Code of fair competition for the infants and children's wear industry as approved on March 27, 1934 by President Roosevelt

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Title:
Code of fair competition for the infants and children's wear industry as approved on March 27, 1934 by President Roosevelt
Physical Description:
p.607-627 : ; 23 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- National Recovery Administration
Publisher:
Supt. of Documents
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C
Publication Date:

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Subjects / Keywords:
Children's clothing industry -- Law and legislation -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Approved Code No.373 ; Registry No.217-1-05"

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 004851811
oclc - 63654209
System ID:
AA00007796:00001

Full Text





NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION




CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION

FOR THE


INFANTS' AND CHILDREN'S


WEAR INDUSTRY


AS APPROVED ON MARCH 27, 1934
BY
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT


WE DO OUR PART


UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1934


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. - Price 5 cents


Registry No. 217-1-05


Approved Code No. 373






















This publication is for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government
Printing Office, Washington, D.O., and by district offices of the Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
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Approved Code No. 373


CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION
FOR THE

INFANTS' AND CHILDREN'S WEAR INDUSTRY

As Approved on March 27, 1934
BY
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT


EXECUTIVE ORDER

CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION FOR THE INFANTS' AND CHILDREN'S WEAR
INDUSTRY
An application having been duly made, pursuant to and in full
compliance with the provisions of Title I of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, approved June 16, 1933, for my approval of a Code
of Fair Competition for the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry,
and hearings having been held thereon and the Administrator having
rendered his report containing an analysis of this Code of Fair Com-
petition, together with his recommendations and findings with re-
spect thereto, and the Administrator having found that this Code
of Fair Competition complies in all respects with the pertinent
provisions of Title I of said Act and that said requirements of
clauses (1) and (2) of Section 3 of the said Act have been met.
NOW, THEREFORE, I, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the
United States, pursuant to the authority vested in me by Title I of
the National Industrial Recovery Act approved June 16, 1933 and
otherwise do adopt and approve the report, recommendations and
findings of the Administrator and do order that this Code of Fair
Competition be and it is hereby approved, subject to the following
conditions:
1. That any manufacturer of infants' and children's wear as
defined in this Code and also included in any other Code of Fair
Competition heretofore approved, except such manufacturers of in-
fants' and children's wear as are excluded from the jurisdiction of
this Code under Article II, Section 2 thereof, shall have the privilege
of electing to operate under this Code upon the condition that such
manufacturer shall substitute for the wage and hour provisions of
this Code the wage and hour provisions of such other Code of Fair
Competition and shall conform with such wage and hour provisions,
and provided further that such manufacturer shall agree to such
49205-425-167--34 (607)






608


other conditions as the Administrator may prescribe. For the pur-
pose of making effective such election, any manufacturer entitled
thereto as herein provided, is hereby granted an exemption and ex-
ception from such other Code of Fair Competition, and any manu-
facturer of Infants' and Children's Wear who shall make such elec-
tion shall be subject to this Code and shall be considered a member
of the Industry as defined in this Code and shall have the privilege
of participating in the selection of the Code Authority as provided
in this Code and in sharing in the benefits of the activities of this
Code Authority, and shall contribute his reasonable and proportion-
ate share of the expenses of this Code Authority.
All manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes who were
members of the Robe Industry Association of America, Inc., up to
and including March 13, 1934, shall be governed by the Code of
Fair Competition for the Robe and Allied Products Industry.
All manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes who were
members of the United Infants' and Children's Wear A'isociation up
to and including March 13, 1934, shall be governed by the Code of
Fair Competition for the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry as
to the manufacture of infants' and children's bathrobes.
All manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes who were
not members of either of the An-oeiations above named as of March
13, 1934, shall, within forty-five (45) days from the effective date of
the Code of Fair Competition for the Infants' and Children's Wear
Industry, have the right to elect to be governed by the Code of Fair
Competition for the Infant-' and Children's Wear Industry, or the
Code of Fair Competition for the Robe and Allied Products Industry,
insofar as their production of infants' and children's bathrobes is
concerned. Such election shall be submitted in writing to both the
Robe and Allied Products Code Authority, Inc., and the Code Au-
thority for the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry. Any manu-
facturer not making such election within the forty-five (45) day
period as hereinabove specified, shall be deemed to have elected to
be governed by the Code of Fair Competition for the Robe and
Allied Products Irndustry, and shall have no further right to elect.
All manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes who were
not members of either at.ciation above named as of March 13, 1934,
who commence the mianufactuire of such products after the effective
date of the Code of Fair Competition for the Infants' and Children's
Wear Industry, may within fifteen (15) days after commencing
such manufacture of infants' and children's bathrobes, elect to be
governed by the Code of Fair Competition for the Infants' and
Children's Wear Indus.-try, or the Code of Fair Competition for the
Robe and Allied Products Industry. Any manufacturer not making
such election within the fifteen (15) day period as hereinabove speci-
fied shall be deemed to have elected to be governed by the Code of
Fair Competition for the Robe and Allied Products Industry, and
shall have no further right to elect.
Each of the above mentioned associations shall forthwith submit
to the Administrator certified copies of the list of their members
manufacturing infants' and children's bathrobes prior to March
13, 1934.






