to initiate a

Ph.D. degree program at Mississippi State University to study

problems related to seed production by small farmers' in Honduras.

It is anticipated that Mr. Dfaz will conduct his dissertation

research in Honduras.

b. Luis del RTo will continue at the University of Puerto Rico where

he will pursue a M.S. degree in crop protection. It is anticipated

that Mr. del Rfo will return to Honduras during FY 1986 to conduct

the research for his M.S. thesis.

c. The project will provide support for Johnathan Cerna to complete a

B.S. degree in agronomy from the University of Florida. Since the

University of Florida has an established policy for the transfer of

credits from the EAP, it is anticipated that Mr. Cerna will be able











to complete a B.S. degree in three semesters. An added advantage

of study at the University of Florida is that Mr. Cerna will be

able to strengthen his skills in the use of English. Upon

completion of a B.S., Mr. Cerna will come to the University of

Puerto Rico where he will initiate an M.S. degree program in

agronomy or crop protection.

d. Efforts will be made to identify a woman to initiate a degree

program at the University of Puerto Rico to study agronomy, crop

protection, or agricultural economics.

e. The project will provide partial support for undergraduate

students at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana. Thie project will

attempt to choose students which have an interest In bean production.

By assisting the project personnel during peak periods of work, the

students will gain on-hands experience working with beans.

3. Other developing country students

None anticipated

4. Other training efforts

The project plans to sponsor a workshop during FY 1986 on farming

system research techniques. Participants will include Bean/Cowpea CRSP

personnel from Puerto Rico, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic. One

to two weeks of formal instruction will be given at the University of

Puerto Rico by personnel from the Farming System Support Project (FSSP)

of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of

Florida, Gainesville, Florida. The formel instruction will be followed

up by an on-site visit to Honduras by a FSSP staff member. This

training should be particularly useful for the surveys planned for
FY 1987-88.










5. Expected outcomes of the training program

a. FY 1986

By FY 1986, Luis del Rfo will have completed his B.S. degree

and his coursework requirements for a M.S. degree. During the

"primera" planting of 1986, Mr. del Rfo will initiate his

thesis research in Honduras. It also is anticipated that

Mr. Cerna will terminate a B.S. degree in agronomy during

FY 1986. Two students which received partial support from the

project will graduate from the EAP. These students should have

a better understanding of the problems and potential of producing

beans in Honduras. The farming systems workshop should provide an

opportunity for project personnel to improve their skills in

farming systems research techniques. These skills should enable

the project to determine how multiple disease resistance can be

best utilized by small farmers. The project also should be more

effective in measuring the impact of the project on small farmers

and their families.

b. FY 1987-88

As more project personnel return to the Escuela Agrfcola

Panamericana with graduate training, the research capability of

the bean research program will be enhanced. This will be

particularly true as these individuals gain a few years of

experience working in Honduras. The trained personnel should

enable the project to be more effective in the development of well

adapted, multiple disease resistant varieties for small farmers.

The number and quality of research publications produced by

these individuals will provide a means of evaluating their











graduate training. The value of the farming system workshop will

be evaluated from the quality of the report of the on-farm

surveys which will be conducted during FY 1987.

6. Expected Outcomes

a. FY 1986

1) Identification of additional sources of resistance to the most

important diseases in Honduras. The value of these sources of

resistance will be measured when grown in trials on small farms

2) Identification of a group of small red, multiple disease

resistant advanced lines. The potential value of these lines

will be evaluated using the results from the advanced line

field rialss which will be conducted at several locations.

3) Continued accumulation of resistance genes in the recurrent

selection populations. The level of resistance in the

populations will be measured in performance trials at the end

of each cycle.

4) Distribution of promising bean lines to farmers in the bean

growing regions. The effectiveness of this activity will be

evaluated during the growing season when the extensionist and

project agronomist evaluate the beans for agronomic character-

istics and disease resistance.

b. FY 1987-88

1) Release of small red, multiple disease resistant breeding lines and

varieties. Seed of the varieties will be multiplied by the

Escuela AgrTcola Panamericana (EAP). The breeding lines will be

available for use by a varietal development program at the EAP.











The value of these varieties will be determined by their

performance on small farms.

2) Research will be completed which will study the effectiveness

of different sources of disease resistance when tested under

varying management systems. This research should help

determine how these sources of resistance can be most

effectively utilized by small farmers. Results from this

research will be published in scientific journals.

