Record of Everglades Exploring Expedition, written as a journal or travel log, dating from Mar. 14, 1892 to Apr. 16, 189...
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007669/00001
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Chase Collection
 Material Information
Title: Record of Everglades Exploring Expedition, written as a journal or travel log, dating from Mar. 14, 1892 to Apr. 16, 1892. Includes list of expedition members, daily temperatures, and detailed accounts of the entire trip; document property of Sydney Chase and transcribed by secretary Wallace R. Moses (includes 1908 telegram from Moses to Chase).
Series Title: Personal Correspondence of Sydney Octavius Chase
Physical Description: Unknown
Language: English
Creator: Chase family
Publication Date: 1892
Physical Location:
Box: 171
Folder: 9.34. Everglades Exploration Trip. March 12,1892
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00007669:00001

Full Text


AOE-oT-. West Palm Beach, Florida, June 22nd,1908,

Sanford, Fla.
My Dear Mr.Chase;--
I hand you herewith your copy of the record of
the Everglade Exploring Expedition of 1892,which you kindly loaned
me to oopy. I just finished the work and found it more or less
interesting. Some of the events I had entirely forgotten. One
was the trip to and ascent of Cape Florida Lighthouse,thenoe outside
and in at Norrows Cut in the Sohr.UMargaret." Also you and I
going up into the tower of Jupiter Lighthouse. I have no recollee-
tion of either. I had also forgotten. Cpts.Peap ad aateIsrv ge
Utig difak akad playing evr depiartur' departure from Miami; its a
wonder they didn't wreak us going up outside to Lake Worth Inlet,as
the amount reads that the wind blew so heavy we oouldnt come to in
order to reef. I'd like to make the Everglade part of the trip
again when the water was a foot higher. With our former experience
I think we could have an easier time; that was a tough trip; it makes
my knees ache now to think of it, Hope you and yours are in best
of health,--
Very sinoe Ey yours -
Eno. ," "' '
^*- "^ ^---'f 1 ../, ,. '/e'6 ^ ^

' o.E( .

Camp 1o. 1 Myers Fla. March 14th 1892.

The Everglade Axploring Expedition left anafora, Fla. on
Saturday, March 12thj 1892, in 2 detachments. Mr. Newman, the
aEgineer with such men as he had engaged by train No. 78, while
Messrs Ingrahan, Moses and Ohase followed on Train No. 27, all
uniting at Port Tampa and going by Plant Steamer "Tarpon" to
Fort Myers, where othtr m*ta l.-- ...r -
Our two canvas boats arrived at 8*nford on train Mo, 71 by
express (a pretty close connection) ana were taken forward on train

We arrived at Fort Myers on Monday March 14th and immediately went
into camp on the outskirts of the town about one mile south east of the

Post Office.

The following orders were read aloud to the members of the expe-

March 14th 1892.

Captain Jehn W. Newman is hereby placed in charge of tkis- *xpedA--
tion. His orders must be obeyed by all connleted therewith. He
will appoint heads of the various departments.

.Mr W. R. Moses is hereby appointed Secretary of the Expedition
and he will preserve for future use the records and all data accumulated
during the trip, and officers and men kill report daily to him all items
of interest or importance connected with the trip. Information is
desired regarding the soil, the growth thereon, particularly anything
unusual, and the adaptability of the soil to the growth of sugar cane,


rice, tobacco and sisal hempi also the tropical fruits.

(Signed) Jv E. INGRAHAM,


Mr. D. .. Baker is appointed levelman of the Everglade Exploring

Expedition to Miami. It shall be his duty to assist the expedition by

performing the work of levelmaa, having in immediate charge the men in mess

No. 2, consisting of the white men, G. E. Natthieux, T. N. Sutton, A. W.

Clark, W. E. Gradick, J. T. Anderson, S. L. Caruthers, Phil. XN Handley,

J. EI. Minchin, T. C. Shepard and two colored men,- Reese Livingstone and

Jeff Bookman. These with Mr, Baker shall be one mess and Mr, Baker

will be held responsible for the care of provisions* boats, tools, and

all implements entrusted to these men for use during this expedition.

All suggestions, complaints and advice made by men in this mess must

be made through Mr. Baker.

to man shall be required to do more work than may naturally be

expected in an expedition of this kind.

Excessive use of profane language is forbidden; so are obscene Jests,

and unkind, vicious and quarrelsome men will be reported to me.

All men in this mess are required to use respectful pleasant

language in their'intercourse with all other members of the expedition.

The use of liquor as a beverage will not be permitted.

Mr. Baker is forbidden to use other than kind words in requiring the

performance of duties, and all members of this mess and all members of

the expedition are assured of the hearty support and good will of the

commander in charge.

(Signed) J, W, ELUMAI.

1 .

Mr. Alonso Church is appointed Compassman of The Everglade Exploring

Expedition. It shall be his duty to assist the expedition by performing

the duty of a Compassman, having in charge the immediate comfort of

Mess Ip. 1, consisting of

President Ja E. Ingraham,
Secretary I. Moses,
S Mr. 8. 0. Chase and
Mr. J. W. Newman.

as well as of all other men that may be appointed to join this mess.

Mr. Church will be held responsible for his own and all the instruments

and boxes belonging to members of this aess.

All complaints may be made directly by the members of this mess to

Mr. Newman.

All suggestions and advice will be greatfully received by Mrs Newman

and by his direction and with the assistance of the members of the

expedition will be cheerfully performed except in cases that are obvious-

ly to the impediment or detriment of the expeAition.

The members of this mess are respectfully requested by Mr. Newman

to preserve a uniform mildness of demeanor and cheerfulness of manner,

encouraging the men to know that each one is an essential factor in this

undertaking and entitled to a cordial and fraternal regard,


(Signed) dJ W' NIWBAN.

The members of the Expedition consist of the following named white


J. E. Ingraham, Sanford, Florida.
J. W. Newman, *
W, R. Moses,
8. 0. Chase w
D. M. Baker, Orange Home,
A. Church, Sanford, *
A. W. Clark,
G. E. Matthieux, Geneva, *


W1 E. Gradick, Geneva, Florida.
T. 5. Button, Hawkinsvilles Georgia.
J. T. Anderson,
L. Me Anderson, 0 *
8. L. Oaratherse
T. GC Shepardt, a
P. E a Bandley, Lewisburg, West Virginia.
J. E. Minchin, Chipley, Florida.
Wesley Boyd, Fort Myers, *
W. 5. Wilson, 0 U
H. W. Lucky, V
Robert Dean, n

and colored cooks-

Reese Livingstone, Sanford, Florida.
Jeff Bookman,

Mr. Caruthers is Chief Cook,

Mr. Ingraham sent telegrams to Mr. Plant, Tampa, and Mrs. Cox,

Sanford, notifying our departure.

Wrote Mr. R. W1 Southwick, Agt. P.S.S. Line Key West, to forward

to Miami personal effects of members of the expedition Bent to his eare

by express from Myers today*

In camp all day with excursions down town by different members of

the party to mail letters, make purchases, etc.

Delay in starting today caused by waiting for some of the Myers men

who were engaged to report wednesday, 16th, who were away on other business.

Opinions of some of the resident population was that we would short-

ly return to Myers failing in our efforts to cross the Everglades, while

others in whose opinion we had more faith thought we would succeed.

Two flat bottomed cypress skiffs were bought and sent forward to

Shackelford on Mr. George Hendry's ox team, to await our arrival.

CAMP tO. 1, March 16th,

The secretary was detailed to go down toNm and hurry up teams about

which there was some unaccountable delay.


* -. <*

The first team got away about A.M. with Mr. Ingraham, Mr. Chase, and

Mr. Church, being Mr. Frank' endry' single horse wagon. The balance

of the party started about 10 A.M. owing to failure of Mr. Langford's

team to arrive earlier.

Rev. Mr. Frasee came to the camp and bade us good bye.

Took dinner at 7 mile cypress on the south east road, where we re-

mained until 2150 P.M. All the party together. Drove until sunset,

going into camp at half way pond, being half way between Myers and the

Allen place.

Some of the party began to have blistered feet and mutton tallow

was served out to such as required it. All very tired.

The country today was rather poor flat woods. Bross tie timber

very scarce. No occupied houses the whole way* Passed two or three

abandoned places with small buildings.

CAMP NO. 2. Thursday March 17th.

Broku camp about 6350 A.M.'

Mr. Ingraham brought in a fox squirrel and Mr. Shepard a whooping


At noon we had made about 10 iles when we stopped for dinner, being

about 25 miles from Myers.

Started at 5 P.M. and rode and marched until about 6 PAl. making

about 8 miles when we went into Camp Xo. S.

The timber this morning was of such better character, thicker together

and larger sized, than yesterday, there being quite a good deal of cross-

tie timber, In the afternoon we were crossing the Allen Prarie. A

fine body of land some 25 miles long by 5 to 6 miles wide lying between

the Okaloacoochee Swamp and The Big Cypress from a point 2 miles east


of place known as "Carson's". It is a plateau diversified by pine

islands, hammock islands and prarie with abundance of water and seemingly

of a character to afford thoroughly good pasturage with attention, for the

raising of stock in large quantities, improved breeds, etc. Para grass

planted in spots and protected from cattle until it got a start would

undoubtedly take possession and make fine pasture*

Our camp is located at the forks of the roads running to Fort Simon

Drum and Camp Rogers. A government road also runs from our camp to

Fort Simons on the Caloosahatchee River.

GAMP NO. 5, Friday March 18th.

Broke Camp (No. S) at 6O20 A.M,

The country for the first four miles was through scrub pine and

sapling cypress afterwards opening out into a magnificent open prairie

dotted with clumps of cypress, oak and cabbage palms well watered with

flowing water.

At 11 A.M. crossed the old government causeway, constructed about

1855 across the Okaloacoochee Slough and Big Cypress Swamp* At this

point a perceptible flow south was noticed in the stream of water com-

prising a portion of the slough.