609


Anything to the contrary herein notwithstanding, any manufac-
turer of blazers, sport coats, jersey cloth suits, Eton and Rugby
suits, boys' overcoats, sizes one to six, boys' snow suits and boys'
three piece legging sets who also manufacture other items of infants'
and children's wear as defined in this Code, and who shall have
elected in accordance with the provisions hereinabove set forth, to
operate under this Code shall not be bound by any other wage pro-
visions of the Code of Fair Competition for the Men's Clothing
Industry except the miinimum wage of forty ($.40) cents per hour.
2. That all manufacturers of infants' and children's wear as de-
fined in this Code who also manufacture wearing apparel included
in the Code of Fair Competition for the Cotton Garment Industry,
but whose production of infants' and children's wear, excepting
infants' and children's bathrobes, as defined in this Code is 80% or
more of their total production, shall be governed by the provisions
of this Code under the Code Authority constituted thereby; that all
manufacturers of wearing apparel included in the Code of Fair
Competition for the Cotton Garment Industry, who also manufac-
ture infants' and children's wear as defined in this Code to the
extent of 20% or less of their total production of wearing apparel
shall be governed by the provisions of the Code of Fair Competi-
tion for the Cotton Garment Industry, under the Code Authority
constituted thereby; that all manufacturers of infants' and chil-
dren's wear defined in this Code to the extent of less than 80% but
more than 20% of their total production, who also manufacture
wearing apparel governed by the Code of Fair Competition for the
Cotton Garment Industry, shall elect to operate under this Code, or
under the Code of Fair Competition for the Cotton Garment Indus-
try.
3. That all manufacturers of infants' and children's wear as de-
fined in Article II, Section 2 of this Code whether operating under
the provisions of this Code or under the provisions of any other
Code of Fair Competition heretofore approved and all manufac-
turers of girls' coats, sized to and including age fourteen, and com-
monly made available to the public through infants' and children's
departments of Department Stores and Specialty Shops as children's
coats, shall be subject to the provisions of Article IX of this Code
and for such purpose shall be deemed "members of the Industry."
All manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes, however,
shall conform to the trade practice provisions of the Code of Fair
Competition for the Robe and Allied Products Industry as hereto-
fore approved on January 16, 1934, and all amendments to said trade
practice provisions as may hereafter be approved; due notice of
hearings, thereon, however, shall be sent to the Code Authority for
the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT.
Approval recommended:
HUGH S. JOHNSON,
Adm inistrator.
THE WHITE HOUSE.
March 27, 1934.












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


The PRESIDENT,
The White House.
SmI: This is a report of the Hearing on the Code of Fair Compe-
tition for the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry conducted in
Washington on December 5, 1933.
The Code which is attached was presented by duly qualified and
authorized representatives of the Industry, complying with statu-
tory requirements, and claiming to represent in excess of eighty per-
cent of the industry by volume of business, and in excess of seventy-
five percent by membership: These figures represent the number of
members and the volume of production if all of those persons, who
have the right to elect to operate under this Code so elect, and become
subject to the provisions of this Code. Excluding sutch persons, how-
- ever, who become members of the industry only by electing to do so,
and taking into consideration the number of members who are now
definitely under the provisions of the Code, and the volume of pro-
duction of this Industry, the above figures, based upon the number of
mellmbers and volume of production would be far greater than
reported above.
THE INDUSTRY

The Infants' and Children's Wear Industry consists of the manu-
facture of a great variety of garments for infants and children
including infants' coats, infants' and children's dresses, infants' and
children's wash suits, creepers, rompers, play suits, snow suits,
infants' and children's underwear and nightwear, infants' and chil-
dren's bath robes and flannelette garments, infants' and children's
leggings, Iheadwear, bonnets, play togs, christening outfits and sundry
other garments worn by infants and children.
The Industry is primarily located in the States of New York,
Pennsylvania, Connecticut, New Jersey and Massachusetts, but
there are substantial manufacturing centres in some thirty other
states of the Union as far south as Texas, as far west as California,
and as far north as Michigan and Maine. The Industry has shown
a substantial decrease in both volume of sales and employees from
1928 to date. In 1928 and 1929 approximately $181,000,000 of these
products were sold. In 1930 there was a decrease to approximately
$154,000,000. In 1931 a decrease to approximately $121,000,000 and
in 1932 a decrease to approximately $103,000,000.
In 1929 there were approximately 74,000 factory workers and
about 30,000 home workers employed in the Industry. In 1930
there were approximately 66,000 factory workers and 28,000 home
workers. In 1932 there were approximately 61,000 factory workers
and 23,000 home workers.
(610)






611


The various divisions of the Industry, prior to the Natiiial
Industrial Recovery Act, operated on an average work week through-
out the year of forty-eight (48) hours per week. The work week
for the manufacture of garments, except children's coats, has been
reduced to forty hours per week, or a decrease of 16.3%. The number
of factory employees employed in the manufacture of coats was
approximately 8,000 in 1932. The decrease of hours to forty is there-
fore estimated to increase the number of factory employees, ex-
clusive of those making coats, by approximately 10,500. The hours
in the Coat Division of this Industry have been reduced from an
average of fifty hours per week throughout the year to 35 hours
per week, or a decrease of approximately 30%. This will therefore
increase the employment in the Coat Division of the Industry by an
estimated amount of some 3,000 factory workers. It is therefore
calculated that the hour provisions contained in this Code will
increase the number of factory workers to approximately 83,500,
which greatly increases the number of employees in the Industry in
1929. It has been estimated that the payroll in this Industry for
1932 was approximately $21,000,000. The minimum rates of pay
in this Industry were, as in the case of most of the needle industries,
extremely low, it being estimated that the minimum wages in the
Industry prevalent in 1932 were $5 to $6 per week. The wages
provisions of this Code provide for a minimum hourly wage of 32
cents per hour throughout the United States, with the exception of
the so-called Southern section, where a 30 cent per hour minimum
wage is provided for. This represents an increase of over 100% in
the average minimum wage prevailing in the Induistry heretofore.
It has been estimated that the wage provisions in this Code will
increase the payroll of the Industry in the sum of approximately
$17,000,000. per year, including the wages to be paid to the new
employees taken on as a result of the maximum hours of work pro-
vision in the Code.
GENERAL COMMENTS

One of the unique features of this Industry is the fact that the
manufacturers as a rule do not specialize in the production of any
one type of garment. A tabulation of the commodities manufactured
by the members of the Industry reveals the following information:
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of Infants'
and Children's coats not only manufacture coats but also manufacture
infants' and children's headwear, infants' and children's wash suits,
infants' and children's silk wear, infants' and children's leggings,
infants' and children's zipper suits, rompers, snow suits, muffs, car-
riage covers and dresses in substantial quantities, many of these coat
manufacturers manufacturing a coat, a dress, a hat and a carriage
cover to match. Approximately 70% of the manufacturers of in-
fants' and children's coats manufacture commodities other than
coats.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the production of infants'
and children's bathrobes not only manufacture infants' and chil-
dren's bathrobes but also manufacture blankets, shawls, infants' and
children's flannelettes, infants' and children's dresses, as well as a






