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The global plan of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00008145/00001
 Material Information
Title: The global plan of the Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP)
Physical Description: 16 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Beans -- Research -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Cowpea -- Research -- International cooperation   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: Typescript.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 646828520
ocn646828520
Classification: lcc - SB608.B3 G56 1985
System ID: AA00008145:00001

Full Text




THE GLOBAL PLAN OF
THE BEAN/COWPEA COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (CRSP)*

INTRODUCTION



PROGRAM GOAL

The Bean/Cowpea CRSP makes available to the international agricultural

research and development system a new avenue to the US agricultural research

network. In so doing, this CRSP is expected to make important contributions

to the resolution of difficult and persistent problems associated with bean and

cowpea production and utilization in areas of the world where they are

important commodities.

The original grant document, made operational for the first 5-1/2 years,

puts forward the following goal of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP:

The goal of this program is to make a significant contribution to
improving the living conditions of small farm producers in LDCs and
increasing availability of low cost nutritious foodstuffs in the
marketplace for the rural and urban poor in LOCs.
PROGRAM PURPOSE

The original grant document further identifies the following purpose of

the CRSP:

The purpose of this program is to organize and mobilize financial and
human resources necessary for mounting a major multi-institutional
US-LDC collaborative effort of research and training in bean- and
cowpea-related areas.
THE GLOBAL PLAN



The CRSP is to stimulate and support commodity-related collaborative

research among AID, the US Land-Grant university community (with limited

contributions from the US Department of Agriculture), private institutes, Host



*Latest review by Technical Committee, April 1985
Latest review by Board of Directors, May 1985











Country (HC) institutions and identified International Agricultural Research

Centers. These aggressive collaborative efforts are to focus on the identified

persistent constraints to bean and cowpea production and utilization. Thus,
this CRSP Global Plan to increase bean and cowpea availability is an organiza-
tion of research efforts designed to address specific constraints in

representative agro-ecological areas of the world where beans and cowpeas are

grown. The elements of the plan include the bean and cowpea constraints, the
countries chosen for collaboration, the participating US institutions and the

guidelines and policies which provide direction for the program. The network
of bean and cowpea scientists established by this CRSP will make accessible to

interested programs in the US and HCs expertise for problem-solving throughout
the developing world.
COMMODITY ELEMENTS

It was determined that Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata would be
the focus of this program. Although there are other legumes to which research

could make an important contribution, these two were considered the most

critical ones worldwide and the ones for which research expertise was most
available in the US.
CONSTRAINT ELEMENTS

Through visits to Host Countries, communications with HC representatives

and exploration of available documentation, the major constraints to bean and

cowpea availability were identified. This information was documented in the

resulting state-of-the-art publication (Adams, M. W.. 1984. Beans--Cowpeas:
Production Constraints and National Programs. East Lansing, MI: Michigan

State University, Bean/Cowpea CRSP Management Office) and became the basis for

the development of projects in representative regions.











The constraints identified were as follows:

1. Limitations due to pests and diseases

2. Plant response limitations

3. Limitations of the physical environment

4. Farming practices limitations

5. Storage problems

6. Production-consumption economics

7. Nutrition, food preparation and health

8. Socio-cultural factors

9. Education, training and research capability

GEOGRAPHIC ELEMENT

Because sensitivity to daylength, temperature and rainfall patterns are

)important in the adaptation of beans and cowpeas, countries providing a range
of agro-ecological conditions were chosen for the research. In addition to
the US, the countries participating in this CRSP are:


AFRICA LATIN AMERICA

Botswana Nigeria Brazil Guatemala
Cameroon Senegal Dominican Republic Honduras
Kenya Tanzania Ecuador Mexico
Malawi

PROJECT ELEMENTS

The projects were organized to provide research on the constraints in the

countries representative of where these constraints were the most troublesome.