After crossing this slough a heavy rain storm case up from the west

the temperature fell 20 degrees by sunset, following the severe shower,

the wind veering from the south to the north west.

The prarie which we entered upon after crossing the slough above

noted, extends eastward about 40 miles and is from 5 to 25 miles wide.

It is said to be the finest cattle range in the state. We saw a number

of battle, apparently in fine order, The cattle are very wild and it was

rare that we could approach nearer than half a mile. A number of

different companies have fenced off large pastures, running a fence line

from a point on the Big Cypress to the Everglades, a distance of 27 miles.

The fence was barbed wire.

Went into Camp No. 4 at I P.M. having marched 20 miles, a great part

of it in water from 5 to 8 inches deep. During the march at various

points a rook strata appeared at the surface, which is said to be of the

same formation as that underlying the Everglades. Where this rook

exists the soil appears very poor, beint sparely covered with vegetation.

At various points on this stock range the grass is high and thick, said

to be very nutritious and affording very wholesome feed for cattle.

Magnificent bodies of Cypress timber extending southward along the

line of what is known as The Bi3 Cypress, being virgin timber.

We have seem no indians up to this time, though we passed several

of their abandoned camps.

The temperature continues to fall very rapidly accompanied by severe

north west gale.

The whole gang very tired, foot sore and weary and full rations of

mutton tallow and bandages were served out.

The country appears to have been cleaned up as far as game is

concerned and it is not surprising that the Indians should have apparent-

ly deserted a country so devoid of wild game.

After going into camp at noon following the severe rain to get

coffee and dinner, many of the men being drenched to the skin some remov-

ed their outer clothing permitting their caudal appendags to hang on their

persons in such a way as to permit of the greatest circulation of air*

It was at this time that the Secretary of the party, who was squatting

under a palmetto on the leeward side of the fire used for cooking calmly


remarked that the tents or something made of cotton is burning. He

oentinued squatting antil happening to get a stronger whiff than usual

of the burning material he placed his hands behind his to see if his

shirt was getting dry when he found it afire, a large portion having been

sonsuaed. His equanimity was for a few moment somewhat upset but

uader the shouts of the balance of tne party and their unrestrained

merriment aceoopanied by various bite of advice and suggestions he asen

recovered and helped to consume a good meal shortly afterwards served.

CANP 80* 4p Saturday Mare 19the

During the night the temperature continued to fall reachinE 40 at

5 AJ. and 58 at sunrise. The wind still hbavy from the X1We

Broke camp at 6840 A.M. and marched a nearly 8, E. course 10 miles,

pitching our tents on the site of old Fort Shackleford at 10e20 AM..

CAMP I0. 5.

From snoe yesterday until today the soil was apparently underlaid

with the rook mentioned in the record of the 1ith.

four of the party left the teams after starting this morning on a

hunting trip, loiag some two or more miles to the southward and following

a course parallel to the line of march, reaching camp about an hour after

the wagons. They brought in one snipe and the head and skin of a

large wildcat.

They found an indian canp about one sile l* of.present camp occup-

ied by a squaw, whom the Mr. Hendry'# called Mancy, and three grand-.

children of about 2, 4, 68 years, 2 or 5 dogs and a let of chickens.

She graciously received the party and gave them such information as

possible to understand, her took of english being apparently quite

Uimited. The children were noticeable for their dignity and reserep-


much more so than with Anglo-Saxons of the same age. The little girl

of 6 was rather light colored and had regular features. She was

ornamented with a necklace of various colored beads. The children

were fat and healthy*

Game continued very scarce being much more plentiful in the thickly

settled portions of the state.

The Indian squaw, Mancy, with the little girl above mentioned call-

ed upon us in camp before dinner and was furnished with a meal. Several

kodak shots were made by Mr. Chase of them. Upon being questioned in

regard to the distance to Miami, she replied 100 miles and that an

Indian could go from Shackleford to Miami in 4 days and accompanied

with a chuckle, that it would take a white aaa 10 days which indicated

amusement at their inferiority as compared with Indians ability in the

woods or glades.

Eancy claims to be the widow of Osceola, a son of the great Chief

of that name. She is the widow, also of Billy Jumper, who was drowned

in the Miami river some 10 days or 2 weeks since, They call death

"Big Sleep". Rer age was said to be 75. She was a little girl at

the time of the Indian War, .ar we elicited by questions. She is well

preserved and evidently enjoys good health. She told us that the Indians

of her camp were down in the Big Cypress hunting. That only a few

remained in this neighborhood. There is certainly not sufficient game

in the section we have crossed to support any large number of people.

Mr. George Hendry who with his brother Mr. Frank Hendry accompanied us

from Myers to this point, estimated the total number of Indians in this

section of the state not to exceed 60 or 75 and not over 250 or 500 in the

whole state.


The afternoon was spent in arranging for & start into the Ever-

glades on Mendayq Sunday being needed to finish our preparations and to

get rested up.

We selected the tallest piae tree at this oamp amd erected thereon

attached to a pole fastened to the top of the tree, a flag emblazoned

with the emblem of The Plant System, a Aaltese reoss with the S"P in

the centre.

Discharged and paid off Mr. Frank Hendry with one horse wagon and

Mr. Thomas Haskew with two horse team of Mr. I8 L* Langfordla they will

return to Myers tomorrow,

Mr. Wesley Boyd concluded he had sufficient of the expedition and

will return with the teams to Ft. Myers.

CAMP 10, 5, Fort Shackleford, Fla. Sunday, March 2S, '92.

Mr. Chase with Mr. Frank Hendry in a trip today, report having

found several Indian villages, in one of which were bananas killed by

the frost. They also saw lemons, and guavas of two or three varieties,

one of which was unknown to Mr. Chase.

One of the men brought in a turkey gobbler of an estimated weight

of 18 lbs. Wild turkey. Game very searee, however, the Indians

having evidently killed it pretty much all off,

At supper time we were visited by old Nancy before mentioned, ancoy

and little Lucy her daughters, the latter being the wife of "Tom Tiger*

and Nancy the wife of "Little Billy". It seems to be a custom of the

Indians to call their children after themselves prefixing "Little". The

daughters ages appeared to be about 26 and 50 respectfully. They brought

with them 5 children from babies in arms upwards. Lee the oldest daugh-

ter of Little Nancy and the girl previously spoken of la 7 years of age.

One of the boy babies was not named and was christened Ingraham, in

honor of President Ingrahan. The nearest they could pronounce the name


*" ./

however was r Inglaam which is probably what it will be known by.

Old laaoy told us, the two Mr. Headryts acting as interpreters, that

Harmey*s River headed about 20 miles southeasterly from here. This

distance is corroborated by Mr. Frank Hendry, who has been up that river

for an estimated distance of 44 miles. This river empties into the

Gu.f of Mexoio on the south western part of the state and is said to

contain some very large and rich hammock lands and contain sufficient

water to float a good sized steamer for the 44 miles mentioned.

The old squaw sang for us, but it was scarcely melodious. Her

compensation was 2 quarts of corn contributed by Mr. Frank Headry.

The young squaws were too diffident to either sing or talk.

Mr, Newman left shortly after breakfast and did not return till the

middle of the afternoon having made a reconAoissance of about 5 miles inmj

advance and reported a good camping place for tomorrow.

CAMP lo. 5, Ft. Shaokleford, Fla.

Monday, March 21st, 1892.

Finished packing and sent one load to the Indian boat landing on the

edge of the Everglades three or four miles distant, at 7 o'clock, having

retained the ox team for that purpose. Ft. Shackleford is a pine

island with perhaps half a dozen pine trees upon it and the only dry

camping place for some distance, else we should have camped nearer the

glades. The surrounding country is prairie willow islands, small.

cypresses, ete. and considerable water, but shallow,

Messrs Ingraham, Newman, Chase and Church with 11 of the men accom-

panied the first team. Mr. Moses, Mr. George Hendry and the balance

getting away with the second load about 10 A.E.

Mr. Frank Hendry left for Fort Myers with his one horse wagon

shortly after breakfast.


Settlement made with Mr. George Hendry in full for the use of his

two teams and himself, He bade us good bye at the boat landing and took

with him our last letters to mail at Fort Myers.

We left the boat landing a little after noon with the two wooden

skiffs purchased at Myers and the two canvas boats brought with us all

well loaded and waded about 1 1-4 miles into the Evtrglades, arriving at

Camp No. 6 about o o'clock P.M. Did not pitch tents Mr. Ingraham and

Mr. Moses slept in the eanvas boats. The camping place is nothing but a

slight elevation covered with a few cypresses and bushes and rather wet.

The balance of the party pitched their mosquito bars on this elevation,

had a lunch of canned goods, crackers, and what was left from breakfast*

The surveyors began chainin. and leveling at Shackleford this morn-

ing and continued their work, while some of the party went after game.

Except for a few ducks which carefully kept out of gunshot, a curlew or

two and some gannets and herons nothing edible was seen. Snakes were

conspicuous by their absence, but one or two being seen by anyone.

Messrs Ingraham, Chase & doses with one of the canvas boats visited

a little hammock island, lying south :o the camp about one mile on which

the evidence of an Indian camp remained,- a lean to roof that once had

been thatched with palmetto, a few poles stuck into the ground and half

burned logs, end to end, some small lemon trees and a pumpkin vine were

found growing. The lemon trees and pumpkin vine indicated the absence

of frost.

Water covered the surface to the average depth of i5 of a foot in

the Everglades today, RoCa appeared at various distances but with

great regularity from the boat landing throughout the whole of this

march at from 6 to 18 inches from the surface. Wherever rook is

close to the surface the growth is very poor, being covered with somewhat


of a coarse grained sand which seems to have but little nutriment in it,

but where the rook is deeper it is overlaid with muck on which a rank

growth of coarse leaves and other vegetation appears. The current

is very sluggish, but as far as observation goes, flows in a southerly


The difference in elevation between Fort Shackleford and Camp No. 6

is 2.1 feet. A short distance from the edge of the EVerglades the

land ia one place fell .2 of a foot below the water kefal of the glades.

