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Copeland, D. Graham, mostly regarding water.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00007549/00017
Finding Guide: A Guide to the Ernest R. Graham Papers
 Material Information
Title: Copeland, D. Graham, mostly regarding water.
Series Title: Everglades Drainage and Other Water Issues
Physical Description: Unknown
Publication Date: 1944-1947
Physical Location:
Box: 32
Folder: Copeland, D. Graham, mostly regarding water.
Subjects / Keywords: Everglades (Fla.)
Drainage -- Florida -- Everglades.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: AA00007549:00017

Full Text

.5miami Land Development Company
.~ I l.Cmber, I9Vood 951, and Simbe


March 25, 1947

Honor.ble Ernest G~raham,

Dear Senator:

Herewith comment on 7 proposed bills to be introduced in
the Ltegislature by the Everglades Drainage District.

I rather believe? that the proposed bills wvihich refer to
conservation of soil and water and the transfer of lands
to the U. 8. Government masy prove highly controversial.
I know that you are thoroughly familiar with such1 rrstters
and we will be pleased to follow your lead in connection

~a s gards the: proposed bill which would transfer to ad-
ministration fund any excess monies collected over and above
the amount necessary to maintain the: debt' serv-ice rund, I
believe such would be highly injurious to the District. If,
~as apparently is the, ca~s, there be a~n excess in the debt
service, fund, in my opinion, such. excessn could and should
be used to discharge~more quickly the indebtedness of the
District to the U. S. Government. It is just in such way
that Co1lier County has been able to reduce its bonadedin-
debtedness, and I know of no better way to apply the District's
excess.% Wh"~ate do you think?

As regairds the increase in tax friomi 1/2 mill to 1 mill 'for
administration purposes, it is my thought that this is
nothing more than a desire to obtain large amounts to be
squandered or to be uspd for th~e'benefit of some "fa~vored
few".What do you think?

I am momnentarily expecting SaPn C. Collier here and, as soon
as he arrives, I shall a~ttemt~i to arrange an appointment
with you so that he? may know you rand benefit by your wide
experience? in Everghides Drainge~~ District ma3tters.

Your commentsz on the enclosed are requested.

D. Grlahazn C elasnd

March 51L, 1947

honorable James As Franklin,
Fort; Myers,

Dear Senator Franklinr

Wes acre owners of approximately 291,200 nores of land in Coalliers County
and approximately 57,120 acres of land In Liendry County, all of which is
located in ~the Everglades Dlrainage Distriot.

Aeoordingly, we are vitaally interested in any legislation affooting the
present lawa governing tha Distriat We~ have copies of 7 bills which
sn> understand are to be, introduced at the coming session of the Legs-lP
lature as LOCAL, BILLS.

4A our Senatorial representative ia the Legisliature, wer desire to dise
ones the proposed bills with yeaW alnd, if coansidered entirely proper and
rreasonab to you, sm wxill request hat you exert your eIfforts to cause
the defeat of the legislation.

e;~ will new disonse each of these bill, th present intent of' which is
as below stated.

1. Ant Act to establish arena for conservation of water and soil.

This at states that benefits would scorne to th Distriot in that
reservoirs would be established and wotulld permit drainage in wet
periods and irrigation in dry periods, long range development of
wate control and the protection of fish and wrildlife.

It would appear that th~is Ao is but an entering wedge and~ preinde
to another Act (No. 4 hereafter described),' and will lead to the
transfer of orast areas of varlua'ble land to various agsateils of the
tfr 8. Government.

Some.of our objections to this proposed rert arel

(a) Sane 4001000 acre (discoussed under Aet8 4) will be transfer-
red to the U. S. Government. The alienation of any anoh tre-
mendous area fran the Everglades Drainage Distriot to the Fed-
eral Governmente is unsound and Unreasona~ble and can onl re
suit in serious financial losses to beha Dietrichr


(b) it is extremely doubtful that t~he establishment of reservoirs
-in three widely separated' districts or areas would be of any
benefit to theba remainder of the TDrainage Dietriot, even though
it maight be shown that such would be beneficial to large crit-
hes and towns outside olf th Disrtriot. (it is very doubtful
tshat benf~21it ito achot and towns aan actually beI provesn.)

(tr) Alt~ihough~f term an "inoidental beefitPSb proof is necessary
that anoh conservation areas would give additional protection
to fish and wildlife, ansd it seems absolutely positive t~hato
the development of these areas would add "areas of great; seenio

Dhe southernmost of the areas being considered as desirable
for setting; aside for cronserveation purposes, is only a for
miles from the northern boundary of the resrtricted boundaries
of th proposed Evergladea Hational pade and immediately ad-
joina the original Njational Parkr area as fornerly flued for
the Everglades National Park.

Accordingly~ no ereasn whatsoever is ktnown~ to exist for the
establishment of the southernmost and larrgest area ** aertain-
ly in the prepaed Eveglades National Park' ofmortre than
1,000,000 nores in olose proximity, where wildlife of all kinds
will be protected by the F~ederal Govermnmnt.

it is believed positive that no 'livng person can possibly
olaim that an of these arena, sug~gested to bew set aside for
conservation purposes, possess no or will ever possess srayg
sonicc beauty."

(d) The bill proposes' to exampt from all taxation any arenas se
aside for this purpose. Af'terl many years struggle, the Ever-
gladesr Drainage Dist~riot hasr finally been put on ~a basis of
bamation whnich ther majority of tar aer in th Distriot have
nooopted. Its now a vast area be exempted from taxation,
there can be but one results Other taxpayers must shoulder a
proportionate part of the increased burden due to t~he exemption
of ithis great are~a*

it may be pointed out; by the proponents of the proposed AMIQE
that the major portion of these areas is owne by the State of
Florid~a and trheQ Everglades Dlrainages District and, saooordingly,
are not taxarble and, therefore, that their transfer to' the
FederalX Government would not inorease anyone's tfaxes

if i amn notb misrtaken, the present Evergladee Drainag~e Dia=
triot law provides that all lands, regardless of ownership in
the Distriotf, must pay Jlrainag~e Distriot taxes. This state-
ment abould be obeaked.

(e) Itr is apparent that the subject2 matter of the proposed Act


affeets very materially various State AgenoteLs\and, sooordingly,
thsporosed Act should not be considered as local legislation
Ibut, on t~he contrary, as G~aral legislation. 7rr sush, ifr raould
ber acted upon by both Houa~seso h Legislature 'nd not by the
Legislative repr~esentatives fran the Gounties ai the"E~erglades
Drainag Distriot. ~
P. An Aet relarti~ng to m~aiaen noe area and the taxing the for.
This Acoti proposes to placel in the Board of Commaiossioer of the
Evergladesr Drainage Distriot the establishment of maintenance areas
and the fixing of taxes thesrefor.

Apparently, the land owner has no legal voice in the matter and ib
will be possible for the Drainage Distriot Board to use its own
judgment in the setablishme~ant of these maintenance arena. Any such
authority would be highly prejudicalsr to land owners in those areas
which th land ownr does not believe snaceptible of drainage devesl-
opmnefnat2 at this or any future date. It would result in the eat byl
lishmaent of many maintenance areas which the land awner might nolt
desire but which might result in benefit to some other land awnerr
either in1 the particular masintenanoe dis~triot or outside of it ***
hisi largely alts the expense of samde land owner who does not de-
sire the so-ealled improvement.

Although paragraph (a) of Section 9 of this proposed Acrt would ap*r
pear toa safeguard the interests of the land owners, it to largely
a "anokesoreen" and would not necessarily preen the Drainage Dia*
triot from eabablishing any manlltenance areas it so desired.

In paragraph (e) of" Section 9) of" 29hi Acte it; is stated that no
tax or maintenance shall be levied in an maintenance area in o~r
oese of 50f per more. It can! be readily seen how snah power could
be abused aBnd how it might prove confiscatory in the ease of many
land owners.

As enoh "nnintenance tax" presumably must be applied to State or
Distrio~t owned lands as well as to privately owned lands, again
it would appear tha this proposed AQt oano be construed as local
legislation but, on the contrary should be cronsideredl by the entire
Legislature as a general Aete*

3. An Act relatin~g to County tax title anits
i camesnt thereon as followa

(r) If, as stated in Section 1 of this proposed Acrtr, the present
Drainage Distriot taxes and assessments constitute a lion
upon th lands against which the same arec levied, superior to
all othr lien and equa in dignity to the lion for State
and County taxes on these land, i see no need fe this pror-
posed not.