Each project is organized under the management of a US lead institution with a

US Principal Investigator (PI) to lead the conduct of the joint research in the

constraint area. The present projects of the CRSP and their US lead institu-

tions are as follows:*


*Title as approved for extension.














Botswana


Colorado State University



Boyce Thompson Institute


Brazil


Brazil


University of Wisconsin


Brazil


University of Wisconsin



University of Georgia


Cameroon


Dominican Republic




Dominican Republic


University of Nebraska




University of Puerto Rico


Ecuador


Cornell University


Guatemala


Cornell University


Development of Integrated
Cowpea Production Systems
in Semiarid Botswana

Insect Pathogens in Cowpea
Pest Management Systems
for Developing Nations

Identification of Superior
Bean-Rhizobia Combinations
for Utilization in Cropping
Systems Suitable to Small
Farms in Brazil

Improved Techniques for
Development of Multiple
Disease Resistance in
Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Pest Management Strategies
for Optimizing Cowpea
Yields in Cameroon

Biology, Epidemiology,
Genetics and Breeding for
Resistance to Bacterial and
Rust Pathogens of Beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Improvement of Bean Pro-
duction in the Dominican
Republic through Breeding
for Multiple Disease Resis-
tance

Agronomic and Sociological
Aspects of Bean Yield

Agronomic,- Sociologic al
and Genetic Aspects of Bean
Yield and Adaptation

Improvement of Bean Produc-
tion in Honduras through
Breeding for Multiple
Disease Resistance

Improved Biological
Utilization and Accept-
ability of Dry Beans


Honduras


University of Puerto Rico



Washington State University


INCAP












Improvement of Drought and
Heat Tolerance of Bean
Cultivars in Semiarid
Regions of Kenya


Genetic, Agronomic and
Socio-Cultural Analysis of
Diversity among Bean Land-
races in Malawi

Improving Resistance to
Environmental Stress in
Beans through Genetic
Selection for Carbohydrate
Partitioning, Water Use
Efficiency and Efficiency
of Biological Nitrogen
Fixation

Appropriate Technology for
Cowpea Preservation and
Processing and a Study of
Its Socio-Economic Impact
)on Rural Populations in
Nigeria

A Program to Develop
Improved Cowpea Cultivars,
Management Methods and
Storage Practices for
Semiarid Zones


Breeding Beans (Phaseolus
vulgaris L) for disease,
Insect and Stress Resistance
and Determination of Socio-
Economic Impact on Small-
holder Farm Families


Kenya


University of California
Riverside


Malawi


Michigan State University


Mexico


Michigan State University


Nigeria


University of Georgia


Senegal






Tanzania


University of California-
Riverside






Washington State University


STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

To insure productive collaboration within the CRSP, projects were to be

organized:

1. To be individual but structurally integrated in order to make the maximum

research contribution to increasing the availability of beans and cowpeas;

2. To emphasize within projects multi-disciplinary research integrating


production and non-production issues;









-6-


3. To focus on research in traditional settings;

4. To build strong and collegial professional relationships among the HC and

US researchers in each project;

5. To make financial resources available for both HC and US research activity;

6. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through the enhance-

ment of facilities and equipment needed to support that research;

7. To contribute to the strengthening of HC institutions through a significant

level of graduate and undergraduate study, short-term courses, conferences

and workshops;

8. To strengthen the role of women in agricultural research, production,

marketing, processing and food preparation because of their primary role

in production of these commodities in many developing countries;
9. To be alert to mechanisms for information dissemination; and

10. To provide an opportunity for private sector participation in research

activity and in the dissemination of project results.

ARTICLES OF THE GLOBAL PLAN

Through the collaborative project activity, HC as well as US professionals

are to be strengthened in their ability to address the constraints by forming

productive professional relationships with one another. As first enunciated

by the founders of this CRSP, the specific contributions appropriate from

these US/HC teams are clear.

