Manuscript by Richard Hiers for "Eating and Drinking in the Kingdom of God," Chapter 7 in his book, "The Historical Jesu...

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Manuscript by Richard Hiers for "Eating and Drinking in the Kingdom of God," Chapter 7 in his book, "The Historical Jesus and the Kingdom of God"
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English
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Hiers, Richard H.
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Box: 13
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Full Text


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- 78 -


Chapter 17,

Jesus' Prayer at Gethsemane

(::ark 14:32-40)


Synoptic tradition reports various occasions in which

Jesus instructs his followers about prayer. Generally he

urges them to pray for the coming of the Kingdom of God.

Prayer, implicitly, can move God to bring the Kingdom. It

also represents the state of find of those who trust God and

are concerned to be ready for' the Kingdom when it. comes.

(Matt, 6:9-13 Luke 11:2-4; Luke --?- 18:1-8). In Gethsemane

he urges his three companions to "watch" (cf. li ,rk 13:33,35-37

and par.) and pray that they do not enter into temptation"

(peir:F.nios). The i:,-rort of this admonition is the same as in

the "Lord's Prayer": They are to pray that the Kirgdom of God

come without their having to u- n undergo he final tribulation

or birthpangs of the Messianic Age, The Fourth Gospel reports

that here Jesus himself prayed that God would "keep thc~. from

the Evil One," the presumed agent of the final peirasmos

(John 17:15; of. Matt. 6:13).

Jesus' own prayer apparently is to the same effect: that

God, with wbhoi all things are possible, :ngcItt eliminate the

necessity of his experiencing the final tribulation (Mark 14:35f.,

39). This means that God might bring the Kingdom, which he

had assured his disciples He would indeed bring soon, without

first permitting the otherwise requisite tribulation to ensue.

Jesus evidently expected his companion sto join him in this

prayer (Miark 14:37f.), a prayer, in effect, very much like that

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- 77 -


of the meal with the coming of the Kingdom of God. Instead,

is is probable that !->: their understanding was the same as

that ai' Jesus and his companions at the Last Supper.

The later interi-reL..tion of the Eudcarist as the "medicine

of immortality" (John 6:48-58; Ignatius to Ephesians 20:2)

per continues:to express the central connection between the

meal and salvation, even though the latter is hdre

"derrythologized" in accordance with the tendency of the

church to think of immortality and "heavenly mansions"

(John 14;2f.) instead of the coming of God's 1:ingdom on

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The early church continued to re-enact the last supper of

Jesus with his disciples in the hope that soie'-how doing so

would constitute preparation for his return as l'a.siah and the

beginning of the ccr~sianic Age (I Cor. 1126). It is not

.unlikely that the "Lord's Prayer" had its. Sitz im Leben

(though not its origin) in the early church's daily or weekly

celebrations of the Eucharist. The hope and prayer for the

coming of the Kingdom was given specifically christological

form: marana tha, "Our Lord, Come!" (Didache 10:1-6; cf.

I Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:20). Perhaps the early Christians

expected that Jesus would return to them -- and the Messianic
122
Age begin -- at one of these observances. Luke and John

may evidence this cxpectationin their report that the risen

Jesus was revealed to his disdples "in the breaking of bread"

(Luke 24:30-35; John 21:12f.). In both instances, as at the

banquet in the wilderness, they eat fish as well as bread.

The "breaking bread and the prayers" (Acts 2:42) practiced

by the early Jerusalem Christians "day by day" (2:46) was

evidently in antidapation of and preparation for the coming of

the Kingdom. The prayers, undoubtedly, were for the coming of

the KiiZdcd of God and of'Jesus as Messiah (cf. Acts 3519-21).

The daily breaking of bread would have had the samns meaning.

Each day they hoped and prayed that the Kingdom would come "today."

Perhaps it was understood also that those who shared the food

were marked out as heirs of the messianic banquet soon to

cor'mence when the Kingdom of God was established (cf. .Acts

2:38-40, Didache 9:4). It was, indeed, a "eucharist," a

thanksgiving" for the L-'."--.'- era of salvation that was coming.