I ^ I


(b) It', as appears to be the aase, there is another Law which
does not place liena for failure to pay Bewrglades Drainage
Dist~riof tas~u on the sana plane of other State and County
liens, then it would appear that this Act may be~ sounded

(s) rwee~rrs it is not' imroba~ble that there say 'be other moative
behind this gAet, which motives should be carefully "oamoked

(d) Again, as such legislation woul affoob lands owned by other
agenaise of the States it would again appear that trhis is not
a maotter of local legislation but, in feet, a matte~r. of general

4. An BAe glira the Board of Commi~ssionerrs of Eeglae r

This proposed Act, although very shortere and sweet\ isr a ext~rane-
ly drasrtie one rand provides for transfer to the Federal Government
any lands in the Distriot belonging to the Distriot which, in the
opinion of the Distriet Beardl could be beneficially tnransfrred
to the G~overnment*r

Saom of our objections1 to this proposed Aet ares

(a) hile apparently innooousw, proposed Ast No I a'boe dir*
enased, is merebly a prelUde to this pro~osed Aet, (Noe 4)*

(b) It is extremely important and no aoe should be confused as be
itsr altimate effoot, not only oar private land wwners in the D~iam
triot but, also, on other agencies of t~he State Government
whoa own ay thousands of nores in the D~istriotr

(a) We are reliably Informed (wea will furnrish you with definite
information on the subject at an early date) that the Dis-
triot Board has in mi~nd turning over to the Federal Govenm-
menat for soil and water conservation pBurpoose 3 large tracts
of land, the eaaet laoatrion of which will be given gonx later

(4) the largest of these street is the aonherrmnost and is along
the Collber. ounty boundaryr eneLesing aPProxbmabety 200,000

(er) Inquiry as to the approximarte valu of these tracts develops a
that adjotaing one of the street, the State has refUsed an
effer of $10.00 per aere for soame 800 seres. Land ePmpass
tively oleae to the southernanst treet has natual market rrl*P
uos as high as $800 per more and naoe is being offered for less
than $5 per senrs


While it maay be stated that the majority of the lands inoluded
in the three treets are nowr of little or no vralua, it ~ans
be borme in mind that any anch stateaslst is highly ineererba
in that, only a few years ago, lands nowr being sold for $200 per
see weren in almost ownetly the srame condition as the lands
included in the t~hre tracts to be transfered to the Federal
Geovenment s

f)~ The major portion of the three stakes have a deep a~nk soil
and are bellievd to be equally as great in vanlue for agrical-
tura~l purposes, wrhen drained, as other lands bordering on
Lakeo 0kees~habee and the southeasterly and of the Mlirami Canal*

Filing the moreage of the 8 traocts at, 400,000 seres and aver-
aging the valu of enoh tract at only $5.00 per aere -- this
is believed to be an underestinater of value -, the actual
value of these 8 tracts would be not less than $2,000,000.

~g) It is ineonseivable that the Stater would desire for such an
extremely valurble property being transferred to the Federal
Government for no each consideration whbateve~rl

(h) Furthermore, if and whern these treets are transferred to the
Federal Governmntf they would imewdiately b@ remoaved fromP
the tax rioll of the Counties in wrhich the treets are leaste~d

Such wi ll ean that, In future yea rs whn these tracts have .
been developed, a tremendous rednetion in the assessed vaues
on the tax rolls of the reslpecti Counties ** this, in tunrn
meaning that the taxpayersl in the Countiesr ia question must
pay additional taxes to comapensate for the vrlaluens reovd
frm ~thel tax roLlls*

Mathe~lr, it will also mean that: the tarparyers in the Distriet
munst pay greater tares for the works of the Distriot itself and,
as these particular tracts ares very large, the increased
burden on the taxpayers in the D~istriot will1 be Very greate

Ci) If, as above estimated, ~the D1rur~age Distriot Board contamer
Splates the transfer of 400,000 soree valued today at $8,000,000,
which lands an reuderstood to be the PropertY of the ~Ever
82ates Drainage Distrist, of the Sohool Board of Florida, of
the Internal Imaprovement Frund of Florida and, possibly, of
other state alleneies, it is readily appsraret that anoh a mab-
ter is of great impport to the state of Florida.

AmoordingXly any ash~ Act as that proporsedshould be consid-
ered not as local legislation but, Anatead, as legislation of
general. appliention and, consequently, should be considered
by the entire Legistlaurer and not: only by the Rep~resntatives
in the Legislature of the foew ounties in the Evergldsr
Drrinage Distriot.



;15 Jun Act rselaing: to the ".&dministraion _Tax of t~he DistrioB?

Phis Act, a very vfioours oner, proposes to incoreser the presentr
baz levied for administration purposes from 1/2 mill tos 1 mill
ad t vaorem.

Some of our o'bjections to this proposed A e#res

(a) When the 89 oans to the resome of the old Everglades Drain-
age DistrieC and advanced money for the buying up of out-~
abanding bonds at a very lor figure, that Administration made
an extremely oareful study of t~he entire Drainage Distriotb

(b) Upon the oonolusion ogf this extended study, the RFC felt
that certain taxes would be necessary if the terms and condi-
tions of the loan it proposed to makre were to be fulfilled.

It seems not to be ~doubted that the RFC wnas conlserative and
as reasonable in its demands eas conditions warranted. Among
its demands or stipulations wAas one to the effoot that a fund.
should be set up for the general administration of the entire
Distrio6. The tax de~mnded by the RFC for inolusaon in 16*
contract was that a tax of 1/2 mill abould be levied for ana
Administration purposes.

1(9) During' the several year ** 44t i believe ** the Distriot has
been operating under theses 2FC terms) 1/2 mill tax has been
found entirely adequate and enfficient fo administrative pur-
poses as designated by the RFN.

Indeed, i understand that at the present time a fairly large
surphas Advelope in this fund each year** same ray as nanoh as
$180,000 at present.

(4h) Sectionl 8 of this proposed Act states that the purpose of
increasing the tax of \/8 mill to t mill is set only for adl-
ministering the affaire of th Distriot generally but, also,
"of paying the cosat at maintaining and construatinrg canals,
structures and other works of the Dicstriot generrally."

(er) Snoh an AoC is nothing short of vioous. There seems to bea
no reasonr wha~teer for thoser Pitrieta or areas which have
never anrd will never receive any benefits from the Drainage
Distriot and, in feet, manny of which have been definitely
damaged thereby, being called upon to pay anyi tax whichl
66rough same sleightt of hanrd"r may be need -for maintenance
or construction throughout the District and in areas where th
same wRill be definitely benefitted largely at the expense of
areas wrhich will not be benefitted.

(f) Ife the present; tax for administrative purposesl of 1/2 mill is
more than necessary for natual administration as canoeived by
the RFC, then there appears to sbe no right wAha~tever to double
the present tax.

(g) Again, as all in le F~und ~landas in the Distriot ** i an told
that School lands in the Distriot are exempt ** gMustq pay all
forms of D3rainage taxes, including the 1/Id all1 ad valoren ~taxo
on their land in thie Di~t~riot, this nsot becomes withlout
doubt the sub;Ject of general legislation to be considered by
th entire Leg~ilaTaurean n ~ot local legislation Bato be se
aidered bry a slmall portion of the entire Lsegislature.

So An Act wherebp the Board of Commwissioners maoy transfer to the Ad
mnstrabo Fudan excess8 of "aypoedsfo Deb Servc
taxo h D etrich

fSome of our objections to thlis proposed Act arest

(ab) It seems inconteatable tha the IPC wvhen it agreed to~ refinance
the Drainage Distriot was extremely ooneervativer in onloulat~-
ing the amont~ which must be paid annually -tos retire the1 debt.

('b) lccrordingly, the taxt logy which the nzF0 insisted upo may
rightly be considered\ as probably morel than som might hav
considered necessary* This aseemar very natural and wasg to
protect ~the aRPC in th event ta colleations hearre not 1004b.

(e) THowever, as timer~ has passed and real development of the Ever-
gladea hars takesn place, it nowp appears that tax collootions for
"Debt Service taz' are actually caonsiderably in excess of the
amount naotually requllred **- as stated above, Its is understood
tha the excess at this time is about E180,000.

(d) To an business marn, any such exceae should and woulld be ap*
plied instantly toc redruce the debt further* By so doing, the
te~ which willl elapee until eaaoh land owners holdings are
entirely free from Evergla~des Drainage viait~riot liena would be
reduced. That each policy would be highly beneficial to the
Trainage Djistric~t is well exemplified by the manner in which
Colliear County handled its bonded inzdebterdneas

In this easse, every penny which could. be raised wFas used to
pa off iStsa bonds and, in this manner, approximately $1,000,000
were eared for the "stookholderon ofp Collier county.

(e) It should not be oveorlooked that in, proposed Bill Nov 8 above,
it is proposed to increase the nAdminis~trativea Fund" from 31/
mill to 1 mill, and that the proposed Act No. 8 provided tha
any excess -6t1 ah Dbt Servicea fund should be placed in the
.Administraltion eund.


th result of these twob bills is very apparent ** more taxa-
tion of thoase who do not benefits to be~Q expended in. a~dd~tiona~l
employees, additional administrators, additional workLs of
benefit to a few, all for the benefit of same compqarat~ively for
favored oness

(f) Asx a considerable portion of the thae levied for Dseb Ser-
vicea purposes is paid 147 at least sam State agenotes, it is
again apparent: -thalt conalderation of any anoh proposed Act
should beat in thel nature~ of gQasral legislation and not local

V. An Act providingf for water control anrd coznsesrvation of lands in the

Our obictions to this proposed 3a t aresj

(a)S As drawn1, it is very difficult to lassrtsa~incf ;justf what t~he AMl
is really intended toQ e?"eot.

(b) If, as stated, the real purpose is to improve dmrlainag, water
control and sanitation, others would appear to be no valid
reason lfor opposing itu, that is by use1

(e) 8owverrp as many. important Features pare readable into thie Pro
visions of the ~c~t that it is believed the Actr should be Irilled,
unless it can bes amended to prevent undne a~dvantage being, takena
of land owners in thie Distriot.

