Violence in the Bahamas and the Caribbean: A bibliography

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Title:
Violence in the Bahamas and the Caribbean: A bibliography
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25 p.
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English
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Walker, Berthamae
Ballance, Virginia
Pinder-Darling, Antoinette
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The College of The Bahamas
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Nassau, Bahamas
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Violence -- Bahamas -- Bibliography   ( lcsh )
Violence -- Caribbean Area

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Abstract:
A bibliography comprising various published literature on crime and violence in The Bahamas and The Caribbean region.

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The College of The Bahamas
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The College of The Bahamas Library
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All rights reserved by the source institution.
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AA00007601:00001


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Violence In The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Prepared by Berthamae Walker Virginia Ballance, Antoinette Pinder Darling, Levette Morris & Elsie Bain Libraries and Instructional Media Services The College of The Bahamas November 3, 2011

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Introduction There is much talk about the ever-increasin g level of violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean region as is evident fr om radio talk show discussions, letters to the editors of local newspapers and demonstrations by concerned citi zens or those negatively impacted by violent crime. However there is very little published literature about crime and violence in The Bahamas. Therefore we felt that a bibliography of resources about violence in The Bahamas was needed. As violence is a broad-ranging topic, we isolated themes such as school violence, gangs, teen violence, domestic/intimate partner violence, chil d abuse, family violence, guns, illegal activity, laws and legislation. Owing to the paucity of Bahamas-related informati on, we cast the net a littl e wider to include the Caribbean area. Thus we were able to find more resources, which included the Caribbean and Latin America, while other resources focused on specific Caribbean nations. The goal of this project was to compile as full a bibliographic lis ting of resources as possible, providing a complete reference citation for each ite m, annotating each with a brief abstract to help guide potential users of the document. For all on-line materials a linking URL has been provided. For ease of referen ce, items that are available within the Libraries & Instructional Media Services Department of the College of The Bahamas are identified with related Library of Congress (LC) Classification numbers and branch library location. We found the standard resources: books, journal articles and dissert ations as well as reports issued by governments, international and non-gove rnmental organizations. The internet makes many more resources available, thus elusive materials such as presentations, conference abstracts, brochures and the like are also re trieved and included in this bibliography. The list includes nearly 100 items: 20 books, 22 journal articles, 22 dissertation and 31 reports from various organizations. The number of disser tations included is indica tive of the seriousness that scholars take on the issue of violence in Caribbean societ y and its pervasiveness in Caribbean literature, music, relationships and psychology. Approximately one third are wholly Bahamian-related, another third pa n-Caribbean-related and the balanc e relate to other Caribbean nations, particularly Jamaica. A bibliography is never a completed work, but merely a beginning, but a bibliography or resource guide such as this can help the wary reader find their way to some vetted resources. Page 1

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Adams, E. (2010). Community violence in Trinidad and Tobag o: Government inaction, drug blocks, and resident survival. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3431221) Violence in the Republic of Trinidad and Toba go has dramatically increased. Between 1996 and 2006 murders escalated by 247 percent (Ministry of Planning, Housing and the Environment, 2008) and in 2008, the murder rate was 42 pe r 100,000 (Nicolas, 2009). However, limited scholarship has attempted to understand violence in the nation (Bennett and Lynch, 1996; Bennett et. al., 1997; Cain, 2000) and almost no research has investigated residents experiences with violence. This dissertation details residents perceptions of violence in a working class, high crime community, and adds to a Caribbean criminology by examining the connections between existent forms of violence and delineating the factors influencing them. Awasu, C. R. G (1997). Vision for change: Social welfare practic e and policy for women who experience family violence in Jamaica (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, New York). Available at http://surface.syr.edu/socsci_etd/105 Using qualitative methodology and Caribbean feminist analysis, this dissertation examined public and private social welfare practices, informal coping networks, and policies that address the problem of family violence against women in Jama ica. Findings from this research indicate that there is a dearth of formal social welfare servi ces to deal with the problem of family violence. Ayres, R. (1998). Crime and violence as development issu es in Latin America and the Caribbean Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/content/book/9780821341636 This paper discusses this regions recent epidemic crime and violence as impediments to the realization of sustainable economic growth and the reductionof poverty. The primary focus of this paper is not to equate the problem of illega l drugs and narcotics trafficking with crime and violence but to demonstrate that illegal drugs and narcotics trafficking are part of a larger problem of economic and social decay. This paper focuses on the following key policy domains of a development agenda: (i) programs to combat urban poverty; (ii) targeted programs in urban areas, in particular those targeted on vulnerable groups such as at-risk youth and women; (iii) programs designed to build or strengthen social capital; (iv) programs to improve the capacity of governments, especially municipal governments, to prevent and reduce crime and violence through community involvement and partnerships with civil society and the private sector; and (v) programs to reform the criminal justice system. Bahamas. Department of Social Services. (2005). Frequently asked questions: What is child abuse? Retrieved from http://www.bahamas.gov.bs/bahamasweb2/hom e.nsf/vContentW/b600c 6c634287b3f 8525741900 6335ba!OpenDocument&Expa ndSection=1,6,2#_Section1 This site provides questions and answers related to child abuse issues. Page 2

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Bahamas. Ministry of Education. (2009). Safe schools protocol: Manual for public schools. (4th rev.). Nassau, Bahamas: Author. Retrieved from http://www.bahamaseducation.com/PDF/P ublications/ManualforStudents.pdf *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections: B.Gov.Doc LB3012.4 B3 2009 This policies and procedures manual prepared by the Department of Education of The Bahamas Ministry of Education gives teachers guidance on how to create a safe and peaceful school environment in Bahamian public schools. Po licies and regulations provide teachers and administrators with a systematic approach to the solution to a variety of disciplinary problems that they may encounter in their work. Bahamas. National Advisory Council on Crime. ( 2008). Report presented to the Honourable Tommy Turnquest, Minister of National Security: [Strat egies for addressing the nations crime problem]. Nassau: Author. Retrieved from http://62foun dation.org/wp-content/ uploads/2010/04/naccabsoulte-final1.pdf *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections: B HV6853 B3 .N38 2008 This document provides extensive coverage of the crime and justice system in The Bahamas. It includes sections on prison and re habilitation, as well as crime and social issues such as youth, education, domestic violence and their impact on neighbourhoods and communities. Bahamas. National Commission on Crime. (1998). Report to the Prime Minister: 30th November 1998. [Nassau], Bahamas: National Commission on Crime. Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections HV6853.5 N62 1998 This report sought to identify the root causes and effects of crime in The Bahamas. The examination of this national problem led to inves tigations into the social factors reflected in criminal activity; the extent to which the use of and trafficking of illegal drugs is a factor in criminal activities; the economic effects of cr ime and aspects of prevention, investigation, prosecution, punishment and rehabilitation. A num ber of strong and realistic recommendations for the remediation of the crime epidemic were made. Bahamas. Statute Law. Children and Young Persons (A dministration of Justice) Act, 1947, [CH. 97], (Bahamas). Retrieved from http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/statutes/ statute_CHAPTER_97.html#Ch97s17. The full text of all statute laws of The Bahamas are available on the Government of The Bahamas website. Bahamas Against Crime. (2008). Bahamas against crime. Nassau, Bahamas: Author. Retrieved from http://www.bahamasagainstcrime.net/ Website of the private sector, non-profit civic organization BACused to announce events and efforts to make combatting crime an issue to be solved by society at large. BAC is composed of membership from The Bahamas Christian Council, Civil Society Bahamas and the Council for Social and Economic Development. Page 3