612


large number of articles made in the home, such as infants' jackets,
booties, hoods, nioccnsins in substantial quantities.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of silk in-
fants' wear also manufacture infants' and children's dresses, slips
coats, christening suits, consisting of a dress and slip and a coat and
bonnet, to match, carriage covers, creepers and miscellaneous infants'
and children's novelty and accessory items in substantial quantities.
Approxi;iately 50% of the manufacturers of infants' and chil-
dren's silk wear manufacture more than one type of commodity.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of infants'
and children's dresses not only manufacture dress but also manu-
facture infants' and children's wash suits, pajamas, rompers, silk
infants' wear, play suits, bathrobes, flannelettes, blouses, coats, snow
suits, creepers and headwear in substantial quantities.
Approximately 38% of the manufacturers of infants' and chil-
dren's dresses manufacture articles other than dresses.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the production of infants'
and children's wash suits not only manufacture infants' and chil-
dren's wash suits but also manufacture infants' and children's creep-
ers, rompers, dresses, snow suits, knit jersey suits, legging sets,
blouses, zipper suits, brother and sister suits, pajamas and play togs,
in substantial quantities. Approximately 65% of the manufacturers
of infants' and children's wash suits manufacture commodities other
than wash suits.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of infants'
and children's underwear also manufacture infants' and children's
night wear, bathrobes, dresses, headwear, sun suits, flannelettes and
beach pajamas, in substantial quantities. Approximately 90% of the
manufacturers of infants' and children's underwear manufacture
commodities other than infants' and children's underwear.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of bath-
robes and flannelettes also manufacture infants' and children's sports-
wear, dresses, pajamas, play suits, baby boy suits and other infants'
and children's accessories, in substantial quantities. Approximately
40% of the manufacturers of infants' and children's bathrobes and
flannelettes manufacture commodities other than infants' and chil-
dren's bathrobes and flannelettes.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of infants'
and children's leggings and play suits not only m anu fact ure infants'
and children's leggings and play suits but also manufacture infants'
and children's snow suits, dresses, wash suits, coats, headwear, sports-
wear and underwear in substantial quantities. Approximately 65%
of the manufacturers of infants' and children's leggings and play
suits manufacture commodities other than infants' and children's
leggings and play suits.
Manufacturers primarily engaged in the manufacture of infants'
and children's bonnets and headwear also manufacture coats, dresses,
silk underwear, and other infants' and children's accessories, in
substantial quantities. Approximately 40% of the infants' and
children's bonnets and headwear manufacturers manufacture com-
modities other than infants' and children's bonnets and headwear.
It seems proper therefore from this fact alone that these manu-
facturers be granted a Code of Fair Competition. The production of






613


these various items of infants' and children's wearing apparel are
so inter-related and are so frequently mannlfactured in the same
factories by the same employees, that the problem of all these
manufacturers are necessarily inter-related and can best be treated
in one Code of Fair Competition. Not to permit them to operate
under a single Code of Fair Competition would be to place them
under serious hardship.
There is furthermore a definite line of demarcation between in-
fants' and children's wearing apparel and the tinmlufacture and
distribution of garments not included in this Code. The colors,
textures, style elements, and in certain instances method of manu-
facture of infants' and children's wearing apparel are unique to
the Industry. From the standpoint of distributtion, the problems, of
all of the manufacturers included within the jurisdiction of this
Code are identical. The retailer', specialty shops and department
stores have in the course of business over the past twenty (20) years
recognized a substantial difference between the manufacture and
distribution of products included in this Code and other items of
wearing apparel. Department stores have separate infants' and
children's wearing apparel departments and the one buyer for that
department usually buys every item of infants' and children's wearing
apparel sold in the department. The buyers do not restrict. them-
selves to any one particular commodity of infants' and children's
wearing apparel for, as has been indicated, the same manufacturer
often manufactures so many different types of garments that spe-
cialization on the part of the buyers as well as on the part of the
manufacturer is virtually impossible.
Another characteristic of the industry is the low selling price of
the commodities manufactured. This is a result of the genesis of
t.he industry. Some thirty years ago there were virtually few manu-
facturers of infants' and children's wear throughout the country.
Most of the infants' and children's garmiwnts were made at the home
of the particular mother for her own infant or child. The manu-
facturers in order to foster the industry went through a rigorous
system of education of the parent and potential buyer of these com-
modities to show the advantages and conveniences of purchasing
these commodities rather than making them at home. In order to
induce the potential purchasers to purchase rather than to make their
own garment, the selling price of commodities was necessarily made
extremely low. Not only was this necessary in order to induce the
purchaser to purchase the commodity but also because of the fact that
infants' and children's wearing apparel represents a type of apparel
that is easily made at home. If the selling price of these com-
modities is raised too high in view of the limited amount, of ma-
terial and labor necessary to make an infant's or child's garment,
there is serious danger of the mother purchasing the material, mak-
ing the garment herself, and thus seriously prejudicing the prosperity
of the industry. For this reason great attention is necessary to
maintain on the one hand a reasonable minimum wage from the
standpoint of the worker and at the same time not raise the selling
price of these commodities so high that the welfare of the industry
be prejudiced.
49205--425-167-34-2






