<%BANNER%>

PETE



Conceptual framework for gender analysis in farming systems research and extension
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00008143/00001
 Material Information
Title: Conceptual framework for gender analysis in farming systems research and extension
Physical Description: 27 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Puhalla, Janet
Michener, Vicky
Bastidas, Elena
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: s.l
Publication Date: 1995?
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Gender analysis   ( lcsh )
Agricultural systems   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: trainers: Janet Puhalla, Vicky Michener and Elena Bastidas.
General Note: At head of title: Lesson Plan.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 636055588
ocn636055588
Classification: lcc - S494.5.S95 C66
System ID: AA00008143:00001

Full Text





LESSON PLAN


Conceptual Framework for Gender Analysis in Farming Systems Research and Extension

Trainers: Janet Puhalla, Vicky Michener and Elena Bastidas

Rationale: Gender roles are implicit in our institutions, attitudes and individual behavior in both
personal and professional spheres. The purpose of gender analysis is to make these implicit roles
explicit in their impact on research and extension organizational structure. Gender Analysis helps
to examine barriers to participation and predict potential outcomes of project interventions. This
session is an introduction to the Gender Analysis Framework and it highlights the importance of
Gender Analysis in Farming Systems Research and Extension. It focuses specifically on the four
basic Gender Analysis Tools: Activities Analysis, Farming Systems Calendar, The Resource
Analysis and Benefits Analysis.

Learning Objectives:

By the end of the session participants will be able to:

1. define gender and gender analysis with regard to FSRE.

2. recognize the importance of Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework.

3. explain with their own words how gender may be used as a variable in: a) a research context,
b) extension programming, and c) project implementation.

4 analyze and discuss uses, limitations and methods for gathering information for four Gender
Analysis tools.

Materials: Flipchart 1 (Objectives)
Flipchart 2 (FSRE and Gender Analysis)
Overheads 1, 2 (Definition of Gender and Gender Analysis)
Overhead 3 (generic schematic model of components of a small farm)
Overhead 4 (Gender Analysis Framework)
Overheads with tools: (5, Activities Analysis; 6, Farming Systems Calendar; 7,
Access and Control of Resources; 8, Access and Control of Benefits). large cards/
or just sheets of paper.
markers, felt board, tape
Cards with Gender Analysis Framework
overhead projector, handouts package

Time allocation: 2 hours

References: Feldstain H. and Poats. S. 1987. Working Together, Gender Analysis in Agriculture,
Vol.1 Case Studies. Kumarian Press.










Procedure:


Time Activity Trainer

5 min Introduction Janet
Introduce the trainer. Explain why we are participating in this class. What is MERGE. Have a
Flipchart with the objectives in front of the classroom. Introduce the session and go over the
objectives. Leave objectives up, refer to them during the session.

20 min Why Gender Analysis? Elena

5 min. Skit presentation (See attached handout).

5 min. Start by asking the participants: What do you think about the skit that we just presented? Do
a Brain storm and list all the things in the board. Some questions to motivate people: Do you think
the project that the Research Institute and Extension group had in mind will be successful? Yes, No,
Why?. Give few minutes so participants, can process and express how they feel about it and what
they think.
Some of the participants will mention the obvious exclusion of women in the interview, the different
gender roles, etc. From one of the participants responses start by clarifying what do we mean by
gender. What is gender? What is the difference between sex and gender?. Show overhead with
definition. Present overhead (Major Points about Gender Roles).

Now that we are clear on what we mean by gender lets try to define Gender Analysis. Give few
seconds and elicit some answers. Show Overhead (Gender Analysis).

Our next step will be to relate Gender Analysis to FSRE. Ask participants what is FSRE.
-- (Is an approach to agricultural research and development that embodies an interdisciplinary, on-
farmnn, client-oriented, participatory systems perspective. This methodology has the household as the
central decision-making unit of the farming system.) Problem arise when we consider the
household functions as a single unit of production and consumption and we assumed that consensus
among household members existed on the allocation of resources and benefits and that household
members' interests and problems are identical. Show Overhead (Schematic model).

We need to recognize differences between men and women's roles in the household. The
recognition that these diverse and complex relationships among the members of household must be
consider in the design testing, implementation and evaluation of technology will contribute to the
success of development projects, research and planning.