(4) Horwever ins-ignificant an point may appear to be, it should
neve be forgortten that the control land noneervation of water
are matters of' v~ial impnortanae to the gfrea~t oities of MSiamif
and Coral G~ables, an to lesser extent to the city of liest
Palm Beachi and other armaller citiesr bordering on the FRaer~lades.

Some point, insfignificant though it may appear, in this pro-
posed Ast~ may, in realityr, very serionaly affooaett~hose great
cXitis and, sooordingly, such legis~lation should be studied
thoroughly by people in those cities, althlought thesy are not
notnally located in thre Lraina~ge Distriot.

(e) ACgainr this proposed Act, as it may direc~tly affoot several
hundred thousandsd persons livi-ng i~mmediately outside of the
boundaries of the Draifnage Distriot, as well ear lands ownd
by various State agencisesn the Distriot, rabkould instead of
be~ing handled as a local bill, by all means, be consi3dered
as general laegislatioln b the entire Leg~islxature



i(r) We will ~furni~sh you at san early date with additional detailed
data which may be ~ofC assist-lance to you in yea sta 749 of and
notion on the 7'bille proposed to be passed as local bills.

(b) 19s are 'imly convinced tha none of these :proposed bills ar
actually losa bill but are general bills and tha the Ever
glatea Drrainage Distriot B~oard is fully aware of the fas
that, it brought up as' general legislation, most of the bills,
if not all, would f~ail of passage.

(a) Our hope, therefore, is that, after you have studied the bills
and considered our oject~ions, as well as other that may somes
to your attention, you will, ~ima~t~atey upon introduction in
the Senate, insits~t on the bills being referred toD the Senate's
Drainage Commi~t;tee for report toB the Isenate and action by~ th
.senate as general lsegisltion. We believe tha, if such oan
be done, the bills will be effootively killed.

(A) Cf your conrstituent Counties, we know tha the sentiment of
Collier County is definitely opposed to all the billsr and
that ea Representative, H~onorable E.B. Kelly, wdJL1 take eagr
notian possible in the House to assist in the killing of the

Although we have note yet bee able to contact Eonorable Ber-
nard Pa~py of Mocnroel County, we are reliably informed that he
will likewise lo ~ayt~hing in his power in the ;eouse toE kill
the measLures.

As regards Lee County, as you kne no portion3 o that County
is directly arffooted by the proposed Acts and9 that no taxes for
Everglades lirainrage DistriotC purposes ar levied in that County.
For this reason,. it appears doubtful that Honorable Sooft
Bongh and Bonorable Guy Strayhorn, dry, Lee~ County's RePresen-L
natives, wil be greatly interested, unless it cran he shown
them that the proposed laegilatilon will adversely sllafet the
Statera holdings in the Crtranages iistriot, and, therefore,
that the Acts are really in th general rather than the local

Asl regards BensdryT County, we are seerking Zto conthat Bonorable
Elbert; S~tewart; but have not yet been a~bler to reacho himrs it
is not known her th Sug Company bands as th mate but;
as the proposed Alcts adght tend to reduce their taxes thlroug~h
levying additional tares on non-benefitted lande, it is not
improbable that they ma favor at least some of the lsegislation.


It course to us, howevewrs that large land owners such as
Lykes Brothers and other large rarncrhere in Hendry County
will be vitally interested an opposed to a mran to every one
of the Aets.

WPhile it is no partionlar oonorns of yours as to the reaaCton ofi
vot~er in Coruniels other than those in your Dis~triot, we are ~In-
formed that the people of Mindl and C~oral Gables, wrhich two cities
will pay, we undserstands about 78B$ of the increased taxes, are
"np in amse" against the measures and that their representatives
both in the Senate and in the Hlouse may be expected to assist ma-~
terially in suooessfully opposing the passage of these Acts as
Local legislation and, when heard by the entire Legislat~ure, in
opposing their passage as general legislation.

Asl previously stated, these Acts are of vital importancer to
Collier County and we earnestly request that, after malBture LOconslid-
eration and study of them, you do anything in your power to cause
their f'ailing to pass either as local or 'as general legislatione

If wRe can furnish you wfith any additional inrformation, please
cosmmnd Us.

Very truly yours,

D. -Grsham Cgoeland

00s Hone He Be Kellry.
B.C.s Hon. Emrnst Graham

bills are general legislation- and'will require consideration by entire II~egislature. He.

Sender's name and address
(Forr reference anil)

Sender's telephone




April 3, .