1. We must address, collaboratively with LOC scientists, the problems of

insect and disease control. We may, in the short term, have to rely upon

judicious use of non-persistent pesticides and upon novel means of applying

them (for example, pyrethrums and ultra-low volume spraying); but for the

longer term, we can look to the breeding of pest resistant cultivars, to











protective farming practices and to biological rather than expensive and

toxic chemical control systems.

2. We must support the evolution of more productive and more stable production

systems. The evolving systems must maintain their adaptation to the

variety of conditions on small farms, utilizing breeding for higher yields

and through improved mixed cropping management.

3. We must address the problem of inefficient nitrogen fixation and phosphorous

utilization. In order to escape the tyranny of the spiralling costs of these

plant nutrients, we can investigate the development of more efficient

cultivars and the evolution of more appropriate farming techniques.

4. We must work to overcome problems of drought, through breeding more drought

resistant cultivars and the development of farming systems that are

efficient and conserving in their use of water.

5. We must work toward better nutritive value and digestibility of the food

constituents of beans and cowpeas, through breeding and by- supportive

methods of food technology.

6. We must promote the creation or operation of seed multiplication programs

in order to reach the small farmers with seeds of improved cultivars that

are not only genetically superior but that are of sound physical quality

and free of seed-borne diseases. The issues of seed availability and

credit to women for seed purchases must also be addressed.

7. We must work to overcome or minimize the problem of hard seeds and long-

cooking time in beans and cowpeas, through both breeding and the use of

simple storage or processing tactics, in order to reduce cooking time and

fuel requirements.












8. We must help evolve methods of storage and of food preparation that

conserve the full value of the dry grains without insect depredation and

that permit retention of full nutritive capability of these grains (or

other plant parts, as applicable) when made ready for consumption. There

must be no marked alteration in the grains that detracts from their

acceptance as food.

9. We must be cognizant of the interacting and sometimes contradictory results

of various agronomic interventions. We must, therefore, carry out produc-

tion/consumption-oriented research with socio-economic analysis to assess

the acceptability and agro-economic feasibility of proposed interventions.

Marketing studies should determine whether improvements, in terms of

greater real gain to the farmer, can be made in the system.

10. We must give substantive consideration to major components of the farming

system and especially the human components. We must become sensitive to

and knowledgeable about the unique and multiple roles played by women and

men in developing countries as they affect production and consumption of

beans and/or cowpeas.

11. We must attempt to maintain an acceptable ecology by encouraging all

collaborators to look specifically at the relationship of their research

to the agronomic, social and cultural context of the small farm family.

Researchers will have to assess the potential of their research for

increasing or lessening the frequently over-whelming burden of daily living

for such families, an assessment which will suggest the level of acceptance

that can be anticipated.

12. We must address a serious problem of research personnel availability by

supporting the training of indigenous professional and technical personnel.











Trainees at all levels, including post-graduate students, will need to be

supported in order to help build a supply of skilled individuals, both men

and women, who can conduct useful and needed research and demonstration

work with beans and cowpeas.

13. We must facilitate the development of collaborative relationships, not only

between US and Host Country scientists, but cross-nationally among LOC

scientists themselves, and among US scientists as well.

CONCLUSION

While the constraints identified in this Global Plan are important country-

specific issues, they exist throughout the world wherever beans and cowpeas are

grown. By distributing research attention to these constraints across the

agro-ecological zones represented among and within the CRSP countries,

Principles are elucidated in a given counting which have application throughout
the legume-producing world. Research collaboration, therefore, can be of great

benefit to many countries. In particular, CRSP research collaboration has

demonstrated that there is as much specifically for the US to learn and gain

from the traditional settings as there is for modern research to contribute in

return. Through these partnerships the CRSP supports regional contributions

from all participating national programs which in turn increases their integra-

tion into the thus expanded international agricultural research community.

This CRSP Global Plan, therefore, provides the basis for the significant

work of the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. The plan laid out above is presented in various

diagrammatic configurations below.




