It sees unlikely that the early daurch invented this association





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- 75 -


receive (if not also his death) would "remove the xiilt"

vicariously, and thereby enable the Messianic Age to appear

(Zech. 3:10). God would not estab ish His Kingdom in a guilty

,land. n^:f^^E J ,-.3 -. ht

The phrase "-:Y 1 blood of the covenant" (Zech 9:11) could then

have informed his understanding of the special meaning of the

wine (iMark 14:24). As the wine represented the coming messianic

banquet, so, by analogy, it also represented his own blood, by
would
which the final obstacle to the coming cf the Kirgdo-,.;.;lA be

removed: the gilt of the land (cf. Zech 12:10 -- 13:1)o Or it

may be that Schweitzer is correct in proposing that Jesus shared

the belief of those fellow %.-r Jewish apocalyptists who held that

the Messianic Ageoould come only after the period of final

tribulation (pe.rasmos), as indicated, for example, in Matt. 6:13
121
and ::.:l: .14:38 and par. In that case, Jesus would have to bear

these tribulations on behalf of the people, sparing them the

necessity of undergoing these pains, and also enabling the

Kingdom at last to come. In fact, the two theories are not

mutually exclusive. In both cases Jesus would havejisualized a

scriptural and dogmatic connection between his suffering (and,

perhaps, death) and the coming of theliig dom of God. This

annection may be indicated in Jesus words which in some way or

other were intended to suggest an analogy between the bread

and his body, the wine and his blood larkk 14:22-24). Possibly

this also is implicit in his prayer that he might be spared the

necessity of "this cup" (14:36), his own special act of

prprapration for the coming of g e Kigdom of God, if not also

his own ::1''siahship.







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- 74 -


land in a single day", after which the Iessiah ("Branch") and

the messianic Age will come. After the supper, according to Mark,

Jesus cited Zech. 13:7 to explain the imminent "scattering" of his

followers. In Zech 3:8, the M essiah is referred to as "my

servant", ic. i.e., God's Servant. The redemptive significance of the

torment inflicted upon "my servant" is indicated in Isa. 52:13--

53:12, but wi~'3h t any evident eschatological sense. II Sam.

7:12-16 refers to the possible chastening of the Son of David,

whose Kingdom sall be!'st:,blished fc ever, but the chastening is

not given any redemptive meaning. In II Sam. 7:19-29, David

speaks of himself repeately as God's servant. It could be that

Jesus understood at least some of these texts as a further clue

to the course of his own mission,

Numerous mommentators affirm that Jesus regarded his suffering
119
and death as requisite to the coming of the Kingdom of God.

Yet these writers typically are vague as to.the precise connection

which Jesus supposedly saw between his prospective death and the

advent of the Kingdom References to Moses' procedure in

ratifying the covenant (Ex. 24:3-8) or. the "suffering servant"

hymn (Isaiah 52:13--53:12) do not, by teae themselves, explain
120
the connection. Nor do the later Christian atonement theories.

If the passion predictions are not secondary, and if Jesus did

regard his death as a matter of necessity, it -asb -t~_fia--it

was a matter of scriptural necessity.; : I-ark 9:12; 14:21. The

scripture which Jesus himself cites, according to iMark 14:27, is

Zech. 13:7. If Jesus understood this in connection with the

prophecy-# in Zech 3:8-10 Iwhich speaks of the removal of the
subsequent
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- 73 -


banquet
and prayed at the f-.-_.i,; .-c,2t in the wilderness? --&I

Does the vow of abstainance from wine express the same kind

of disappointment possibly implicit in the prayer or injunction
not
about eating figs: since the Kingdo~T'. has not yet come, may it

do so before,..? Or did he consider the meal with His disdcples,

like 'the messianic entry and the cleansing of the temple, a

preliminary action to be carried out in preparation for

the coming of the .I',i. Kingdom of God? Immediately afterwards,

they went to the Mount of Olives. Did they hope that now the'

Kingdom or Messi a would be -manifested there? If so, the

next day they could drink wine anew in the Kingdom of God.

As the story of the Last Supper is told,however, it is clear

that the evangelists understood that Jesus realized that first

he must die. This appears both in the saying that the "Sonpf

man goes as it is written of him" (hark 14:21), and the "blood

of the covenant" saying (14:24). The "Son of man" saying appears

to be tacked on to the saying about the betrayer: the link

hoti ("because") is artificial, and Matthew omits it. The

"blood of the covenant" saying may be derived from Zech. 9:11.
self-
That Jesus had earlier found clues to his own understanding and
A
activity in Zechariah is probable. The early dcurch also, to

some extent, utilized the book of Zechariah in writing i'g its

account of the passion narrative (e.g., Zech ll:12f.; 12:10),

In many instances, it is impossible to determine whether a

passage was first applied to Jesus by himself cr by Christian

tradition.

