Code of fair competition for the coat & suit industry


Material Information

Code of fair competition for the coat & suit industry as submitted on July 13, 1933 and as approved on August 4, 1933 by President Roosevelt ..
Physical Description:
9 p. : ; 23 cm.
United States -- National Recovery Administration
Supt. of Documents
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Suits (Clothing) -- Law and legislation -- United States   ( lcsh )
Industries -- Law and legislation -- United States   ( lcsh )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Additional Physical Form:
Also available in electronic format.
General Note:
"198-A ; Registry No.215-1-10"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004851309
oclc - 63654198
System ID:

Full Text




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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents. Washington, D.C. 0i Price 5 center

Registry No. 215--1-10




I. Executive Order
2. Text of the Code as Approved



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An application having been duly made, pursuant to and in full
*compliance wTith the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for mly approval of a Code of
Fair Competition for the Cost and Suit. Industry, and hearings having
been held thereon, and the Administrator having rendered his report
containing an analysis of the said Clode of Fair Competition, together
with his recommendations and findings with respect thereto, and the
Administrator having found that the said Code of FEiair Comnpetition
complies in all respects with the pertinent provisions of Title I of
said Act and that the requirements of clauses (1) and (2) of subsection
(a) of Section 3 of the said Aict have been miet:
Now, THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the
United States, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, and
otherwise, do adopt and approve the report, recommendations, and
.findings of the Administrator and do order that the said Code: of Fair
Competition be and it is hereby approved.
Aiugus~t 4, 1988.
Approval Recommended:
Evanc S. JoHNSON,
4~671 -33 1

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To effectuate the policy of Tit~le I of the Ntational Industrial Re-
covery Act, during the period of t.he emiergency, by reducing and re-
lieving unemployment, improving the standards of labor, eliminating
competitive practices destructive of the interests of th~e public, em-
ployees and employers a~nd otherwise rehabilitating the coat and suit
industry, the following provisions are established as a code of fair
competition for the coat and suit. industry~:
The term "effective date as used herein is defined tfo be thie first
1\fonday following the approval of this code by the President.
The terml "persons" a~s used herein shall include natural persons,
partnerships, associations, and corporations.
The term "employer as used herein shall include every person
(whether individual, partnership,! association, or corporation) en-
gaged in the production and or wholesale distribution of coats and
suits, as contractor, sub-contractor, mnanufacturer, submanufacturer,
wholesaler, or jobber.
The term "manufacturing employee "as used herein is defined to
mean one who is engaged in the cutting, machines operating, hand-
sewmng, pressing, basting, exammning, sample making, firushmng,
draping, pinning, busheling, grading, or any other hand or machine
operation upon garments in any factory in the coat and suit industry.
The term "'nonmannufacturing employee'" as used herein is defined
to mean all persons engaged in the cost and suit industry not included
in any of the above classifications.
The term "coat and suit. industry as used herein is defined to
include t~he manufacture and/or wrholesale distribution of women's,
miisses', children's, and infants' costs, jackets, capes, wraps, riding
habits, knickers, suits, ensembles, and skirts, in whiole or in part,
made of woolen, silk (only when made into tailored garments), velvet,
plush, and other woven or purchased knitted materials. In such
instances where a single concern is engaged in the manufacture and/or
wholesale distribution of such commodities as well as the manufac-
ture and/or wholesale distribution of other commodities not described
above, such concerns will be deemed a part. of the coat and suit
industry to the extent of that portion of their business that lies in
the field herein defined.

For the purposes of administration two areas have been established:-
the Eastern Area shall include the states of Maine, New Hampshire,.
VTermont, M~assachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland; the Western.
Area shall include all parts of the U.S.A. not included in the Eastern
Area.. The Baltimore market is included in the Eastern Area with
the provision that the employers association therein may request the
appointment of a Commission by the Administrator to determine
after investigation what modifications should be granted, if any.

On and after the effective date, employers in the coat and suit
industry shall not employ as manufacturing employees any persons
under t~he age of eighteen (18) years, and as nonmanufacturing
employees any persons under the age of sixteen (16) years.