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Bahamas Crisis Centre. Physical abuse. Retrieved from http://www.bahamascrisiscentre.org/page11.html This site describes physical abuse as the intentional physical injury or pattern of injuries caused by a parent, guardian or caregiver. It details the signs of physical abuse along with the reactions of a child who is being physically abused. In su m, parents and caregivers are being asked to find more appropriate ways to discipline their childre n. Taking away privileges or giving time out is more effective than beating or floggingand is safer for the childs overall emotional and physical health and well-being. Warning signs for persons that are physically abused are discussed. Bell, K. (2006). Youth crime and violence. In Commonwealth Secretariat. 6th Commonwealth Youth Ministers Meeting: Thematic papers (pp. 41-55). London: Author. Retrieved from http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Shared_ASP_Files/UploadedFiles/4663C956-D4A7-47ACA424-415EE2619AE1_6CYMM_ThematicPapers.pdf *Northern Campus Library Special Collections PAMP HV6853.5 B45 2006 *Hilda Bowen Library HV6853.5 B45 2006 The face of crime in the Caribbean is that of a young man between the ages of 15-25. They turn to crime as a result of several factors: lack of a strong father figure in the home, neighbourhoods and schools that are riddled with gang activit y, their upbringing was touched by trauma, aggression, domestic violence, the pervasive influence of lifestyles seen on television, in films and online that glorify expensive possessions. Th e situation of youth and crime in The Bahamas is highlighted by a review of statistics and description of two successful programmes designed to reduce crime in the community: the Urban Renewal Programme and the School Policing Initiative. Other programmes involving the chur ch and the community are also described. Bernard, D. P. (2005). Employing strategies to combat violence against women Retrieved from http://www.caribbeancourtofjustice.org/ speeches/bernard/Gender%20%20The%20LawPresentation.pdf In a speech, Justice Bernard of the Caribbean Cour t of Appel outlines her view of how violence against women must be fought: That a foundatio n of appropriate legislation will let women mobilize against violence along with strict la w enforcement and effectively enforced from investigation to sentence and from initiation of ci vil suits to compliance with court orders. However, legal remedies must be accompanied with societal attitudes changing attitudes through sensitization to the issues through education. Bernard, D. P. (2006). Confronting gender-based violence in the Caribbean Retrieved from http://www.caribbeancourtofjustice.org/pape rsandarticles/07-Confronting Gender-Based Violence 29 11 06.pdf. The author discusses violence in domestic situati ons, sexual abuse and harassment, international and national initiatives and law enforcement initiatives. Page 4

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Blank, L.R. (2005). The situation of youth in The Bahamas Nassau, Bahamas: s.n. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections: B.HQ799 B24 B52 2005 *Northern Campus Library Special Collections PAMP HQ799 B24 B52 2011 *Hilda Bowen Library HQ799 B24 B52 2005 Blanks report to the Government of The Baha mas and the Inter-American Development Bank provides an overview of the situation of youth in The Bahamas isolating risk factors such as poverty, low levels of educational achievement, poor labour market outcomes, unhealthy lifestyles, unstable home environments, delinquency, crime and violence as serious concerns for the countrys future. Drawing on experiences of other countries, she suggests some solutions for the Government of The Bahamas to consider. Brennen, S., & School of Social Work Students. (2008). Child welfare services and the family : Community resource manual Nassau, Bahamas: Author. *Hilda Bowen Library Reference Collection HV713 C55 2008 A directory of community welfare agencies in The Bahamas which provide services for children and their families. Browne, R. (2009). This bad business": Obeah, violence, and po wer in a nineteenth-century British Caribbean slave community (Masters thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). Available from Proquest Dissertations a nd Theses database. (UMI No. 1463657) This thesis examines the practice of Obeah, an A fro-Caribbean system of healing, harming, and divination through the use of spiritual powers within two slave communities in Berbice and Demerara (British Guiana). The study reveals th at obeah rituals can be extremely violent. Burrows, D., & Reid, C. (1996). Respect: Gang banging in The Bahamas Nassau, Bahamas: Bahamas Faith Ministries. *Hilda Bowen Library General collection HV6437 B97 2002 A short book describing the origins of gangs in The Bahamas, which proliferated and became more violent during the 1980s drug-running years. The author likens gang membership to family. Gang affiliation is thought to bring the member respect (or notoriety), love and belonging, protection and survival. The author suggests that gang activity in The Bahamas is not highly organized but can be curbed through a number ofinitiatives: prevention though the creation of many activities for youth, rescue creation of groups to work with troubled youth and steer them away from a life of crime; rehabilitation of drug and alcohol users and finally provide parents and youth with information about the danger of gang activity. Page 5

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Caribbean Journal of Criminology and Public Safety special issue on Crime in Trinidad and Tobago (2008). Retrieved from http://cjcsp.com/documents /Jan_July_2008_vol13_1_2.pdf Formerly Caribbean Journal of Criminology and Social Psychology, this publication is the regions only international crimi nology journal. This special issue features six original papers, each reporting the results from empirical studies of crime and justice in Trinidad & Tobago. Some components of this research are, school violence and delinquency, gender crime, community policing, police use of force, crime and public policy, white collar crime, prison reform, the culture of lawlessness, crime and the media and public perception of punishment. Chin, V., Dandurand, Y., & Obando, A. E. (2001). Violence in the Americas: A regional analysis including a review of the implementation of the Inter-American Convention for the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women: National programs to prevent, punish and eradicate violence against women in ten Caribbean countries Washington, DC: CIM/OAS. Retrieved from http://www.oas.org/en/cim/ docs/Violence_in_the_Americas[EN].pdf This is a report of the field study on the E nglish-speaking Caribbean conducted as part of the project: Violence in the Americas: A regional analys is, including a view of the implementation of the Inter-American Convention of the Preventi on, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women. The review aims to offer a greater understanding of the progress accomplished to date in implementing the Convention, the obst acles encountered, and the work that remains to be done. It takes special account of the vulnerability of women to violence by reason of their age, race, and ethnic background, status as immigrants, socioeconomic position, or disabilities, among other factors. The document reports the main findi ngs of the review as it relates to 10 Caribbean countries: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Ba rbados, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. KittsNevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago. Apart from these member states, personal consultations and intervie ws were also conducted in selected countries of the Americas with representatives from national agencies, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and academia. The review found th at reliable information was scarce on both the prevalence of violence against women and the nature and impact of current social and institutional responses to the problem. Colimon, L. (2007). Writing violence and violence writing: The Haitian and African French novel between the nineteenth and twen tieth century: A comparative study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana at Lafayette). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3261765) This dissertation is a comparative study on the pr oblem of violence in the works of Justin Lhrisson, a 19th century Haitian novelist, a nd Ahmadou Kourouma, a 20th century African novelist. This research seeks to analyse and co mpare how these novelists approached the theme of violence and how each represented the entity of violence in Haiti and Africa. The theoretical model of the analysis relies on Albert Memmi's theories about the colonized and the colonizers in Portrait du colonis followed by Portrait du coloni sateur. This dissertation completes the analysis with charts that are presented and interpreted to explain the curve of violence throughout the novels and how this theme goes from its beginning to its culmination. Page 6

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Cunningham, W. (2008). Youth at risk in Latin America and th e Caribbean: Understanding the causes, realizing the potential Washington, DC: World Bank. *Harry C. Moore Library West Indian Collection HV1441 L38 Y68 2008 Realizing the potential of Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC) youth is essential not only to their well-being, but also to the long-term welf are of the whole region. Young people's families, communities, and governments as well as private, nonprofit, and international organizations, have a responsibility to help youth reach their potential. There have been many successes but also important failures. How to build on the successes and correct the failures is the subject of this report. This book has two objectives: to identify the at-risk youth in LAC, and to provide evidence-based guidance to policy makers in LAC countries that will help them to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their youth i nvestments. The book concludes that governments can be more effective in preventing young people from engaging in risky behavior in the first place and also in assisting those who already are engaged in negative be havior. To support governments in this endeavor, the book provides a set of tools to inform and guide policy makers as they reform and implement programs for at-risk youth Danns, G. C., Henry, B. I., & Lafleur, P. (1997). Tomorrows adults: A situational analysis of youth in the Commonwealth Caribbean London: Commonwealth Secretariat, Gender & Youth Affairs Division. *Harry C. Moore Library West I ndian Collection HQ799 C3 D36 1997 The study was one of the first carried out in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Its objectives were to define and re-define youth, review research on youth and country studies in the Commonwealth Caribbean, proivde a social, political and economic review of Caribbean youth, examine youth policies and programmes available throughout th e Region and suggest alternative policies for implementation by the various governments. Dawes, K. S. N. (1992). Violence and the position of race in Jamaican fiction and drama (Doctoral dissertation, The University of New Brunswick, Canada). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. The development of Jamaican Lite rature has paralleled the evolution of the socio-political climate in the island. An examination of Jamaican society would be incomplete without an understanding of the Literature. This thesis focuses on the treatme nt of violence and the related issues of race, class, religion, and gender in the fiction and dr ama of the island. This thesis examines seven Jamaican novels each of which reveals an impor tant feature of the literature produced on the island. Beginning with the colonialist and popular novel The White Witch of Rosehall the thesis goes on to examine some of the more important and representative novels written by Jamaicans over the fifty year period. Four plays are examined in the second half of the thesis. The works of two outstanding Jamaican playwrights, Dennis Scott and Trevor Rhone are examined with special attention to their treatment of the themes of vi olence, history and colonialism in the context of post-colonial Jamaican society. The thesis demons trates that the manifestation of violence in Jamaican Literature has profound socio-political implications that demand careful scrutiny. Page 7