There are some other texts in Zecdarieh which co-l-d have

influenced Jesus' thin'ing at this point. In Zech. 3:8-10,

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The saying about the fruit of the vine (wine) supports this

latter interpretation. Jesus says that he will not drink wine

"again" until he drinks it with his w mpanions in the KiLg cb m

of God. The next time he drinks wine will be at the messianic
118
feast. In the meantime, he will abstain from drinking wine.

The sense is parallel to that fF his prayer or oath (or injunction)
not
about ea-'/ing the fruit of the fig tree (I-.:rk 1:14, supra, ch. ll)s

May the Kingdom of God come soon! The season for figs would come

in a few weeks. But one might wish to drink wine again -- a

common beverage at any meal --'as early as the next day, and at

any rate, on the next Sabbath (which, following Jeremias, would

have been the next day), Was the vow also parallel, then, to

the petition he had taught his disciples: "Give us our bread for

tomorrow today" (MLatt. 6:11)? Here, in effect: "Give us the

wine of the messianic table tomorrow."

It is to be noticed that the vow about drinking wine does not

mention or even suggest that Jesus must die before the Kingdo:im.

of God can come. Later that evening, he could still hope and

pray that the Kingdom might come without his having to take up the

cup of tribulation (Mark 14:33-39). It is com-eivable that Jesus

hoped, as perhaps he had hoped when he "fed" the crowds in the

wilderness, that through proleptic or symbolic enactment of the

messianic banquet, God might be induced to cause His Kingdom to
At any rate, like John's baptism,
to come. '-f :'r, the supper would have served to mark or

consecrate his companions as those who wuld also have a share

in the messianic banquet. They had l ared his trials; they would

also share his prerogatives in the Ag o Come (cf. Luke 22:28-30).

Did he, perhaps, hope that the Kingdom would come while he was

gathered at table with his followers, as, perhaps, he had hoped







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- 71 -


Chapter 16.

The Last Super and the Kicndom of God



It was no ordinary Passover that Jesus ate with his disd ples
116
in Jerusalem. He and his followers had travelled all over

Galilee proclaiming the nearness of the Kingdom of God, and

making ready for it's arrival. It had not come. They had

entered Jerusalem a few days earlier, expecting the Kingdom

soon to be established, Perhaps Jesus had looked for it to appear

as he entered the city the first time. Or, perhaps, when he had

cleansed the Temple. It still had not come. When would it come?

Jesus may havbeen aware that the authorities were looking for

him. He waited until it was dark to enter the city (Mark 14:17),

The situation was dangerous. But this was no time to go back to

Galilee.

The saying about the Kingdom of God at the Last Supper is subject

to various interpretations. The reference to the Passover (lamb)

in Luke 22:15f. implies that Jesus himself abstains from the

meal, vowing that he will not eat it until it isjfulfi lied in the

Kigiom of God, i.e., until the transcendent deliverance of the

Messianic Age takes place. The Passover wiljhave its fulfilment
117
in the messianic banquet. A variant attested by good manuscripts

implies that he does eat this Passover with them, but 8s not to

eat it again until in the Kingdom of God. .In-either case the

saying implies that he expects that the Kirgdom will come by the

time of the next Passover. Or, it could mean that he expects

the fulfilment of the Passover, ie i.e., the Kingdomof God, at

any times it need not wait until the next season for Passover,











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70 -


rate, as the story is told, Jesus was now anointed. "',}-ther

anyone, including 3esus, himself, understood that he was thereby

anointed as :re iiah, we cannot tell.








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Of sins, a i.-.rticular Lukan interest. L' .... h : ".*' -..y-

Instead of anointing his head', she U ..,s,'o, kisses and anoints

his feet. Luke makes no reference to burial, Luke also omits

entirely the embarrassing question, why the woman did not sell

the expensive ointment and give to the poor, and Jesus' -- to

Luke's point of view -- seemingly callous remark that "you
114
always have the poor with youV" (]i.-rk 14:7).

The Y.ark:..n version of the anointing at Bethany also seems to

have been re-worked somewhat in accordance with Christian interests.