3) The acceptance of a group of promising bean lines by a group

of small farmers will be studied. Farms which grew the lines

will be visited by during the following year. The degree of

utilization of these lines during the second year will be

measured. The information concerning the preference of the

small farmer will be used by the breeding program when

establishing criteria for selection.

4) An active varietal development program will be established at

the Escuela Agricola Panamericana. Support in the evaluation

of the performance of advanced lines will be provided by

researchers of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The

varietal development program will be evaluated on its capacity

to generate populations with disease resistance and the ability

to develop genotypes from these populations which are superior

to the standard bean varieties.










C. Project linkages

1. Host Country

The project has and will continue to cooperate with the Agricultural

Extension Service (AES) in Honduras. Their collaboration has been of

particular value in conducting the trials on small~farms. The AES

also will be helpful during FY 1986 when seed will' be distributed

to cooperating farmers.

2. Other developing countries

The University of Puerto Rico has a similar project in the

Dominican Republic which is funded by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. This

arrangement results in the efficient use of project resources since

Honduras and the Dominican Republic share many of the same bean

disease problems. Project personnel from Honduras, the Dominican

Republic and the University of Puerto Rico will participate in

the farming system workshop.

The project will continue to cooperate with the CIAT bean research

program. Data from the International Cooperative Disease Nurseries

will be collected following CIAT guidelines in order to permit the

comparison of the results from other countries. Adaptation nurseries

from CIAT will be conducted and visits to Honduras will be coordinated.

Special efforts will be made to maintain close lines of communication

with the CIAT bean research personnel based at ICTA in Guatemala.

3. U.S. Institutions

Results from the Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects in Brasil and Tanzania

will be of use to the project in Honduras since both deal with bean

diseases. When it is deemed appropriate, the project will use lines

identified by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP project in Brasil to have high











levels of biological nitrogen fixation (8NF) as parents in the

local varietal development program. In addition, the most promising

high BNF lines will be screened in Honduras for adaptation and

disease resistance.

D. Mechanisms for evaluating project impact

Results from the survey to be conducted on small farms during FY 1987

should provide one of the best measures of the impact of the newly

released, multiple disease resistant varieties on small farmers and their

families. An indirect and less precise method of determining the impact

of the project would be to measure the percentage of the bean crop

planted to the new varieties and estimating average seed yields. Given

the long term nature of varietal development programs, it is expected that

much or most of the impact of the project will be realized after FY 1988.















































107,121


129,090


University of Puerto RicO

James S. Beaver


___~


Estimated Budget
Request
FY 87


1. PERSONNEL

2. EQUIPMENT AND
FACILITIES

3. TRAVEL AND PER DIEM

4. MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES

5. OTHER DIRECT COSTS

6. TOTAL DIRECT COSTS

7. INDIRECT COSTS

8. TOTAL DIRECT AND
INDIRECT COSTS

9. TOTAL REQUEST


Lead Institution

Current US PI


BEAN/COgWPEA CRSP
FY 86-88 ESTIMATED BUDGET REQUEST


Estimated Budget
Request
F"Y 88
US HC

$ 76,676 $103,796


Estimated Budget
Request
FY 86
US HC

$ 63,368 $ 81,875


Total Three-Year
Budget Request
US HC

$209,749 $280,031


US

$69,705


HC

$ 94,360


15,000

22,000

10,000

71,000

2'12,360


7,500

7,260

3,850

29,400

11,378

9,812


25,000

20,000

8,000

66,750

201,625


7,875

7,986

4,043

31,100

120,709

10,755


8,269

8,785

4,447

25,900

124,077

11,818


15,000

25,000

11,000

78,100

232,896


23,644

24,031

12,340

86,400

365,164

32,385


55,000

67,000

29,000

215,850

646,881


121,190 201,625

322,815

32,455 39,000


131,464 212,360

343,824

35,576 42,900


135,895 232,896

368,791

39,090 47,190


388,549 646,881

1,035,430


10. CONTRIBUTION















Objectively Verifiable
Narrative Summary Indicators Means of Verification Important Assumptions