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography de Albuquerque, K. (1999). Tourism and crime in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research, 26 (4), 968-984. doi:10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00031-6 This study reviews the general literature on tour ism and crime and the recent history of violent and property crime in several Caribbean destinati ons. It highlights the failure of most previous research to discriminate crimes against tourists vs residents. Annual crime data for Barbados for 1989-93 are analyzed and reveal that overall guest victimization rates are higher than host rates. Residents are significantly more likely to be victimized by violent crime while tourists are significantly more likely to experience propert y crime and robbery. Monthly data on guest victimization for 1990-93 show similar patterns. The paper concludes with a number of measures to enhance tourist safety. de Albuquerque, K. & McElroy, J. L. (1999). Longitudinal study of serious crime in the Caribbean. Caribbean Journal of Criminology and Social Psychology, 4 (1/2), 32-70. This study examines violent and property crime trends for nine Caribbean countries and presents a case study of Barbados. Since 1980, robbery rates have risen sharply in St. Kitts, Barbados, and Dominica, islands increasingly penetrated by drugs. Rape rates also show significant increases, reflecting a uniform rise in violence against women. Similar increases occurred in property crime rates, with some notable exceptions, which suggests underreporting. Primary factors responsible for the serious crime wave include the increasing spread of the narco economy and the emergence of a violent subculture of marginalized unemp loyed youth. The case study of Barbados indicates that worsening local economic conditions and visitor density levels to a lesser extent impact both on property and violent crimes, lending some modest support for both the Durkheimian and opportunity perspectives in the general literature on crime and development. Dean-Patterson, S. (1990). Child sexual abuse in The Bahamas. Caribbean Regional Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 10-13 Oct., 1989, Port of Spain, Trinidad: Ministry of Social De velopment and Family Services. This paper highlights the situation in respect of child sexual abuse in The Bahamas, and discusses some of the proposed legislative changes for dealing with the problem Dean-Patterson, S. (1994). Violence and the Bahamian woman. Woman Speak, 11, 49-54. This article examines the problem of violence and abuse (physical, sexual, and psychological) against women in The Bahamas, and analyzes the male perspective of this phenomenon. Duba, J. D., & Jencius, M. (2004). The Bahamas. In M. P. Duffy and S. E. Gillig. (Eds.). Teen gangs: A global view (pp. 27-37). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. *Harry C. Moore Library Reserve Collection HV6437 T44 2004 Drawing upon interviews, the authors found that gang development in The Bahamas is the result of pressures and factors such as changing soci al dynamics, presence of immigrant communities, disenchantment with organized religion, the breakdow n in family life and the moral climate of the country becoming more permissive. Gang in Th e Bahamas have evolved along a continuum from youth gangs simple groups of like-minded yout h to delinquent gangs where power dynamics propel a gang toward destructive behaviour to organized gangs where members have initiation Page 8

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography rites and are highly structured. Youths join gang s to gain respect from others, from a need for love and acceptance, to gain protection and in order to survive in their environment. Dunn, L. L. (2003). The Bahamas: The situation of children in the worst forms of child labour in a tourism economy: A rapid assessment Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: ILO Subregional Office for the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://www.ilocarib.org.tt/projects/childlabour/library/rapid_assessment/RABahamas.pdf *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections B HD6250 B24 D85 2003 *Northern Campus Library Special Collections B.REF HD6250 B24 D85 2003 *Hilda Bowen Library General Collection HD6250 B24 D85 2003 This study sought to determine whether there is child labour in The Bahamas and, if so, the magnitude, characteristics, causes, and conse quences. Research was conducted in various locations in Nassau, Paradise Island, and Freeport, Grand Bahama using the Rapid Assessment methodology. Data were collected through 9 fo cus group discussions (including 2 stakeholder meetings), 68 interviews and semi-structured interviews, and 34 observations across Nassau and Freeport. Of the 189 reports of working childre n received by the rapid assessment study team, there were 4 reports of sexual exploitation of children through incest, and 35 associated with sexual exploitation through prostitution and pornog raphy. Although there is the perception that there is no child labour in The Bahamas and gi ven that The Bahamas is a relatively wealthy country, there is much social and economic inequality which will lead to pockets of poverty which increases the risk for child labour. Ellsberg, M. (2005). Sexual violence against women and girls: recent findings from Latin America and the Caribbean. In S. Jejeebhoy, I. Shah, & S. Thapa (Eds.), Sex without consent: Young people in developing countries (pp. 49-58). London, England: Zed Books. This volume discusses the pressing need to analy se what is known about non-consensual sex among young people in developing countries and is self-evident. Available evidence has been scattered and unrepresentative and has often give n the misguided impression that non-consensual sex among young people is rare. This volume presents a disturbing picture of non-consensual sex among girls as well as boys, and among married as well as unmarried young women in a variety of settings. It seeks to document, moreover, th e expanse of non-consensual experiences that young people face from unwanted touch to forced penetration. Fielding, W. J., & Plumridge, S. (2010). The association between pet care and deviant household behaviours in an Afro-Caribbean, college student community in New Providence, The Bahamas. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People and Animals, 23, 69-78. The link between domestic violence, both at the household and personal levels, other deviant behaviors, and pet care was observed through su rvey responses from 641 college students in New Providence, The Bahamas. The data suggest that within an Afro-Caribbean society, crossreporting may be beneficial in identifying house holds at greater risk of domestic violence, through careful monitoring of animal care as we ll as intentional cruelty. Educating pet caregivers to train animals non-violently may be a way of reducing violence towards domestic pets and, possibly, humans. Page 9