The explanation.that the woman was anointing Jesust body beforehand

for burial (14:8) presupposes Jesus' death and burial, not only

by Jesus -- which is possible, but by the anonymous woman --
115
which is unlikely. The following verse, which assumes the preaching

of the gospel throughout "the whole world" is certainly secondary,

since the world mission of the church did not begin before 40 A.D.

Furthermore, the assurance that the episode would be retold "in

memory of her" presupposes that she was dead when these words were

..t first composed.

If the actual anointing was not for burial, what else could it

have signified if not the anointing of the one who was to be ling?

The Johannine version, secondary as it is with respect to content,

is placed, appropriately, just before Jesus' jnessianic entrarc e

into Jerusalem (John 12:1-8). It ao uld havetaken place afterwards,

ho'.'eve:r' One uirht speculate that the woman acted at the behest of

Jesus himself, as his followers had done when they secured the

ass fcr his entrar. e, and soon were to do in locatij:.r a room for

their Passover supper, Could it be tthat the I:'i'n-dom had not come

because the Messiah had not been properly anointed? The prophet

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Chapter 15.

Th.e Anoint ing at Bethanv

(Mark 14:3-9)


The name "messiah" means, literally, "one who is anointed,"

i.e,, on whose head oil is poured, symbolizing his appointment

by God as Iing, e.g., I Sam. 10:1; 16:1-23; II Kings 9:1-6.

The presence of God's Spirit.is generally assumed (of. Isa. 11:2).

The story of Jesus' baptism by John may have been written with

the understanding that Jesus was anointed on this occasion,

though with water rather than oil. As. soon as he came out of

the water, the Spirit of God descended upon him (L:.rl: 1:10 and

par.). The m ice from heaven repeated t-B pronouncement from

the coronatioriturgy: "You are my son, today I have begotten

you" (Ps. 2:7). The words denote messiahship, not divinity.

According to Justin IMartyr, Jews of the second century expected

Elijah to anoint the Messiah and bear witness to him as such.



Elijtahto-'baptize-the-Maes-i-a-- It is possible that Jesus' own

"messianic self-consciousness" dates from his baptismal ex-e rience.

But it is not evident that John or anyone else recognized Jesus

as the Messiah on this occasion (nob., ITatt. 11:2), or'that

anyone but Jesus could as yet have recognized John as Elijah.

Luke, who like the Fourth Ev:.nelist, does not actually have

John bapti.e Jesus -- .probably in order to avoid the implication

that Jesus needed forgiveness of sins -- moves the story of

Jesus' anointing by "a .X:.." from Bethany to Galilee (Luke '737-50)

The emphasis is di anged from the si gnificance of the anointing

to the generosity and hospitality of the wonan, andhe forgiveness




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But it is not impossible that Jesus also had spoken of a

new temple which he would build: this may be the germ of truth

in the charge brought against him by his accusers (::.rk 14:58 and

par.). The priestly iKessiah of Zechariah (whose nar ieg ras Jodaua)

had as his chief assignment the task of rebuilding the te-nple,

in effect, building a new temple, Zech. 6:11-13. Likewise,

the "Son of David" of II Sam. 7:13 was to build the new temple,

whereupon God would establish his Kingdoma forever. Johannine

tradition claims that Jesus had claimed that he would

"raise up" the temple, though here, the Fourth Ev.'.nelist has

deimthologized or Christologized- the import of the saying

(John 2:19-22).

VeJther Jesus spoke of the destruction of the tcr.ile or of
the building of a new temple, or both, the ne-.ning of such

a prospect could only hav een eschatological. Later, in

fact, the temple of Herod would be, for the most part, destroyed.

A new temple, a major Islamic shrine, would rise on its site.

It, too, would be partially destroyed by fire. But ,.:'.-' i the

Kingdom of God would not yet come, in Jerusalem or anywhere

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Conceivably, the tradition that the veil of the temple

curtain was torn in two as Jesus expired (Mark 15:38) expresses

the idea that with his death, the es:rsianic Age sholtid have

begun: the temple was, at least symbolically, destroyed. The

other 'he:io:~:'. reported in the gospels at this point are clearly

eschatological in character, and none of them are reported outside
110
of Christian literature, Mlark 15:33 and par.; Hatt. 27:51b-53.

Perhaps Mark understood that with the tearing cf the temple

curtain the prophecy of 13:2 was at least symbolically fulfilled.