Programn or Sector Goal: Measures of Gotl Achlieve- (A-3) Ass~ump~tionsl for achiev-
The broader objective to ment (A-2) ing goal targets (A-4)
which this project con- -. Compare the performance
tribuos: (A-1) and disease resistance Small farmers continue
of MDR varieties deve- to grow dry beans in
To make multiple disease A measure of improvement loped by the program Honduras
resistant (MOR) lines ca- of yield stability and with traditional bean
publeu of` producing in- yield level of MDRI vat- variation~ The National Saud Pro-
creased and/or more rieties over traditional gram will increase seed
stable yields available varieties -. Determine the quantity of the new varieties
to ameurll formarn of MDR~ ugood platnterd by
A measure of accpetance small farmers and the The Extension Service
of MDR varieties by small production levels they will promote the MDR
farmers obtain varieties and small
farmers will plant
these varieties


EAP/UPR Bean/Cowpea CRSP Project


LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX

(December 1984)


P'rojec~t purposes (J-1)




- Reduce losses due to
diseases by incorpo-
rating multiple dis-
ease resistance (MDR)
into a seed type
acceptable to the
Honduran consumer.


Conditions that will in-
dicate purpose has been
achieved and of project
status (B-2)

- Incorporation of MDR in-
to small red bean varie-
ties which lead to in-
creased and/or more
stable yields of beans


(8-3)

- Multiple disease re-
sistance will be ve-
rified by performance
of advanced bean lines
in trials conducted on
small farms and experi-
ment stations


Assumptions for achiev-
ing purpose (B-4)

- Sources of resistance
utilized remains ef-
fective when tested
on local strains or
races of pathogens





Objectively Verifiable
Xndicr~t9KS


Means of Verification


Important Assumptions


Narrative Summary


- Enhance the research ca-
pabilities at the Escuela
Agri~cola Panamericana and
the Ministry of Natural
Resources through formal
and informal training
and collaborative re-
search


- Establishment of a viable
bean research program at
the Escuela Agricola Pana-
mericana capable of de-
veloping MDR bean varie-
ties


- The quantity and qual-
ity of research pro-
duced by the bean re-
search program at the
Pan American School
will provide the best
measure of its capa-
bilities


- A bean disease currently
identified as a minor
problem does not emerge
as a major problem.

- The bean research pro-
gram in Honduras has
low turnover of per-
sonnel and that the
Pan American School
continues to support
bean research


Project outputs (C-1)

- Identification of
stable sources of re-
sistance to the major
diseases affecting
bean production in
Honduras

- Incorporation of
sources of disease
resistance into pro-
ductive bean geno-
types with seed
types acceptable
to the Honduran
consumer

- Provide seed of the
MDR varieties to the
National Seed Program
for multiplication and
distribution to small
farmers.


Magnitude of outputs (C-2)

- Development of variaticus
with improved levels of
resistance to one or more
diseases resulting in in-
creased and/or more stable
bean yields

- Seed of the MDR varieties
will be multiplied and
made available to the
National Seed Program

- Populations will be de-
veloped with enhanced
levels of MDR.

- The quality and quantity
of bean research at the
Escuela Agrl'cola Paname-
ricana will be increased


C-3

- Sources of disease re-
sistance will be
screened at several
locations in Honduras

- The value of the MDR
populations will be
measured by the number
of breeding lines and
varieties developed
from these populations

- The performance of ad-
vanced MDR lines will
be tested on small
farms as experiments


- Assumptions for achiev-
ing output (C-4)

- Screening techniques are
effective in the identi-
fication of sources of
resistance to the important
bean diseases

- Reasonably heritable
sources of resistance
can be identified for
the important bean dis-
eases

- Breeding methods are
appropraite to in-
corporate these re-
sistances into local
seed types










._ I


Ob~jout ivrlly Ve1Ir ifnlable
indi,( CatorN


Mtand,~ of Verification


importa'~ ntlt Atruump~,t~iOnsk


Noir'ratl Lv r ;uunniry


- Strungthen the research
capacity of the bean re-
search program at the
Escuela Agricola Pana-
mericana (EAP)


- The research capacity
of the EAP bean re-
search program can be
verified from the pu-
blication of theses,
the publication of
scientific articles,
and presentations
made at scientific
meetings


- The National Seed Pro-
gram is capable of
multiplying seed of
promising MDR varieties
and making the seed
available to small
farmers

- The Extension Service
effectively promotes
use of the MDR varie-
ties


Inputs (D-1)

University of Puerto
Rico/USDA-ARS

- Principal Investi-
gator

- Four Co-Investigators

-One technician

- Laborers

- Adequate facilities
for personnel to
conduct research
program in plant
breeding and path-
ology


Indicators (D-2)

- Ecamination of annual
reports to determine
performance of per-
sonnel and to evaluate
facility and resource
needs of the project