NIGERIA

Cowpea processing and
preservation


KENYA
Drought and heat resistance
in semi-arid regions


CAMEROON

Non-pesticide control of
cowpea pests in field and
sto rage


TANZANJIA

Responses to been Insect and
disease problems and their
economic viability for small
farmers


MALAWI
Bean germplasm evaluations
and the basis of maintenance
of land race diversity


DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

Introgression of disease-
resistant germ plasm In
adapted bean cultivars for
the caribbean


HONDURAS

Increase and stabilization
of Honduran bean production
through disease resistance


Collaboration and interaction
with CRSP cowpea programs




CIAT
Collaboration and Interaction
with CASP bean programs



LATIN AMERICA


SENEGAL
A program to Improve the
quality of cowpea varieties
for production and utilization
in semi-arid zones


BOTSWANA
Cowpea farming systems
research and variety
evaluation In semi-arid areas


BRAZIL
1. Multiple bean disease
resistance screening;
2. cowpea Insect pathogens;
3. Nl~use efficiency of bean
production


ECUADOR
Nature of wide adaptation in
beans and socio~cultural
interpretations (replication
varying natural environmental
factors -- see Guatemala)


.GUATEMALA


INCAP
Cooking time and protein
digestibility of beans


Nature of wide adaptation in
beans and socio-cultural
interpretation replicationn
varying natural environmental
factors see Ecuador)


GLOBAL RESEARCH PLAN:

BEAN/COWPEA CRSP


EXTENSION YEARS 1986-88


AFRICA


MEXICO
Bean plant responses to
stress and N-fixation






PROFILE OF GLOBAL PLAN
Extension Years 1986-88


... .BEANS 11 COWPEAS
BR R BZ'RDR IECUI GUATI HON I INCP KEN MAL MEX T NZ 80 BT BRZ CAM NIG S
CONSTRAINTS BTI IUW/B UW/M UNL UPR COR COR UPR IWSU UCD MSU MSU IWSU CSU1 BTI UGA UGA UCR

la. Limitations due to pests S P P P S


2. Plan response limitations P S S P P I/ II I i I IP
(genetics ard breeding)

3. Limitations of the' physical
environment P j P P S P P


4. Farming practice limitations P I i P S P


5. Storage problems and seed
and food quality \ ,, S P S ii I IP S


6. Production-consumption
economics 'TL '1 i I II I I IS P S


7. Nutrition, food prepa-
ration and health' P 4 S S II I I IP


8. Socio-odtf~tural factors P S S


9. Education, training and
research capability P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P p P P


Primary research attention:
Secondary research attention:


lb. Limitations due to disease





-12-


RESEARCH ELEMENTS OF THE GLOBAL PLAN
Extension Years 1986-88


Primary
Beans Cowpeas


Secondary
Beans Cowpeas


Dominant Constraint


la. Limitations due to pests


Develop insect pathogens as
pest management tools

Identify insect pests, evaluate
breeding material for resistance,
characterize resistance mechanisms and
develop pest management strategies


BRZ/BTI BRZ/8TI


TNZ/WSU CAM/UGA


SEN/UCR


Ib. Limitations due to disease


Develop techniques of assessing
disease resistance. Determine mechanisms
of disease resistance inheritance.


Fungus: Anthracnose
Rust


8RZ/UW/M
DR/UNL

BRZ/UW/M


BCMV


Bacterial blight


DR/UNL

DR/UNL


BGMV


Screening material. Breeding for
disease resistance and variety or
mixture development

Fungus: Anthracnose and Rust
Angular leaf spot

BCMV


Common Bacterial Blight
Halo Blight


SEN/UCR
BOT/CSU


MAL/MSU


DR/UPR
HON/UPR
TNZ/WSU

HON/UPR
TNZ/WSU

DR/UPR
HON/UPR
TNuZ/WSU





-13-


Primary
Beans Cowpeas

DR/ UPR



MAL/MSSU



MEX/MSU SEN/UCR

BRZ/UW/B
MEX/MSU


Secondary
Beans Cowpeas

BRZ/UW~/M


Dominant Constraint

BGMV

2. Plant response limitations

Genetic, agronomic and socio-cultural
analysis of diversity

Improving resistance to environmental
stress, regarding CHO partitioning,
moisture stress, BNF and heat