On and after the effective date, employers in the? coat and suit-
industry shall not opera.t~e on a schedule of hours of labor for their
employees, except clerical and service employees working in office
and shipping departments, in excess of thirtyv-five (35) hours per week.
Such work shall be divided into five (5) working days, the working
hours to be from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. with one hour intervalfor
lunch. Nonmanufa~cturing employees shall not work in excess of'
forty (40) hours per week. There shall be no more than one shift of
workers in any: day. No overtime is permitted except that the
Administrator may grant, an extension of hours in the busy season
when and if, in his judgment, labor in the industry is fully employed.
and conditions make such an order advisable.
This provision shall apply to any individual who may do the work
of a manufacturing employee as defined herein.
No home work shall be allowed and no work shall be done or per-
mitted in tenement houses, basements or in any unsanitary buildings
or buildings unsafe on account of fire risks.


On and after the effective date, the basic minimum wage that sh-all
be paid by employers in the coat and suit industry to any of their
non-manufacturing employees shall be at the rate of $14 per week..


Eastern Area.-On and after the effective date, manufacturing em~-
ployees, for the Eastern Area., enumerated below, shall be paid not
less than the following minimlum wage scale, for each full week's,
work : ewa
Coat and Suit Cutter __._____.. ....._ .._- .._- --.______.---- 47. 00
Samlp lem ak ers. .. .. _. ......... ____ ____ ---- ----- 40. 00
Exam miners_ _. .._ _ ... -.. --.. ... 36. 00-
D rap rs ... .. .. .... ... ... ... ... ... 29. 00
Begraders on skirts__ .. .. .. _--- ---- 32. 00
Bushelmen who also do Pinning, Marking, and general work on gar-
Inents_ _--__, -- _........... ...................... 3.6.. Q0,

The employers in t~he crafts enumerated below shall work onc a,
piece rate basis. They shall receive guaranteed minimum wgages,
not less than the following: Per hour
Jacket, Coat, Reefer &E Dress Operators, Mlale................~ .~ .. .. $ 91. 00
Jacket, Coat, Reefer & Dress Operators, Female...........~~_~ ._~ 90
Skirt Operators, M~ale ..._ ............... ..._~ .90
Skirt Operators, Female.... .. .. ._ .... .. .. .__ __~ ~ ___~ 80
Piece T ailors .. ............... _~ _. __ .. .... ........ ... .90
Reefer, Jacket., and Coat. Finishers......__ .____~ ~ ___ ...... .85
Jacket, Coat &r Reefer Finiishers' Helpers._____~ .. ...... ~~. 63
Jacket, Coat, Reefer &c Dress Upper Pressers_ ..... 100
Jacket, Coat, Reefer & Dress Under Pressers. __. .~ ..... 90
Skirt Upper Pressers ... ..._____~_~__ 90
Skirt Under Pressers___ ....__~ __ __ .. .. .~ 85
Skirt Basters_ __ ___ ___ _~ _~~..._ __ .. .. .. 60
Skirt Finishers ._ __ ..__~ __ ..........__ __~ 60
Machine Pressers.~ __-- .._-_-__~__ ........~.~~ .. L 30

All manufacturers in the Ea~stern Area. operating outside t~he limits
of N~ew Yrork and Phila~delphis shall operate on a scale t~en (10) per-
cent less than provided herein for the Eastern Area.
In fixinga piece work rates on garments, the same shall be computed
on a basis to yvield to the worker of average skill of the various crafts
for each hour of continuous work, the following amounts:
Per hour
Jacket, Coat, Reefer & Dress Operators ... .............. _...--- $1. 50
Ski rt Ope rators. _ ,_ .. .... 1 40
Piece Tailors.................. ._________ ..................... -- 1. 30
Reefer, Jacket and Coat Finishers... .....................- -. 1. 25
Jacket, Coat & Reefer Finishers Helpers........... ... ........... -~ 1. 00
Jacket, Coat & Reefer & Dress upper Pressers............... ........ 1. 35
Jacket, Coat, Reefer &: Dress under Pressers.....-~- ------- ....... 25
Skirt Upper Presse rs ._____ _______ .. .. ,----------. 125
Skirt Under Pressers_--_-- ........ -----~ .-------~ ...... ... ... 25
Skirt Basters. ._ ......-- ....._,--_-_ -.. ..... .... .. -.... 80
Skirt Finishers_~_____--____________ ___ __ __- ....__________-- .70
Machine Pressers_ __ __ _.-_-- .-~~----~- ... .. ... .. 80