o. P1nrirls

~~~~~~~~ _~_~__~~~~ _______ _____ _____~_

wants to knowJ on wsham he can count for support' from Senatorial districts on East Coast.

Please mail me quickly the Eve~rglacles~ map showing location of 3 proposed conservation

areas and approximate ovatership of each. These as showed me recently. Also indicate

by mail strategy you suggest for each house. I am assured Papy of Monroe and K~elly of
Collier will conform and follow our lead. Haentigo tato edy
Kinast remarr1,suat f enry

D. Graham Copeland




5EllelL iiiiEREED

deI e t.r se me llr.emHl ilk
t~rarl r..rarnst .e iulegrare t

Send the following lelegram, subiect to the terms on back hereof, which are hereby agreed to-

To Senator Ernest R. Graham

Care of or Apt. No. Hialeah *

Street and NV



Tn+mrnrinwar1 anndr+ny- n+ 1sng+.h +.nr1m
y anti he ne:cares me will be with an 1110. 8+*+@< all




- -



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t~he sendEr Of the mt6SSeO [ad Ln11 CompdRV 88 t011078:
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2.. In Makerent the Company shall not be liblemor damags~~ fr mlatakes or delagys t~a h tranp~smison or delivery, or for the non-deliverrn or any measue. whether cauiscd by
the negligece antIts srvAntacrotlerwise 'be 'ond the natuallobi not exceeding in any Eevey t~le sum of ar'e thousand dollars, at, wtdch amount toe eeudEr Of arCh messhge FeprEccnv5 t hat
Sthe mes~z sal \ aleed urdens a greatir amine Is stated in writing y the abodtr t.IbPOf at the time the message la tendered for tranrmisalon. and unless the repeated-message rate Is pad or
agsreid to be pJld, and an aulditional charge col~ to one-teEDh 08 0n per CEDE OI te BROunt by which such alu~aton shall exceen live thousand dollars.
3, The Compiny is hereby madeltbe agent of (10 sandel,' without Iablity, to folrward this missage over the Ilnes of any other company when necessary to reach ita destination.
4. Exrept as ol~herwise lnrlicarsed In conneetlan with the Ileting of ladiv~idual places in the Oele tarlis of the Compliny the amoual mild fo~r the transmissions of a domst ic telegram
or all blaoolng cabie or radlo rae~lae CGwers i ts delivry~ Wilhill the folowln limit: LD 01i is or IoWD B of 5,Ii0 ,ir more Lrkna;bila nts whre the Com pany has an otmte whkb, as snown by rhe
fiBled tartffs of.be Company, hi oto~prratedi hrough the agency of a rail od company. wtihin Two miles of any open m. In or branch oillee of the Company i n cities or towns of 5.000O or
more inhlabitan~ ts wh re, ias non.by the Bled thrftIs of the Company, ti erPlerrap~h service 13 (=r formed throur~b theagiow.1 of a railroad company. Rithin one mlear the telegraph onfce:
In cities or towns of lEss th~n 5,000 InhablLtanB in walettlin olfee of theo.Company is 10re Led, wi thin one-ball mi le of the teleser.1h odice. Berind the Ilmrts 4boive aprtuled the C om iany
does not undertake I.0) make deUvery, birt wlll endeavor to arrange for de~lvery as Cth agent~ of Ibe sender. wilth the usagerrsumaing that tnesenarr autorhazes the oollstion of any additilonal
e hare from the addrersse and agrees to pany enet additional etrage ilrt is not colleerea from the addressee. There will be no addldonal eirtre fror deuverie made by telephone within
the corporace limited of any clly or town in waloh an omat of the Company la located.
5. No responsibility attahese to this Company concerning messages until the Bame are acceDted at one of its ~i~rinmttng 02(.; and if a mesastes it sent to such olfla by one of
the Company's messengers, he acta for that purpoae as the agenL, at Ehe-sander,
6. The Company will note Liablef~or damages orstatilrorypeanities In the i oreo any messay" eCepBt an Latrasrlre mcjssag.- I Te'as where the chilm Is not presented In writing
to the Co~mpany withtn slxty daays after the messagelis Bled with the ComIpany forP tn~ranmisson anr in the case of an uotriastate message ln7exa 10 Company wil not be liable Inr damages
or statutory Denaldce where hoelan ci olaotpf~nrse nte tD WTiE to 100 Comp~any Wrlnd Mle-rruray-fivbe GaoHr~ler theUSBPf eton Lf ny. ~shlibavoerxcered; r\Drov iarid(.0 howev~ertnrat
of these condlllon3 Bball irpply to claims for aamages or ov~erdmrges within the purview at Beartlon 4 lb of the Communioations at t of 1934.
7. It is sgreed that in any action by the Company to recover the tolls for any meassae or m~laCisa ehep~rompt and correc t transmslon and dclliverj tereof shali be ~reumed.
BIubject to rebuttal by competent eviden~c.
8. Speclai terms Enternilng the transmiselol of messages according to their alan.5ea, sa enumerated below, shall apply to messags In each Of BBch respectve clssmes in addition
to all Ise foreogom terms.
9. No employee of the Cmmpany is authorized to irar the foregoing.



A ftdl-rate expedited service.

A deterred ervice at lower than (th standard telegrmm rates.

Ml~aesage sentl in secons durtag the same (187.

Aceis red 110 to 2.~ A A. for deliver not earlier than (110 following morning at ratee
s' -~ ub tilally loser than the standardtl~egram or day letr~ rarea.


The standard servoce, t. flull ratca. Code messager, contstartu of &-leter group only,

Pitdn-language moueyes subject to belaC deferred in favor of ful-rate liessa~s.

"Overnihe plai-language messages.

If apes taking precednce over all otter messages except. government s InBEg ~.

March 25, 1947

Everglades D~rainasge District,
Canean Building,
We~st Palm Bacrh, Florida

Attentions Mr. Ke~sr throop


Receipt is acknowledged wSISh thanks of your letter of the 21st instant

enolosing copies of proposed bills to be introduced at the ooning ses-

sion otrF the Legislature as regards Evergladea Dreainage Distriot matters,

as follorwas

1.a TIo establish areas for conservation water and soil in the Distriot.

2. Foar masintensance areas and tax therefor in th PCietriotc

5r. Resting to uGounty tax title suits covering lands in the Distriot.

4. Authority to setntey to the IUnited States had in the Diestriot orF

any interest therein.

5+ Relative to the administrative tax of the Distriot and increasing

present ta for this purpose to 1 mill*,

g, Transfer t~o the administration fund of the Dist~riot any arcoess pro-

ccoeds frau the debt serve tax of tfhe D~istriot to the adm~inistrar-

'tion fund.

Ye. Relative to water control and ooneervation of lands in the district.

WeI have not ha opportunity, as yet, to abudy these proposed notet and,

therefore, the Falollowng; commnts requested by you should ber considered

as preliminary and tentative only.

le While this proposed not apparently would hkave little or no effect

on ~those areas belonging to us in the district, it would appear to

have far reachingr~rr erffot and, if such has not already been doner, it

Rould3~ be our suggestion that open hearings on thelQ subject should be~

held and the thoughts of those directly af~footed ber asoert~ained.

It ocurs to us that this may became a veY)~ controversial matter.

2. Our comment on this proposed not is the ana as that iannedla~tely

abated aboves.

We He see no objection to this pdroposed note

4. Again, wre see nol objection'C to his nt, ~Povided th purport to

thoroughly understood and agrsedl upon by the owners ofr land affoo-


S. Wie most a'bronrgly oppose any increased millage for administration


SI the revnmping of the entirer structure of the Disltriot during the

Bolland Admrinistration, a taxu of 2/2 mill w~as imaposed for adminisltraw

tion ur~posess. Such tax is believed to be ampyle for the purpose and,

as stated, wes oppose anly inclrsase thereinr For those portions of

the Distrit where labsolutely no benefit hka prr been receaived

from theQ Distrfotta works anrd, indeed serious dama3ge has resulted,

any tax for administration purposes ta considered Unp~roper, How-

eversr in order toe uphy ball"r weo did not ogppose the L/2 mill tax

for adminirstration purporsea. We will oppose any increase in that

tax Of the increase be applied to4 our properties which, instead of

being benefitted in t~he slig4htest degree by Ipresent wrorks of the Dier

triot and of thosea proposed, have notally been serrienaly dam~aged.

O Ift is our opinion3 that this nrot, providing for the transfer teamr

debt service tax fund to ami~ni3atra~tion tax fundL of any essessr

monies collected for debt service, Is a very bad on sad should not

be esobe~td into raw.

It was our understanding of the orig~inal not governint debt sr*r(

vice that the main consiideration mea to pay off all debt at .the

earliest Iloment practisable and, theresby, release all landa froan

Sanorigi.nally Insrurred inde'bbednesse

Per this purpose, certain debt erarvice tax wass established anLdl as

established, it wsas deemed gust sufficient Itoa pay off the DiStrittacrr

indebtedness in the shorBrtesti the ossible.

If, eas now a~ppears to be th~e case, the tax for' PaYing off the DiS-
triot's indebtedness roaults In the acaumulation of mores funds thian

are nescessaary for thata spcific purpose, then it~ occurs to na that

any such ozoeas abol]g;d be used to reduce th indebtedness and, iTjr

this way, pay off the indebtedness in even quicker time than Jrin

originally estimated to be1 possible.

It to jus such action eas that proposed ubieh brings into disrepute

the harndling of' the affairsr of the Distriet. 199 earnestly suggest

that this not not be passed but, instead, that any excess funds on

this debt service fun)d over and above what Is neoeesary to0 dis-

eharge current indebtedness requiremeantsr, be ut~ilised not for a toP~

ministration purposes or. any other PUrposeI than more quickly dis-

charging the Distriot'sfl indebtednress

To, Our commea on this proposed not is the same as that stated in parP

agrarpha 1 and to on5 th Preceding palges.

\Te will apprecinto any camlrrents fra you concernin gM our asants above


'With1 thanks orO year courtesY in the matter,

Very truly youres


Dc Grahamn Copeland

__ I_ _I

~i~ .

November as; 3$194

Vr. Orsham


Dear Mt. Cepelaand