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Gomez, D. (1994). Consultative committee on nationa l youth development: A report Nassau, Bahamas: Author. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Co llections: B.GOV.DOC HQ799 C66 1994 *Northern Campus Library Special Collections B.GOV.DOC HQ799 C66 1994 *Hilda Bowen Library HQ799 B24 C65 1994 Also known as the Youth report, the wide-ranging conclusions address crime and violence among Bahamian youth as well as many other societal ills that have laid the foundations for the escalation of crime. Greene, R. (2010). Oppression in paradise: Homosex uality and homophobia in Jamaica. (Masters thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1476673) Jamaica: a dream come true or a nightmare? Pa radise or perdition? Renowned for its white sand beaches, posh resorts and laid back reggae sensibilitie s, Jamaica is typically depicted as a carefree tourist destination in the fun-loving Caribbean But beyond the gated beachside getaways, the island nation harbors a darker truth. Racked with poverty and one of the worlds highest murder rate. Jamaica is also considered one of the mo st homophobic countries in the world. In Jamaica being gay can be lethal. Gay men fall prey to mob violence. Lesbian women are raped. Popular musicians glorify the murder of homosexuals Based on newspaper and magazine articles, scholarly research and reference books and eye witness reporting, this paper delves into a complex and at times, troubling issue. Halcon, L., Blum, R. W., Beuhring, T., Pate, E., Campbell-Forrester, S., & Venema, A. (2003). Adolescent health in the Caribbean: A regional portrait. American Journal of Public Health, 93(11), 1851-1857. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.11.1851 This study assessed youth health in the Caribb ean Community and Common Market countries and described the prevalence of health-related factors. Using a self-administered classroom questionnaire addressing issues of general health, health care, nutrition, sexual history, drug use, mental health, violence, family characteristics, a nd relationships with others, the results showed that most youths reported good health. Howeve r, 1 in 10 reported a limiting disability or significant health problems. Violence was a pervasive concern. Of those who reported history of sexual intercourse, many reported that their first intercourse was forced, and nearly half reported that they were aged 10 years or younger when they first had intercourse. Although most young people are healthy, problems indicate the importanc e of monitoring trends and designing effective youth health programs. Hall, K., & Chuch-a-Sang, M. (2007). The Caribbean integration process: A people centered approach Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. This publication is intended to contribute to th e debate on regional integration in the ongoing process of education and continuing quest for iden tification as a Caribbean people. It includes a wide range of essays that serve to assist the reader in better understanding how the clash of cultures has impacted on the Caribbean integration process. One of the distinguished contributors, Professor Nettleford, sought to give a historical perspective to this occurrence by describing the Page 10

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography dynamism of encounters between the continen ts that took place against the backdrop of the Caribbean, describing the legacy of these experi ences. This article, along with other equally insightful works, gives the reader a more comp rehensive understanding of the interplay between Caribbean culture and the regional integration process. Hanna, C. (2005). Homicide in The Bahamas, 19912003: A descriptive research study Nassau, Bahamas: Royal Bahamas Police Force. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections B HV6535 B3 H26 2005 This source provides an excellent overview of homic ide in The Bahamas for a 12-year period. It reports on incidences of homicide, victimol ogy, weapons and motives for homicide in The Bahamas. Legal aspects of homicide are also explored. Hanna, C. (2011). Reducing murders in The Bahamas: A st rategic plan based on empirical research Retrieved from http://www.royalbahamaspolice.org/adobe/R educing_Murders_in_The_Bahamas.pdf This publication expands on the authors 2005 work. It presents a comprehensive analysis of local murders, focussing specifically on a descriptive analysis of such incidences in The Bahamas between 2000 and 2009. Best practices and prev entative programmes and strategic plans for the reduction of murders are all timely topics presented in this publication. Harewood, G. L. (2008). Constructions of violent Jamaican masculinity in film and literature (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3324875) Using feminist theory, masculinity studies, cu ltural studies and postcolonial theory, the author focus on the representation of black Jamaican men as violent criminal beings in three films ( The Harder They Come, Third World Cop and Shottas ), two novels ( The Harder They Come and For Nothing at All ) and one ethnographic travelogue ( Born Fi' Dead ). Harriot, A. (Ed). (2007). Understanding crime in Jamaica.Ne w challenges for public policy Kingston, Jamaica: U.W.I. Press. The volume lives up to its title, providing understandi ng of what is clearly a complex problem. It makes both an empirical and a theoretical contributio n, generating insights that will be of value in Jamaica and elsewhere in the world. Harriot provides a descriptive and analytical overview of the Jamaican crime problem in his editors introduction and extends this line of inquiry in a subsequent empirical chapter. The problem has clear ly changed radically in the past three decades and is now more acute and complicated than ever First, the balance between recorded violent and property crime has shifted markedly. While property crimes of theft and burglary halved between the1970s and the 1990s, violent crime increa sed by 50 per cent. This shift has been most marked in relation to homicide, with rates pe r 100,000 population rising from 3.8 at independence in 1962 to 17.6 in 1976 and continuing to rise to 43 per 100,000 in 2001. Secondly, there has been a shift in the nature of violent crime in Jamaica from inter-personal to inter-group violence. Domestic homicides, for example, have remained stable for the past 20years, while those attributed to gang rivalry have increased by a f actor of five. Violence has become much more organized and is now an entrepreneurial activity an d a form of self-help in dealing with social Page 11

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography conflicts. Harriott also notes that the Jamai can crime problem has internationalized, with implications both for Jamaica and for diaspora communities. Heinemann, A. (2006). Crime and violence in development: A literature review of Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Bank, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, Social Development Family. The authors review the recent literature on crime and violence in Latin America and the Caribbean and present a broad overview of the main ideas and empirical findings. They provide estimates of the magnitude of the problem, trends and the manifestations of crime and violence in Latin America. They also discuss the ways in which violence affects development, the root causes of violence, and the empirical evidence on the determinants of crime. The authors conclude by stressing that preventive measures and innovative social policies are efficient and underutilized strategies to address the problem a nd call for both more research and operational experimentation. Hope, D. (2006). Inna di dancehall: Popular culture and the politics of identity in Jamaica Kingston, Jamaica: UWI Press. The book enlightens the reader in the field of da ncehall culture and the separate, but related, culture of lower class Jamaica. The book describes th e various roles of the dancehall to its wide range of purveyors and consumers, both as a form of escapism from the harsh realities of ghetto life and as a route to economic prosperity. The book also describes many aspect of Jamaican society, including the culture of male / female relationships in Jamaica, the etiquette and politics of polygamic relationships, the in equality races of the sexes, the prevalence of violence and the widespread presence of homophobia. Throughout the book the importance of the need to assert identity is emphasized and explored as the underlying driving force behind all of these observable aspects of Jamaican popular culture. Hope, D. (2010). Man vibes: Masculinities in Jamaican dancehall Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. The author addresses the strictures of black male representation, black postcolonial Caribbean masculinity, heteropatriarchy, homophobia, and sexuality in the predominantly black Jamaican Dancehall music and culture. The analysis expl ores five prominent masculine debates that are well known in Dancehall music and culture: prom iscuous heterosexuality, guns, violence, antimale homosexuality, and conspicuous consumption. Irish-Bramble, K. (2010). Stemming the tide: An analysis of changing patterns of political violence in post-independence Jamaica, 1962-2008 (Doctoral dissertation, New York University). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3396658) This dissertation examines the social, economic and political developments in Jamaica which have contributed to a significant decline in polit ical violence and the subsequent rise in overall violence. Page 12

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography James-Sebro, M. (2001). Flagwomen: The struggle against domestic violence in Trinidad and Tobago (Doctoral dissertation, The American University, District of Columbia). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3007926) This study questions the way specific womens organizations address domestic violence at the individual, community and society levels within the context of Trinidads gender, ethnic and class stratification. Findings illustrate the impact of state formation on the interconnection of ethnicity, class and gender, global macro politics on the househ old, and the ways in which tensions from class and ethnic divisions constrain womens collective empowerment and widespread collaboration and action, State violence against women emerges as a critical element in contributing to an environment which continues to nurture and perpetuate domestic violence, and which this research links to the structural s ubjugation of women and an enduring patriarchy. Jean-Charles, R. M. (2006). Gendering violence: Francophone women writers, representations of violence, and the violence of representation (Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University). Available from Proquest Dissertations a nd Theses database. (UMI No. 3217773) Violence is a ubiquitous theme in francophone Ca ribbean and West African literature, however, the omnipresence of theorized and fictionalized acco unts of violence has rarely been examined through gender lens. This dissertation examines what happens when we read and analyse gender violence sexual, physical, psychological, and verbal violations against the female body. Jefferson, A. (2000). Rex Nettleford and his works: An annotated bibliography Kingston, Jamaica: U. W. I. Press. Compilation of writings and lectures addressing aggression, violence and the Jamaican history of protest. Defines Caribbean identity and world view born out of the experience of the Caribbean people & suffused with their creativity, dignity and struggle for intellectual, cultural and political independence. Jones, A. (2010, August). Patriarchy, gender inequality and culture: colliding dynamics in the construction of child sexual abuse in the Caribbean Paper presented at Research on Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean Available from http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/9573/ This study examines the perceptions, attitudes and opinions about child sexual abuse as part of a regional programme to tackle gender-based viol ence. Jones concludes that a woman whose husband is abusing her child and keeps quiet or whose daughter is having sex with an older man in order to bring in income and allows it may have simply chosen survival over other options that she may not have the courage or support to face. Connections between sex, sexuality, sexual coercion and sex exploitation within the contex t of Caribbean cultures, gender and social inequality help to explain the circumstances in which the sexual exploitation of children in the Caribbean occurs Jones, A., Jemmott, E., Christian. I., Tannis, D., P asca, C., Sealy-Burke, J., Da Breo. H., Burns, S., & Maharaj, P. P. (2009). Child sexual abuse in the Eastern Caribbean: The report of a study carried out across the Eastern Caribbean during the period October 2008 to June 2009 Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Child_Sexual_Abuse_in_the_Eastern_Caribbean_Final _9_Nov.pdf Page 13