Western Area.-On and after the effective date, manufacturing
employees, for the Western Area, enumerated belowf, shall be paidi
not less than the following minimum wage scale, for each full week's
work :
Per week
Coat and Suit Cutters.._ __ _... ... .. .. ... ...... ...... ..... 41. 00
Semi-skilled C utters...... _. ..... .... .... ..... ... 39. 00
Clothing and Lining Pilers.................._ .. ...... ...... 33. 00
Pilers____--, __ --_____________ _______ ______ __-- ......~ 28. 00
Canvas Cutters._ __ _.._ _-____._.._ ....26. 00
Apprentice Cutters for six months_ .... ..... .........~---- 22. OO
Sample M akers- _ ._ ___ --..... ......... 40. 00
Examiners.... ..... .. ... .. .. .__ __ ....... ___ _.. .. .. .. ..- 32. 50

The employees in the crafts enumerated below shall work on a piece-
rate basis. They shall receive guaranteed minimum wages, not less
than the following:
Mlate, per hour
Jacket, Coat, Reefer & Drees Operators.. ........................... $. 85
Skirt Operator...____ ...________ .________- -- 75
Jacket, Coat, Reefer and Dress Upper Pressers... ................. .- 85
Jacket, Coat, Reefers an d Dress Under Presse rs ....... .............. 77
Jacket, Cont, Reefer and Dress Part Pressers_ _........ ....-- 65
Jacket, Coat, Reefer Finishers.............. _______ ......... .. 75
Apprentices in the above classifications for a period not exceeding six
m o n th s..... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .6 0

Female, per hour
Jacket, Coat, Reefer and Dress Operators ......................... $0. 75
Jacket, Cont, Reefer and Dress Operators (semi-skilled)... .........-_- 62
Skirt Operators---......... ___-...._..--........................ 70
Lining Ironers ...... ..... .. .. ..... ..... ..... ..... .. 60
Jacket, Coat, Reefer and Dress Finishers......... ...... _______._____ 63
Jacket, Cont., Reefer Finisher's Helpers............................._ 53
Jacket, Coat, Reefer, Skirt Buttonsew~ers...................... ... ... 53
Apprentices in the above classifications for a period not exceeding six
m months. _- -- ....... .... .... .. ....... ..... ....... ..... 47
In fixing piece-wrork rates on garments, the same shall be computed
on basis to yield to the worker of average skill of the various crafts for
each hour of continuous w'ork the following amounts:
Male, per hou
Jackret, Cont, Reefer, and Dress Operators........... ..............._ $1. 26
S k irt O pera tor ........... ........... ......... __ _................ 1. 15
Jacket, Coat, Reefer, and Dress Upper Pressers.._ .....__ _........... 1. 26
Jacket, Coat., Reefer, and Dress Under Pressers...____ ............... 1. 15
Jacket, Coat, Reefer, and Dress Part Pressers .._ .. _____ .... 92
Jacket, Coat., and Reefer Finishers._ ._ __ _....__................_ 1. 10
Femrate, per hour
Jacket, Cont, Reefer, and Dress Operators................. 50. 95
Jacket, Cont, Reefer, and Dress Operators (semiskilled).___........ ... 88
Skirt Operattors.... .. ..___ .... .... ...._ .. .. .......___ ____~-_- 00
Lining Ironers .. .. __ __ ............ ... ... .. .... 82
Jacket., Cont, Reefer, and Dress Finishers.... ..... ....... ....-_- 84
Jacket, Cont, Reefer Finishers' Helpers.... ____ ... .......... .. 70
Jacket, Cont, Reefer, Skirt. Buttonsew~ers_....... ......_____-- ...... 70
The Wecstern Area shall operate on the basis of the present existing
classifications subject to further study by the Coat and Suit Code
A4ut~horit~y w-ho will make recommendations to the Administrator
for such changes as will eliminate such competitive irregularities as
mlay be found t~o exist.
Both A3reas -----Compensa tion for e mploymen t now in excess of the
minimum wage set forth herein shall not be reduced, notwithstanding
that the hours worked in such em loyment may be hereby reduced.