Sene idayat are I rmet O. Kary Daovie wo is near engineer for the
Bronmrd Drrranag DPisriot rand also the Plan~taton Draninage D~istric
InR talkng with~ hth foUnd te were nlot r~Cnah more friendly toanrcd
the Evea~rgldesr Uinage Distriot them w were~. I su~ggestd he send
9en a oclyj of t~he letter tkewy sent to ~the Goverore~ I believe an
hobpe s we mayI Beblei to get somea support for thernm

2he ~r~nra hit us hard but we% are
our fi**4.

graduarlly gto~titing bee on

Sincerelry yours,

Ernest R. Graiham

ERGrb ,;
eas Sam Co~lk~r




Jha 101 196?

rr. D. Gasham Copeland.

Dearr Mr. Co~petnds

Eare fwenr a etr a sep of thq pampipnit~ ~o~u red from at
Sallahassee givkiing wat each gia has spent st what the
got bekc u pi ana l aa I roithe i~ very eh to gt thes
fig~re as I sa p'lanmen on managy a tlk ever the air aid
Bens 811Z 800 betere I go nothe

I8tneselj py~our,

Wrnes~t; IL. Gamb


'~t-~ ;;2%





June 17,o 1947

My, Graham Copeland
herglades City,

Dear gre Copelands

E~nolosed heresrida find articles In the .8Miami Besrr
June 13th by Thma~s Yaglen and a storyQ inl the Newaps June 15thi by S. W. En~tt~here
la rregard to the local bill backed bay Coleman. heree is also an article
la the na~ of Jun 15th in regard to thisB Belle Glade, keeting. I thought
you light be interested in these clipp~ings.

fioy Hiawine gudt called m eonl the phone and tell me
that he is sending as a copy ofS1 the suizt filed before Judge'W'hite in esi~t
YI'ah Beach and their answera ~toc the ausame i htlae not seen the answer bslnt
he tells su) that it in no reasy hurts8 ear case an does not follcrr the,
memaorand~on that I; isawsP Their a~ttorpey wtas afraid of Judge errerll's
decision ars the 1941 validartion sult. The bookr it is in is 19, ( So)
(2nd) 472. That wasra the spit of the s~taEte verane the Everglades
in~frage "Leriots1;

Unless sandthing; happ:ens, i ame going to Belle Glade6
Conorrow toe listen in onl th hearing. Looking forwardl to oneingpen
sody, i sa




I __l__L r __ ___I__ _ _ __ I_ __ _

;1 *

ar. Orahamr 9e Copeland

Sbearr Mrrs Sepelsrts

Seeleset hererith tsn a sopy et (se *Setati 1947
Legerltab Programa, ave~glsralae Branina Dir~S~tri re4 a p~ropea
rrt Pirleltataary Legirg34tok* Gobreasegn~ Feblruay 18ther* I
attended this most~lag atr Wes Pala Seach wChere X seerd a esPy
of ~the progress Ihav haAd several eXtra se~ptea rmades

After yes home leshed ever thiss I roeald~ the eryansh
to disease th sam w~ith Srone Xi yez has gi~ng to ber la Misa
anygbiasa~xti arnnth 1 Weakt appellate it, if yes~ weal giveP as
a few daY@C Advande settee so 9I ean~Y mee pe rin ate

I am ge~tag to Coal fr h Par t~ Steak6p Sher, but I Wll
Sbe beeke hee the firtm~ at W~arehe

Blaserely yours

Ernsth 9. Orahea

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' 1
*r .

December 24, 1945

Mr. Ernest Gra~hama
c/o Grbahan's Dairy, Inc.
Hialeah, Florida

Dear Senator:

Many thanks for your very interesting letter of the
21st instant relative to water conditions in the Mdiamri
are a.

Your letter is very informative and I thoroughly
agree with you that, if the Miami Water Board would give
some re~al study to the problem, they would arrive at
the same conclusion at which I arrived several years ago
and which you too have arrived at.

Miami is a growing oity and should not expect to
obtain a sufficient supply of potable water in shallow
walls close to the city. They may just as well face
facts and arrive at the conclusion that the only safe
source of water for Miami and vicinity lies in the
Everglades a number of miles to the west or northwest
of th~e city.

Certainly, they should not expect other localities
to stand idly by and see the drainage canals from the
Everglades dammed up and cause the backing of water on
other territory many miles away. We have had sufficient
trouble already with drainage and irrigation matters
to have one of the main drainage canals, the Tam~iami
Canal, blocked in the immediate vicinity of Miami with a
resultant flooding of southeastern Collier County some
forty miles from Miami.

Early next year I hope to avail myself of your very
kind invitation to call on you and discuss the matter
more fully with you. I will wire you a few days in
advance so as to discommnode you as little as possible.

With the compliments of the season to you and Mrs.
Grahaun, in which Mrs. Copeland joins.

December 24,, '1945

The0 Ever. lades Draoinag:e Distrct 'Loard
1rlest Pallm DacRh, Flaorida


The Z';n. Bornrd of C'l.ntyg Commrsissionetrs
TDaic Coun~ty
Miam, Florida


"e harves been folo:loino veryr closely press dispiatche s
and31 newsV itemns in th~ei MTind ape I~c.. relative: to the p-roposed
plEcling of damfs or lod:11 in 1vaPrifous CanalIs- wes~t of TliCPI
hi~ch the~ idea of raiesing the water~ levelI in t~he teprrittory
wesf3t of T'-iami from~~ :hich i-t, appeals tha~t the water supl1Y
of the City of Dir.1n: and other metropolitan dirstricts in
the vicinity of Miami is derived.

`e believe that recently some fans of ri~njuction was
broi,;;ht k:,-Ininst1 theEvrla de r:!7Drl~113lainage Dist~rict to pr~e-
vent the~ placing of at least one such dam~ or look in at
least one of the canals above referred to and, accordingly,
it occurs to us that now is thel prop~cr timen t~o record wrjith
you our dizn:ppzroval7 of placingil any damer~ or looks in any
oaaln 'west of Mitanl wh~i~ch. would tend~ toc ;increase~ the flow
of waatesr through the~ Tamriarri Ganal wtestglward .into Gollier

Ie believed that a$t least one~ da has beesn pjlacedi in the
Tamiami Canall a few miles west of MIirami arnd c.7rrfula recordl-
ings show thiat watcr whichi should empty inteo and wa7s inten7ded
to empt~y inti- Bay of Biscay~~ne at or near ,;iami is now Flowr-
ing westward; and increasing the flood-ting of lands in Collier

If we i~dri bta~,P n dorrgetY, the proposed dama or looks
are being p'laced ol t~hei adtthorityl of a 30loca bill passed
at ther 1940 LegilslatureI givinrlr the Boar'd of Counlty Clormmissionser
of rLde Countly auJthority tfo rigjulat~ water in Dade Coun2ty.

oR arge sures Ithat Dbnder country anc M~iaami harve no stronger
friends al.M?~unell-riaihatrr than Co~llier county but we doubt

ver) seriously the co~ns.i~~tuiona.itty of any such act. If
eithencr of you Froards havea .the~ autho-rityj to dbam~ heb Te~~.caf~
Canal, it; would nppeanr to us th~! t th e ityi of Ft;. I.yers would
have& eqaI~~ ttisauhrity tc datal the; C~~r~alooahatce R~viver, T7.0 do
rnot: believe !.bst lhlep court Fs would rlphol:' any sbucha nuthorilty.

eiirr k ow tha the L.it~y 7f "'i~l.au annually exprciencyies
(r):ve; trombl~e :.'k Pth i ~ts .'tr a i:,ply~ andi we fooli that; nything
St-10.th; rson sholdCU~ be c!one to cssl.=t that caity in -.:j'inn:
s9ure of a! :lr.,r:'icent; and avie?. a ~.0017: of potn'ole~ woter.
HoweJ~vier, wet 3 do no~t; be'ie~vr that~. any project; shorlrd be o~1rn o-
Wh.elj w::dl'h wLil a riouslyg enri y o~p;:r myi~any tho'3Uwl:.*nT ofi 9roves
by ;f42 j Lin ina Coallieri Count~ly or anya7 oth-er coun:t; whtelh '-:epr~ens
to 7be tr.-.HcePrsee by a canalP which colleCis an~..) han'?es water
2?or)' thcc ve~cr, Inde~cS.

' -111 v.ir--:ij~tat Yourl advi;-: n., us fully~ conCrl". p.- t~he
lglovation of asy~ dea oP lookI which it ma1Y be5 cort~eraphlr teid
p2UetnI:. in thes .?-ve:'ani Canal orn any ~tiherZ CRusti colec~tingR
t''.'e..4 _'ra -the vr?.1-- e.s,:; whticrh water, if d~stivrtecd to the
2i~.1w1 ana, ould flood~ that; canral ad cause a. reve ,-:ril 3f
101.* of water theireor n ;;e stl.ordc Ir thre of:u incraeae thLe: floodnrn
of lacnds3 in1 so~utheafistern Coll-.ier Co aby:j.

Lth thte as;-utrx)anc e ofI our de-ov~e to beS coope~.raP~ti~ve Eand
to a~ssist any wttay : us:tble :in hrelping r;he 01~r of :.r-i.i. andr
'i'r CounatY, we are, w-ieTh the c?:..!.l l:ntIs o~f therc season.

Vr -'. t~ruly ,i, ches,

qie~~tered Mail
Ffetur~n .Ieceipt ;Ieque-sted

80C: Hon. Ernlest Graiham
Hialesh, Florida

I~ ~ I I I II

_ _

_ C _ I __ _II__ ~ C _ __I_ __ __

i; '~~PPm15~tn
"' '"




Decembere 21, 1965

Ere Dc Grahamn Copelandt

Dear Mr* Co~pelPands

Your lestte of December 17Th at heand+ 91h dams~ that you asation nav
beingy put Snea onm ~thhMam East .Coast are bef~n inataled b~y ~the Counrty
ComisataaenereP on the~ srengt t ~aloal bll~ stfrin them pwers~ to
regulate th wate in Dade Couaky, I don't be~ieve thia' bill is ac
stitutional,~ but If it ias enatit~utional and the9 Dade Countyr comissionlerS
canL do what they rar no~r doingathean thsIe ZBerade Draiange~ DistJrio
can aJLt asi wzell b~er wipd out~r. If the Dade C~oudyt Comiasionesrs can
, am the~ Todetad Camol undefir authtority of9 a loal set disguise.d as a gene~lra
act, tk1 han~ ther ~is as reSOnX whry Lee CruaCy could nok ~patOe a sitadsr Pact
and dam C~B~~al~BePeahabee RS~ivr A th8e aps~ far seen ~ombya to whaich an
outlet frms the Evergla~des p~tasse through In others worday ther interir .
of the Elvergladsr eannt certanly be haeld a~sr a eservor for th enefit
of thes mone~tal Wosant Seas.

There is no shortage of w~a~ter in the tast Arsas achri~thR~satpand the
esrrrnsroue reports pibli~ised in thes nwapai~pers last s6prings bErs Parker,
in chargy Of the GeologSaica Su~rveyt~rr b es haKs consitenly b~ake~d the
placing; of dear la' the Cana, gand; he isays the ltamad wsts of BSaud caannot
be used, adodta tihat there is an unli~adtad supply of aster werat of Riiadr
ThisP water 15ee lsar an udergroundl beata 3Rik an averrage deph.af ab~ot
85 teets henre~t is~S well sr a a~itione sonsP in this bassasP

the probles aiap "y elassrs downp to thies Thether the laqdsp et at ~i~ami
is ~going to be ~floded in onlert to save. the Mfisad B$~er BEard the oset
at ~pip to the waerre FieLh, and ther a~dSd~oitana pumpla: cost to bring
this waser ten milege

Another thingxt theq wdish to la~C to ge~t Chio water byr the drilltg of
walk316 sppnraritely 90 feek, so that thte water: will~ hav to goe through
\ the player at l15me rookan:ird'ib 8 th s me suc F~n~of theB oraieflBLC atters
They~P ola~ea there would be an additi~onal cost of appag3mtyrosil $~~2e00