We have to be aware that in most societies gender roles and inter and intra household relations
profoundly affect farmers decision making. The dynamics within and between households are
affected and based on differences of gender, age and seniority or position in the household, class,
and ethnicity. Gender is only one social variable that we analyze but research has proven to be the
most useful category to dissagregate the farm household. Is there any question about the concepts









of gender, gender analysis and FSRE?


Show flipchart relating FSRE with Gender Analysis.


FSRE Gender Analysis

Diagnosis demographics of different types of
characterize the farming system households
constraints, problems, opportunities are activities, resources, and incentives of
identified, different household members.
Gather information (Sondeo)

Planing and Design their fit for all farmers in the area or for
determination of which technologies might specific groups
be tested, the desirable characteristics of all the end
uses of the output of the production from the
point of view of all users.

Testing and evaluation what do all users think about the new
evaluation of first set of trials to targeted technology.
second trials.

Recommendation to farmers, researchers and access and availability for inputs including
policy makers. information.
technologies that work and don't work.

Discuss each step giving participants opportunities to ask questions and state opinions about the
chart.


Activity


Time

15 min


Trainer


The Gender Analysis Conceptual Framework


Vicky


Hand out three large cards to each participant. Review the previous discussion of the social role of
gender, why Gender Analysis is important and the link between Gender Analysis and FSRE. Put
a schematic diagram of a farming system on the overhead and remind them what they have learned
about a farming system. Ask participants to think about what they learned about gender and about
FSRE analysis. How do we put these theoretical issues into action? What are the types of things
that a researcher-extensionist needs to pay attention to in order to address gender in farming
systems? What questions would you ask a farmer? what issues do you need to know about? Where
in the farming systems diagram do you see gender as an issue?

Give them three minutes to write one question on each card. Collect the cards. Ask the class: How
can researchers-extensionists organize their work so that these sorts of issues are taken into account
and not overlooked. Lets organize the questions into broad categories based on similarities in
subject matter. One trainer reads off the questions on the cards and other trainers posts each card









on the board in four clusters that parallel the four framework components (Activities, Calendar,
Access and Control of Resources, Benefits and Incentives). Explicate the four areas. Explain that
their questions can be organized into the four basic components of the Gender Analysis framework
for which there are practical worksheets or tools to use in fieldwork.


Time Activity Trainer

10 min Definition/Description of the Tools. Janet

Introduce the four G. A. Tools, give definition describe how the tool is used, show various
examples of the tool. (Use overhead, interactive lecture, handouts and flip-charts). See handouts
attached.
From the previous exercise you saw that your questions fit into 4 categories. Now there are 4 tools
that you can use to analyze your data. Remember that gender analysis is not a data collection
technique, but a way to organize and analyze your data.

Activity Analysis -- put blank one on overhead
- Tells who does what and include men. women and children.
- Task can be designated by gender, age, or other factors
- Show what tasks are undertaken by men, women, and children which contribute to farm
production, to household production, to child bearing and rearing, and to other productive
enterprises including off-farm activities.
It is widely acknowledged that women have triple roles in society -- production, reproduction, and
community whereas men have two production and community. Acknowledgment of women's
triple role stems from the fact that women bear children ad are responsible for child rearing duties
in many societies.
- Description of activities analysis:
TOP -- men, women, children
SIDE -- Production section, crop and tasks, livestock
Household production (reproductive activities) cooking, water collection
Off- farm production --jobs, market
-Show examples: one completed and one for home industry

Seasonal Calendar
- Shows who does what and when
- Can break down activities by male, female, and children as well as age
- Shows periods of stress or high activity
TOP -- Covers seasons
does not have to be 12 months in length
SIDE -- Activities
crop and livestock production
household production
off- farm activities
other tasks









Activity


Resource Analysis
- Shows who has access and control over resources
- Define access and control
- Give classroom example; traction (women have access, men have control);
attention span
- Inputs produced on farm, such as manure or mulch, who has control and who has access to them?
- Chart includes men, women and children
Can mark who has greater control M>F
TOP -- Access
Control
Notes -- for clarification or for yourself
Implication for FSRE -- considerations
SIDE -- Capital goods
Inputs
Knowledge -- planting techniques, seed selection, extension
Education -- general specialized -- school, extension
Land
Labor

Benefits and Incentives Analysis
- Important to understand what motivates people's decisions about the allocation of labor and other
resources to farm production, home production, or other activities.
- Includes gender and age desegregation
- Position in the household
TOP -- Access
Control
Uses/characteristics
SIDE -- Crops
Livestock
Household
Off-farm

45 min Analysis and Discussion of 4 Gender Analysis Tools All

Instructions: Divide the class into 3 4 groups, each group will work in the analysis of a G.A.
tool presented previously.
Answer the following questions:
1. What does this tool tell you?
2. What are the implication for FSRE?
3. What data gathering techniques and methods can you use to fill out the information in
this tools?
4. What are the uses and limitations of this tool?