614


The Infants' and Children's Wear Industry, as such, is recognized
as a distinct branch of the Wearing Apparel Industry. The original
intention of the Code proponents was to include any and every item
of infants' and children's wearing apparel sized from infancy to,
and including, age fourteen (14) commonly made available to the
public through Infants' and Children's Departments of Department
Stores and Specialty Shops as infants' and children's wear. How-
ever, in view of the fact that a number of codes have been previously
approved with branches of the infants' and children's wear industry
included in such approved codes, it was necessary to set up in this
Code two divisions (1) those branches of the infants' and children's
wear industry which were not included in approved codes, and (2)
those branches of the infants' and children's wear industry included
in heretofore approved codes to whom the right of election is given
to operate under the Code for the Infants' and Children's Wear
Industry, or under the Code heretofore approved.
Those branches of the industry which are not in other codes, and
which come within the purview of the infants' and children's Code
are specifically enumerated in Sections 2, 3, and 4, of Article II. As
to those branches which have the right of election to operate under
the provisions of this Code, there is an enumeration of such individ-
uals in Section 7 of Article II. By agreement with Code Authorities
and between Deputy Administrators, this right of election was
arrived at.
In most cases where there is overlapping, between this Code and
other Codes already approved, such manufacturers as may be in-
cluded under this Code, or any such other Code, are given the right
to elect under which Code they shall operate. In the event that no
specific election is made any such manufacturer comes automatically
within the jurisdiction of such other Code of Fair Competition. If
he makes an election he may do so, providing he agrees to substitute
for the wages and hour provisions of this Code, wages and hour pro-
visions at least equivalent to the wages and hour provisions of such
other Code of Fair Competition, and provided also that he agrees
to such other conditions as the Administrator may prescribe. In
this way it becomes inmaterial, f'roim a competitor's standpoint,
under which Code any particular manufacturer desires to operate.
In any case he must pay the same wages and abide by the same hour
conditions. This procedure of election is not provided in one
instance, namely: for the manufacture of goods produced in con-
junction with goods included under the Cotton Garment Code. In
the latter case the Executive Order provides, according to an agree-
ment arrived at between the Cotton Garment Code Authority and
the proponents of this Code, that any manufacturer who manufac-
tures in excess of 80% of his total production articles covered by the
provisions of this Code, shall automatically come for all production
under the jurisdiction of this Code; that manufacturers producing
in excess of 80% of goods included in the Cotton Garment Code shall
automatically come within the jurisdiction of the Cotton Garment
Code, and that man u facturers producing less than 80% of goods
included in the Cotton Garment Code and less than 80% of goods
included in this Code shall have the right to elect under which Code
they shall operate.






615


Considerable care has been exercised to the end that the provisions
of this Code are practically identical with the provisions of the
Cotton Garment Code. Consequently, there is no difference, com-
petitively speaking, between the two Codes and no mtianufacturer
gains any advantage or suffers any disadvantage from the comnpet-
itive standpoint, no matter which Code he may automatically operate
under or may elect to operate under.
The problems and difficulties presented by this Code are unique.
They were of such a character that a Code hbilt up in the ordinary
manner was impossible. After months of negotiation and work, this
Code is reduced to its simplest possible terms. Nevertheless, it is
probably the most complicated Code which will ever be approved
under this Administration. It remains, however, the best solution
possible to an extremely difficult problem.
FINDINGS
The Deputy Administrator in his final report to me on said Code
having found as herein set forth and on the basis of all the pro-
ceedings in this matter;
I find that:
(a) The Code will promote the policies and purposes of Title I of
the Act, including removal of obstructions to the free flow of inter-
state and foreign commerce which tend to diminish the amount
thereof and will provide for the general welfare by promoting the
organization of industry for the purpose of cooperative action among
the trade groups, by inducing and maintaining united action of labor
and management under adequate governmental sanctions and super-
visions. by eliminating unfair competitive practices, by promoting
the fullest possible utilization of the present productive capacity of
industries, by avoiding undue restriction of production (except as
may be temporarily required), by increasing the consumption of in-
dustrial and agricultural pro ducts through increasing purchasing
power, by reducing and relieving unemployment, by improving
standards of labor and otherwise rehabilitating industry.
(b) Said Trade normally employs more than 50,000 employees;
and is classified by me as a major industry.
(c) The Code complies in all respects with the pertinent provi-
sions of Title I of the Act, including without limitation Subsection
(a) of Section 3, Subsection (a) of Section 7, and Subsection (b) of
Section 10 thereof; and that the 26 applicant groups are trade groups
truly representative of the aforesaid Trade; and that said groups im-
pose no inequitable restrictions on admission to membership therein.
(d) The Code is not designed to and will not permit monopolies
or monopolistic practices.
(e) The Code is not designed to and will'not eliminate or oppress
small enterprises and will not operate to discriminate against them.
(f) Those engaged in other steps of the economic process have not
been deprived of the right to be heard prior to approval of said Code.
For these reasons, I recommend that the Code be approved.
Respect fully,
HUGH S. JOHNSON,
A clmni.strator.
MARCH 26, 1934.












CODE OF FAIR COMPETITION FOR THE INFANTS' AND
CHILDREN'S WEAR INDUSTRY
ARTICLE I-PURPOSES
To effectuate the policies of Title I of the National Industrial Re-
covery Act, the following provisions are established as a Code of
Fair Competition for the Infants' and Children's Wear Industry
and shall be the standard of fair competition for said Industry and
shall be binding upon every member thereof.

ARTICiE II-DEFI NITI N S 1

1. The term Industry as used herein shall include the manufac-
ture of infants' and children's wear as hereinafter defined.
2. The term "infants' and children's wear as iiued herein shall
include any and all garments manufactured and sold as infants' and
children's wear sized from infancy to and including age fourteen,
and commonly made available to the public through infants' and
children's departments of department stores and specialty shops as
infants' and children's wear, including, but without limitation (a)
silk infants' wear, (b) infants' and children's beach togs, creepers
and rompers, (c) infants' and children's dresses sold as infants' and
children's wear and sized from infancy to and including age four-
teen, but does not include Misses and Junior dresses of standard
sizes, (d) baby boys' suits, (e) infants' and children's flannelettes, (f)
infants' bonnets manufactured of rayon, silk, crepe de chine, organdy,
lawn, pique, and similar fabrics, made by sewing machine or by
hand, for infants up to and including the age of four, and (g) girls'
eiderdown coats manufactured, styled and sold in sizes ranging
from six months to and including age three, and manufactured to
sell at wholesale for no more than eighteen ($18.00) dollars per
dozen.
The term infants' and children's wear as u.w~d herein shall not
include however, (a) bathing suits, (b) children's coats, (c) sheep-
lined and leather coats, (d) boys' separate pants and knickers, (e)
boys', children's and infants' clothing made of piiirchased fabrics
woven or knitted of all or part woolen content included in the Code
of Fair Competition for the Men's Clothing Industry, other than
l.l:,zers, sport coats, jersey cloth suits, wash suits, eton and rugby
suits, boys' overcoats sizes one (1) to six (6), boys' snow suits, and
boys' three (3) piece legging sets, (f) knitted cotton underwear, (g)
woven cotton underwear of the so-called athletic type, (h) garments
made in underwear mills other than those made from purchased
fabrics, (i) blouses and shirts not customarily worn as part of a suit
or ensemble, (j) hosiery, nor (k) shoes.
SSee paragraphs 2 (1) aiim 2 (2) of order approving this Code.
(616)