During the years 19241 and 1925, an unemployment. insurance fund
was established and existed in the coat and suit industry. It was
discontinued because of the general disorganization of the industry.
There is every hope and expecta tion on the part of t~he employers and
employees t~hat through the National Industrial Recovery Act. steps
may again be taken to put into active operation an unemployment
insurance fund. Accordingly, such fund shall be resumed as soon as
the enforcement of uniform labor standards and general stabilization
harve reached a point at which the! provisions for payment of unemployv-
mlent insurance contributions can be generally enforced throughout
the industry. The time when the conditions in the industry shall have
reached a point when such fund may be reestablished shall be deter-
mlined by thie Code Aut~hority `hereinafter mentioned and Admin-
ist.rator. When it is reestablished, it shall be in accordance with such
provisions as .shall be determined upon by the said Code Authority
and the Admrinistrator.


Further to effectuate the provisions of this Code and to eliminate
substandatrd and sweatshop conditions in the coat and suit: industry,
all garments manufactured or distributed shall bear an N.R.A. labelt~,
which shall be attached to every garment. I~t shall bear a registra-
tion nulmber specially assigned to each employer in the industry and
remain attached to such garment whben placed on sale by the retail
distributor. Alll emnployers, as herein defined~, whether or not mem-
bers of the associations herein mentioned, mny apply to the Coat and
Suit Code Author~ity for a. permit, t~o use the. N.R.A. laitbel, which per-
mit t~o use the label shall be granted to them, but only if they comply
with t~he standards set fort.h inl this code. The Coat and Suit Code
Authority hereinafter mentioned shall establish the appropriate ma-
chinery for the. issuance of labels, inspection, examination, and su~per-
vision of employers engaged in the indlustryv of such garments.


The responsibility for the administration and enforcement of this
code shall be rested in a Cost and Suit. Code Authority.~
This C'oat a~nd Suiit. Code Aut.hority shall be constituted as follows:
Two members selected froml each of the three associations sub-
mitting this code;
Tw~o members selected by the Interna-tional Ladies' Gurment
Workers Union;
Tw~o members selected collectively by the associations in the
Western Area.
The Coat andi Suit. Code Aut~hority is expressly authorized to
deputize its representatives to do and perform such actsa as may be
necessary to carry into effect the provisions, purpose, and intent of
this Code.
The Coat and Suit Code Ault.horit~v shall be empowered to consider
and act upon the following recommendations:
(a) Recommendat~ions as t.o the requirement by thle Adm~inistra-
tor of such other and further reports front persons engaged in t~he
C~oat and Surit industry of statistical information and the keeping of
uniform accounts as may be required to secure the proper observannces
of the Code and promote t~he proper balancing of production, dis-
tribut~ion, and consumption and the stabilization of the industry and
em ploymnen t.
(b! Recommnenda tions for the setting up of a SCervice Bur~eau for
engaineermng, accounting, credit., or any other purposes that miay aid
mn the conditions of this emergency andt the requirements of this Code.
(c) Recomlmendations for the making of rules by~ t~he Admninistrator
as to practices by persons engaged in the coat. and suit industry as to
methods and conditions of trading, the naming atnd reporting of
prices wluch may be appropriate t.o avoidZ discrimninationl to promote
t~he stabilization of the industry, to prevent and eliminate unfair and
destructive prices and practices.
(d) Recommenda.tions for regulating t~he disposal of distress mer-
chandise in a w~ay that w.ill secure the protection of the owners thereof
and at the same time promote sound and stable conditions in the