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography This article outlines extensive international resear ch with fewer empirical studies of child sexual abuse that have been carried out in the Caribbean There are no reliable data on the prevalence of child sexual abuse, or indeed on attitudes and per ceptions of abuse across the region. Statistics have been generally collected on convictions for sexual offences involving children, however such figures do not include the numbers of reported cases, and do not address the problem of under-reporting and quantitative methods are, in any c ase, inadequate in investigating this social problem. Joseph, G. (2010). The impact of politics on educ ation in Haiti, 1988-2008 (Publication AAT). (Doctoral dissertation, Lynn University). Available from Pr oquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3407267) This research explored the impact of turbul ent political changes in Haiti on education from 1988 to 2008; this period encompasses the first democr atic election in 1990 and the exchange of multiple political regimes since then. Specifically, political violence has repeatedly and frequently caused schools to close when politicians and protestors are on the street for their personal agendas. An open ended survey consisting of ten questions was utilized to interview teachers in Haiti in their native language about th eir experiences when there is political protest. The findings indicated that political violence h as an impact on students' performance in school. However, poverty is the most salient factor that affects the educational system in Haiti. The data were collected prior to the January 12, 2 010 earthquake in Haiti. The researcher made recommendations on how to revamp the school syst em. This study also suggested ways in which teachers, as transformative intellectuals, may assume the role of promoting change in the socialization process to improve education in Haiti. Jules, V., & Panneflek, A. (2000). Education for all in the Caribbean: Assessment 2000 Sub-regional synthesis report [Paris]: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/carneid/synthesis1.pdf This document presents a summary of the findings and issues arising from an assessment of education in the Caribbean sub-re gion in the decade of the 90s. The report identifies nine trends in education that Caribbean nations must bear in mind: making and achieving sustainable goals, ensuring quality inputs into the educational system, focus on lifelong learning, acknowledge the information age, ensure population learns essen tial skills for life, ensure universal access to education (or determine who is not participating in the educational system and why), and finally, to adopt a human development approach to learning. Kalisa, M. (1999). Violence, memory and writing in francopho ne African and Caribbean women's fiction (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9957278) This dissertation is a comparative study of selected novels by Francophone African and Caribbean women. The analysis draws its theore tical framework from Frantz Fanons writings on violence and on sexual politics. Page 14

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Knowles, L. M. (2000). The impact of physical abuse on the psychological and behaviour state of institutionalised children in The Bahamas and Jamaica Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3431221) Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections B. Diss RC569.5 P75 The study examined how a history of physical abus e affects a child who resides in a child safety institution in The Bahamas and Jamaica. When physical abuse became more severe, aggressive behaviours and physiological anxiety increased in the children studied. Krug, E., Dahlberg, L. L., Mercy, J. A., Zwi, A. B., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. *Hilda Bowen Library HN90 V5 W67 2002 This report makes a major contribution to our understanding of violence and its impact on societies. It illuminates the different faces of vi olence, from the invisible suffering of societys most vulnerable individuals to the all-too-visible tragedy of societies in conflict. It advances our analysis of the factors that lead to violence, and the possible responses of different sectors of society. And in doing so, it reminds us that saf ety and security dont just happen: they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. The report describes and makes recommendations for action at the local, national and international levels. Lall, V. (2007). Bullying, victimization and delinqu ency in primary schools in Trinidad and Tobago: Some preliminary results. Caribbean Journal of Criminology and Social Psychology, 12 (1&2), 155-176. Retrieved from http://cjcsp.com/documents/Jan_J uly_2007_Vol12_1_2.pdf#/page=165 This study examines the behaviour of primary school students in Trinidad and Tobago specifically (a) the level of their involvement in bullying, victimization, juvenile delinquency and classroom disruption; and (b) the type of social, psychological, academic and related competencies they exhibit, that is, how they think, feel and behave (p. 156). Landa, O., Maxwell, S., Smith N., & Kempadoo, K. (2001). Gender, peace, and development in the Caribbean: Research report on the North Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: Centre for Gender and Development Studies, UWI. The countries of the Northern Caribbean covered by this study were The Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. However, no information was gathered for The Bahamas and the Cayman Islands, and Cuba also proved difficult to research. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with stakeholders, online searches, and documentary research. The results of the research are organized in this report in the following manner: 1) documentation of key stakeh olders and their strategies, programmes, and plans for peace; 2) a list of other stakeholders identified in the course of the research; 3) conclusions about the stakeholders and their strategies/programmes; 4) recommendations for a draft programme that can support and expand curre nt initiatives; 5) a list of potential partners who can collaborate on the delivery of programmes related to gender, peace, and development; and 6) an annotated bibliography. Page 15

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Lawton, D. (2008). Caribbean crime and violence: Using Jamaica as a case study Dayton, TN: Global Educational Advance Press. There is much that the Caribbean isles have in common. Apart from sharing a similar geopolitical landscape, the history and socio-economic evolution of Caribbean states have proceeded along a similar trajectory. Consequently, the c oncerns of one island of the Caribbean may be juxtaposed with that of any of the other islands without discerning any real difference. One of the chief concerns of the region is crime. The storm of violence continues to wreak havoc on the Caribbean landscape, the rising tide threatening to engulf the region. There are several theories positing an explanation for the rising tide of cu rrent crime and violence. Although each theory has its value, theories of crime should be interpre ted within the wider framework of the historical and cultural content. Every country in the regi on has been experiencing an upsurge in criminal behaviour in recent times. Even oil-rich Trinidad is facing increasing problems with crime and violence. The main perpetrators are among the male youth population. Lazarus-Black, M. (2008).Vanishing complainants: Th e place of violence in family, gender, work, and law Caribbean Studies, 36 (1), 25-51. doi:10.1353/crb.0.0010 Why is it that wherever and whenever scholars have looked in the English speaking Caribbean, domestic violence complainants vanish from the courts? In pursuit of the answer to this question, I marshal two types of evidence. First, I review interdisciplinary research by scholars who have written about family, gender, and work in this re gion. I find that there is a place for violence in each of these categories. Next, I turn to a case hi story involving domestic violence from Trinidad. I examine the complex interactions between a vi ctim and family members, neighbors, and legal officials, identifying their mutual participation in a culture of reconciliation. Cultures of reconciliation illuminate ideas about family, gende r, work, and law that keep victims from pursuing legal remedies and buttress instead accommo dation to everyday violence. I suggest that the concept of cultures of reconciliation is useful both: 1) as an analytical framework to capture how local ideas and practices coalesce into structural patterns that operate against the institutionalized forces of law; and 2) as a rese arch tool for cross-cultural investigation and analysis. Identifying cultures of reconciliation can thus help us explain why domestic violence victims vanish from the courts. Le Franc, E., & Barrow, C. (2001). Child abuse in the Caribbean: Addressing the rights of the child. Children's rights: Caribbean realities Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. This paper examines a particular set of children's rights that has frequently been, and continues to be, infringed. It refers to the right of the child to be protected from "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or ne gligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse..." (UNICEF 1989, Article 19) Even more specifically, the focus in this article is on child physical and sexual abuse, whic h throws into sharp relief some of the likely problems and difficulties of integrating and institutionalizing the rights of the child. Levav, I., Guerrero, R., Phebo, L., Coe, G., & Cerque ira, M. T. (1996). Reducing corporal punishment of children: A call for a regional effort. Bulletin of PAHO, 30(1), 70-79. Retrieved from http://hist.library.paho.org /English/BUL/ev30n1p70.pdf The paper reviewed the case for reducing the practice of corporal punishment of children at home and in schools in selected countires of the Caribb ean and Latin America as a step toward reducing the escalating rate of violence crippling communities. Page 16