There is no reference to any further destruction of the temple

in the apocalyptic program set forth in Iark 13:5-37, contrary to

what one might expect from 13:lf. Perhaps ML:.rk intended to

historicize the prophecy of the temple's destruction in the

by referring to the rending of the temple veil.

J. Weiss suggests that Jesus anticipated the destruction of

the terl-le in connection with the general break-up of the
111
old world which would occur at the end of the Age, "All h ese

things" would take place soon, during the lifetime of Jesus'

contemporaries (Mark 13:30). Heaven and earth would pass away

(13:31; of. Isa. 65:17; 66:22); would not the temple "pass away"

as well? Rabbi Elieezer (c. 90 A.D.) thought that the Messianic

Age should have begun with thc. destruction of the temple by
112ai e
Titus. It is projble that Jesus -- after th failure of his

attempt to purify the temple, if not previously -- expected

that with the coming of the Kingcbm of God the old Tco.ple x uld

be destroyed. Once the Messiah has come and creation redeemed,
113
what need would there be -for priests and sacrifices?








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- 65 -


in berating the te.:le officaldom. One miiht conjecture that

after a few days, Jesus saw that the ipiestly hierarchy had not

changed their ways, they had not accepted the purification he

had attempted to bring as God's messenger; _f e -As e-4ag

ag~.i~-An, whether he knew that they were plotting against him,

he could sense their hostility. Therefore the destruction forlold

in the rest of the prophecy would Go me to pass: Zion would became
108
like Shiloh (Jer, 7:12-14). It was precisely as he left off

holding forth in the temple that Jesus made his statement about the

temple's destruction. He had done what he could here. He did not

set foot in it again,

It is not certain that Jesus' Jewish contemporaries looked for

the destruction of the temple at the advent of the i-essianic

Age. ,There is a reference to it in Tobit 14:4ff. (c. 150 B.C.),

but thi probably refers retrospectively the the events of 587/6.

Of course, this, like the passages in MIicah and Jeremiah could be

construed literalistically as prophecies for the era of the

reader. It may be significant that Mark joins the question

when tD O "this" expectation will be fulfilled to the question

when "all these things" (the eschatological phenomena described

in the verses following) are to be accomplished (13:4). EvidentLy

Mark, if not also Jesust disdcples, understood the destruction of

the temple as an eschatolo-'7ic.al event, ore which Jesus himself

had foretold, even if the charge that he, himself, would destroy

it was false. (Of course it would be God, not the Messiah, who

would destroy it) The fact that Luls subsequently "historicized"
109
the destruction of the temple is fir their confi-rmation of its

origirajlly eschatological significance.










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- 64 -


Chapter 14.

The Destruction of the Temnle

(Mark 13:1f.)



The saying attributed to Jesus at Mark 13:2 may simply be an
106
instance of vaticinium ex event, prophecy after the fact.

If Mark was written after 70 A.D., he would have recognized that-

the Kingdomr had not come with the Jewish war of 66-70 and the

consequent destruction of the temple. Mark 13:8 intimates that

warfare of nation against nation is only the beginning of the

odin, bir thL.ngs of the essianic Age. Its arrival is to come

(13:26f.) only after several other signs and happenings (13:9,10,

14-20, 21ff., 2.72.) have taken place. On the other hand, the

fact that the temple was not destroyed completely, as predicted

in 13:2, suggests that the evangelist may have written before

70 AD.Quite a few stones of Herod's temple remain in their
107
original place atop one another to the present time. The

warfare described in 1Mk. 13:8 could be simply part of the

traditional apocalyptic imagery (e.g., Zech. 14:2), rather than a

post fact reference to the Jewish-Roman war. It may be, then,

that Jesus did prophecy the destruction of the temple as part of

the eschatological fulfilment. Various N.T. traditions seem to

represent efforts to explain away such a saying (e.g., the

"false" accusations reported in J.:;r ] rk 14:58; 15:29; Acts 6:13f.~
1075
of. John 2:19f.).

The destruction of the temple is pro-hecied in conjunction with

the coming of the Ih;ssanic Age in Micah 3:12, and later, in

Jer. 7:llff. as part of God's judgment in the coming days.

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- 63 -


attached by j .t.thew and Luke to the synoptic apocalypse also

were spoken in the temple, or at any rate, in its vicinity and not

long after the temple sayings (e.g.,' Matt. 24:37 -- 25:30 and par.).