617


3. The term infants' coats" as used herein shall include (a)
any and all infants' silk coats; (b) any and all girls' eiderdown
coats customarily manufactured, styled aln sold in sizes ranging
from size six months to and including size three, if said eiderdown
coats are manufactured to sell at wholesale for no more than eighteen
($18.00) per dozen; (c) boys' coats and reefers sizes to and including
age six.
4. The term "infant.,' bonnets" as used herein shall include any
and all articles of headwear manufactured of rayon, silk, crepe de
chine, organdy, lawn, pique, and similar fabrics, made by sewing
machine or by hand for infants up to and including the age of four.
5. The term employee as used herein shall include any and all
persons engaged in the Industry, however colnpen.ated, except any
person insofar as he is acting as an employer.
6. The term employer as used herein shall include anyone by
whom such an employee is compensated or employed.
7. The term member of the industry" as used herein, shall in-
clude anyone engaged in the industry, whether as manufacturer;
manufacturer employing contractors or sub-manufacturers; sub-
manufacturer or contractor; either as an employer or on his or its
own behalf; including all manufacturers of (a) silk infants' wear,
(b) infants' and children's beach togs, creepers and rompers, (c)
infants' and children's dresses styled as infants' and children's wear
and sized from infancy, to and including age fourteen, (d) baby
boys' suits, (e) infants' and children's flannelettes, (f) infants' bon-
nets manufactured of rayon, silk, crepe de chine, organdy, lawn,
pique, and similar fabrics made by sewing machine or by hand for in-
fants up to and including the age of four, (g) infants' silk coats,
(h) girls' eiderdown coats manufactured, styled and sold in sizes
ranging from six months to and including age three, and maufac-
tured to sell at wholesale for no more than $18.00 per dozen, (i)
jersey cloth suits, and (k) such other items of infants' and children's
wear as are not specifically included in any other Code of Fair Com-
petition heretofore approved or hereafter to be approved.
The term "member of the industry" as used herein shall also
include all manufacturers of (a) infants' and children's bathrobes
excepting boys' robes sizes seven (7) and over; (b) children's head-
wear; (c) infants' and children's underwear; (d) blazers, sport coats,
eton and rugby suits, boys' overcoats, sizes one to six, boys' snow suits
and boys' three piece legging sets; where such items are manufac-
tured in conjunction with other items of infants' and children's wear
as hereinabove defined, who shall elect to operate under and be sub-
ject to this Code in accordance with any Executive or Administrative
Order creating such right.
The term "member of the industry as used herein, shall also
include any other manufacturer of infants' and children's wear as
hereinabove defined, who shall elect to operate under and be subject
to this Code in accordance with any Executive or Administrative
Order creating such right.
8. The terms "President ", "Act ", and "Administrator as used
herein shall mean, respectively, the President of the United States,
Title I of the National Industrial Recovery Act, and the Adminis-
trator for Industrial Recovery.






618


A ITI(L!E II--HOURS

1. Menibers of the Industry manufacturing: (a) Silk infants'
wear, (b) Infants' and children's beach togs, creepers and rompers,
(c) Infants' and children's dresses styled as infants' and children's
wear and .ized from infants to and including age fourteen, (d)
Baby boy suits, (e) Infants' and children's flannelette-, (f) Infants'
bonnets manufactured of rayon, silk, crepe de chine, organdy, lawn,
pique and similar fabrics made by sewing machine or by hand for
infants up to and including the age of four, (g) infants silk coats,
(h) jersey cloth suits, (i) Girls' eiderdown coats manufactured,
styled and sold in sizes ranging from six nionths to and including
age three, and manufactured to sell at wholesale for no more than
$18.00 per dozen, and (j) such other items of infants' and children's
wear as are not included specifically in any other Code of Fair Com-
petition heretofore approved or hereafter to be approved shall be
governed by the following provisions:
(a) Except as hereinafter provided, no employee shall be per-
mitted to work in excess of forty (40) hours in any one (1) week,
nor in excess of eight (8) hours in any twenty-four (24) hour period,
nor in excess of five (5) days in any seven (7) day period.
(b) No employee engaged in clerical or office work or in shipping
departments or stock roons, unless he is employed in a managerial,
supervisory or executive capacity and earns not less than thirty-five
dollars ($35.00) per week shall be permitted to work in excess of
forty (40) hours per week averaged over any three months' period.
(c) Members of repair shop crews, nlachinists, electricians, por-
ters, and drivers, shall not be permitted to work in excess of forty
(40) hours in any one (1) week, except that persons employed in
such capacities may be employed in excess of forty (40) hours per
week in case of emergency arising through accident or similar cause,
provided that any and all such overtime work shall be paid for at
not less than one and one-third (11/3) times the normal hourly rate
for such employee.
2. No employee engaged in the manufacture of blazers, sport-
coats, Eton and Rugby Suits, boys' overcoats. sizes 1 to 5, boys' show-
suits or boys' three piece legging sets shall be permitted to work in
excess of thirty-six (36) hours in any one week nor in excess of
eight (8) hours in any one day.
3. No member of the Industry shall engage any employee for any
time which when totaled with that already performed with another
memiiber or mlemlbers of the Industry, exceeds the maxim umn per-
mitted herein.
A ARTICLE IV-WAGES

1. Members of the Industry manufacturing: (a) Silk infants'
wear, (b) Infants' and children's beach togs, creepers and rompers,
(c) Infants' and children's dresses styled as infants' and children's
wear and sized from infants to and including age fourteen, (d)
Baby boy's suits, (e) Infants' and children's flannelettes. (f) Infants'
bonnets manufactured of rayon, silk, crepe de chene, organdy, lawn,
pique and similar fabrics made by sewing machine or by hand for
infants up to and including the age of four, (g) Infants silk coats,