Time


Trainer









15 min Small group activity. Give 15 minutes to the groups to finish the task. Provide material
for reporting back, (flip-chart, markers, tape). The trainers will serve as facilitator in the groups
to help them accomplish the activity.

7 min Group presentations. Each group will present their analysis of the tool to the class and
will open discussion.

5 min Closure Vicky

Summarize the activities in this session. Relating each activity with the corresponding
objective. Ask participants if they feel they have reached the proposed objectives. Clarify
questions.

Origin of the Session: This session was developed by Vicki, Janet and Elena Based on a needs
assessments done for the FSRE class. Parts of this session are based on previous sessions
presented in the Gender Training Class of Fall 1995. The Skit presented here is an adaptation of
the skit presented by Jon Dain in the session: "Considerations for interviewing" (part of the
Gender Training Class.









GENDER ANALYSIS IN FSRE


TRAINING EVALUATION

Please evaluate the content and presentation of each topic in today's session by circling a rating
and answering the questions below. Thank you for your feedback.


TOPIC POOR FAIR GOOD EXCELLENT


Skit
content
presentation
Defining Gender and Gender Analysis
content
presentation
The Conceptual Framework
content
presentation
Presentation of the Tools
content
presentation
Small Group Exercise
content
presentation
Open Discussion of the Tools
content
presentation


37%
37%


63%
63%


37% 63%
37% 63%

37% 63%
37% 63%


37%
13% 37%


37%
50%


63%
50%

63%
50%


50% 50%
37% 63%


What did you find most useful about the training session?
The Skit, Presentation of tools, Discussion, Small group exercise, participation


What did you find least useful?
Small Group exercise, conceptual framework definition



Do you have any other comments or suggestions for the trainers?
Good job, nice work!!!











SKIT


A project extensionist arrives at the San Juan community in his project's new jeep. He approaches
Don Jose's house. Don Jose, a local farmer, has been recommended as someone who might have
interest in working with the project. He is sitting in front of the house sharpening his machete.
His wife Maria is inside preparing food and cleaning the house.

MR. SMITH: Sefnor Jose?

JOSE: Yes? Good morning, What can I do for you?

MR. SMITH: Hello, I work with the "Tropical Research Institute R2" in one of their wonderful
projects You were recommended to me as a progressive thinking farmer and thus someone who
might be interested in participating in our project.

JOSE: Well... sir...um, thank you for coming to visit me. My family was the first to arrive in
this area. Actually we are planting corn right now, I also have cassava and plantains planted. I
used to hunt and fish, but not any more.

MR. SMITH: Actually, our project is going to address the problems of this area via an
alternative proposal, a new corn variety "the H21". I would like to know if you are interested in
growing this new variety in your fields.

JOSE: Well, actually we don't have much land, and we have tried some other varieties
before and we haven't had good results...

MR. SMITH: (interrupting...) But, I have heard that there is a problem with low corn yields.
And we have tested our variety and its yields almost double the yields of the local varieties. In
fact, I've just come from a neighboring community where I saw that some of the farmers are
already replacing there local variety with the new H21 and the plants are growing beautiful.

JOSE: Tell me more about this new variety.

MR. SMITH: As I said yields are high, the agricultural practices are almost the same as for the
local one, although you have to be more careful and weed more often. You have to irrigate more
frequently and the plant also needs more fertilizer.

JOSE: But we don't have money to buy the fertilizer.and...

MR. SMITH: (Interrupting) don't worry about the fertilizer the project will give you fertilizer.
Later with the sales of your harvest you'll have the money to buy it.


Really!!. will you give me the fertilizer?


JOSE:




















MR. SMITH: Sure. Now I'd like to see where can we plant the trial. I think it will be a good
idea to plant it near the house so I can see it from the road while I pass by in my jeep.