While he was teaching in the temple, a scribe acled him which

twas tie most important comra.ndment (7:7:rk 12:28-34). It was not

an uncommon type of question for a Jew to ask of a rabbi. In

effect, it was like that asked by the rich "young" man at the

outset of Jesus' journey to Jeruslaem (Lark 10:17ff.), though

the scribe does not ask specifically what he must do to eater the

KI:i dorl. In both cases, Jesus.responds by referring to the law: in

the earlier instance, to the "second table" of the Decalogue;

in the latter to Deuteronomy 6:5 and Leviticus 19:18. In each

case, the questic.r r affirms what Jesus says. In the earlier

instance, Jesus added the further instruction, "follow me" -- to

Jerusalem. Here~,,Jr,-..-..:;c.-, e there is no such additional

instruction. They are already in Jerusalem. Instead, Jesus

answered, "You are not far from the Kingdom of Gode.

Jesus does not qualify his assuree to the scribe by saying that

he is almost fit for admission into the in4lom, as if there were

still soothing else he must do first, or as if he had just barely

failed his final examination. Instead, he is only to wait. He

is not far from the Kiiydom of God: it will not be long until the

:i-eb im of God comes. This assuram e has its negative counturj-'rt

in the Q saying which M-atthew includes later in this context:

the blood of all the p o'-'ets of antiquity will be required of the

unrighteous of this-gen ration (Tatt. 23:34-36 = Luke 11:49-51).

Ju:me?.ic-rt and Salvation are at hand.












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- 62 -


Chapter 13.

"Not far from the Kindom of God"

(Mark 12:34)



*We do not oknow how many days Jesus kept returning to the

temple obstructing the buyers, sellers and money chargers and

teaching the multitudes. -c.~r-A t-.:;s orn-a-. do we know precisely

the substance of his teaching. Some of it seems to haveibeen

in response to various challenges on the part of thk religious

hierarchy, who were hoping to -mbarass him before the crowds

and/or.find grounds for having him arrested at disposed of by

the Romans: e.g., Mark 11:27-33; 12:13-27, and possibly 12,35-37a.

Generally, however, the teaching and parables attributed to Jesus

during these days had to do with the kind of life pleasing to

God and appropriate to the prosp active time of Judgment and

Salvation. Some of it probably was re-shaped or created by the

early diurch in ace rdance with its christological beliefs and the

problem of the delay of the parousia,

The Parable of the Wicked Tenants (a:,rk 12:1-12) may reflect

such interests, though coming as it does immediately after Jesus'

reference to the work of the Baptist, it is not impossible that

its origin was in a saying or parable about John (cf. Matt. 23:37

Luke 13:34). FWhether it. implies Jesus' awareness of his own

impending fate, it looks to the transfer of the vineyard or

Kigdom of God (l.itt. 21:43) to other tenants. One must respond to

the invitation before it is withdrawn (!iatt. 22:1-14 = Luke 14:

16-24), Only those who do the will of God may hope to enter

his Kingdom (IMatt, 21:28-32; _..*..k 12:38-40). Perhaps the several
parables about "watd~ing," being ready at aoll times, itht were





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- 61 -


Perhaps Jesus kept returning to the temple for several

days in order to ; ;,'l *enforce the reformation of the etiltts.

Mark indicates that at least two days were spent in the temple,

and that it was on the second day that the temple authorities

questioned his authority "for doing these things" (ll:27f.).

Iuke gives the impression that Jesus sperm' many days in the

temple, mainly teaching or preaching (19:47; 20:1; 21:37f.).

Jesus' response to the question about his authority links his

work with that of the Baptist's (ThIrl: 11:29-33). Together

they shared-the work of.preparation for the com.jng of the

Kingdom. In John, and now also, perhaps, in Jesus, Elijah had

come,

Jesus was doing what he believed on the basis of scripture to

be his divinely appointed mission, He had come to Jerusalem to

prepare that city and the temple for the coming of the Kirgdom.

It now remained for the Kingdom to come. It also remained to be

seen how long the authorities would tolerate his presence in the

temple. Since they did not share his belief that God's Kingdom

was about to be established, they had to think not only of

the need to defend their own prerogatives, but also of their

responsibility fax maintaining order, and for avoiding Roman

intervention. Something would have to be done,