CAMP O, 6 ,a Tuesday, March 22nd.

All hands up before day and the routine which will probably be

followed, began the surveying party starting out at6 A i. immediately

after a hasty breakfast, while the balance packed up the boats and got

away at 7* following the stakes which were marked and driven every 1,000


Messrs Ingraham, Chase and Moses left for the cypress timber on

foot, in sight to the southward and for this days march varied in die-

tance from one to four miles from our course and nearly parallel to it.

An hour or so after starting an Indian approached them on foot, accompan-

ied by three dogs. He introduced himself as "Billy Fiewel" and in

english said "Good Morning,. He understood english sufficiently to

make himself readily understood, was acquainted with the Hendryts of

Fort Myers, Taylor Frierson and others of the same place. After some

palaver he agreed to go with us today for a consideration, Shortly

after he said "Wait; will get canoe"* Leaving us and going to a

fine cypress dugout canoe which he said was made by his sea little e Billy',

whose age was 20. All got i,=tq:. t k boat, seated themselves in


the bottom and Billy stood upon the stern and poled and pushed, when the

water was too shallow for poling, following the remainder of the crowd whb

by this time were a mile and a half ahead. Overtaking them we proceed-

ed to a point about 4 miles from Camp lo. 6 and lunched, the Indian join-

ing us on invitation and conducting himself very politely. About one

mile beyond our lunch stop we stopped for the day at Cam p No* 7, having

made 5 miles in all today through some of the worst bog imaginable all

tired out but cheerful.

Arrangements were made with Billy, Fiewel to return tomorrow night

and proceed with us, not as a guide but to hunt and make himself useful

and that we might derive such benefit as we could from his knowledge in

contending with the difficulties of the way etc.

The island upon which we are located is perhaps 1i-4 of an acre in

extent upon which are grape vines, india rubber or wild fig, elder bushes,

briers ana a pumpkin vine. Indian signs were noticed.

The average depth of the water today, 12 inches. The latter part of

the day it deepened to 18 inches. In sounding with a pole we discovered

rock frequently about one foot belo:. the surface of the water.

Billy told us that no frost occurred in the Everglades and the

character of the green growth corroborated his statement.

If this country could be drained a vast expanse of &rable land could

be opened to development. It seems rich and would be easily cultivated

once the water were permanently removed.

We Sill call this Camp Island No. 22 indicating the day of the month

and enabling the location of any particular point when taken in connect-

ion with the engineers report and plat.

From the top of a tree and Indian Camp can be seen about 5 miles to

the south of us and supposed to be occupied.


Camp 5o. 7 Islaad No. 22, Wednesday, March 25rd

Up to last night we made approximately 14*7 miles from Shackleford

which is better than anticipated.

Surveying party left about 2 A.M. on foot bat taking one boat to

carry stakes and a portion of the luggage. Broke camp and followed at

7 A.M. and proceeded very well until noon.

41 Islands of varying size but generally quite mall were counted

at one time in sight by Mr. Ingrahas during the foreaoon.

SReached Island No, 25 Camp No. 8 after sunset. na order to get to

the island and secure a dry sleeping place were obliged to leave our

beats about 2 miles behind, packing food and bedding on our backs

Made about 7 miles on our course today, through we travelled consid-

erably more than that distance, meandering the water courses and keeping

the surveyors in sight as much as possible.

This island has a very tropical growth and is the richest yet visi-

ted. It is perhaps one acre in extent and as uszal used by the Indians

as a camping ground. It has been partially cleared and cultivated at

one time, aarks of the corn or potato rows being 'ell defined, especially

after lying on them at night. Enormously large feras with coarse leaves

grow on the -dge of the island. A leaf from one measured 12 feet in

length. Wild fig, or rubber, trees are also here and of somewhat large

size relatively. The Indians make a practise of cutting off the limbs

and sometimes the tree itself for 'irewoos. It is usually out at one

time for use on future occasions, as it does not burn at all readily when

green. We had no hesitation in using the seasoned wood we found and

probably will be well execrated by them on their next visits as the conasup-

tion of wood by white men is generally much greater than by Indians.


The former piling their wood lengthways while the latter ealy bring the

ends together and push them to the centre as the ends are consumed. These

trees sprout after being cut off# either bruak or limbs, and the putting

continues indefinitely. The seasoned wood gives out but little smoke,

but it is quite acridto tohe eyes.

Soundings made during the day showed from 5 to 6 feet of mud all

underlaid wita hard rock. In the saw-grassed, bottom could not always

be found with a five foot poles Mud was everywhere today little if

any sand being felt by the feet. Heolaimed it would be very rich

land; the richest we have yet seen, says our engineer.

Saw grass to the southward almost continuous, as far asthe eye could

reach looking from 15 or ~0 feet elevation. Water averaged for the day

1.2 feet, except on saw grasses where it averaged .2 of a foot only.

Our Indian Billy Fiewel did not turn up tonight as agreed. Fresh

Indian signs were seen by Mr. Newman who arrived ahead of the party an

hour or two and an hour before sunset; so he may have come and seeing

our saw grass fires to the south and west of the island, concluded we

were too far off the course for himi to bother about use

The 2 miles of packing from the point where we left the boats was

through the boggiest marsh and saw grass imaginable and all hands were

thoroughly tired out when we reached Camp No. 4, Island So. 25.

The glades at this point present an endless sea of saw and other

grasses, lily pads, a great many of them in bloom, with small patches of

water amid clear spots in the grass and small islands here and there.

Two large islands of considerable extent can be seen to the eastward

from this island-only 2 or I very snall ones to the south east and the

cypress still visible to the south west but further away,


We are 92,750 feet from Shackleford tonight on our course,

At this point the Secretaryls work was interrupted for a few minutes

by an inquisitive moceasin snake attempting to crawl up his left shoulder.

The writer immediately rolled over and out of the way with more energy

than grace and commented a vigoroussearch for a stick, but before it

could be found his anakeship had retreated inte the recesses of the roots

of the rubber'tree under whose refreshing shade the records were being

written up. Zn the brief time there was for examination the snake

appeared to be about 5 feet in length and marked in pale yellow and black

Camp eN. 9i Island No. 25. Thursday March 24th.

A party went eat to bring in the boats. The surveyors started out

on the line and the rest who remained in camp made necessary repairs to

clothing, cleaned guns, ett e

The boats arrived shortly after noon. Broke camp about 2 P.M. and

followed surveyors. It took until sunset to, reach Isaxn- No. 24 and

Camp No. only 2 1-2 miles east. Hed to make several portages and

drag the boats through saw grass. All hands extremely tired and whiskey

was served out from the medicine stores.

We captured 5 turtle today said to be terrapin. They are about

the size of the familiar Florida gopher and very palatable. The Indians

capture them with a sharpened piece of steel or iron secured to the ead

of a pole 15 to 15 feet long. The most of ours were trod on by the

men as they waded and were immediately picked up and transferred to the

beat nearest. The movementseof this reptile are quite rapid in the

water anu it is hard to catch them on foot. They will also barrow in


the and and escape. There were also shot and secured 5 or 6 marsh hens

and limpkias and one mallard duck all of which made a very welcome

addition to our bill of fare. This species of duck seem to live is the

Everglades continuously and not migratory as the writer scared several

from their nests and found one next in which were 7 eggs. The naxt was

made in the saw grass on the edge of a glEde.

The water today averaged somewhat deeper and rather more boggy,

rock still underlies everything and at about same depths.

Island No. 24, seems to be of 8 or 8 acres in extent*

Upon the trunk of a large rubber tree we found carved ,ith a knife

the names of 'Tommy Tigers 'Jack Charley" and "Billy Fieweln, the

latter undoubtedly the Indian whom we met and engaged to go with us, but

who failed to appear.

Camp Ho. 9. Island eo. 24.

Friday March 25th, 1892.

Surveyors got away first, balance following about 7 A.M.

This was one of the hardest days yet. Water on our course

sufficient for the boats scarce and saw grass very plentiful. lade the

longest portage yet over one of the saw grasses, over 2,000 feet.

Abandoned the smallest of our wooden boats and threw away some of our

impedimenta before crossing. Arrived at Island No. 25 about 5 P.M.

the prospecting party reported good showing for tomorrow, which means

that sufficient water courses through the paw grass were visible in the

direction we wanted to travel.


Island No. 25 has not been visited by Indians for along time, as

we found it occupied as a rookery by white heroes, principally, who

flew away at our approach, leaving their nests oeaupied by many your


So cypress timber could be seen today from either island 24 or 25.

Froma the top of a tree a large body of timber is reported visible 6 or

7 miles to the aouth west, but no o0e4 is able to day whether cypress,

hammock or pine but presumably cypress.

CiadP NO. 10, Island No. 25.

Saturday, arch 26th, 1892.

SGot away about 8 A.M. and had a very successful day; making nearly

5 miles in a southeasterly direction.

The rock continues from 12 to 18 inches below the mud, 4 feet froa

surface of water to rock. Rather easy day though all were quite tired.

Arrived at Island go. 26, Camp HN. 11 4t 6150 P.*M Island about

1-4 of an acre in extent and recently visited by Indians. A larger ,

Island lies 1-4 of a mile east, in which rooted a large number of birds.

We did not visit it as the smaller island was less odorous aad answered

our requirements.

islalna No. 26, Camp So. 11

ua aay March 27th.