JOSE: My wife uses that land but I think it will be 0. K.

MR. SMITH: Great I'll come back next week and we'll work on it.

Maria comes out the house.

MARIA: Who were you talking to? What did he want?

JOSE: That's the guy from the Research Institute. He wants us to plant some corn H21.

MARIA: And what did you say?

JOSE: (enjoyed) I said Yes, he is going to give us fertilizer. You now how much that
cost and we can use it for our vegetables and the other crops. He also said we have to weed and
irrigate a little bit more. I was thinking we can plant in the plot we have near the house.

MARIA: What? Jose, my mother and I were going to use that land for our chickens. And
you know I don't have more time to help you weeding and the kids have to take care of the other
animals and don't have more time to irrigate. And I also heard from Dofia Ester that the corn
H21 is not good to make tortillas and it takes too long to cook.


OK, Ok, we'll talk about this after he comes with the fertilizer.....


JOSE:






















GENDER



This refers to women's and men's roles and responsibilities that are
socially determined. Gender is related to how we are perceived and
expected to think and act as women and men because of the way
society is organized, not because of our biological differences.




















MAJOR POINTS ABOUT GENDER

Gender roles are the activities, behaviors, and abilities that are
associated with being a man or a woman.

Gender roles are based on socially agreed upon criteria.

Gender is ever-present in our lives.

We may wear "blinders about what men and women do and can do
in agriculture, based on gender role expectations. These
expectations influence research and extension activities in
development projects.

















GENDER ANALYSIS


Recognizes that men's roles, responsibilities and access to and
control over resources may be different from those of women.

Study these differences in order to more accurately describe a
particular culture or implement more efficient and effective
Development Projects

Refers to a systematic way of looking at the- different impacts of
development on women and men.

Requires separating data by gender and understanding how labor is
divided and valuated.

- Must be done at all stages of the development or research process.




















FSRE Gender Analysis

Diagnosis demographics of different types of households
characterize the farming system activities, resources, and incentives of
constraints, problems, opportunities are different household members.
identified.
Gather information (Sondeo)

Planing and Design how this fit for all farmers in the area or for
determination of which technologies might specific groups
be tested. the desirable characteristics of all the end uses
of the output of the production from the point
of view of all users.

Testing and evaluation what do all users think about the new
evaluation of first set of trials to targeted technology.
second trials.

Recommendation to farmers, researchers access and availability for inputs including
and policy makers. information.
technologies that work and don't work.





THE GENDER ANALYSIS
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

1. Who does what?

Activities Analysis
Seasonal Calendar

2. Who has access to or control over resources?

Resources Analysis

3. Who has access to or control over benefits?

Benefits Analysis

4. What factors influence activities, resources, and
benefits (social, cultural, political, economic)?








Worksheets 29


Worksheet 1-2
Activities Analysis


Malesa


Crop production

Crop/Field 1
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3





Crop/Field 2
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3





Crop/Field 3





Livestock
Animal 1
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3





Household Production


Off-farm production


'Or other important categories (ethnic, class, age, position, etc.)


Femalesa














Table 3-1
Activities Analysis: Time Use and Task Allocation

Production of
Goods and Services Males Females Notes


Subsistence crops
Maize
Millet
Sorghum, red & white
Relish crops
Cash crops
Peanuts
Bambara nuts
Cowpeas
Animals
Small animal care

Livestock work
Poultry
Tasks
Land preparation

Planting & harvesting
Harvesting & stocking
Panicle cutting
Construction &
fence building
Weaving mats
Pottery & other crafts
Cotton spinning
Commerce
Beer brewing

Off-farm wage labor
Human capital production
Food preparation
Child care
Water
Fuel
Building maintenance
Other


MA, MC FA, FC
FA
MA FA


MC

MA, MC


MA

MA, MC
MA


MA
MA


Large


Maize is near compound
Communal fields



On individual fields

Intercropped with grains


FC High death rate, little
vaccination
Nov.-May transhumance
FA

Traction for some farmers,
but animals often weak
FA, FC Shared

FA


FA
Small
FA


Sometimes rotated in
villages


FA, FC
FA, FC
FA
FA


Key: MA male adult: FA female adult; MC male child; FC female child.