619


(h) jersey cloth suits, (i) Girls' eiderdown coats manufactured,
styled and sold in sizes ranging from six months to and including
age three, and manufactured to sell at wholesale for not more than
$18.00 per dozen, and (j) such other items of infants' and children's
wear as are not included specifically in any other Code of Fair
Competition heretofore approved or hereafter to be approved shall
be governed by the following provisions:
(a) Except. as hereinafter provided no employee shall be paid at
less than the rate of thirty-two and one-half cents (321..2) per hour
when employed in all parts of the United States other than the
Southern Section nor at less than the rate of thirty (300) per hour
when employed in the Southern Section. For the purposes of this
Article the term "Southern Section ". shall include the States of
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, New
Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee,
Texas, and Virginia.
(b) No employee engaged as an apprentice shall be paid at less
than seventy-five percent (75%) of the minimum wages herein pro-
vided during the first eight (8) weeks of employment, and thereafter
not less than the minimum herein provided. If the operation at
which any apprentice is engaged has a piece-work rate and the
amount earned at such piecework rate. is more than the minimum
apprentice wage hereby established, such apprentice shall be paid on
a piecework basis. The period of apprenticeship shall not exceed
eight (8) weeks and any time worked by an apprentice shall be
deemed a part of such apprentice period whether such time is worked
continuously, or in more than one shop, or for more than one
employer. The number of apprentices engaged by any one employer
shall at no time exceed ten percent (10%) of the total number of
employees engaged by such employer.
(c) A person whose working capacity is limited because of age
or physical handicap may be employed at a wage below the minimum
established by this Code under the following conditions:
That such person shall be paid proportionately no less than the
other employees in the same factory receive for similar work, but in
no case. shall their compensation amount to less than seventy percent
(70%) of the amount. required by the minimum wage provision of
this Code.
That the employer shall at once prepare and transmit to the Code
Authority a list of such persons. stating name, class of occupation,
wage rate, length of service, and such other pertinent information
as the Code Authority may require. This list shall be revised up to
date once each month and transmitted to the Code Authority.
The proportion of persons so compensated to total employees shall
not exceed ten percent (10%) at any one time.
The Code Authority shall report to the Administrator within three
(3) months after the effective date of this Code and from time to
time thereafter as to the effect of the operation of this subsection,
both generally and in cases of individual hardship.
2. Members of the Industry manufacturing infants' and children's
wear included in a Code of Fair Competition heretofore approved
who shall elect to operate under and be subject to this Code in ac-
cordance with any Executive or Administrative Order creating such






620


right shall conform, except. as specifically provided in Section 4 of
this Article, to wage provisions equivalent to the wage provisions
of such other Code of Fair Competition.
3. No employee engaged in the iianiufacture of blazers, sport-
coats, Eton and Rugby suits, boys' overcoats, sizes one to six, boys'
snow-suits, boys' jersey suits and boys' three piece legging sets shall
be paid at less than the rate of forty cents (400) per hour.
4. The weekly compensation for employment now in excess of
the minimum wages herein provided shall not be reduced, notwith-
standing that the hours of work in any such employment may be
hereby reduced, and piece rates shall be so adjusted that earnings
at the shorter hours provided in this Code shall be at least equivalent
to those obtained under the longer hours heretofore prevailing, pro-
vided that this clause shall not cause an increase in any wage rate
by more than twenty-five per cent (2.51' ) over the wage rate as
of July 1, 1933.

ARTICLE V-GENERAL LABOR PROVISIONS

1. No person under sixteen (16) years of age shall be employed
in the industry. No person under eighteen (18) years.of age shall
be employed at operations or occupations which are hazardous in
nature or detrimental to health. The Code Authority shall submit
to the Administrator within ninety (90) days of the effective date of
this Code a list of such operations or occupations.
2. Employees shall have the right to organize and bargain collec-
tively, through representatives of their own choosing, and shall be
free from interference, restraint, or coercion of employers of labor
or their agents, in the designation of such representatives or in self-
organizatiunI or in other concerted activities for the purpose of col-
lective bargaining.
3. No employee and no one seeking employment shall be required
as a condition of employment to join any company union or to re-
frain from joining, organizing, or assisting a labor organization of
his own choosing.
4. Employers shall comply with the maximum hours of labor. min-
imum rates of pay, and other conditions of employment approved or
prescribed by the President.
5. No employer shall reclassify employees or duties of occupations
performed for the purpose of defeating the provisions of the Act or
of this Code.
6. Every employer shall provide for the safety and health of his
employees at the place and during the hours of their employment.
Standards of safety and health shall be submitted by the Code Au-
thority to the Administrator within six (6) months after the effective
date of this Code.
7. No provisions of this Code shall supersede any law within any
State which imposes more stringent requirements on employers as to
age of employees, wages. hours of work, or as to safety, health or
sanitary regulations, or insurance, or fire protection, or general
working conditions, than are imposed by this Code.
8. No member of the Industry shall employ home labor for the
performance of home work on sewing machines.






621


9. The Code Authority shall, within six (6) nimnths of the effective
date of this Code recommend to the Administrator appropriate
means for the regulation and control of such home work in this
industry as is not provided for in Section 8 of this Article.
10. Each member of the industry shall be furni-hed, by the Code
Authority, with official copies of the provisions of this Code re-
lating to hours of labor, rates of pay, and other conditions of
employment. Such official copies of lhr'li provision.- shall contain
directions for filing complaints of violations of such provisions, and
shall be kept conspicuously posted at all times by such members
of the industry in each shop, establishment, or separate unit, to
the extent necessary to make them freely accessible to all members.
Whenever any modifications of, or exemption or exception from this
Code permits any person to pay lower wages, or work his employees
longer hours, or establish conditions of employment less favorable
to his employees than those pre.,ribed by the provisions contained
in such official copy of the provisions of this Code, the Code Author-
ity, on the request of such person, shall furnish him with certified
copies of such modifications, exemption or exception in sufficient
number for posting alongside of such official copies of Code Pro-
visions. No member of the industry shall display or furnish any
incorrect copies of such provisions, directions, modifications, exemp-
tions or exceptions.
11. No provisions in this Article shall modify established prac-
tices for privileges as to vacation period, leaves of absence, or
temporary absence from work heretofore guaranteed to office
employees.
ARTICLE VI-CONTRACTORS