Found plenty of firewood cut by tho Indians and had a good breakfast

of hominy and ries and beans. Our flour iS out. Corn meal has been out

for some days. The corn meal was packed with bottles of syrup which

fermenting drove out the corks and was soaked up by the meal. It made

very palatable bread and mush though at first we supposed it was badly



The day began with rain immediately after breakfast, which delayed

the departure of the main body, The surveyors got away earlier and

before the rain. The outlook was gloomy but the clouds rolled band

by noon it was clear, the wina going to the north west and the day ending


Got away about 9 A.M. Made 1-4 of a mile east and 2 miles or so S.E.

ran into large bodies of saw grass and no water on our course sufficient

to float boats. The glades all seem to have a tendency to the south

and occasionally a little west of south, while our course is almost due

8.E. Retraced our steps in a northeasterly course and camped at a small

tree, the inception of an island, about 1 1-2 miles east of Camp go. 11

Being our camp So. 12 it was a very discouraging day as we worked hard

and travelled several miles that did not count.

Cut down part of the green tree above mentioned fer feel which our

commissary, George Matthieux, finally succeeded in iadueiag to burn after

everybody else had given it up. This gave us hot tea and coffee and hominy.

Messrs Ingraham and hoses slept in canvas boats, the balance cut saw

grass, piled tt up so as to be out of the water and made their beds thereon.

All declared it made the most comfortable beds yet, though it was a

little uncomfortable to step out into the water the first thing on rising.

Rook about the same distance below the surface all day.

Mr. Ingraham shot a duck on the wing with a rifle; also shot a marsh

hen. . :: *

One small island in sight 4 miles to.the X.E. one about 7 miles

east somewhat larger. Sean from the top of a stunted custard apple.
tree from which/were prospecting. ,


Mr. Clark who was appointed commissary a day or two ageo when we

found it extremely necessary to economize our food supplies today

refused to act any longer, oring to the guying and chaffing of some of

the men whose stomachs were larger than their discretion or judgment.

Mr. Matthieux was appointed commissary to have charge of and serve out

the stores economically, accepted an, assumed the duties. Our con-

sumption of food has heretofore been rather lavish and based on an

expected averagee advance of 6 miles per day through the glades, which

expectation has not been realized, and this step has been taken none

too soon.

CAMP 50. 12, Monday Maroh 28th, 1892.

It was decided to taxe a course for the island to the eastwards

south 75 dogs east and keep it until reached as we must have fuel with

which to sook and our provisions are getting low. Our progress too,

is very slow and we are falling much behind our average. We will see

pretty hard times from now on and much depends upon the strength and

endurance of all hands.

Our cook Mr, Caruthers, had a chill today and was carried on the

"Tarpon" as the wooden skiff has been christened by the mea. Rebert

Dean also gave out occasioned by a strained knee and rode.

Our damp No. 15 which we reached about 5 P.M. was in the midst of

saw grass, the dryest we could find. Our supper was cooked by a

little fire made from dead saw grass fed continuously by several of the

men, helped out by pine splinters procured by robbing the canvas boats

of some fast flooring and consisted of fried ham, a terrapin, duok and

marsh hen secured during the day, and coffee.

me aade about 14,000 feet today.

Rook frme 4 to 6 feet below surface of water*


All hands worked very hard today getting across saw grasses in our

course which were muoh more frequent than agreeable, though indicating

very rich land when reclaimed.

CAMP 1O. S1 Tuesday, March 89th, 1192.

Left Camp Mo. 15 at 7 A*M, all except Mr. Ingraham who remained with

the boats. Each carried a pack and walked about 1 1-2 miles through

saw grass and bog. 14 men went back after the beats. We are

endeavoring to reach the same island we saw yesterday and are within

1 5-8 miles of it with our packs, but the boats remain behind yet.

r. Baker just caught up with us who are ahead having had a bad

attack of erap. This has been terrible strain on everybody,

Loomoption is extremely difficult and slow. The bog is fearful and it

sometimes seems as though it would be easier to stay in it than to go on.

Both legs up to the waist frequently become imbedded in the same hole

in the mud, and to extricate ones-self with from 50 to 50 lbs, weight on

the back requires strength and tinel Packing for any distance is

impracticable. A man by himself, carrying nothing would probably

fail to reach the timber from this point. The boats are very

necessary to enable one to pull himself out of the mud and even then

the labor is most exhaustive.

So island is visible except the one we are making for, all saw

grass and glades.

The two crippled men mentioned yesterday are better hnd walking


Lunched in the saw grass.


After an excessively arcluous days work all hands reached Island

NIo. 9 Camp No. 14 about 5 P.1. Found it to be a white heron rookery,

By Mr. iewmants direction we killed 15 of the nearly grown young who

could not fly and Mr, Eatthieux converted them into a disk auch better

than the average Florica chicken; or so it seeded to us.

Mr. Newman estimates we are 25 to a7 miles from Miami. He have

but 5 or 6 days provision on hand and our average being only about

E miles a day from Shackleford and falling behind we are likely to be

hurnry before reaching Miami.

Some imagined they heard the roar of the ocean surf today*

Very heavy dw,. So far we have been very fortunate in having but

little rain to incommode us.

Left Island No. 29 and gamap No. 14 about A.M. Surveyors, chaining

for an island to the S*.*. but the ohaiaaen giving out occasioned by

physical exhaustion going through the hikhh saw grass and limited good,

chaining bhad to be given up for the, preset and Mr. Newman triangulated

for an island nearer and more to the e~stward.

From Island 29 there are 6 or 7 islands in sight.

Saw grass almost contiquout towards Island No. 30 and we hed a hard

time reaching it but finally succeeded about dark. Distance from

Island'29, 5 miles and ,000 feet.

Rock today about 5 feet from surface of water or mud.

Se w smokes to the 8SE. during day and near enough to see the blaze

after arriving in camp.

Men very tired and irritable, but felt better after supper,

ieland No. 90 is a ptch of perhaps 1-4 of an acre in midst of saw

grass, severed by a growth of stunted willows and principally inhabited

by buzsards. Very odorous, but better than and alone. We will all


appreciate the ability of walking on aon-resisting substance.

S or 4 islands in sight to the south and east. Thur. larch 5la1t

Uot away from Island 50 Camp 15 about 9 A.M.

Triangulated to Island south 20 degrees east. The chainmen gave

completely out in chaining for the base line to make this triangulation,

and had to ride in boat,

Found ladess bearing east of south with plenty of water all day.

Made only one op two short portages. This was very fortunate, as the

men are becoming quite weak anc somewhat discouraged.

In going from one glade to another through a narrow channel %e

found quite a strong current, flowing towards the S.E. perhaps a mile an

hour, but when the centre of the glades was reached the surface broader

and shallower, it was not perceptible.

'After lunch got into a stream of water, almost a river, with saw grass

banks which led us to another island than the one surveyed and about

1-2 mile east of it, on which we camped being No. ~1 and Camp No. 16.

This was 3l50 P.M. All hands feeling much encouraged at our progress today.

Made nearly 4 miles and reached camp sufficiently early to attend to

various necessary matters of repair and an opportunity to dry our clothes

and 'crape off some of the mud, whioh was a relief even though it lasted

but a short space.

We caught and shot during the day, 7 terrapins, i marsh hen and 8

or 4 fish. The latter jumped into our boats and proved a fine

addition to our evening meal.

Wind all day very strong from the SE.


In the afternoon at one time found sand underlying the mud instead

of rock. For the most part the rock is about 5 feet from the surface

0o writer.

This island has willow growth; is perhaps a-4 of as acre in extent

and the richest soil of any we have struck, although they ere all

exceeoin gli- fertile. The oaw gr a s stumps from rwhioh we cut our

bed to lie on, pushed out its centre stalk 5-4 of an inch during the

night. This has buen noticeC several times. Whether an actual

growth or not it is difficult to prove. It does lot seem as though

the hard outer covoriag could reced.

Saw more moccasins today than any day yet*

The stream ie followed toda- for 1 1-2 or aiiles contained deeper

water than anytniag yet eaaooatered and had v:ry little mud, making

locomotion much easier. The current was so alight as te make it

difficult to say if any existed by observation. The heavy wind from

the S. made a surface current in the 9s&e direction.

Friday, April lat, 1892.

Broke caip 16 and left Island 'No. 51 about 853'1 AM. Though we

made strong efforts to get ,away earlier.

Small islands are becoming quite frequent. On some of them is

a sm.ll stunted tree said to be a custard apple. It resembles the

northern apple tree somewhat in color and shape of leaves as well as

it:, growth. I bloom was mentioned to have been seen on one of the


The chtraeter of the evergl&des is bacomin6 noticeable different.

Many islands, owme quite large are visible to the north and east,

while little bushes 4 to 8 feet high appeared all around us.


The wind strong from the east all day and felt as though the oceaa

was not far distant.

Good water for the boats, the deepest yet, about 2.5 feet on an

average; sometimes 4 feet. It seemed to have fairly well defined

banks. Along the edges of the channels the saw grass was very

heavy and tall, as well as quite aark colored.

We came across frequent Indian burns some made within a few days;

eaokes to the east, southeast and west, indioatin& their presence, but

none were visible.

The water gave out after dinner and we made several yortagea finally

reaching Camp No. 17 about 5S50 P.M. Island SO, i is exceedingly

rich, having once been cultivated and Indian signs found. It was

occupied by buzzards who left on our approach,

Rock about 5 feet from surface of water.

All hands nearly rather cross and tired.

Made 4 miles 800 feet. Our engineer Mr, newman estimates the

distance yet to go to be about 20 miles. We have 4 days provision

on hand, which are carefully rationed out daily by the Commissary

Mr. George lMatthieux, who has proved very valuable and deserves

special mention and commendation. He bus not only acted as

commissary since his appointment, but has assumed chief charge of the

cooking and by his untiring zeal and good nature won the friendship and

good will of all.

It must be understood that the rations above mentioned consist

almost wholly of hominy and such game, principally herons and terrapins

as we can secure and when cooked and served out is only about one half

the quantity craved, though sufficient to sustain life reasonably well.


Th eharacter of the food together with its quantity is aot muscle pro-

ducing sufficient to meet the excessive labor required in this ey-peaition.