Table 12.3 Activity Profile: Home Industry

Activity Male Female Comments

Charcoal production (commercial production only, women produce for household
needs)
raw materials xx
Production xx
marketing xx
income control xx

Basketweaving (includes food covers, mats, baskets)
raw materials x xx
production xx home-based activity
marketing x x
income control x x

Rug weaving (particularly nomadic groups husband provides wool from animals)
raw materials xx
production xx home-based activity
marketing x x
income control

Processing milk products (a women's activity among nomadic/seminomadic
groups)
raw materials xx x milk normally available to women
production xx samin (butter), cheese
marketing xx
income control xx

Leather work (particularly nomadic groups)
raw materials x
production xx
marketing x x

Pottery (primarily a women's activity for local exchange in the Nuba Mountains area
of South Kordofan and Jebel Marra)
xx

Beer making (marissa; a women's activity; when done commercially not holding
high status partly because of Islamic prohibition on use of alcohol)
xx

Key: x = participates xx = dominates

Note: In limited numbers men may be involved in weaving, tailoring,
simple blacksmithing, and other crafts at the village level.











Worksheet 1-1
Farming Systems Calendar

Months
Seasons

Crop Production





Livestock





Household Productice


Off-farm activities















Figure 3-1
Gender-disaggregated Activity Calendar for the Mossi Plateau


Climatic Pattern
Month
Activity


RED SORGHUM

WHITE SORGHUM
MILLET
MAIZE
GROUNDNUTS
RICE


MEAL PREPARATION
COLLECTING
FIREWOOD
CARRYING WATER

CHILDCARE
CONSTRUCTION
MAT WEAVING
COTTON SPINNING
BEER MAKING


CARE OF CATTLE,
OXEN, DONKEYS
CARE OF SHEEP,
GOATS, POULTRY


- OT
DRY I
MAY


WET WARM, VARIABLE
RAINFALL
JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT


HARMATTAN | HOT/DRY
I WARM & DRY I
NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR


... Hunger Period ...

2



CPWO 0HiD


pub p OH


C
p









lii (Transhumance)
-O
----------------------------_

---------,------a" """- --"

------------------


Legend 0 Female adult
Female child
O Male adult
a Male child
Continuous activity
ra Time of more intensive or
labor-consuming activity


Land preparation
Planting
First weeding
Second weeding
Harvesting
Separating grain from millet panicle









Cender-Disaggregated Activities Calendar





1p' lj9iC Figure 2.5. Gender- Disaggregated Activities Calendar
'Ex1:,k,,, ^WCalansi, Camarines Sur, Philippines*


- - Sporadic Activity
-- Continuous Activity


M = Adult Male
m = Male Child
F = Adult Female
f = Female Child


"Source: Andrea Esser, 1995, Trends and Transitions: The Relevance of Cender, Class andAge to Understanding Community Change in a
Philippine Village.



110


Activities J F M A M J J A S O N D
Stress Periods.0 F i,1-.., A^' '{, AfS O N D-
Many expenses "-ieista school fees Christma
Food/Money Shortages - - rough seas, typhoons, no harvest

Major LiUvelihoods..,fj F AtSM A A .0 N .. D
Tiger gras- M F harvest planting
Copra M --------- ----tarvest'evry 60.90 months
Fishing : Mm------ ----------- - -
Sing swordfish good catches
Selling Fish F - - - -Bepends on stccess'of atche - - - - - - - - -

Household Tasks - F r .. M. .- S - 0 N .- 0
Cooking :. F
Cleaning Ff - -
Caring for Ff - - - - - -
children
Washing F - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
clothes
Collecting FM - - - - - - -- - --
fuelworc
Fetching. FMfm ---- - - --- - ------------ ---
water .-. further distance during dry season
Caring for F
animals ::dI


:::::::::: :::::: : :::*:*:*:*:*:*:*l:t:*: *: : :: ?:: ^::: ::::::.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::*::











ACCESS
The freedom or permission to use a
resource, perhaps with some decision
making once access is obtained




CONTROL
The power to decide whether and how a
resource is used, how it is to be allocated