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Maharaj, R. G., Nunes, P., & Renwick, S. (2009) Health risk behaviours among adolescents in Englishspeaking Caribbean: A review. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3 (10), 1022. doi:10.1186/17153-2000-3-10 Among health risk factors studies among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean were violence and juvenile delinquency. Risk factor s contributing to juvenile delinquency and school dropouts included a breakdown in family structure, violence in the home, drug use and abuse, association with gangs and economic factors such as, barriers within the educational system, customs and culture. Mason, G. (2008). Help-seeking behavior of Jamaican women in abusive relationships (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3327423) This study explores one aspects of intimate part ner violence (IPV), the help seeking process of women in abusive relationships (WAR) in Jamaica, with particular focus on the decision to seek help. Despite the limitation of the study being pr edominantly low-income, these findings indicate the need to consider factors beyond the indi vidual women and to examine specific cultural context when developing support systems for WAR. Mendoza, A. (2010). Women rewriting the nation: Gendered violence in Colombian narratives, 19502004 (Doctoral dissertation, University of Calif ornia, San Diego). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3418932) This dissertation is an analysis of Columbian feminist novels inspired by three interrelated historical periods: the 1928 massacre of striki ng union workers on the Caribbean coast, the midcentury era known as La Violencia in which liber als and Conservatives engaged in an unofficial civil-war played out in the nations Andean regi on; and finally the Drug Wars of the 1980s which took place in Columbias unban centres. Mitchell, K. B. (2004). In the wake of the world: Legacies of colonial and postcolonial violence in the contemporary West Indian novel. (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). Available from Proquest Diss ertations and Theses database. This study investigates the work of four cont empory post colonial novelists, Wilson Harris, Michelle Cliff, Rene Despestre, and Maryse Conde and their literary responses to violence as alegacy of Western (neo) colonialism, the Middle Passage, and New World Slavery. Mordecai, R. (2007). Narrative wars with my cousin: The 1970s in Jamaican literature (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). Av ailable from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3273151) This dissertation looks at the literature of 19721980, which writer Rachel Manley has called Jamaica's "seminal decade". During this early postcolonial era, the democratic-socialist orientation of Michael Manley's government and the severe backlash from his political opposition, radically altered Jamaica's cultural, social and political landscapes. The decade ended in violence and social upheaval; its effects con tinue to shape the society. Examining novels, memoirs, plays and performances from that period, the argument is made that the primary conflict of the 1970s was not a contest between left-wing and right-wing political programs, but rather the public eruption of an older and previously ob scured struggle over th e limits of Jamaican Page 17

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography citizenship. This study investigates the wo rk of four contemporar y postcolonial novelists, Wilson Harris, Michelle Cliff, Ren Depestre, and Maryse Cond and their literary responses to violence as a legacy of Western (neo) colonialis m, the Middle Passage, and New World Slavery. The four novels examined are Harris's Jonestown (1996), Cliff's Free Enterprise (1993), Depestre's Le mt de cocagne (1979) [ The Festival of the Greasy Pole (1990)], and Cond's Moi, Tituba...sorcire Noire de Salem (1986) [ I, Tituba...Black Witch of Salem (1994)]. In addition to the common theme of violence, these novelists a ttempt to revision and recover heretofore submerged Caribbean American histories that ha ve either been suppressed or distorted under the umbrella of Western hegemony and symbolic violence. Morgan, P., & Youssef, V. (2006). Writing rage: unmasking violence through Caribbean discourse Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of th e many issues that coincided to create a culture of violence within many sectors of societies in the Caribbean. The review examined the relationship between factors such as domestic violence, poverty, male marginalization in contributing to the overall level of violence within different communities. This review also highlights the unfortunate and often silent res ponse of many communities to issue of domestic violence, and incest, which help to feed vicious cycles of violence that extend beyond the immediate families. In addition, it addresses th e potential benefits of faith and religion in changing the discourse of violence in Caribbean communities. Morrison, A., Ellsberg, N., & Bott, S. (2004). Addressing gender-based violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region: A critical review of interventions Washington, DC: The World Bank. Retrieved from http://elibrary.worldbank.org /content/workingpaper/ 10.1596/18139450-3438 Morrison, Ellsberg, and Bott present an overv iew of gender-based violence (GBV) in Latin America, with special emphasis on good practice in terventions to prevent GBV or offer services to its survivors or perpetrators. Intimate pa rtner violence and sexual coercion are the most common forms of GBV, and these are the types of GBV analyzed. GBV also poses significant costs for the economies of developing countries, including lower worker productivity and incomes, and lower rates of accumulation of huma n and social capital. The authors examine good practice approaches in justice, health, educati on, and multisectoral approaches. In each sector, they identify good practices for: (1) law and po licies; (2) institutional reforms; (3) communitylevel interventions; and (4) individual behaviour ch ange strategies. The authors offer conclusions and recommendations for future work on gende r-based violence and services for its survivors. Morrow, B. (1994).A grass-roots feminist response to intimate violence in the Caribbean. Women's Studies International Forum, 17 (6): 579-592. doi:10.1016/0277-5395(94)00067-0 Due in large part to feminist action, domest ic violence against women is now recognized as a serious social problem in many contemporary so cieties. This project examines the origins, organization, and activities of an exceptionally effective grass-roots movement against violence on the small Caribbean island of St. Croix. It provides a useful model for other communities, particularly those of racial, ethnic, and economic diversity. The resource mobilization theory of social movements appears to best explain the emer gence of this movement at a time when there was a large influx of new residents and capital on the island. Other relevant factors include extraordinary feminist leadership, the Caribb ean cultural history of women's strength and activism, and the willingness of the Women's Coaliti on of St. Croix to deal with issues of race and ethnicity as well as gender in their struggle against all forms of social domination. Page 18

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Nain, G. T., & Bailey, T. (2003). Gender equality in the Caribbean: Reality or illusion. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle. *Harry C. Moore Library Genera l Collection: HQ1525.4..G46 2003 *Harry C. Moore Library West Indian Collection: W HQ1525.4 G46 20031994 A collection of essays by outstanding women of the Caribbean reflecting on the situation of women in the region since the Beijing Conference of 1995. Although Caribbean women have made great strides toward equality in education, they are still face poverty, violence and have not made commensurate gains in the economy, politics or in popular culture and continue to suffer from gender-based violence. National Anti-Drug Secretariat. Bahamas drug information system: Annual report Nassau: Ministry of National Security. *Northern Campus Library Special Coll ections B.GOV.DOC HV5840 .B2 .B34 2003 *Hilda Bowen Library HV5840 .B2 .B34 2001 Annual reports of The Bahamas national drug inform ation system, a project of the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission, to establish nationa l drug information networks throughout the Caribbean region. Information is gathered a nd shared among the Royal Bahamas Police Force, the Financial Intelligence Unit, th e Health Information Unit and the National Drug Council of the Ministry of Health, Her Majestys Prison and th e National Anti-Drug Secretariat of the Ministry of National Security and the Public Hospitals Authority. National Commission on Crime. (1998). Bahamas general public survey on crime in The Bahamas. Bahamas: National Crime Commission. *Hilda Bowen Library General collection HV6853.5 N63 1998 The national crime commission concluded that Baha mian society was threatened by "a pervasive culture of dishonesty, greed and a casual di sregard for social norms and regulation." Nowak, B. J. (2001). Keeping it better in The Bahamas: A nation's socioeconomic response to juvenile crime. Journal of Black Studies, 31 (4), 483-93. doi:10.1177/002193470103100406 This article addresses the issue of cultural identity, or rather the perceived lack of cultural identity in The Bahamas. It also discussed some of th e factors such as the meteoric increase in violent crime that have been perpetrated by juveniles in The Bahamas, and the penchant for criminals to make The Bahamas their refuge. Among these f actors that were discussed that may have contributed to the juvenile delinquency at the time was the high unemployment rate during this period. Illegal drug trafficking was also cited as a major factor. The author also discussed some of the anti-crime measures that the Government was taking to reduce the number of juvenile crimes. The article expressed the need to Bah amianize the social policies within The Bahamas in order to ensure to a more stable country with a truly independent identity. Page 19