- Budget atuned to pro-
ject need approved

- Required equipment
purchased


Means of verification
(D-3)

- Annual reports

- Publication of theses,
scientific articles,
and presentations at
scientific meetings


Assumptions (D-4)

- Financial support from
SAID, UPR, and the EAP
remains the same

- Involvement of personnel
at all levels listed in
D-1 will be continued

- Facilities mentioned in
D-1 will remain to be
available





Objectively Verifiable
Indicators


Means of Verification


Important Assumptions


Narrative Summnary


Escuela Agrlcola
Panamericana

- Co-Principal In-
vestigator


- Trip reports


- Quarterly activity reports


- Fiscal reports


- Three Co-Invouti-
gators

- Three Technicianrr

- Laborers

- Adequate facilities
for personnel to
conduct a research
program in plant
breeding and path-
ology

- Cooperation from
the Ministry of
National Resources
bean program

- Cooperation from
the Extension
Service

- Cooperation from the
National Seed Program

- Cooperation from small
farmers in Honduras














NAME/PERSONAL DATA:

DATE & PLACE OF BIRTH:


CURRICULUM VITAE


James Scott Beaver

September 25, 1950


U.S. Citizen


CIVIL STATUS:


Married


CURRENT ADDRESS:




BUSINESS ADDRESS:


TARS
P. O. Box 70
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00709

Dept. of Agronom~y and Soils
College of Agricultural Sciences
University of Puerto Rico
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708


EDUCATION:


1975-1980




1968-1972




1968


1956-1967


- M.S. and Ph.D in Plant Breeding and Genetics
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois

- B.S. with honors in Agronomy
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana

- Hamilton Southeastern High School
Noblesville, Indiana

- Fishers High School
Fishers, Indiana


WORK EXPERIENCE:


July, 1984 to Present:






May, 1981 to July 1984:


Associate Professor/Associate Investigator
Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural
Experiment Station
University of Puerto Rico-RUM
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708

Assistant Professor/Assistant Investigator
Faculty of Agriculture and Agricultural
Experiment Station
University of Puerto Rico-RUM
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708








CURRICULUM VITAE James Scott Beaver

WORK EXPERIENCE (cont'd):

May, 1980 to May, 1981: Research Associate
Dept. of Agronomy
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois

1975-1980 Graduate Research and Teaching Assistant
Dept. of Agronomy
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois

1972-1974 Peace Corps Volunteer in Matto Grosso,
Brasil working as an Agricultural Extension
Agent

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES:

American Society of Agronomy
Crop Science Society of America
American Phytopathological Society
Caribbean Food Crops Society
Sociedad Puertorriqueiia de Ciencias Agrl'colas (SOPCA)

COURSES, LECTURES, SEMINARS:

AGRO 4026 (Crop Ecology) 1982, 1984
CFIT 4003 (Plant Breeding) 1983
AGRO 6600 (Adv. Biometry) 1982 (lab), 1983, 1984
AGRO 6695 (Special Problem) 1983

Invited paper entitled "Breeding disease resistant beans for the
Caribbean" at the 1984 annual meeting of the Caribbean Food Crop
Society, October, 1984, St. Croix, U.S.V.I.

Presented paper entitled "Yield stability of dry bean genotypes
in the Dominican Republic" at the 1983 annual meeting of the
American Society of Agronomy, August, 1983 Washington, D.C.

InVited lecture entitled "The use of statistics in bean research"
at the Dominican Republic Bean Research Workshop, October, 1983,
San Cristiibal, D).R.

Participant in the informal training of Title XII Bean/Cowpea
CRSP research personnel from the Dominican Republic and Honduras.
February, 1983.

THESIS- COMMITTEES CRAIRMAN:

Manuel Mateo de Jesis Solano
Lucas Ramiirez










CURRICULUM VITAE James Scott Beaver

THESIS COMMITTEES MEMBER:

Carmen Santiago, M.S. in Agronomy 1983
Brunilda Luciano Lugo, M.S. in Agronomy 1983
C~sar Cardona Agronomy
Luis Olivera Horticulture
Angel Bosque Agronomy
Aixa Rivera Animal Science
Froilan Avila Horticulture
Yovanni Velizquez Agronomy
Raquel Robledo Agronomy
Hector Saneaux Crop Protection
Winston Martinez Agronomy

PROFESSIONAL COMMITTEES:

Member of Women in Agriculture Committee of the American Society
of Agronomy beginning in 1985

Member of Technical Committee of the Title XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP
1984-1985

Alternate Member of the Tkchnical Committee of the Title XII Bean/
Cowpea CRSP 1982-1983

Member of Southern Region Committee SRDC 82-07 "Role of Legume
Cover Crops in Conservation Tillage Production Systems"

Interdepartmental Biometry Committee

Agronomy Department Graduate Admission Committee

PROFESSIONAL CONSULTING:

Advise graduate students, staff, and faculty on experimental design
and use of statistical software packages.