(e) Recommendations as to the making available to the suppliers
of credit to those engaged in the industry all information regarding
terms of and actual functioning of any or all of the provisions of the
Code, the conditions of the industry and regarding the operations of
a.ny and all persons engaged in the industry and covered by this
Code, to the end that during the period of the emergency available
credit may be adapted to the needs of the coat and suit industry,
considered as a whole, and to the needs of the small as well as of the
large units.
(f) Recommendations for dealing with any inequalities that may
otherwise arise t.hat. may endanger the stability of the industry and/or
production and employment.
Such recommendations, when approved by the Administrator shall
have t~he same force and effect as any other provision of this Code.
The Coat and Suit. Code Authority shall have power to examine all
books of accounts and records of employers so far as necessary to
ascertain whether they are observing the provisions of this Code, and
all employers shall submit their books and records for such exami-
n nation .
The Coat and Suit Code Authority shall have power to appoint a
director, a staff of accountants, and such other employees as may be
required for the effective discharge of its functions.
The expense of maintaining the Coat and Suit Code Authority shall
be borne by the Internattional Ladies' Garment W7orkers Union, the
parties to this Code, and all other employers in the industry in such
proportions and amounts and in such manner as may be determined
by~ t~'he Coat and Suit. Code Authorityv.
The Coa~t and Suit Code Authority shall proceed through subcom-
mittees t.o evolve standards for size a~nd quality, including shrinkage
tolerance and color fastness and protection against piracy in styles, and
shall report within three months after the taking effect of this Code,
such standards to be effective three months thereafter.

It is recognized that in the Eastern and Western Areas the methods
employed to a very large extent in the production of garments in the
coat and suit industry necessitate the employment of contractors and
submanufacturers. Accordingaly, all firms engaged in t~he! coat and
suit industry who ca use their ga rment~s thus to be made by contractors
and submanufacturers as aforesaid, shall designate the contractors
actually required, shall confine and distribute their work equitably
t~o and among them, and shall adhere to the payment of rates for
such production in an amount sufficient to enable the contractor or
submanufacturer to pay the employees the wages and earnings
provided for in this Code, together with an alllow.ance for the con-
tra~ctor's overhead.
To insure the observance of this provision, the committee named
in this Code, together w~ith the Admlinistrat~or, shall formulate pro-
visions to carryv into effect the purpose and intent hereof.


Employers in the coat and suit industry shall comply with the
requirements of the Nat~ional Industrial Recovery Act as follows:
(a) Employees shall have the right to organize and bargain col-
Slectively through representatives of their own choosing;, and shall
be free from interference, restraint, or coercion of emiployers of labor,
or their agents, in the designation of such representatives or in
self-organization or in other concerted activities for t~he purpose of
collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection.
(b) No employee and no one seeking employment shall be required,
as a condition of employment, to join any company union or t~o refrain
from jomulng, organizing, or assisting a labor organization of his own
choosing; and
(c) Employers shall comply with the maximum hours of labor,
minimum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment approved
or prescribed by t~he P~resident.

(a) This Code is not designed to promote monopolies and shall not,
be availed of for that purpose.
(b) The provisions of this Code shall not be so interpreted or
administered as to eliminate or oppress small enterprises or to
discriminate against them.

Wherever in this industry agreemlent~s between employers And
employees arrived at by collective bargaining shall exist or shall
come into existence hereafter, all the provisions of such agreements
with reference t~o labor standards not prohibited by law and not
inconsistent with NIRA shall be administered as though a part of
this code.

This Code and all the provisions thereof are expressly made subject
to the right of the President., in accordance wit~h t~he provision of
Clause 10 (b) of the National Industrial Recovery Act, from time to
time to cancel or modify any order, approval, license, rule, or regula-
tion, issued under Title I. of said Act, and specifically to the right. of
the President to cancel or modify his approval of this code or a7ny
conditions imposed by himi upon his approval thereof.
Such of the provisions of this C'ode as are not required to be
included therein by the National Industrial Recovery Act may,
with the approval of the President, be modified or eliminated as
changes in circumstances or experience miay indicate. It is con-
templated that fromt time to time supplementary provisions to this
Code or additional Codes w\ill be submitted for approval of the
President to prevent unfair competition in price and other unfair
and destructive comlpetitive practices and t~o effectuate the other
purposes and policies of Title I of the National Industrial Recovery
Act consistent with the provisions hereof.


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