The growth on the last tvo islands has consisted elargly of morning

glories, wild cucumber, bays, elder. ansd 0ther familiar grow*h.

Mr. Lucky found a piece of pine bark on Ilanun No. 1

caught 7 terrapins, Z blue heroris, several young water tur.keye

a.rd -.n .ll.i .tEr, whose tail we cut off intendciu t to eat the latter, but

tha prejudices of soLe of the pa'-ty caused it to be thrown aday, although

the meet looked fully as well as that of sturgeon. It weighed a..out

40 Iba. and the T:iiter was sorry to t ee it 0o, as with our present appetites

it would not be difficult to try the s txprimeaiit of testing it a an

article of dibet

Several very fine trout jumped into our boats, while &oia& through

n7arrov. channels connecting the glades. We had them for supper, At it

is requiring our utmo-t eaertions to complete our trip hld survey before

the provisions become exhausted eatiraly, uo fisahinag has been attempted

while m; rching. When we retch camp fll are too much exhaaoted, though

we have tackle.

Hith vtit-r mark weAl1 defineci o tr.:- a .wgrass, in"icatinl about 12,

inches above pr'-seat level. We noticed at many points'since leaving

Camp 5 nests of ants fastened to leaves and biaEh.a, usually about 1i to

24 inches above present water leael.

Crows frequent the rookeries of the herons and, water turkeys cad

not being afraid of our pjJ.'e.nCe roL the neati of e&r.a abandoiatd by

their natural guardians on our approach. Thm erows threat their bills

through the shell -nu fly away "'ith them, oottime- droppia t hiem and

returning for another, It woulu seem as thhouig the same flock of

crows remained with ug, knowing our presence would scare away the old


CAMP 0O. 17, island ho. 1,

Saturday, April 2nd.

All hand appeared on deck this morning in pretty fair shape and

succeeded in getting away at 8615 A.M. Save for strains, blisters,

scratches, chafes and minor ills the health of the whole company has

been excellent.

This island is said by the enianeer to be 19 1-2 miles in a

direct line from Miaai, bearing south 47 degrees east, as near ss he can

determine by the composite character of the survey and 1-2 mile north of our

original course from dhackleford.

The outlook for water was rather dubious at the start but soon

brightened and we had plenty the balance of the day, getting into Oamp

so. 18 on the saw grass about s350 P.M. having made but 3 short portages.

The distance cover-d estimated at 6 1-2 miles which makes Miami but

15 miles away.

The survey was today postponed until after arriv-al at Miami,

owinu; to the physical. incapacity of the men and the shortness dnd

character of the provisions. GooUiobjective points for triangulation

were aoarce.

Our water course today bore to the S3.E. continuously, which favored

us very much.

We saw one large island to the aouth and one to the L.Z. each

perhaps 2 or 5 acres or less.

A sood many bushes grew in the saw grass. Rock getting deeper,

beine fom 6 to 6 1-2 feet from surfaee of water, Leas water on the

saw grasses.

Half a dosen or so fish jumped into the boats as usual, but we only

captured 2 terrapins the water being so deep.

We met one encouraging sign of civilization today, the printed

portion of a paper flour sack floating in the water, indicating that we

were on the Indian trail to Miami.

There was a heavy smoke noticed in the east which remained in one

place and seemed to be in the nature of a bonfire, as it appeared to be

composed of something more solid than saw grass. Some think it nay be

a relief party from Miami.

Smokes were noticed all around undoubtedly kindled by Indians. From

the start they have been noticeable tothe north traveling from the

east from day to day and inferred to be a party of Okeechobee or Myers

Indians returning from Miami as we were told at Shackleford by Old Nancy

would be the case, Billy Fiewel also told us the same thing. Their

statements as to what we would encounter in the glades has been well

borne out.

Sunday, April 3rd.

Broke camp about $ A.M. hoping to get to Miami by tomorrow night

or Tuesday. Fired the saw grass at intervals as we progressed, as has

been our custom, but more particularly at this time to indicate our

whereabouts. Smokes were visible in the south west, north east and

east the latter in the same place as yesterday*

Had a pretty hard day trying to keep on our course. Made several

portages and got bottled up several times in tortuous, narrow channels

through the saw grass. To lighten the boat we cached several things

at Camp No. 18 which had an incipient island in the shape of a willow

tree on a slight elevation, a few inches above present stage of water.


The glades still continue to run too much to the south to suit our

course which caused the portages. The character of the growth is

still changing, the bushes getting more plentiful and the saw grass

somewhat less and more resembling prairie.

Wind very high from the S.E. all day and one light shower, but

nothing to hurt, merely a sprinkle.

Islands quite scarce as far as we can see. Our range of Vision is

very limited, owing to the difficulty of getting more than two or three

feet elevation which we obtain by standing upon the "Tarpon"m Were

it not for the boats to lean upon, locomotion today would be extremely

difficult, if not impossible for any distance. Some of the deepest bogs

yet encountered impeded our progress the water is also quite deep in

places. The men walk beside the boats and as they bog, raise them-

selves and so continue. It rarely happens that all are bogged at once.

It would require a very strong man to go any distance alone and reach

civilization. Of course when we make portages the men string themselves

two and two ahead of the boats and drag them over. Sometimes it is

necessary to pack the contents of the boats ahead where the portages are

long or unusually boggy#

The rock is 7 feet below the surface. The water averaging 2 feet in

depth,-mud or muck the balance. This side of the everglades in the

opinion of the writer, contains the largest volume of muck land, if


A dozen or more fish Jumped into the boats today, one weighing about

4 pounds they helped out our supper greatly, Several more terrapin

were also caught* We also secured half a dosen young water turkeys

from their nests, which made a fine addition to our store, Special

mention is made of those facts, as our bacon has been very low for several

days but we have not suffered very much nor been delayed in our progress

by the necessity of hunting food, latterly appearing as we required it.

This is all we have though, with the addition of coffee, tea and grits

and more would not go amiss.

We omitted our noon meal as it took all our efforts to get to an

island where there was wood for cooking and a dry place to sleep. We

arrived at Island No*I and Camp So. 19 about Si50 P.M. it contained

possibly 1 1-2 to 2 acres, having a scrubby extension for some distance

to the 8..O The portion upon which we pitched our bars was circular

in form and apparently a flat topped mound covered with, so-called

hkakberry trees surrounded by a fringe of large ferns and undergrowth,

hll apparently of second growth. The soil is dark brown and very rich

covered with fallen leaves, making it an ideal camp.

From the top of the one large rubber tree timber was seen 4 or G

miles away to the eastward and extending north and th several miles.

The character of the timber could not be definitely determined but pre-

sumably pine. This was very encouraging'and braced everybody up

wonderfully, giving them renewed strength and courage as it foretold the

beginning of the end. Two or three small shanties were also seen on

an island to the north east about one mile away. A peculiarity of the

atmosphere makes it difficult to estimate distances et magnitudes of

objects. Small bushes having the appearance of tees and small islands

of apparently large area shrinking to quite diminutive proportions on

near approach.

Plenty of water appeared to exist towards the east which is what we

desire for tomorrow.

We had our second meal at 6 Pe* and a hungrier crowd would be

difficult to find outside the Everglades.


It was noticed today that the blackbirds drive away the crows and

fight thea viciously, when the latter are making their depredations on

the nests of the herons and water turkeys, compelling them to drop the

stolen eggsp but they get away with a great many.

A species of insect prevails throughout the everglades we have

gone through, called the Alligator Flea. It is a small light brown

ragged looking object somewhat oval on the back and spongy looking and

about 1-6 tp 5-16 of an inch in diameter. It attacks and fastens

itself to a persons feet and legs while wading and bites ferociously

resembling the sting of a hornet or bumble bee and equally as sudden.

It occasioned very vigorous movements on the part of the men who

were unprotected by leggings. No ill after effects were noticeable.

Small periwinkle shells get into the shoes frequently and as their

edges are sharp inflict torture until removed.

I, 'ILAID 5 CAMP 0o, 19

Monday, April 4th.

The constant wading in water and bog appears to have weakened all to

a greater or less extent and considerable lassitude prevails. No one

is hll however and the weather continues perfect. Very few mosquitoes

or other insects.

We got an early tart this morning breaking camp abou1 7 A. M, with

cooked food on hand for luach. We hope to make the timber to-day and

friends or a wagon road on which to continue the journey.It is two weeks

today since we left Shackleford. The time seems much longer.

The bashes are growing mere plentiful and larger and as before

mentioned looking like trees and quite large at a distance, but become

much dwarfed on a near approach.


After traveling about a mile, making several portages, saw an Indian

in his canoe, whose attention we attracted and who eame to us this occurred

about 10 A.M. Ais name is lilly Rarney. He is a small wiry built

man of perhaps 65 er 70 years. He would not agree to go with us to

Miami, at first, but signified his willingness to get some one to go.

Told us it was 25 miles. Although his houses were in sight about 500

yards off, he said it was 6 miles around and after following him 5 miles.

Mr. Newman decided to go on alone with him in his canoe, leaving us to

await his return with a guide. They left at 12. noon after lunching.

In the sean time we landed on an island of quite small extent unpacked

all the boats, dried out, and repacked our stores and tent, painted the

bottom of one of the canvas boats and got dinner.

They returned about 5 ocflock and being unable to get any one else,

the old man agreed to take two in his canoe, go to Miami and return with

provisions. It was decided that Messrs. Newman, Ingraham, Chase and

Moses should go taking one of the canvas boats and at 515 P.M. they


Billy's home consists of a hammock field, one building covered by

rived board and 2 palmetto thatches. Ras corn growing 5 feet high,

pumpkins bearing, bananas, etc. Mr. Newman saw .4 or 5 good trunks,

chairs, mosquito bars, and said that he appeared to be in prosperous

circumstances. His wife, daughters and grandchildren were at home,

but the balance of the men folks were away hunting 65 miles distant.