OFFICIAL TRIPS:

Caribbean Food Crop Society Annual Meeting,
St. Croix, U.S.V.I., October, 1984

Honduras. Research related to the Title XII Bean/Cowpea
CRSP. December, 1983; April, 1984; July 1984.

Dominican Republic. Research related to the Title XII
Bean/Cowpea CRSP. November, 1981; January, 1982; June,
1982; November, 1982; January, 1983; March, 1983; October,
1983; December, 1983; February, 1984; June 1984









CURRICULUM VITAE James Scott Beaver

OFFICIAL TRIPS (cont'd):

American Society of Agronomy Annual Meetings,
Washington, D. C., August, 1983

Bean Improvement Cooperative Biennial Meetings,
Gainesville, Fla., January, 1981 and Minneapolis,
Mn., December, 1982.

Title XII Bean Research Workshop at CIAT, Cali,
Colombia, November, 1981.

RESEARCH RESPONSIBILITIES:

Principal Investigator for Project TAD-17 "Improvement of Large
Seeded Dry Beans for the Tropics"

Principal Investigator for Project H-345 "Dry Bean Varietal
Improvement for Puerto Rico".

Principal Investigator for Project Z-20 "Dry Bean Breeding
Winter Nursery"

Principal Investigator for Projects C488 \and C489 "Improvement
of Bean Production in the Dominican Republic and Honduras
through Breeding for Multiple Disease Resistance in Preferred
Standard Cultivars".

PUBLICATIONS:

1. Schiller, C.T., J.S..Beaver and J.B. Sinclair. 1978. The effect of
planting date and row spacing on soybean seed quality. Phytopathology
News 12(8):91.

2. Beaver, J.S. and R.R. Johnson. 1981. Cultural practices for short
statured soybeans. Illinois Research 23(1):6-7.

3. Beaver, J.S. and R.L. Nelson. 1981. Effect of grafting date and
maturity of the stock on the flowering behavior of soybean scions.
Soybean Genetics Newsletter 8:37-40.

4. Beaver, J.S. and R.R. Johnson. 1981. Yield stability of determinate
and indeterminate soybeans adapted to the Northern United States.
Crop Science 21:449-453.

5. Beaver, J.S. and R.R. Johnson. 1981. Response of determinate and in-
determinate soybeans to varying cultural practices in the Northern
U.S. Agron. J. 73:833-837.









CURRICULUMH VITAE James Scott- Beaver

PUBLICATIONS (cont'd):

6. Beaver, J.S. and R.L. Cooper. 1982. Dry matter accumulation patterns and
seed yield components of two indeterminate soybean cultivars. Agron. J.
74:380-383.

7. Beaver, J.S., C. Paniagua, D. Coyne, and G. Freytag. 1984. Yield stabi-
lity of dry bean genotypes in the Dominican Re~public. Crop Science (In
review).

8. Badillo-Feliciano, J., I. Reyes Soto, J.S. Beaver. 1984. A comparison
of yields of common beans at physiological and harvest maturity. J.
Agric. of UPR (In Press).

9. Zimmerman, R.H., G.I. Garris, and J.S. Beaver. 1984. Potential of
Stylosanthes spp. as a component in an integrated pest management
approach to tick control. Preventative Veterinary Medicine 2:579-588.

10. Beaver, J.S., J. Badillo-Feliciano, and I. Reyes Soto. 1984. Perfor-
mance of dry beans when grown on the coastal plains of Puerto Rico.
J. Agric. of UPR (In Press).

31. Beaver, J.S., R.L. Cooper, R. Martin. 1984. Dry matter accumulation
patterns and seed yield components of determinate and indeterminate
soybean genotypes. Agron. J. (In review).

12. Beaver, J.S., C.V. Paniagua, J.R. Steadman and R. Echivez-Badel. 1984.
Reaction of dry bean genotypes to natural infection of foliar diseases
when grown in the Dominican Republic. J. Agric. of UPR (In review).