a day f te wsater' ass taksn frus~ th sur acs e and a( Lstodg nsbe ratd
. This in agr opinia oni p~r~e terlSTamprob I discusse1~d thise matter with
pr~oug2ank wa tpeT r ~eaase in NeJw Ye~ aik s bat h adstsel'as th~ey quesion~p
if thr would be any addit$.a~al erast.


I5 zsreem to sa thr at conties Ithe Your shoulld prge the1 Erergladest
Distriat to seei tha yo~u iaterests ae prortestebdr Anzy tLna- you re~
Miau ~a ilan crare to give itt the time I should be glad8 to takp e on


, .

sws, e. ar. osa1/2

ever the area, shas you wha6t the9y are tryig Oto do and what we think~
srhold be dsae, ,

~IncLd~entallyc g, NrE leQol Pease,~R who seven2 years age wars advtiser for
iamia Beachr, told as at that LMap that if the Mtaind W~ater Board can-L
tiuesd to do wh-at they weroe dela, they would ensd up in just; what has
happerande iBat PRasummr aba I lane o 1 the North I went to see Mre Perate
to see if my1 nose~ry wass g~oodiZ and he advised ar ith lwa OK, At that the ,
I also arent to see the head at ~the United~ Sftiat Geoltogioal~ Stiwy to
find out whyg their sas should be outB advoca~ting th paeange atf state lsaa
and why~ theyahould take siae on an a iaessu 15km this, sineo my visit
Mr. Pastor has noot made any oocal spch~es Bthethe my visit hard am~p
thing to' do with it or nota I don't knDoT.

It nseems to so that a parallel ease to the Niat situations la th~at of :
y owtport~ News, ot~smioitib ndr Norfolk, Vir~rgiia were they- had a very
acious~ water problem Qa acouEWr~rm of ~wr sr~livies nd& thB great
influxr of population. IMhy installed a 80m~bile pipe lIte in corder to
catah the water aboad atP the salt '~SLafitraion. I have a w~r~tjeup! a
thia fistarllrtion~ which I would be glad to sowr you any time you aze
in thils are~a. I

ishinglr you and your fard.1y a Mesrry Christmasr, I sa

Staerely yourar

Ernest R. Grahaa


PS -I The last reparbt I had at the pumpinSgg of thle Malmi weP~llZs
in that they had nc ~w overpuaped the w~ells to a poiat
.. four fee6 beloa seema %$48.~00~~~~ PFrOm thisB you carn readily see
tuby the salt is; filteiring8 ta.

- ; 10



December 17,. 1945

Mr. Ernest R. Graham
Pensuco, Florida

Dear Mr.p Grlharm:

I have been reading several news items recently in
the Miami papers relative to certain water control measures
considered necessary for safeguarding the drinking water
supply in the cities of Miami and Coral Gables.

Only a few days ago I noticed in the Miami Herald
that same citizens had sought an injunction against the
Everglades Drainage District Board, if I recall correctly,
to restrain that board and all others from placing dams
in the Tamiani Canal.

I was over in Miami last Sunday and I was surprised
to note that the TamiamiZ Ca~nl in Dade County as far west-
ward as Paolita Filling Station, about four miles inside
Collier County from the arch, was full to the surface of
the surrounding territory land actually overflowing in some
parts. From that filling station westward to Monroe
Killing Station--the water level gradually lowered.

I got out of mr car and observed the condition as
best as I could. I found that chips and paper thrown in
the canal moved slowly to the weshtward. This indicates
a flow of water westward fran a point about fifteen miles
west of Miami to the canal leading from the: Tamiami canal
qt Monroe Station south to Monroe County.

I an just wondering what the dam proposition is all
about and, if you have any general ideas on the subject,
I would appreciate your advising me. Naturally, Miami must
have drinking water but, at the same time, if obstructions
are placed in the Tarmismi canal, some method must be
devised to prevent a major portion of Dade County drainage
flowing weastwrard in the Tamiami canal to inundate Collier

I am?

Awaiting your advices and


july 27, 1946

M~r. Erest Graham s

Dear Senator:

I had the pleasure about two weeks ago~ of hearing your
radio talk on the water supply for the City of M'iamni.

It was intensely interesting and, while I am not posted
in detail on the problems involved, I feel sure you
"hit the nail on the head".

I recall you referring in your talk to t~he possibility
that bad water might be a possible source of po iol

You mayg be interested in the enclosed! wIhich I received
today from the Florida State Board of Health. You will
note that that Board definitely states that certain facts
which have been found in scientific research indicated
a possibility of transmission of polio as a result of
cont~famii;:r:natio of drinking or bathing waters by sewage.

You need not return the enclosed.

With kindest personal regards and all good wishes,



July ag, 1986

TOs Directors, County &c District Hea~lth Departmntnfs, Watcer..& Scuago 'Corks
and Swimming Pool Operators.
FRON:I David B. Lee, Chief San~itary Eng$ineer
SUBJECT: Ilnactivation of Poliomyelitis Virus

Investigation has established that the intestinal discharges of polionyelitis
cases and carriers contain the virus of the disease. The presence .of the virus

has also boon demonstrated in sawago from cities whose population has a high case

'raxtes These facts indicate a possibility~ of transmission of poliomyelitis as a
result of contamination of drinking or bathing waters by sewager

In view of these considerations and for .our information, this offioG dooms

Sit advisable for those concerned with the operation of public wate2;r supplies,

sewerage systems, swinniag pools and bathing places to become ftzniliar with a

recoat article published in the Journal of the Bamrican Public Health Association

which discloses that polionyelitis virus is inactivated by chlorine in amounts

and after contact periods which arc well within the range of dosaxges used in

modern watGY LtOreatOe and swimming pOO1 snY1tatione

These results appear to be a contradiction of earlier work relating to this

same subjoot but WerG Obtained after examination of methods uncd by previous

investigators. Your aLttejntion is invited tO Outr recommendation that serious

consideration be given by water treatment plant and swimming pool operators to

the possibility of maintaining thG "fr00 iohlorino rcsiduals found effooti~ve in
the previously mentioned artiolos hn abst act of which is abttached for the bonofit
of those to whom the Journal is not readlijy av~ailable~.

in addition to the .attached abstracted article, we arC GAclosing c~acrinns

c~oncomning the appropriate test for "froo" chlorine in wator.

G. M. Ridanour, Ph. D11 and Re S. Inzgolas Ph.r Dc

Volume '36, Nuolber 6, June, 1986 issue of the

American Journal of Public Health (Pago 639 666~)

"Abstract of Sumary and Conzclusions"

(1) In contrast to previous studies this investigation shows that chlorine
is an affootive agont for the Lansing strain of polionyelitis if related to the
actual "frGG'~or uncedbinod chlorine residual in solution.

(2) Since the inactivation is related to the oxidation potential equivalout
to that of "free" chlorinos a ralativoly small residual and a relatively short
time of contact are nocoded.

(3) A "froo" chlorine residual of approxinatoly 0.2 p.p~ms by the ortho-
tolidino-arsonite ti~st for residual chlorine, will inactivate a 1:500 dilution
of the virus after a period of 10 m~inu~to con~tact. With a 30 mijnute contact,
approxmtuatly 0.1 p~p.m. is required.

(4) The am~ou~nts of "froo" chlorine noodod for inactivation arO WO11 within
the rang .of practical dosages usad in water treatnon~t and sw~ir-nnng pool san~itation,
w~hen abroa~kpoint") chlorina~tion is onployod. Howovecr, thosG "froo" chlorine
residuals may be reached even before the "brokhr", .in which case carrying tche dis-
infGction to the "lbreaikl, may not be required for inhctiva~tion provided thze required
"freo" residual is present before that point is reached.

(5) It appears that the ofGcctiVODOss Of thO 'frGG" chlorine residual is
indopondont of the typo of chlorino-boaring compound as long as the equivalout
oxidation potential of "frce" chlorinC OXiStS. In thGSG studies the results wore
approximately the smod with chlorine chlorine dioxide, or a mixcture of thG tW~O,
provided the material addod was sufficient to give the required ortho-t~olidino-
arsonite rcsidural

Thoro was a slight tendoney in favor of the chlorinG dlOx:ide ortho-tolidinoc-
a~rsenite residual, but this was not outside the rangG of experncan~tal arror. Honco,
it appears that the oxidation potoutial of the disinfGc~tatH SystOD! is a rfubiotDalt
fractor in the inactivation. This sens to be subst~antiated by the fact that ozone
studios, while not shown in the data in this paper, show that an ozone concentration
equivalent to 0.1 p~p~m. of "freo" chlorine will also Giffctively inactivate the
virus of poliaoyolitis.

Supplanoentary Notes

For your consideration WG wish to call your attention to a certain arca in a
Florida involving four cities. Throo of the four cities havo~e hadc ma.ny reported 1
oasca of polianyolitis whereas the fourth city, located geggoon two of the i (3 ~
others has yet to have a single reported caso of polianl~f lais. Although chloramine 1C L
treaxtrmot is in affoot at this particular city's water tretontant plant the ratio
of chlorine to msnootia is neare~r 83 to 1 cthn it is to thO nocopteod standard of 3 g *
or4 to 1, hence the "froo" chlorine rGsidual is relatively high. Application

Inactiv~ation of Poliamyolitis VIirus by ")Froo"l Chlorine

rates are maintained sufficiently high to giVG plant effluont residuals of from
0.75 to 1.0 parts per million, resulting in residuals of fromn 0.1 to 0.2 parts
per million tw~elve milos out on the distribution systGne

Neither numbers of this Burcau nor ncrmbers of that city's wator departent~
care to got out on a 165t~b and clnai that the reason for the absence of poliamyolitis
in this particular city is due to the high "froo" chlorine residuals carried
throughout the distribution syston, Noither do we claims that this disease is wa~tor-
borno but as pointed out previously, there is a possibility that it is so transa-