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Otterbein, C., & Otterbein, K. (1973). Believers and beaters: A case study of supernatural beliefs and child rearing in the Bahama Islands. American Anthropologist, 75(5), 1670-1681. doi:10.1525/aa.1973.75.5.02a00290 The research described in this artic le tests the hypothesis that caretakers who fear the supernatural will inflict more pain on the children in their char ge than will those caretakers who do not fear the supernatural. In order to test the hypothesis it was necessary to find a group of people whose adults differ from each other in their beliefs in the supernatural and whose children receive differential training. In the course of ethnographic fieldwork carried out in 1968 in the village of Congo Town, located on Andros Island in The Ba hamas, twenty caretakers were interviewed about the training given to their forty-eight children and grandchildren, as well as about their beliefs in the supernatural. Diffe rences both in beliefs in the supe rnatural and in child training practices exist. From the data gathers in Congo Town, it was concluded that the major hypothesis is confirmed. Plumridge, S. J., & Fielding, W. J. (2009). Domes tic violence in the homes of college students, New Providence, The Bahamas. The College of The Bahamas Research Journal ,15, 45-55. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/cob/index. php.files/article/viewArticle/116 This paper identifies the link between a number of undesirable behaviors and domestic violence in 588 households of college students in Nassau, The Bahamas. The survey indicates that about 21% of college students could be living in hom es with domestic violence. Further, domestic violence is associated with other deviant behavi ors which may have adverse affects on household members and ultimately the welfare of the nation. The findings suggest that government policy regarding alcohol could be changed to reduce the pa rticipation of residents in behaviors linked to domestic violence. Quamina-Aiyejina, L., &Braithwaite, J. (2005). Gender-based violence in the Commonwealth Caribbean: An annotated bibliography Kingston, Jamaica: Centre for Gender and Development Studies, UWI. Retrieved from http://www.unifemcar.org/photos/GENDERBASED%20VIOLENCE%20IN%20THE%20COMMONWEALTH%20CARIBBEAN.pdf This project is intended to expand regional research and thinking on critical issues facing Caribbean women, such as gender-based violence. The bibliography was expected to identify existing research and thereby provide the basis for the development of a plan outlining new directions for research on gender-based violence in the English-speaking Caribbean. It has tried to go beyond the identification of existing research to paint a broad picture of the incidence and causes of gender-based violence in the region and the variety of responses to the phenomenon, including public education and training. (Abstract). Rahming, E. (1984). The challenge for youth in a developing Bahamas. College Forum, 5 Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/cob/index. php/files/article/view/79/50 A "check up" on The Bahamas nine years post-Independence, Rahming expresses concern about the high crime rate among young men, pregnancy among young teenaged women. He predicts eight challenges to youth for the 1980s and 1990s: innovation, motivation, organization, unification, education, relocation, conservation and cooperation. Suggests that the public can help by not purchasing stolen goods, re-establis hing the family unit and by supporting youth in their endeavours. Page 20

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Redela, P. M. (2005). The violent everyday: Women and the public/private divide in the short fiction of Ana Lydia Vega and Rosario Ferre (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, San Diego). Available from Proquest Dissertations a nd Theses database. (UMI No. 3170231) This dissertation covers the works oftwo Puerto Rican authors, Rosario Ferre and Ana Lydia Vega. Both authors use the daily occurrences in their female protagonists lives to criticize patriarchal norms and colonial exploitation. Royal Bahamas Police Staff Association. (1996). Crime and violence handbook (2nd ed.). Nassau, Bahamas: Author. Topics included in this handbook include managi ng anger and conflict, including road rage. A section on teen crime addresses drinking, drug use, bullying, and gangs. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections B HV6853 .A6 B3 1996 *Northern Campus Library Special Collections B.REF HV6853 .A6 B3 1996 Royal Bahamas Police Staff Association. (2000). Community crime prevention handbook: Child abuse issue Nassau, Bahamas: Author. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections: B HV6626.5 C66 2000 This handbook provides crime prevention tips on for children and teaches them how to handle situations that they may encounter. It also provides information to reduce the risk of becoming victims of crime. Royal Bahamas Police Staff Association. (2007). Troubled teens: Information for every parent Nassau, Bahamas: Author. *Harry C. Moore Library Gen eral Collection BF724 R69 2007 *Northern Campus Library Special Collections B.REF BF724 R69 2007 A handbook giving parents information about adolescence and growing up today. Issues addressed include homosexuality, HIV and AIDS drugs and drug addi ction, drinking and smoking, gangs and gang culture, teen pregnanc y, violence, family dynamics and school achievement/underachievement. Sacco, F., & Twemlow, S. (1997). School violence reduction: A model Jamaican secondary school program. Community Mental Health Journal, 33(3), 229-234. doi:10.1023/A:1025037527652 The Montego Bay Secondary School project presents an example of how violence reduction can be achieved using almost no physical resources and the special effect, called the Bruno Effect, created by one Jamaican police officer with the consultation of a psycho dynamically-led training and intervention team. The Bruno Effect resulte d in a dramatic reduction in the number of physical attacks from an observed 5 fights per day (3 out of the 5 involved knives and cutting) to 1 per week. The violence rate returned immediately to its former level as soon as Bruno left the school. The dramatic violence reduction appears rela ted to establishing an adult protective shield. Page 21

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Results stem from the unique personality of the adult protector, as well as a combination of the special role of the police and the outside intervention team. Sands, K. (1983). The Christian church and the penal code: a Christian response to crime in The Bahamas Nassau, Bahamas: s.n. *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections: B BR115 L3 S26 1983 The author applies a theological approach to th e discussion of the Penal Code with suggestions for how the Christian Church can best deal with the problem of crime in The Bahamas. Crime statistics for the early 1980's are also included. Shaw, B. (Re) mapping the Black Atlantic: Violence, affect, and subjectivity in contemporary Caribbean women's migration literature (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park). Available from Proquest Dissertations a nd Theses database. (UMI No. 3283419) This dissertation is a project of literary reclama tion, canonical revision, cultural analysis, and interdisciplinary remapping. Drawing on American studies, post colonial studies, and Caribbean studies, particularly performance theory and recent theoretical work on affectivity; it analyzes the negotiations of protagonists who move back and forth between and among cultures and nations, exploring complex possibilities for subjectivity, id entity and citizenship within worlds of domestic and neocolonial violence. Smart, R. G., & Patterson, S. D. (1990). Comp arison of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among students and delinquents in The Bahamas. Bulletin of the Pan American Health, 24 (1), 39-45. Retrieved from http://hist.library.p aho.org/English/BUL/ev24n1p39.pdf Surveys of drug use were conducted among 4,767 junior and senior high school students in 1987 and 74 incarcerated delinquents in 1988 in The Baham as. It was found that the majority of both groups reported having drunk al cohol, and substantial proporti ons had also smoked tobacco, although over twice as many delinquents as students had smoked. However, use of illicit drugs was far more common among delinquents, at seven times the student rate for marijuana and six times their rate for cocaine. Many social a nd demographic similarities were found among users in both groups, who were likely to be males who had trouble in school or did not attend school, were not religiously active, and came from families where drugs were used or sold. Over onethird of the delinquents had sold drugs, but almost half (44%) of the delinquents and 25% of the students said they would use or sell marijuana or cocaine if they had it. The results of the studies point to the need for increased drug education in The Bahamas and for efforts involving schools, churches, parents, the media, and Government. (Abstract) Smith, D. E., & Green, K. E. (2009). Violence among y outh in Jamaica: A growing public health risk and challenge. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 22 (6), 417-424. Retrieved from http://revista.paho.or g/uploads/1200341025.pdf Although the overwhelming majority of Jamaican children and adolescents are well adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high leve ls of maladjustment and defici ent functioning. A perfunctory review of Jamaican newspapers and television talk-shows reveals that violence, particularly violence perpetrated by youths, is of major concern in every sector of Jamaican society. Although aggressive and violent behaviours are not new in Jamaica, the recent escalation of Page 22