Develop superior N-fixing cultivars


Screen superior N-fixing cultivars

3. Limitations of the physical environment

Assessing the role of genetic and environ-
mental variability in the determination
of maturity, adaptation and yield


Develop drought-tolerant cultivars
which are high yielding

Develop production systems with
stability and high yields for subsis-
tence farmers in hot, semiarid zones

4. Farming practice limitations

Identify and remove crop management
constraints in semiarid areas

Develop methods of evaluating production
systems in small-farm environments

Identify the social issues in cultivar
selection and acceptance

Village-level equipment

5. Storage problems and seed and food quality

Effect of varietal resistance and seed
treatment on seed quality, effects of
planting time on quality


DR/UPR


HON/UPR


GUAT/COR


KEN/UCD
MEX/MSU


TNZ/WrSU


SEN/UCR
BOT/CSU



BOT/CSU


ECU/COR


MAL/MSU


MAL/MSU


TNZ/WSU

TNZ/WSU BOT/CSU


CAM/UGA





Secondary
Beans Cowpeas


TNZ/WJSU NIG/UGA
ECU/COR


Dominant Constraint


Effects of storage conditions, processing
and genetic factors on acceptability
and nutritional quality of the grain

6. Production-consumption economics

Assess the economic impact of varieties
and production technology on small-
holders, women's roles in production,
consumption and marketing

7. Nutrition, food preparation and health

Determine the socio-cultural and socio-
economic factors in utilization,
develop appropriate technology to address
constraints to utilization and develop
policy guidelines to promote rural
industries and increased consumption

Consumption/marketing

Increase availability, utilization and
nutritional quality


-14-


Primary
Beans Cowpeas


INCAP/WSU


TNZ/WSU
ECU/COR


MAL/MSU BOT/CSU


INCAP/WJSU
ECU/COR NIG/UGA MAL/MSU


ECU/COR


TNZ/WJSU


INCAP/WSU NIG/UGA


8. Socio-cultural factors


Socio-cultural aspects of production and
technology in smallholder farming systems,
new-practice adoption and the role of women.

Socio-cultural reasons for persistent
acceptance of landrace diversity. The
role of women in landrace evaluation,
production, utilization and acceptance

9. Education, training and research capability


MAL/MSU
ECU/COR


TNZ/WSU BOT/CSU



TNZ/WSU
ECU/COR


MAL/MSU


ALL PROJ. ALL PROJ.


0905C:010786





Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Development of important research
results addressing identified
constraints.

Stronger national research program
addressing identified constraints.

CRSP products accepted by farmers,
extension agents, HC private initia-
tives in ways which will advance goal.

Increased participation of women.


BEAN/COWPEA CRSP LOG FRAME


Program Goal

Mtake a significant contribution to
the improvement of living conditions
of small farm producers in developing
countries and increase the availabil-
ity of low cost, nutritious food in
the marketplace for the rural and
urban poor.


Verifiers

Annual reports and positive TC/ERP
reviews of progress.

Increased overall size of national
program research team with greater
multidisciplinary competence and
HC investment in the project.

Adaptation of findings by external
agents: farmers, IARCs, extension
agents, commercial interests.

Increased male and especially
female CRSP graduates in the
professional pipeline.


Assumptions


Food and nutrition problems in the
developing nations can be solved in
part through research.

Collaboration between US and HC can be
of mutual benefit.

Achievement from this program can
reach the rural and urban poor.

Achievements of this Program can con-
tribute to development in ways which
do not increase the marginalization of
women and their families.


Flag se

Organize and mobilize financial and
human resources necessary for mount-
ing a major multi-institutional US/HC
collaborative effort in research and
training.