1. For the purposes of this Article the term "contractor" shall
include any and all persons engaged in the manufacture of infants'
and children's wear as herein defined from materials provided for
them by jobbers and others.
2. No member of the Industry shall cause any goods to be manu-
factured in any factory not registered with the Code Authority in
accordance with regulations determined by the Code Authority
and approved by the Administrator.
3. No member of the Industry shall employ any Contractor found
and reported by the Code Authority to be operating in violation of
the provisions of this Code until such time as the Code Authority
permits the re-employment of such Contractor. The application of
this Section shall at all times be subject to rules and regulations
issued by the Administrator.
4. All members of the Industry engaged in the manufacture of
infants' and children's dresses and causing such garments or any
part thereof to be manufactured by Contractors shall pay to such Con-
tractors for such productions, rates at least sufficient to enable such
Contractors to pay to their employees working on such garments, the
minimum wage provided for by this Code, and all such payments
received by such Contractors shall be first applied in the payment of
wages to the employees working on such garments.
5. The Code Authority shall create, within ten (10) days of the
effective date of this Code a special committee to study the problem






622


of jobber-contractor relationships. Said committee shall make recom-
mendations to the administrator regarding the establishment as a
part of this Code, of such rules and regulations as will tend to stabi-
lize the relationships between jobbers and contractors and which will
further effectuate the purposes of the Act and of this Code, which
recommendations, upon the approval of the Administrator and after
such notice and hearing as he may prescribe, shall become effective as
part of this Code.
ARTICLE VII-ADMINISTRATION

1. There shall be forthwith constituted a Code Authority consist-
ing of :
(a) Eleven representatives of the Industry or such other number as
may be approved from time to time by the Administrator to be
selected as hereinafter provided.
(b) Such additional members, without vote, not to exceed three,
as the Administrator may appoint to represent such groups or inter-
ests or such governmental agencies and for such periods as he may
designate.
(c) Two members, without vote, to represent the interests of
labor and to be appointed by the Administrator on the nomination
of the Labor Advisory Board.
2. The representatives of the Industry shall be selected in the
following manner:
(a) Ten members shall be selected by the United Infants' and
Children's Wear Association.
(b) One member shall be selected by the Children's Dress Con-
tractors' Association.
3. Each trade or industrial association directly or indirectly par-
ticipating in the selection or activities of the Code Authority shall
(1) impose no inequitable restrictions on membership, and (2) submit
to the Administrator true copies of its articles of association, by-laws,
regulations, and any amendments when made thereto, together with
such other information as to membership, organization, and activi-
ties as the Administrator may deem necessary to effectuate the
purposes of the Act.
4. In order that the Code Authority shall at all times be truly
representative of the Industry and in other respects comply with
the provisions of the Act, the Administrator may prescribe such
hearings as he may deem proper; and thereafter if he shall find that
the Code Authority is not truly representative or does not in other
respects comply with the provisions of the Act, he may require an
appropriate modification in the method of selection of the Code
Authority.
5. Members of the Industry shall be entitled to participate in and
share the benefits of the activities of Code Authority by assenting
to and complying with the requirements of this Code and sustaining
their reasonable share of the expenses of administration as shall be
determined by the Code Authority, subject to review by the Admin-
istrator, on the basis of volume of business or such other factors as
may be deemed equitable.






623


6. Nothing contained in this Code shall constitute the members of
the Code Authority partners for any purpose. Nor shall any member
of the Code Authority be liable in any manner to anyone for any act
of any other member, officer, agent or employee of the Code Author-
ity, nor shall any member of the Code Authority, exercising reason-
able diligence in the conduct of his duties hereunder, be liable to
anyone for any action or omission to act under this Code, except for
his own wilful mi.ifea-annce or non-feasance.
7. If the Administrator shall determine that any action of the Code
Authority or any agency thereof may be unfair or unjust or con-
trary to the public interest, the Administrator may require that such
action be suspended to afford an opportunity for investigation of
the merits of such action and further consideration by the Code
Authority or agency, pending final action, which shall not be effective
unless the Administrator approves or unless he shall fail to disap-
prove after thirty (30) days notice to him of intention to proceed
with such action in its original or modified form.
8. The Code Authority shall have the following powers and
duties:
(a) To insure the execution of the provisions of this Code and
to provide, subject to rules and regulations established by the
Administrator, for the compliance of the Industry with the pro-
visions of the Act: Provided, however that this shall not be con-
strued to deprive duly authorized governmental agencies of their
power to enforce the provisions of this Code or of the Act.
(b) To adopt. by-laws and rules and regulations for its procedure
and for the admini.trat ion and enforcement of the Code.
(c) To obtain from members of the Industry such information
and reports as are required for the administration of the Code;
and in addition to information required to be submitted to any
Code Authority, all persons subject to this Code shall furnish such
statistical information as the Administrator may deem necessary
for the purposes recited in Section 3 (a) of the Act, to such Federal
and State Agencies as the Administrator may designate; nor shall
anything in any code relieve any person of existing obligations to
furnish reports to government agencies. No individual report shall
be disclosed to any other member of the Industry or any other party
except to such governmental agencies as may be directed by the
President.
(d) To use such trade associations and other agencies as it deems
proper for the carrying out of any of its activities provided for
herein, provided that nothing herein shall relieve the Code Author-
ity of its duties or responsibilities under this Code and that such
trade associations and agencies shall at all times be subject to and
comply with the provisions hereof.
(e) To make recommendations to the Administrator for the coor-
dination of the Administration of this Code with such other codes,
if any, as may be related to the Industry.
(f) To assess and collect from members of the Industry an equi-
table and proportionate payment of the reasonable expense, of main-
taining the Code Authority and its activities.
(g) To recommend to the Administrator any action or measures
deemed advisable, including further fair trade practice provisions, to