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography criminal violence among the adolescent population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. Smith, D. E., & Mosby, G. (2003). Jamaican child-rear ing practices: The role of corporal punishment. Adolescence, 38 (130), 369-381. The family is the most prominent social group th at exists. It prepares its members for the various roles they will perform in society. Yet, the literature has unequivocally singled out the family as the most violent social group, with parental vi olence against children being the most prevalent type of family violence. While societies like th e United States, Japan, and Sweden have taken a hard line on physical punishment and shifted to a gentler approach to discipline, harsh disciplining of children persists elsewhere. In the Caribbean, and Jamaica in particular, childrearing and disciplinary practices that would warrant child abuse charges in other Western societies are rampant. This article examines th e child-rearing techniques of Jamaican adults and their assumed effects on child outcomes. It also examines the plausibility of the assumption that the harsh physical punishment meted out to children is partially responsible for the current social problems of that island nation. We recommend approaches to tackle the broad goals of addressing familial and societal practices that compromise children's development and well-being Abstract. Spencer, D. J. (1972). Suicide in The Bahamas. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 18(2), 110-3. A study of deaths by suicide in The Bahamas betw een 1959 and 1969 revealed that inhabitants of New Providence island were more inclined to comm it suicide than residents of the Out islands and half of Bahamians committing suicide had a known alcohol problem. Spooner, M. (2001). Women under subjection of the law: A study of the legal responses towomen's abuse in the English-speaking Caribbean (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. Violence between intimate partners continues to be a major social problem in the islands of the English-speaking Caribbean; few policy responses have been implemented to combat the abuse of women. On Barbados, the Domestic Violen ce (Protection Orders) Act, 1992 acknowledges the need to address the problem of intimate partner violence as an outcome of the inequality in family relations. Other islands such as St. Kitts and Nevis have not enacted such specific domestic violence legislation and women can only rely on the protection provided by traditional colonial legislation. Thompson-Ahye, H. (2002). Women and family law and related issues: 229 questions answered Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. *Harry C. Moore Library Law Collections: KN170 T46 2002 *Harry C. Moore Library Special Collections B KN170 .T46 2002 *Hilda Bowen Library KN170 T46 2002 The questions and answers have been compiled by Thompson-Ahye, a respected attorney and advocate of child's rights in the Caribbean a nd are based on the most common questions and answers posed to her over many years of practice in the field. Page 23

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Thompson-Ahye, H. (2004). Domestic violence and le gal protection in The Bahamas: A reality or an illusion? West Indian Law Journal, 29 (1), 73-85. This paper examines the Sexual Offences and Dome stic Violence Act, which was enacted in The Bahamas in 1991. It argues that the Act is woefully deficient, not only in its restriction of the categories of applicants within its purview, and in the limited types of protection within its scope, but also in the range of conduct that it envisages as "domestic violence." Tomlinson, Y. (2010). To Fanon, with love: Women writers of th e African diaspora interrupting violence, masculinity, and nation-formation (Doctoral dissertation, Emory University, Georgia). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. This project undertakes a critical task of "wr iting to" and "writing back to" Frantz Fanon on the issues of violence, masculinity, and nation-formation. Ultimately, this project argues that we must be willing to 'interrupt' problematic form ulations of gender--men as agents of violence, women as victims--and begin to articulate new paradigms of love, ge nder, and community. United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2004). Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under Article 44 of the Convention: Initial reports of States parties due in 1993: Bahamas (CRC/C/8/Add.50). Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/45377e850.pdf The UNCRC report from The Bahamian government on the situation of all children resident in The Bahamas. The report touches on rights a nd freedoms afforded to children, the family environment, health and education provisions for children and how children are protected from crime, violence and abuse. It also outlines th e various youth-oriented programmes available in The Bahamas. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2007). Crime, violence, and development: Trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean New York: Author. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/research/Cr_and_Vio_Car_E.pdf This report is offered as a contribution to the ongoing dialogue in the region onapproaches to address crime and violence. It is not intended to provide a definitive blueprint for action, but rather is offered as a tool to engage stake holdersgovernments, civil society organizations, citizens, and international partnersin a seri ous dialogue on crime and violence, based on evidence and good practices from inside and outside the region. UNICEF. Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean. Child Protection Section. (2006). Violence against children in the Caribbean region: Regional assessment Panama: Author. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/lac/Caribe_web(1).pdf This report is an attempt to look at the issue of violence and children in the Caribbean region (specifically Jamaica, Haiti, Belize, Suriname Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, St. Lucia, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenad a, St. Kitts and Nevis, St Vincent and the Grenadines, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Tu rks and Caicos) in a holistic way across many disciplines, and to try to establish the status of th is problem and efforts towards its solution (p. 5). A comprehensive list of recommendations based on the Committee of the Rights of the Child (CRC) report is incorporated, along with recomme ndations based on the information presented in Page 24

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Violence in The Bahamas and the Caribbean: A Bibliography Page 25 this report and at the Caribbean Consultation on Violence against Children, which was held in Port of Spain, Trinidad, on March 9-11, 2005. U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. (2009). 2008 Human rights reports: The Bahamas Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2008/wha/119146.htm This report outlines alleged human rights violati ons in The Bahamas. Problem areas, including complaints of abuse by police and prison and de tention center guards; poor detention conditions; poor functioning of the judicial system, leading to de lays in trials and lengthy pre-trial detention; violence against women and children; and discrimination against persons of Haitian descent are discussed. (Abstract). U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Internationa l Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. (2010, May 7). Counternarcotics and law enforcement country program: The Bahamas: Factsheet Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/p/inl/rls/fs/141698.htm Website updating activities of the U.S. Department of State on counter-trafficking activities in The Bahamas. U.S. General Accounting Office, & U.S. Congr ess House Committee on Foreign Affairs. (1990). Drug control anti-drug efforts in The Bahamas: Report to the chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives Washington, D.C.: Author. This report was presented to the Chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs, as an assessment of the overa ll state of U.S.-Bahamas efforts in the drug trafficking between the two countries. Issues addr essed in this report included the treaties that were in place to limit drug trafficking between the two countries, the limitations that the respective agencies involved experienced, and also the possible improvements that could be made to more effectively limit drug trafficking between the two countries. Vernon, M. A. (1997). Black Jamaican immigrant women's exp eriences, perceptions and responses to abuse from male spouses and partners: The impact of slavery (Masters thesis, Carleton University, Canada). Available from Proquest Dissertations and Theses database. This thesis explores the perceptions, experiencesand responses of asmall sample of Black Jamaican immigrant women regarding abuse from male spouses and partners. Weaver, K., & Maddaleno, M. (1999).Youth violence in Latin America: Current situation and violence prevention strategies. Revista Pan-American de Salud Publica, 5 (4-5), 338-343. doi:10.1590/S1020-49891999000400025 In 1993, 465,000 deaths due to violent acts or approximately 1250 deaths per day were reported in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. Mortality rates from exte rnal causes (homicides, suicides, traffic accidents, and other injuries) are particularly alarming among adolescents and youth (between 10 and 24 years of age) who make up 31.6% of the total population of the Americas and account for 28.7% of all homicides. Homicide is the second leading cause of death in this age group in 10 of the 21 countries of the Region with populations greater than one million, and it's one of the five leading causes of death in 17 of the 21 countries.