The houses are built on a sand hill at considerable elevation above the

surrounding glades. The island is some miles from the pine timber.

Camped on an island of about 20 feet diameter at sunset. The

course from where we left the men to this island was very circuitous


and followed narrow channels connecting the glades. The water was not

very abundant at times. The general character of the growth about

the "sanB as ia the forenoon.

Island No. 4.

Tuesday April 5th, 189t.

Mr. Newmaa was up at 5150 preparing oeffee and at 5 A#*. we started

arriving at the rapids of the Miami River about 9 A.M. The rook had

been approaching nearer the surface all the morning in many places

forming the bed of the glades or streams making the headwaters of the

river. At the rapids the rock appeared prominently* Messrs Ingraham

and Newman walked around the rapids through the pine timber and net the

canoe with Billy and the canvas boat with Messrs Chase & Moses who under

the leadership of the Indian shot the rapids, coming through without

accident, though $he trip was quite exciting, The rocks being Very sharp

and jagged and the current very swift. There appeared to be a fall of

perhaps 10 feet in 500 yards. The limbs of the trees which lined the

banks thickly met and interlocked overhead, close down to the water.

Sharp rooks with but a few inches of water on them impeded progress while

the banks were lined with what appeared to be bog iron, having many sharp

projections. The river appears to have two or three outlets from the

glades which make it.

The character Of the glades changed materially today* Many small

and some o9 considerable area appeared in various direction. The bottom

was loss boggy except in spots the rook frequently cropping out and the

saw grass growing less though there was still plenty of it and the


paririe showing. occasionally. The timber was plainly visible all

the morning.

We arrived at Miami at noon and were warmly welcomed by Mrs, I, De

Tuttle, a friend of Mr. Ingrahaams, who had been informed of his pro-

spective arrival and who raised the national ensign and exploded dynamite

cartridges in our honor* Her well served meals and soft beds made a

profound impression on our minds and bodies as we enjoyed these concomi-

tants of i.rilisation, of which we had been deprived for, apparently, so

many day but really few in number.

Mr. Newman immediately hired Omathla and his canoe and with Billy

harney and his boat left at 5 P.M. with a supply of provision such as he

could secure at the store of Mr. William B. Brickellts, for the rescue

of the 17 men left behind, who had expected Ir. Newman back by today aoon,

through misunderstanding a statement of Billy*a as to how long it

would take to go to Miami and return.

The expedition was left in charge of Messrs. Baker and Church with

instructions to proceed as usual, on a course 8. 2i degs, east following

our trail as well as they could and which we marked by various burns.

In the meantime Messrs Ingrahan, Chase l64 es will remain at Mrs.

Tuttlets until the balance of the expedition arrives.

Omathla is the guardian of the Seminole Boy Chief, whose name we
could not ascertain positively. ae/said to be called George when

mentioned by the Indians.

The banks of the Miami are lined by mangrove and cypress growth.

In some places the pine timber is visible near the river. Several indica-

tions of former settlement were noticed in the shape of boat landings

and some cocoanut trees as the mouth of the river was approached* X1 is

quite an attractive stream. Tide water, bat little current at this


state of the water in the blades. St is called 8 miles from its

mouth to the rapids The width is from 166 to 1-4 of a mile and is

quite straight for the mest part. The engineers plat will show its

course and correct distance.

Miami is situated on the south side of the Miami River in the angle

made by Biscayne Bay and consists of Mr. Briokell's store warehouse

and dwelling house. The post office is in the store. Mrs. Brickell

is the postmaster. Mr. Brickell has quite trade with the Indians who bring

their skins and before prohibited by law, plumes. Some of then raise

sweet potatoes, bananas, and compte which they also dispose of taking

flour, coffee and tobacco in exchange. The *Margaret" is a 50 tes

schooner owned by Mr Briokell and makes regular trips to Key West

carrying passengers and bringing supplies for the store. Iany of

the Indians some down Saake Creek 0 or 10 ailes north of Miaai ia their

canoes. We are told they prefer this way to Miami instead of by

Miami River from the glades. The warehouse is situated near the

head of the dock. Has been recently finished. Is two story and is

finished off up stairs for renting to winter visitors. The grounds

are somewhat attractive and have quite a number of fine cocoanut trees.

Mrs* Tuttle's property is in the other angle of Biscayne Bay,

and the Miami River, north side and opposite Brickellts. It was form-

erly known as Fort Dallas The fort still remains. It has been

onwerted into a dwelling house after being renovated and repaired with

the addition Of a kitchen, etc. The barracks along one story building, \

is used as office and sleeping rooms. Both the buildings are of

hewn rook finished off with cement and facing towards the south.

They are delightfully located in the midst of orange, lemon, lime and

ooeanut trees together with other tropical trees and growth. Some ,f


the coooanut trees are 50 or 40 feet in height. Mrs. Tutle has quite

a took farm and dairy with an abundance of ckiokens. Also a fine

kitchen garden. All the improvements are oi haasook land which fringes

the river and bay, from 1-4 to 1-2 aile deep. She has shown a great,

deal of energy and enterprise in this frontier country where it is al-

most a matter of creation to accomplish so much in so short a time.

Her improvements began in November 'l1. Lemon and line tree are

growing wild all th rlmgh the uncleared hammock. Where the forest

growth remains they look quite healthy. Where theb forest growth

has been cleared the hot sun or something else seems to have a bad

effect on them.

Miaml, Fla. Wednesday, April 6th, 1892.

Biscayne Bay is a wide shallow body of water from 5 to 6 miles ia

width and about 40 in length. From Cape Florida south it appears

to be open ocean, the keys are so distant and low.

In the immediate vicinity of Miami the bay is fringed with hammock

from 1-4 to 1-2 a mile in depth. To the west of the hammock is

usually pine*ind. Both are very rock cropping out on the surface so

as to make ploughing very difficult. The rook is usually several feet

deep hard where exposed to the sun, but soft and crumbling below the

surface. Roots of trees examined seem to penetrate between fissures

or cracks in the rocks.

At some point on the bay to the southward of Gocoanut Grove the

land immediately on the river is prairie, possibly two or three feet

above high water and said to be capable of reclamation.

The day was spent in rest and reading 2 weeks old papers, the

mail having failed to arrive for 10 days past. We found our valises

sent by express via Key West had arrived all right.


Miami, Thursday April 7th, IS92.

The balance of the .expedition arrived in two detachments at 12 and

Seo'oloek, bringing the boats,

The expeoitieo having exceeded the estimated time required

necessitated drawing on Mr. R. B. Smith for $500. $400. of which was

turned over to Mr. Newman. Mr. Smith advised by mail.

Arrangements made with the Captkin of the Sohooner O"FIOaA" by

which Measra Mimahia, Gradick, Matthieux, Ha1dley, Lucky and Dean were

enabled to leave at sunset for Key West, enroute for their respective

homes.h Their transportation was paid as far aso ey West and Mr.

Southwiek Agent of the Plant S. 8. Line by mail requested to furnish

transportation to Port Tampa dad send bill to Sanford,

Pineapples seem to be the chief industry in this section. Most

every one has more or less coooaLut trees set out but apparently more

for ornament than profit. The cost of transportation or possibly

competition from South and Central America has had a discouraging effect

thus far. Compte is produced to some extent.

Mr. Micheal Axer, one mile north of Miami has some very fine Sappa-

dillo and Mango trees, the growth of which he has encouraged by applying

the refuse from his compete mill and the red water, the latter being the

water after the roots have been ground and washed therein. The compete

is said to be poisonous until thoroughly washed. It produces a fine

starch. A barrel of roots will produce about 15 lbs. of starch worth

5 cents a pound. One of the refuse products is called sofke and is

used by the Indians as food. Mrs. Tutle uses it to feed hogs and finds

it very nutritious*


After breakfast Messrs. aIgrahamp, hase and eoses, with mrs. Tuttle

and her sen Harry took passage on a sail boat for the "Hunting Grenads"

which we reached shortly after noon. The hunting Grounds are so called

from the nldians going there to hunt in years past. They located oa

the Perrine grant and the portions we visited was occupied by Mr. John

Addisoa who has lived here for 25 or more years. ae was away and we

were received by his wife. They have several seres under cultivation)

also orange, lemon, lime, mango, guava and alligator pear trees. Trees

of the citrus family did not appear remarkably thrifty. The mangoes and

alligator pears looked very well. The soil where cleared was very rooky

and was collected in piles and some of it used for a feace or wall,

as in New England. It looked like line rook found in other parts of theS

state, but was $aid to be of coral formation. In the uncleared

portion of the hammock which we visited were several small sinks and

fissures in which the rook appeared in layers. These sinks were dry

ana appeared to have been formed by the collapse on the top crust into

underground cavities or streams. The growth on this hammock was

different from any heretofore seen and but few trees such as wild

mulberry, red bay and live oak were familiar. Cabbage palmettoes were

not seen at all. In spots the familiar saw palmetto appeared, also

the wild fig or rubber tree, the tum alimbo, iron wood, mastic naked

wood, arab wood and many others grew large and plentifully,

The rock covered the surface in many places. Tomatoes and egg

plants grew luxuriantly ia fields of which Mr. Addison had quite a

number, perhaps 10 or 12 acres in the aggregate. The tomatoes were

pronounced to be the finest flavored and solidest of any ever eaten by

them. A severe drouth which has prevailed for some weeks had out

down the crop somewhat.

We next visited the place of Mr. IWa. Fussard about one mile

north of Mr. Addison's to which we walked through the hammock. His

improvements are on pine land and he raises mostly pine apples. He has

a neat well painted cottage built by himself and a compete mill. Has 8 or

10 acres under cultivation* Expects to ship 25,000 pine apples this

year and will begin in a week or two. He estimates his next years

output will be 50,000. He nets from IS to 65 cents per dozen fruit

and higher for choice apples. Has a wife and several children.