nitted. Sinoo there is such a possibility, and now that roscarch indicates we have
the means for prCventing its spread via wator, it appears logical for everyone
involved in the operation of water plants and swinnuing pools to imiaitain these
"frree" chlorine residuals for the rBconrronded contact tino. Your efforts toward
the proveontion of polionyrelit~is may bG rOWarded by lower case rats in ensuing

In many instances this may nown the olininzation of chlorcm~ina treatDDni Or at
least the use of chlormuinos only aftGY filtratiOn Or in WatOT Ontering thel~ dis-
tribution system. TIhat is up to the plant operators, Wh~cro "breakpointo chlor~inatic
is already in affoot or whero "frao" chlorinG residuals can be naintained for the
rooannondod time intervals in the plant itself, but not throughout thG distribution
syston, and whore residuals are desired throughout the distribution system, we
suggoat that post-chlorination plans consider the use of chlortuzinos.

In the Mlarch, 1986 issuc of the Journal of the Ancrican k;"t.:r Wiorks Association
the technique of the ortho--tolidino-arsonito tost for "froo" chlorine is prosoutod.
For thOSG plants With trained parsonael this tost probably should be adopted or at
least mado available for chockl purposcs, The flash tGst Of LEux (Lnuxs * Broak-
Point Chlorination at Andorson. Journal A,W.W.A., 32: 1027 (1940) provides a
qualitative estimatot of this "froo" chlorine; however, it does not allowr for the
interfo ronco by nangancso. Roughly, it consists in making or-tho-tolidihGe readings
on the sano tost at intervals of 5 seconds and 5 minutes after addlring thG Or~thO-
tolidino to the sam~pl~o The 5 second reading will approximate the amr~ounti of: ofrGG
available chlorine residual proso-nt. ThG 5 minute reading will be a mousure of the
total residuall present The diffGTODOG betWOen the twro readings will be0 rp~rosant~
atiVO Or thD; 3lOUat Of chlOUrarine present. W~ith~ brcakpoint chlorination the 5
second reading should b e qual to 85fo or nora of thG 5 nlinuto reading,

Where available, Tochnical Publication No. 213, entitled "Brca~k-Point Chlorin-
ation Practices" by Waullace and Ticrnan Co., Inc., Nowvarks N. J. supplies the
nGOOssary thoorotical and laboratory information desired by the planlt operator
planning on making this change in chlorination. Both the 3aux teat and the ortho-
tolidine-arsonite test arc outlined in this publication.

SW :awJ

April 4, 1947

M~r. D. Graham Copeland

Dear Mr.c COpela~nds

I reeived yoqur letter yesterday and yorur teslegrap.

I am anc~lorsin~g herewinth. a ph~otooCrtatt iop~y of the map they gave as
showing the oonaevrvation areas, 26* Broeard Ceouty ara, they list; as
93,~800 eares and e~tshe that; 65,500 sorsea a owned by the St~a~te at Floerida.
or samer of itsa politioarl subd~ivsions tabula~ted as followest

Truistees~~~sss~ssssssss of thea Inte~rrnal -inaprovemenrt Pud 40,670i
a ~' Sate Board ofP Jduetirar 8200
Everg~ladeas Drainage Distrtet1 31450~
Everladess Drat~ang Distrio anl TlrusEtiees
of the Int~ernel ImparorecePnt hund, jointly 54,050
~Eve~rglades D~racian~er Distri-t: and Broseactf
Country, joinly _~ 8130
oltail 85,800

the Da~de~-Br~~IT,~~P the sdtatq, 5 ~is 36 0 ages8P bu they do not
giveB a complete i. The TLIBi5P S-tate Cthat "af the totarl of
380,000 noro ea tin t D~~ia r ~fi~a'~s~Pcineevaio Area, 195+000 easrs are
l~ands owne~d by theQ TruRsteesa of the Intferna~l Improv~emen Funpd granted under
the -sweapS anmd Over~flowI Bho, 1. large p~art of the rena~' L la in ~title
of th~el TruPstee ofP the Internal Improvment; Fund, Eve~rgiidesr Drainge~ D~is-
t~art anrd Dade Countyg, acquirced by tax forfeiture."

'he Palm Beach BRounty rare they give9 as 116s500 aorea, of pi'ch 70,100
sores are ~g~ned by ~the State or somer political subivision of the Stat~e.
The analysis of thzse ownerabiCp is8 as fkloWIQa

Trustees of the Interal Isuprovement Frund 38i,00
Stateb Board of B~ikeation 3,200
Evergldad6 Drsaie~g D~istrict 4.120
Eversldaes Dsrai~nage Distr-Iot and Tmrstsees
of the IntrnO~al .Im~provement Pund, jointly 24,410
Evetiglades Drainage Distriot and Palme B~eah

To~tal~ 70,100

Colemian of Date ContPy aoasures mce that he would do nothing on ~this
b3il utilt~ it ,hae. had a sadgapete he~arig. I believe ar--rd of Brotard
Countyal~J cl1 be gery setgoug aga~ins~t i~t.~ We haaven' seen Cleary as ye

__ _ _ __ _I I __ ~ ____ ~_ __ _ r__ 1_1___ _ _ I

D. Grahamun Copeand


. ":";

,I page 3

A5pril 44 1j947.

Mdy idea wasr a ee that the bill did no~t prss as a loeal bill the first
wreek and try to a coand~ttee bearing~, and it; we esn't get the birll ki~Ledl
get wh~ateve~p ,rr ~n~amren a tr t~o get; theD throSPq over into a general. bi~ll
This, atg course, de ~pda mas~ wh# I thd wheonl get t~o Taillahassee.

Wht~4r do youE think the idee' of' starbitng,~ a r~~moven cangiudng the Br
from 5 6to 7 or 9 membe~re dividing the~ Ewerglahiles' Dra;~inage D int~o E
dist~riot e andaeah anumber eleoted frra his own ditrLy ridea s tOa'hy
~oujld be, elot~ed fraP t~he 1 wned)~ of eaob dfr~;sist a not; appointed
by the Governorq Zhe idea be a be ut yo or Counky 9n one distriot,
the lands we~at olf the Lake in hrt, and the lande a in Martin and
Saint Luote Counhioni in anothfker~ aPit obs ge Pral Becach Count~y two, Date
Sand BrowPP~ ant o eachr th bn ~teal haveo tq comeP fromL someonet baI~des
m ae, naturally, but; I it hias a -

i am 1/~aving SunZa~y afternoon landJ~ J1, be at the CheroEee otoc~l oPndary
nights day information you haveu~, send on' to me there.

SiLneerely youlrs,

Ernzest R. Gaham

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Harah fi, 1967

M~r. D. Grahamn Copelarnd

Dear bir. Copelands

Your letter of Unrahet I at hand. I amx loking~ forward to
disoussing the E~vexrglaeea patter with you before the sessions
anrd 1 ~thSink there are a number of things in the programs that
wpill be objectfionable oAen you knowr what5 is behind them O3ne
6f the thingse is thLe increasing of the ( mtll. ad valorers tax
to one nil. I also think there is a numnber of other things
that are obEjootionaLble.~1

SincaPerey yours,

'Erest R. Grahamn



Tamiami Land Development Company
.Camber, Zklood Pulp and Ember


March 1, 1947

Mr. Ernest R. Graham,

Dear Mr. Graham:

I appreciate very highly your letter of the 25th ultimo
enclosing a copy of the "Tentative 1947 Legislative Program,
Everglades Drainage Distriot, as Proposed at Preliminary
Legislators' Conference at West Palm Beach, February 12th".

As you know, we are very much interested in any legisla-
tive matters pertaining to the Everglades Drainage Distriot.
We think it is generally known and appreciated that Collier
County should never have been included in the Everglades
Drainage Distriot but, despite our constant efforts to get
out of the District entirely, we have succeeded only in
obtaining tax relief.

At the present time, all Collier County properties in the
Drainage Distriot (some 15 Townships) are now taxed on the
basis of 1-/ per acre per year and 1/2 mill ad valorem tax.

As long as that tax burden is not disturbed, we are more
or less willing to permit matters to remain in status quo
but, if any new legislation is introduced to increase
either our acreage taxation or ad valorerm taxation, we
shall most strenuously oppose the same, unless Collier
County be emitted from the legislation.

I feel sure that no one in South Florida is better acquainted
with Everglades Drainage District matters than your good self
and wRe will be very happy to confer with you prior to the
opening of the Legislature and, as far as possible, follow
your lead in matters affecting Southwest Florida.

One or more of the three Brothers Collier expect to be in
Everglades around the 15th of the month and, as soon as I
ascertain definitely when they can conveniently go to Miami,
I shallwilre you for an appointplept; to discuss ~al) such matters.

_ ~ _


IWarek 10,+ LO94

Mr. D. GFaham Copelsat

Dear Mr. Copelands

Enelseed herewilth find esopy of the proposed water bill
that will be disonessed by the scammit~te in Lakeland Wrarh 17.

I would appreelarte if I you wonld give m anyb clr ommebts
you h~ave betre Lrah 15.

Sineerely yearea

Ernest B. Gash~am



March 13, 1947

Honorable Ernest R. Graham,

Dear Senator:.

Thanks for yours of the 10th instant received today.

I think I see your masterly touch in the proposed Bill and,
if such be the case, I wish to congratulate you on what I
believe would prove of great benefit to all concerned in
water control legislation, if the State Geological Depart-
ment could obtain and would properly exercise the duties
prescribed in the Bill.
The three Collier brothers (Barron, Jr., Sam CI. and Miles)
will take over active management of their Florida properties
on or about June 1st.

They are intensely interested in EvergladesDrainage Dis-
trict matters in general and water control matters in par-
ticular. I amn very anxious for one or more of them to
meet you and, as I am expecting them here in the next two
weeks, I shall wire for an appointment at your convenience
for me to come over with them to have a chat with you.

With kindest regards and all good wishes, I amn

sincerely, Li

D. Graihama Copeland.

Ur.~. D Grha Copead

' Dear~ Mir. Copoelancl

tiecei~ved yur~ letter lrPwit the8 people fran the
F2ll orida Pb~f lo Kealth M anad wacnt to thank
yrou for it. I. had a g~ood htance to useit.

I am leavring for the No~t~h the latter psarb of this
week and wifll no~ goneI uniil earlY SE Septemiber*
As sj;oon as I ge 'bastP I hope I ean g~et in touch wi'th
ypou, as I would, lIh9~ to dirscuas same Ev~erglades3
pro::lemsp waith you.

Sincexrely~ yorr~s

ICrnest R. Gr~aha

E RG; I8

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Notranberrl 21, 1966%

Br, n, Er~eraham cope~lae

Dear Mr. Copeland a

Agata X1 want to songratUlab gte you the wsonde~rful
abatementaa your hav pu st Peak foyer temp~apers.Te
are giving uth resQ t o her State as recr d to9~aQ sOhBoo t

Sineerely yoursn

lralseti R. Grahamr


December 6, 1945