CURRICULUM VITAE


GENERAL DATA:


NMAE :


Rafael Eduardo Diaz Donair~e

Minas de Oro, Comayaqua

October 16, 1951

Eduardo Diaz Marquez

Myra Wu Velasquez de Diaz

Elisa Cristina (9)
Mayra Lucia (6)


PLACE OF BIRTH:

DATE OF BIRTH:

NAME OF FATHER:

NAME OF MOTHER:

CHILDREN :


EDUCATION:


1958 1963


1964 1966



1967 1968





1969



1970 1972


Primary School, Escuela Liceo
San Antonio, Minas de Oro

Ciclo ComC~n de Cultura General,
Institute Liceo San Antonio,
Minas de Gro

Ciclo Diversificado, Bachillerado
en Ciencias y Letras, Instituto
Salesiano San Miguel Tegucigalpa,
D.C.

U.N.A.H. Centro Universitario de
Estudios Generales (CUEG),
Tegucigalpa, D.C.

Agronomist, Escuela Agricola
Panamericana, El Zamorano,
Honduras

B.S. Agronomy, Mississippi State
University, U.S.A.

Postgraduate Course, Seed Tech-
nology, Centro Internacional de
Agriculture Tropical, Cali, Colombia

M.S. in Agronomy, Centro Agronomico
Tropical de Investigaciidn y Ense~anza
(CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica


1976 1977


1977



1982










Rafael Eduardo Dlaz Donaire


CURRICULUM VITAE

WORK EXPERIENCE:


Assistant Head of the Agronomy Department,
Escuela AgrIcola Panamericana (EAP) with
teaching, research, and seed production
responsibilities. Co-PI of Title XII
Bean/Cowpea CRSP.

:In charge of the Seed Section of the Dept.
.of Agronomy of the EAP and Co-PI of Title
XII Bean/Cowpea CRSP.

Head of the National Agricultural Extension
Program. Ministry of Natural Resources.

Director of the Escuela Nacional de Agri-
cultura. Catacamas, 01ancho.

Head of the Corn and Bean Program of the
Agricultural Sector. (PROMYFSA). Ministry
of Natural Resources.

Head of the National Seed Production Pro-
gram. Ministry of Natural Resources.

In charge of the Ministry of Natural Re-
sources seed production plant at
Tegucigalpa.

Research Agronomist, Program for the
development of basic grains. Francisco
Morozan and El Paraiso.


October, 1984 to Present:






June, 1983 to Sept., 1984:




Jan., 1983 to May, 1983:


June, 1982 to Dec., 1982:


April, 1979 to Jan., 1980:



June, 1977 to 3978:


Feb., 1974 to Dec., 1975:



Before Feb., 1974:


PUBLICATIONS:

Caracterizaci8n y relaciones ambiente-manejo en sistemas de sorgo y frijol
asociado con malz, en Honduras. Tesis de Grado M.S., CATIE, Turrialba,
Costa Rica. 1982.

Caracterizacidn de los sistemas de producci~n, en la Esperanza, Intibuca,
Honduras. 1981.

La semilla: fuente productive del Agro. Recursos. 1979.

LANGUAGES :


Spanish and English







UNIVERSITY OF PUERTO RICO
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENtts
MAYAQURE. PURRlTO RICO*Q0708


OFmcs or Tus DlAn
December 3, 1984




1DEC10 8;4

Dr. Pat Barnes-McConnell, Director gaggjiowp e 3 CRSP
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office ----
200 Center for International Programs
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

Dear Dr. Barnes:

I am pleased to support a three year extension of the
Bean/Cowpea CRSP Projects in the Dominican Republic and
Honduras. The University of Puerto Rico is fortunate to
posses the technical expertise, germplasm, and the proper
environmental conditions which enable the projects to
make significant contributions toward the improvement of
tropical bean germplasm. As a teaching institution, the
University of-Puerto Rico has the capability to provide both
the formal and informal training needed to strengthen the
research capabilities of the bean programs in the Dominican
Republic and Honduras.

The disease resistant germplasm developed by the projects
has proven to be beneficial to the local bean breeding program.
Moreover, bean germplasm selected for resistance under severe
disease pressures of the tropics is of potential value to bean
research programs in the temperate regions of the U.S.

Considering the importance of the need to improve bean
production in the Caribbean Basin, the University of Puerto Rico
will continue to provide the Bean/Cowpea CRSP projects with the
support necessary to insure their success.


/nta