Was at one time in the compete business preparing it for market by machinery,

but gave it up to devote his time to pine apples. Says there is

no money in starch making from compete* His orange and lemon trees

look better than any seen. The guava trees were abundant and quite

large on both the places above mentioned, but the foliage did not look

very green apparently suffering from drouth*

We spent the night at Cocoanut Grove Hotel at place of same name

some 2 or 5 miles north of Mr. Fussard's going in the boat. It is owned

and run by Mr* Peacock and wife, who also runs store in another building

at the head of the dock a block away from the hotel, The hotel has

a cottage annex separate from the main building. There must be 50

rooms all together and it was fairly well filled, Several people

being from New York and Boseon.

Mr. Peacok is English by birth. His son Charles runs the

store. Prices of goods at all stores visited range 20 to 25% above

Sanford retail prices.

All, including guests, were quite curious in regard to the expedition

and it required considerable care to parry the home questions. The

general impression seemed to be that a railroad was projected.


Mr. Kirk Eunroe, writer for Harper's publications and author lives

in a very pretty cottage with well kept grounds about half a aile south

of the hotel. re called upon him in tho evening and were pleasantly

entertained. His wife was sick and did not appear. He kindly gave

us a chart of the coast from Lake Worth south, including Biscayae Bay.

Coooanut Grovea Fla*

Saturday, April 9th,

Before breakfast we visited the factory of Mr. Ralph Monroe 1-4 of a

mile south of hotel and were shown samples of sisal hemp and aessicated

oocoanut. We secured a sample of the fibre, but it was only loaned

to us and we promised to return same. The fibre was long and strong.

The desioated coooanut was very nice and was in two or three sizes.

It equalled in appearance and excelled in flavor the ordinary commercial


Mr. Monroe is Commodore of the Biscayne Bay lacht Club, who have a

nice club room and several fine boats. They lease from the United

States Government the abandoned Cape Florida light house.

We left immediately after breakfast by the "Margaret"e Captains

led Pent and John Sanders, for Cape Florida, landed and went to the top

of the light house. The new light house on Fowey Rocks was visible

some 2 miles away to the southward and apparently rising from the ocean.

Cape Florida is the extreme southern end of Key Biscayne, which is of

some extent containing some 200 or 500 acres. The growth is sea grape

which here grows into quite a tree mangrove a few cabbage trees and

cooeanut palms and a great many saw palmettoes. The soil is white

sand and very poor looking in the vicinity of the light house and the


growth on the balance of the key did not indicate very rich soil. e

sailed from here by way of the Atlantio northward and landed on the

suath side of narrows out to examine the rooks on the edge of the cut or

inlet into Biseayne Bay. There were found to be of coral formation.

We found a few cocoanuts scattered along on the ocean ridge and quite

a number on the north side of Bear Cut which appeared to be doing fairly

well. They were a portion of the immense tract set out by feld

and Oeberne a few years ago. We are told that a large percentage are

dead or never sprouted. Those that lived the best of them could

have done much better if they had been properly managed* No clearing

was made, the nuts being merely planted in a hole dug to receive them

and then left to care for itself* Thousand of nuts were thus planted

extending many miles along the ocean. The captains of the 'Margarett

said the experiment was not generally considered a success.

The waters of Biscayne Bay and the ocean especially at Cape Florida

show in the sunlight the most intensely blue and green as well as other

more quiet shades of color ever seen by any of the party and a picture

or painting true to nature, would be considered wery unnatural in all


There are three schooners aggregating about 76 tons doing business

between the various places on Biscayne Bay and Key eest besides several

other irregular crafts and apparently making a living at it* Mr. WI B.

Briokell as before mentioned has a store at Miami and Mr. Charles Peacock

one at Cocoanut Grove, They carry fair stocks of general merchandise

and their goods come in these schooners from Key West. The rates of

freight range from 26 cents per box to '5 and 40 cents per bble

Groceries range at retail from 20 to 40 per cent higher than on the

line of The South Florida R.R.



We reached Ft. Dallas after a most interesting days sail entering

the bay through Bears Gut.

Eight more of the wea left today on the Three Masted Sharpie

"Eaily DB for Key West. The schooner is owned by the Jackseaville and

take Worth Transportation Co. is about 50 tone burden.

Of the 21 of the expedition only 7 now remain here, Messrs

Ingrahan, Tewmaa, Chase, Baker, Church, Wilson and Moses.

Fort Dallas, Miami, Sunday, April 10th.

Mrs. Tuttle took Messrs Ingraham, Chase and Moses in a two seated

buckboard 5 or 6 miles north from her place calling at several places

on the way. Mr. Michael Axers was the first place visited about

1 1-2 miles distant. Me has a good many fruit trees the'finest of

whieh were the eappadilloes in very full bearing. Alli&Etor Pears

and Mango trees were very thrifty the latter in full bloom. He had

limes and lemons and oranges, all in bearing but looking anything but

healthy. They appeared to have the "Dit Beck", Mr. Axer said it was

drought and the rock in the soil. He showed some trees that he had

watered regularly that looked much better. .He also exhibited a

tree that had been watered regularly which looked as bad as any, so it

was difficult to determine what the trouble was with the trees of the

citrus family,

Mr. Axer manufactures compete of which he says a barrel of roots

will make about 15 Ibs. of starch for which he gets 5 ceats a pound in

Key West. He uses the water in which the roots are soaked from 24 to

48 hours and called red water and the waste with which to fertilize his

trees. He has a shallow ditch running among the trees into which he

pours the red water, His place was on Pine Land. A good deal of


rook was visible on the surface, but generally speaking, iA today's

ride we found less rook than at Gocoanut Grove.

The next place visited was that of Mr. San Filer of Key Wtet, who

has 10 acres cleared under fence and a small house occupied by a negro

family who take care of the place. Mr. Filer has been here all winter

and recently returned to Key West. The clearing of his grove was all

done by hand, cultivating is done with a hoe. Plowing cannot be done

on account of the rock. This is the case with most of the land immed-

iately on the bay, Mr. Filer's 10 acres were set out in grove form with

Villa Francha, Belair Premium and Sicily lemons, limes, alligator pears,

sappadilloes and mangees. Lemons however, occupied the most of the

ground. They had been set 14 months and looked very fair, Showed

the lack of rain, but no disease or insect was seen

Galled on Capt. John Smith who has a place about 1 1-2 miles south

of Lemon City* By the road Lemon Oity is 6 miles north of Miami. Se had

recently sold 5 or 6 acres of his land at $50. am acre. The place he

was living on he had recently bought at the sane price and was directly

on the bay, while the other was back. We made no comments on the

prices but they seem very high when the sparseness of the population and

abundance of the land is considered.

We next visited:.the so-called wood hammock said to be of about 40

acres nearly equally divided in two by Little River, We met Mr.

William Freeman who resides near who guided us by a trail into the ham-

mock. We found lemon and line trees growing wild therein also many

unfamiliar trees and shrubs and some that we had learned to recognize,

such as the gua alimbop masties rubber or wild fig, mulberry, bay, etc.

The hammock was somewhat low in spots, showing a growth of ferns, but

seemed to be above the river some feet for the most part. The river

was said to be 10 feet deep at this point. The color of the soil is a

seal brown and vegetation very *ank. This description will apply

to most of the hammooks seen except that this was very free from rook

and soil quite deep. Adjoining this hammock is a piece of prairie of

large extent on which was a vegetable garden and considering the dryness

of the season it looked well. The tomatoes were fine flavored. The

cabbages were also 'good This prairie in the *ieghborhood of the river

seemed to be high as the hammock above water and free from saw palmetto.

It is on the edge of the Everglades. We were shown compete growing in

the pine woods among the saw palmetto and grass The leaves look

similar to a small fern 'a a cluster of four or five leaves and the

height rarely exceeds 1 ijiches. It bears a pine apple shaped seed

pod of a rich red brows velvety appearance of two or three inches

diameter, and four or five inches long.

Miami, Moaday, April llth.

Our boatmen arrived today to take us to Lake Worth as per agreement

but said the wind would serve better after supper, so Mr* Ingraham took

advantage of the opportunity to go'to the falls of the Miami River,

called six ailes, after specimens of the rook, ochre, etc. and brought

back some fi-e ones.

Mr. Baker Went out on horseback today to look up a good route for

the survey, and a starting point in the glades, which will begin tomor-

row, Mr. Newman having succeeded in recruiting a portion of the force

necessary, all but two of those coming through the glades. Mr. Baker

and KMr Wilson, and some that were not desired declining to remain to

complete the survey* In fact but few were in a physical condition to

do so or be of much value for the work.

When the hour for departure eame our two boatmen were druak, so the

start was deferred until tomorrow morning.

Miami, Tuesday, April 12th.

we left at daylight and got breakfast on the boat. Wind light from

the west.. Wet out through Bears Cut and ran to Mew River, some

50 miles and then up the river 6 or 6 miles, stopping for a few minutes

at Fort Lauderdale house of refuge on the way, The river from the

inlet to this house runs parallel to the ocean then makes a sharp bend.

to the westward. It helps drain the Everglades and in its general

characteristics resembles the Miami River* It is bordered by soge

hammocks and the pine land appears to be of very good quality. The

lands along this river are underlaid with rock of the same kind as Oe

The Miami, but apparently not so close to the surface. Several

Indians have their homes on this stream and we passed that of Joha

Jumper's who with his squaw were at the House of Refuge and followed as

until we passed their clearing. We afterwards learned they asked

Mr. Denia O'Neil and Messrs Pent and Sanders, several questions as to

what we wanted, who we were, etc. Jumpers improvements consisted of two

palmetto thatches and about an acre of hammock cleared in which we saw

growing corn, potatoes and pumpkins.