Provide the knowledge base necessary
to achieve significant advances in
alleviating the principal constraints
to improved production, marketing and
utilization of beans and cowpeas in
HCs.

Improve the capabilities of HC insti-
tutions to generate, adopt and apply
improved knowledge to local condi-
tions.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

US/HC administrations' support of
projects.

HC and US teams functioning with good
working relationships established.

Research teams operating with effective
level of equipment, supplies and tech-
nical support.

Effective communications among all par-
ticipants especially among those work-
ing on the same constraints across
projects.

Mechanism established for the identi-
fication and support of US and HC male
and female CRSP students.

Useful secondary data identified.

Improved research infrastructure with
laboratory and field research in
process.


Veri ffers

Smooth management with good
communication with MO.

US/HC quarterly and annual reports.

Formal commitment of participants.

Consistent pattern of student
training established.

Documentation of secondary data.

Primary data analyses available in
reports and publications.

HC contributions to CRSP documented
in each year's budget analysis.


Assumptions

HC will maintain interest in the
commodity and in CRSP participation.

Coups and other forms of political or
social disturbances will not be of a
magnitude at project sites as to
severely and insurmountably affect
progress.

Necessary basic equipment, facilities
and supplies will be available or ac-
quirable within reasonable time frame.

There is a sufficiently large pool of
students from which to draw for
advanced training at least at the
secondary school graduate level.





Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Yield increase under an array of
stressful conditions to which produced
varieties are resistant.

Multidisciplinary research generated.

Informational materials available.

Interest of wider international and
national research and development
community in products.

Better health among those making use
of project outputs.

Male and especially female graduates
returning to HC research institutions.


Veri fiers

Yield data from local and national
census and scientific reports of
research findings.

Reports of projects incorporate
and integrate socio-cultural with
agri-cultural information.

Materials acknowledged as received
by many groups and increased con-
sumer demand.

Requests from professional community
for information and research
products increased.

Site visits.

CRSP graduates identified in HC
research positions.

Increased numbers of male and female
students continually in short-term
and long-term training.


Assumptions

There exists in the HC at least a
skeletal infrastructure for informa-
tion dissemination.

There are HC and US women sufficiently
interested in advanced education and
professional employment to work their
way through the system when it is
opened to them.


Outputs

Stronger, better quality yields pos-
sible under identified constraints.

Greater understanding by US and HC
collaborators of the socio-cultural
and the agri-cultural environment.

Products of research packaged
appropriately for consumer use.

Information dissemination for a
variety of audiences:-

Production and utilization research
findings useful for the wider
research community.

Many male and female graduates of
training programs.


Inputs

Necessary long-term/short-term
personnel from HC/US institutions
who can communicate with each other.

Financial contributions from AID and
US and HC institutions.

Management support from MO, US and
HC institution administrations.

Equipment such as vehicles, lab,
field and office equipment.

Facilities and supplies for HC/US
teams.

Information and support from external
groups.


Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Annual allocation from AID.

CRSP funds flowing on regular bases to
US and HC research teams. -

Annual plan of work and budget docu-
ment with US/HC contributions.

Active backstopping by administrators
of US institutions with effective
levels of communication.

Frequent and regular communication
among AID, MO, US and HC.

Participation in CRSP research and
training activity by external groups
(i.e., AID-sponsored FSR teams, IARCs,
USAID missions).


Verifiers


Assumptions

AID will generate necessary approvals
in timely fashion.

AID will have funds available for
use by the CRSP.

All parties making input will continue
to feel the mutual benefits worth the
investments.


Increase in communications initiated
by participants with one another.

Review of annual documents by
TC and BOD.

AID letter of credit authorizing
funds.

Regular reimbursement requests with
quarterly reports.

Letters, phone calls and other
expressions of interest and
problem-solving support from
US administrators.

AID approvals to purchase indicated
equipment received.

Site visits.

Meetings and other forms of com-
munication with external agents.