Worksheet 1-3
"Resources Analysis

Access Control Notes Implications for FSR/'E
Land
Who uses
How to use
Water


Labor
Own
Family
Hired
Capital goods


Inputs
Purchased
Produced on farm
Cash


Agricultural credit

Knowledge

Markets/Transportation


Education













Table 3-2
Access and Control of Resources for Farm Production

Resources Access Control Notes


Land
Communal
Individual right


Borrowed
Compound
Labor
Family labor
Own labor
Capital goods
Dabas (hoes)
Animal traction units
Cattle
Donkeys
Oxen
_Small ruminants

Poultry
Inputs
Seed
Fertilizer
Manure
Fodder
Agricultural credit
Formal
Informal
Inputs credit
Markets/transport
Cash
Fuel for wood
Sorghum for beer
for consumption
for cash


FA SrMA Higher quality
MA, FA SrMA, MA FA. MC. FC. shift fre-
MC, FC quently; MA longer
rotations
MA, FA MA Cultivation rights only
MA


FA

MA, FA
MA


?




MA, FA
MA, FA
FA

FA
FA


SrMA, MA
MA>FA


MA
MA
MA
MA>FA


MA

MA

MA>FA
MA

MA
FA


SrFA more autonomous


Stratifying variable/income
Wealth, food insurance


FA needs husband's
permission to seil


5.5%; often not available
200-250%
Often late or unavailable


Owner of land/not borrower

Access to common fields
With cash


Key. MA male adult; FA female adult; SrMA senior male adult; SrFA senior female
adult; > more than; < less than.





ACCESS AND CONTROL OF RESOURCES AND BENEFITS


___ ^ ^^^iH_^^a
_ii

2 8 DE'
r" ^tfl 'T^ ^ o 4dlJ ". (' .


A4 I _____ 1


4
A ^.. 0 r
co >P At "


r.. C->
X R


!R a
S^

ID











Benefits Analysis
refers specifically to who has access to
or control of the output of production



Incentives Analysis
the user preferences which underlie
farmer incentives to continue or change
what they do
incentives associated with the
production characteristics of an enterprise
may be associated with the uses of
output















Worksheet 1-4
Benefits and Incentives Analysis

Access Control Uses/Characteristicsa Implications for FSR/E

Crop production




Livestock



Household production



Off-farm enterprises



aUses and desirable characteristics of product including uses of all parts of the plant or animal:
a. consumption
b. storage for later consumption, exchange, or sale
c. other domestic use (e.g. fuel, building material)
d. exchange
e. sale
f. reinvestment in agricultural production (e.g. manure)
g. other





Benefits and Incentives Analysis


Uses/Characteristics


Crop Production
I. Cash
Coffee
Banana

II Subsistence
Beans
Sweet Potato
Cassava
Taro
Maize
Sorghum
Cabbage


II Livestock
Cattle
Goats/Sheep
Chicken


III Household Production
Beer
Baskets
Mats

IV Off-farm Enterprises
Shoemaker or
other artinsanal
Small vendor
(eg: salt)


M
MW


WM
WM
WM
WM
WM.
WM
WM


M
M


W
W
WM
W
WM
WM
W


M
M
MW


WM
W
M


M
MW
MW


WM
W
M


E
A, C, E (beer)


A, B, E
A, B, E
A,B, E
A, B
A,B,E
A, B, C, E (beer)
A,E


A, B,C, E, F, G
B, E, F
B, E, F


cash reserve
cash reserve


A,B,E
C,E
C,E


C,E

A,C,E


Uses and desirable characteristics of product including uses of all parts of the plant or animal:
A. Consumption E. Sale
B. Storage for later consumption, exchange or sale F. Reinvestment in agricultural production (e.g. manure)
C. Other domestic use (e.g. fuel, building material) G. Other
D. E mge


Access


Control





















-xa mT Table 2.5. t Chart
... .,...... :...,,-.. Table 2.5. Benefits Flow Chart Calansi, Luzon, Philippines


. .- I 7 duct


PALM'
LEAF


How Used


Who
Decides
Use


Who
Does
It


How is
Cash Used
if Sold


*Source: Andrea Esser, 1995, Trends and Transisitons.


Who
Decides
Cash Use


Woven to make walls
Inner spire made into brooms
Wrapped around boiled rice
sticks


FRUIT Eaten at home f f
Given or sold to friends and f f
family
Dried and sold as copra fm f m Family needs f m

HUSK Made into charcoal for home m m Family needs m
use or sale
Used to stuff pillows f f

Used or sold as lumber m m Family needs m

TRUNK Used as fuetwood
m m m