On our return to the inlet a shower came up, the weather looked

very unsettled and the boatmen decided to remain until the weather

became more settled and not attempt to get to Lake Worth tonight, the

bar being difficult to cross even in the day time, so we camped on the


Before reaching Mew River inlet today we saw a very large fish,

estimated by Capt. Fezt to weigh about 2 toas. Our skippers called it a

/ .-46-

"Grampaus. It came within 20 feet of the boat and near the surface

but not near enough for the rifle shot which Mr, Ingraham gave it to be

effective although it made very rapid time for deep water after feeling

the ball.

Fort Lauderdale House of Refuge.

!Wednesday, April 18th.

The weather still being somewhat unsettled and a some-what heavy

wind blowing from the east, our boatmen decided it was not prudent to

atte)mt the ocean trip until change of wind. We sailed back to the

House of Refuge and made a call on the keeper, Mr. Denis OIleil, who

gave us a cordial welcome and invitation to the hospitalities of the

place. While there we met Mr. C. G. Phillips a young man at present

in charge of the property of the Florida Fibre Co. of Jacksonville on

Middle River, whose invitation to visit the Compenyts farm we accepted.

It is about 2 miles north west of the station n west bank of Middle

River, which near the station forks from New River in the direction named.

The Florida Fibre Co. owns about 2 miles north and south on Middle

River, have 7 acres set out in sisal hemp with perhaps an acre in nur-

sery of same plant. Their buildings consist of two small houses of

one room each; frame buildings, but unfinished inside. The oldest-

plants have been out aince last summer, only. The land is high pine

sloping to a saw grass prairie on the east and bordering the river.

The plants nearest thisprairie look the most vigorous. The pine land had

but little rook visible or near the surface and looked quite poor.

The timber was fair, but saw-logs scattering. Mr. Phillips told

us that fertilizing was said to maze the plants grow faster and make

longer leaves, but that it injured the quality of the fibre) that power

land and a slow growth was best in results. Compete grows profusely all

over the pine land we crossed.


Returned to the station and wind still being fresh from the east,

remained all night. Had supper at the station.

Three steamers went south today, all within two miles of the beach.

Fort Lauderdale House of Refuge,

SThursday April 14th,

The wind having shifted to the south east and not very heavy we

started at 5850 .A*, for Lake Worth. Got out of the Jew River inlet

about 7a50 A.M. From 10 o'clock the wind increased until it blew very

heavily. The sea also became very large, so much so that it was not

considered safe to come to and reef, as we should have done, compelling

us to carry all sail with a great risk of the main boom catching in the

water and capsising the boat. No such event occurred, however, although

the beat was kept within 1-4 of a mile of shore and we arrived off Lake

Worth about 2$50 P.M. distance 50 miles. In going over the bar, took

several seas and the men had t jump out and push the boat over the bar,

as we grounded and ProaehadJ.to-v After getting into deeper water

inside the bar and in the channel, the tide setting out very strong, we

came to anchor and were unable to sail until sunset for the Cocoanut

Grove Hotel 5 miles south. Whe wind was ahead, At 7 1.., a heavy rain

squall occurred from thewest which forced us to go to the Lake 7orth

House kept by Mr. H, P. Dye, The house was closed for the season but

proprietor made us welcome ana did what he could for us *

Lake Worth House, Friday, April 15th.

We left on the steamer of the Jacksonville and Lake Worth Trans-

portation So. Mr. U, G. Hendrickson, General Manager and Captain, at

91O5 A.M. The steamer stopping at the Lake Worth House dock for Jneo 10

or 12 miles north, where we boarded the Jupiter & Lake Worth Narrow


Quagn Railroad for jupiter, This road is a portion of the MT. & L.

W. System. On arrival at Supiter we discovered the Str, "St. Sebastian"

was late not having arrived. Had dinner on the floating Hotel Steamer

"Rookledge" Capt. Vaill proprietor.

Messrs Chase and Moses visited Jupiter Lighthouse from the Lantern

of which a fine tiew was obtained ad* the smoke of the Florida Coast Line

Canal & Transportation Go*Is d en e boat was seen in the direction of

Juno. They have followed the aeaaderings of a small stream through

the saw grass between Jupiter and Juno instead of going straight, so

that the distance by this canal will be very muoh inoreasud when a

regular line of steamers iS put on.

The oeoutry as seen from the light house appears for the most part

to be spruce pine scrub, saw grass and prairie. On the west side of

the narrow gauge road it is in places quite elevated, looking to be 50

feet above sea level. On the east side of track which is in some

places in full view of the ocean and not over 1-4 of a mile away from it,

we saw several gardens in drained saw grass land looking finely. The

line of the road follows the Valley between the hills mentioned and the

sand ridges thrown up by the ocean in years past. The hills were

quite white sand and were doubtless formed by the ocean originally,

The saw grass gardens on the east side of the track were in the depress-

ions between theme ridges or dunes. We saw pine apples growing on the

white sand and looking very well. The light house is on a government

reservation of 9 square miles most of which seems to be of this character

of land and in sufficient demand that an effort is talked of to induce

the government to put on the market. Two or three cottages occupied by


the t* 6. Government employee are all that are on the north side of

the river. On the south side are two stores the U. 8. Life Saving

Station &ad several cottages, all well painted.

Several telegrams were sent to Mr, Plant, Mr, Swoope and other

friends appraising then of our re-entry into civilization and replies


A goou many pine apples are being set out at Lake Worth on the

west side of the lake and at this point, or between here and uano, in land

that a few years ago was considered of little value for anything.

They are waid to. be doing very well. Orange trees look very well o

the babt sies of Lake Worth, where the most valuable improvements are.

&Large quantities of tine table fish are said to be oaught at Lake

Worth and Jupiter, near the letss principally, Amona them the Pompano,

blue fish, kina fih, jack, red base, snappers, etc. We had pompano for

dinner; it was very good. Cireen turtle are plentiful in season; also

oy water e

The steamer "So.8ebastian" arrived at lbb0 P.M. and left for Titus-

ville as soon as her cargo was discharged. The Floatia6 MHtel closed

after dinner today.

The water has been very low south or Indian River narrows, partieu-

larly in Robe Sound, that body of water between Jupiter and Gilbert's

bar and stealers have been behind hand a good deal since the 23rd of

March, we were told by Lake Worth people who complain that it cut their

season vary short, which had been good up to that date,

It is expected that the eanal between Jupiter and Lake Worth will

be completed by ezxt season. After that it is said to be the inten-


tien of the Canal Company to open communication into Biseayne Bay from

the south end of Lake Worth, there being now inside water passages which

oan be taken advantage of and leaving but 4 or 5 miles of heavy dredging

to do, It is about 40 miles between the last two named points.

So retaining wall is built to hold the banks. The dredge throws

a bank on either side of a n 80feet out made in the river where the

deepest channel is. The wash of the steamers has caused a good deal of

the mud to settle back into the eut and this accounts for the difficulty

experienced by the steamers in getting through on schedule.

S teamer "St. Sebastian."

Indian River, April 16th, 1892.

By sunrise we had arrived at St.Lucie Post Office (Old Fort Capron)

and from there to Titusville we had a daylight ride very enjoyable.

Many improvements were seen showing that regular transportation is

benefitting the country very much. The people are generally quite

prosperous and healthy. The tax collector Mr. Enoch Hall who was on

the boat told the writer that only $290. of 1891 taxes remained unpaid,

which is certainly a remarkable record.

The banks of mud and oyster shells in Indian River marrows, thrown

up by the dredge were in many places covered by Vegetation that had

sprung up voluntarily since the canal was opened about 5 years age.

Among this growth was noticed several rubber trees, so called, of three

or four inches in diameter a foot from the ground and 10 feet high.

Mention is made of this fact because it indicates the richness of the

river mud and freedom from f rst. The growth on these narrow ridges

of mud had the appearance of having been artifioally placed to improve

or relieve the bareness of the naked banks, but Capt. Meraier of the


St. Sebastian assured us that the growth was voluntary.

Oranges were still being shipped from the river and good prices

being obtained. We made a short step at Rookledge. The Indian

River hotel closed a few days ago.

Arrived Titusville 7 P.M, and at 8150 were carried on a special

train kindly provided by General Manager Gable to Sanford, arriving at

10115 P.M. This train enabled a dozen or more passengers to

connect at Sanford with train No. 14 for the north and with train No.

for the south, which was highly appreciated by them as otherwise they

would have been compelled to remain over Sunday in Titusville, a very

unpopular stepping place owing to poor hotel accommodations.

Following is a record of the thermometer kept as accurately as

circumstances would permits


March 15th No. 1, Fort lyers 82 58
March 16th 48 72
" 17th bo. 2 5: 2 74
8 lth Nos 8 5 76 56
19th ieo 4 S$ 62 62
S 20th No* 5 t.Bhackleford 49 70 62
S 21st e. 5 52 80 6
22 ad P. 8 69 77 70
S 25rd $o.. 7 S S S 78
U 24thB INo 65 75
26th e. 9 e6 8 78
28th o0,0 70 6 76
1 7tah le,. 66 78 62
S 25th No.12 56 74 64
29th No.3 654 78 62
S 50th ao.i4 68 0 62
81st Jo.15 64 64 68
April let No.1,6 62 72 72
S Sd No.17 62 76 72
5 3rd No.16 64 74 72
4th No.19 64 92 73
5th No.20 71 78 72
8th Miana 70 78 72
7th l 70 79 74
6 th 72 60 74
"th Cocoanut Grove, 70 78 76
19th Miami 64 78 72




April lith Miati 72 77 74
1thL Biseayne Bay 74 3 7e
1 th N ew River 78 7 7 78
14th 74 t0 76
S 16th Lake lWrtba 68 :0 72
16th Str. "St.Sebastian" S5 76 72

This ends the SBeretary's record of the Iverglade ixplorlag

Expedition. It has been somewhat difficult at times to determine

what was important to nete or what would be considered valuable.

If the record is found to be prelix or sometimes irrelevant, it arises

from an anxiety that nothing important shall be omitted.

All of which is respectfully submitted.



2 *



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