624


govern members of the Industry in their relations with each other
or with other industries, measures for industrial planning, and
stabilization of employment; and including modifications of this
Code which shall become effective as part hereof upon approval by
the Administrator after such notice and hearing as he may specify.
(h) To appoint a trade practice committee which shall meet
with the trade practice committees set up pursuant to such other
codes as may be related to the industry for the purposes of formu-
lating fair trade practices to govern the relationships between em-
ployers under this code and under such other codes to the end that
fair trade practices may be proposed to the Administrator as amend-
ments to this Code, and such other codes.
(i) To recommend to the proper authority, should the provisions
of this Code so increase the cost of domestic manufacture as to
greatly increase the proportion of foreign imports and render in-
effective or seriously to endanger the maintenance of this Code, such
tariff and other regulations as will prevent this Code from being
rendered ineffective or its maintenance seriously endangered.
(j) To establish national and regional industrial relations boards
or other agencies of conciliation or arbitration in factories where
truly representative organizations of employers and employees are
declared to exist by the Administrator. Where such truly repre-
sentative organizations with respect to employees do not exist, the
Code Authority shall have the power to create factory and district
and national Industrial Relations Boards in accordance with the
regulations approved by the Administrator.
ARTICLE VIII-N.R.A. LABELS
All garments manufactured or distributed subject to the pro-
visions of this Code shall bear an N.R.A. label to symbolize to pur-
chasers of said garments the conditions under which they were manu-
factured. Under the powers vested in him by Executive Order of
October 14, 1933, and under grant of the necessary authority by
the Administrator, the Code Authority shall have the exclusive right
in this industry to issue and furnish said labels to the members
thereof. Each label shall bear a registration number especially
assigned to each employer by the Code Authority and remain
attached to such garment when sold to the retail distributor. Any
and all employers may apply to the Code Authority for a permit
to use such N.R.A. label, which permit to use the label shall be granted
to them, but only if and so long as they comply with this Code.
The Code Authority subject to approval by the Administrator, shall
establish rules and regulations and appropriate machinery for the
issuance of labels and the inspection, examination, and supervision
of the practices of employers using such labels in observing the pro-
visions of this Code for the purpose of ascertaining the right of
said employers to the continued use of said labels; of protecting pur-
chasers in relying on said labels; of insuring to each individual
employer that the symbolism of said label will be maintained by
virtue of compliance with the practices herein contained by all other
employers using said label.
The charge made for such labels by the Code Authority shall at
all times be subject to supervision and orders of the Administrator






625


and shall be not more than an amount necessary to cover the actual
reasonable cost thereof, including actual printing, distribution, and
administration and supervision of the use thereof as hereinabove
set forth.
ARTICLE IX-TRADE PRACTICE RUTLE 2

1. No member of the industry shall publish advertising (whether
printed, radio, display or of any other nature), which is misleading
or inaccurate in any material particular, nor shall any member, in
any way misrepresent any goods (including but without limitation
its use, trademark, grade, quality, quantity, origin, size, sub-tarnce,
character, nature, finish, material content or preparation) or credit
terms, values, policies, services, or the nature or form of the biisine-s
conducted.
2. No member of the Industry shall use selling methods or credit
terms which tend to deceive or mislead the customer or prospective
customers.
3. No member of the Industry shall withhold from or insert in any
quotation or invoice any statement that makes it inaccurate in any
material particular.
4. No member of the Industry shall brand or mark or pack any
goods in any manner which is intended to or does deceive or mislead
purchasers with respect. to the brand, grade, quality, quantity, origin,
size, substance, character, nature, finish, material content or
preparation of such goods.
5. No member of the Industry shall publish advertising which
refers inaccurately in any material particular to any competitors or
their goods, prices, values, credit terms, policies, or services.
6. No member of the Industry shall publish or circularize unjusti-
fied or unwarranted threats of legal proceedings which tend to
harass or have the effect of harassing competitors or intimidating
their customers.
7. No member of the Industry shall give or permit to be given any
secret payment. or allowance of rebate, refund, commission, credit,
or unearned discount, whether in the form of money or otherwise, or
the secret extensions to purchasers of special services or privileges
not extended to all purchasers of like terms and conditions.
8. No member of the Industry shall give, permit to be given, or
directly offer to give anything of value for the purpose of influenc-
ing or rewarding the action of any employee, agent, or representa-
tive of another in relation to the business of the employer of such
employee, the principal of such agent, or the represented party with-
out the knowledge of such employer, principal or party. Com-
mercial bribery provisions shall not be construed to prohibit free
and general distribution of articles commonly used for advertising
except so far as such articles are actually used for commercial bribery
as hereinabove defined.
9. No member of the Industry shall attempt to induce the breach
of an existing contract between a competitor and his customer or
source of supply; nor shall any member of the Industry interfere
s See paragraph 2 (3) of order approving this Code.





626


with or obstruct the performance of such contractual duties or
services.
10. No member of the Industry shall grant cash discounts of any
kind or description, to the retail trade in excess of 8/10 E 0 M or
7/10/30 or 6/10/60 nor shall he grant any cash discounts of any
kind or description to the jobbing trade in excess of 3/10 E 0 M or
2/10/60. Goods billed after the 25th of the month may be con-
sidered as of the first of the following month. Payments not re-
ceived within five (5) days after the last date of maturity must be
paid net.
11. No member of the Industry shall ship finished goods on memo-
randum or consignment except under circumstances authorized by
the Code Authority and approved by the Administrator.
12. No member of the Industry shall accept the cancellation of an
order nor the return for credit of merchandise shipped in conformity
with the terms and conditions of the contract pursuant to which it
was sold and where the contract has been fully performed.
13. No member of the Industry shall sell any product or service
below cost based upon principles of costing formulated by the Code
Authority and approved by the Administrator except to meet com-
petition of a member of the Industry whose costs are lower. The
sale of distress merchandise shall be exempt from these restrictions.

ARTICLE X-MODIFICATION

1. This code and all the provisions thereof are expressly made
subject to the right of the President, in accordance with the pro-
visions of subsection (b) of section 10 of the National Industrial
Recovery Act, from time to time to cancel, or modify any order,
approval, license, rule, or regulation issued under Title I of said Act
and specifically, but without limitation, to the right of the President
to cancel or modify his approval of this Code or any conditions
imposed by him upon his approval thereof.
2. This Code, except as to provisions required by the Act, may be
modified on the basis of experience or changes in circumstances, such
modification to be based upon application to the Administrator and
such notice and hearing as he shall specify, and to become effective
on approval of the President.

ARTICLE XI-MONOPOLIES, ETC.

No provision of the Code shall be so applied as to permit monop-
olies or monopolistic practices, or to eliminate, oppress, or discrimi-
nate against small enterprises.
ARTICLE XII

Whereas the policy of the Act to increase real purchasing power
will be made impossible of consummation if prices of goods and
services increase as rapidly as wages, it is recognized that price
increases shall be delayed. But when such increases shall be made,






627

so far as possible, they will be limited to actual increase in the
seller's costs.
ARTICLE XIII-EFFECTIVE DATE

This Code shall become effective on and after the second Monday
after its approval by the President.
Approved Code No. 373.
Registry No. 217-1-05.

O




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IIIIIII I3 1262 08486 82i
3 1262 08486 8271