NFr 1. Drahame Copelanrd
Eve rglade~s

Dear Gr~aha

Your remarkable report of No .ember 1, 1945, awsaited mre
on ag return from the Horth. I: not only w~as very much
intere~t~ed in your figulrea but; also 5.8 son~s of your
coammets, especially paragrap~h 6 an page 1.

Certainly there is somelthing wrong in the tax: situation,
whe~n such a condition can take pslace And if there is
such a thing; as an economic problem in Florida, in rgy
op~inio it is ndb the Evergla~de but the '.hird Congressional
D~ist~riot, where every couzdiy9 with the exception of one ~-
Leonl is getting State aid for their schools. i: have
traveled over this distriort to a considerable extert;,
knor .may people in the dftistrit, and I balleve the distriot
could easily be made self-sustaining. Some of these
-counties have the 5mast agricultural prospects of any in
the State of Florida.

iWhat this state needs is to realize what its natural
re aou rloe are, and then to use t~hem to the be at advanrrtage.

S:1neraly youte




to the


"- There Are No Preferred e-



Ever glades, Florida

November 1, 1945



Board of County Commissioners

Everglades, Florida,
November 1, 1945.
Dear Stockholders:
You- will be pleased to' know that in 1944 we
continued the record set in 1943 of collecting 100%
of all taxes levied. All taxes levied in your County
since its formation in 1923 have been paid, which
means 100% for 22 years! A record of .which any
county may justly be proud.
Your tax bill for 1945 will be $53,496.67, as
against $50,402.10 for 1944 an increase of about 6%.
Your County has always been proud of the fact
that, despite its sparsely settled population and
great areas, educational facilities have been operat-
ed at the very high order of excellence demanded
by the State School authorities for accredited
schools. To maintain this position in the face of
rising costs of teaching and bus operation has
necessitated some increase in taxation for school
Comparison of figures for the school year 1948-
1944, given by the State Board of Education, cover-
ing educational work per pupil in Collier and three
near-by small population but large area counties is

1. Entire State .................... .....................22 70 8
2. %Hendry County ................... .................... 5,066
C o tle County .................... .................... 5 00
5. Glades County ............ 2,28
Current & Capital Expenditures
Per Pupil Total
Number County State Other Per
Pupils Taxes Contrib. Sources Pupil
1. 312,648 $40.37 $41.07. $ 4.29 $ 85.63
2. 73 4.1 4.7 176 183

4. 511 44.72 49.20 35.56 129.48
5. 302 45.56 71.19 39.28 156.03
The above figures do not include ad valorem
taxes assessed for interest and sinking funds nor
for building fund reserve. Collier County has no
outstanding indebtedness and has assessed no spe-
eial taxes for future building program; but has
invested $10,000 in U. S. War Bonds from current
operating funds.
Your County is not *one of the thirty-seven
Counties participating in the foundation program
fund set up under the 1945 laws to render financial
aid to those Counties unable to raise sufficient
funds locally to provide for adequate educational
programs. It is interesting to note that of the
thirty-seven Counties being aided under this pro-
gram only four are located south of Tampa and the
maximum received by these .counties is only $16,079
by Hardee, as colllpared with the maximum received
elsewhere, namely $72,999 by Jackson County.
As you will note in the tabulation below, we
carry a fairly large cash reserve. Most of this
reserve is invested in Ul. S. War Bonds of a series
which may be, sold on short notice. Your County
Board has an investment of $62,047.19 and your
School Board $10,000, all in U. S. War Bonds draw-
ing 2%%0/ interest. As none of these funds will

probably be needed before next summer, you will
earn about $1,500 on the investment.

The end of World War II found our National
debt at a figure considerably in excess of $200 bil-
lion and taxes several times what they~ were in
1940. There seems little doubt that for several
years National expenditures in excess of $1 billion
annually will be necessary to provide for veterans
and to maintain a two-ocean Navy and a large and
formidable Army, not to mention aid to our former
allies as well as our vanquished enemies. Further,
possibly even greater expenditures will be required
by the probable re-establishment of many of those
pre-war Governmental X Y Z spending agencies
through which the vast pre-war debt was largely
For these and other reasons, we sometimes
shudder at the thought of the continued high taxa-
tion necessary to meet the interest and debt re-
tirement requirements of such staggering sums.
On account of the taxation facing you our
Stockholders, we are exerting our utmost efforts
to keep your Collier County taxes down to an ir-
reducible minimum. We fully realize, of course,
that your County's taxes are merely a thimblee
full" when compared with those you pay either
directly or indirectly to other governmental sub-
-divisions but, believing sincerely in the old adage
that every little bit helps, we shall continue to
keep your taxes in this County at an extremely
low figure.
Many are the suggestions being put forth as to
the method of solving successfully the intricate tax-
ation problems involved, and, as formulating the
correct solution will depend to considerable Extent
on the attitude and action of big business and finan-
cial minds, such as yours, throughout the Country,
we trust you will give thought to a few methods
we notice in the press are now being seriously
First, we think, your influence might well be
used to prevent the States accepting Federal. funds
for purposes other than those of imperative -neces-
sity. You well know that unthinking people every-
where arouse their respective communities as to the
urgent necessity for some project on which Federal
funds can be secured. Such projects when multi-
plied by the number of communities in the State
call for the expenditure of huge sums--the Federal
Government generally supplymng about 50%.
.Few of the backers of such projects reflect that
ultimately the State or the Community must pay
back in direct or indirect taxes almost double the
amount granted. Not only will the Country continue
in dire straits financially but we, also, will find
ourselves continually saddled with a bureaucracy
and all its attending evils.
A. proposal now widely advocated, which ap-
peals to us as a most sound and excellent one, is
to place a Constitutleonal imitation on the power
of Congress to tax incomes, inheritances and gifts.
This proposal was debated in the 79th Congress,
first session, and might well be studied by all of you.
Very apropos, it seems to us, is the statement
made in the Senate February 5, 1945, by Senator
E. H. Moore of Oklahoma: "If a limitation be not
set on this power in peacetime, business may be
totally destroyed through confiscatory taxation.
The power of the States may be rendered completely
sterile if the Federal Government should exercise

P r

its unlimited powers in the direction of taxation.
As the Honorable Hatton Sumners, Representative
from the State of Texas, has so aptly stated:
"By making the units of State government
financially dependent on the Federal Government,
that Government is acquiring the power to control
the State governments. When this is fully consum-
mated, the sovereignty of the States will be liqui-
The response to our Annual Statement of No-
vember 1, 1944, was extremely gratifying. That
report was referred to very favorably on the floors
of the House and Senate during the 1945 Session of
the Legislature and was made the subject of edi-
torial comment mn many of the most influential
Florida dailies and weeklies. Just before and dur-
ing the early portion of the 1945 session of the
Legislature, the Florida National Bank, one of the
South's largest and strongest financial institutions,
published in the "Florida Times-Union" and in the
"Jacksonville Journal," dailies of wide circulation,
a series of six quarter-page advertisements detail-
ing the salient features of Collier County's methods
in finance and taxation. No. 6 of this series con-
cluded with this statement: "By following this
po"ic, C"'"i "" C int offit'"?,hvec suceeadede i
that the 1945 Legislature and other Florida Coun-
ties might profitably study for the benefit of the
State as a whole.
So unusual is it that a great financial institu-
tion in no way connected with your ,County should
find what we have accomplished sufficiently praise-
worthy to be used by it in an expensive effort' to
arouse interest in business management of political
bodies throughout the State, we believe each of our
Stockholders will be interested in reading the entire
series which are reproduced herewith.

Wrote Mr. Edward Ball, widely known Florida
developer: "I do not believe there is another
County in the entire United States that has such
able and capable management, or one where the
'Stockholder' (taxpayer) is so fairly treated and
receives as much in dollars for the taxes paid. May
I suggest that a copy of your November 1944 re-
port be mailed to every County Commissioner in
the State of Florida?"
Wrote Mr. J. E. Preston, District Manager of
Gulf Oil Corporation: "It certainly is an example
for the entire State and it is too bad that the other
Counties won't at least make an effort to profit by
1 oa experience and effect some of the economies at

Wrote Mr. J. L. Kraft, nationally known in the
cheese and food industry: "Your statement is one
of the most unique papers I have ever read. It
makes me have a desire to become a 'Stockholder'
of Collier County."

Wrote Mr. T. L. Airey, cotton exporter and
member New Orleans Cotton Exchange: "The
statement is most interesting and illuminating. I
use the word 'illummnating' advisedly for the State-
ment definitely shows what can be done in such
matters when politics, graft, waste, etc., are elimi-
nated and a business administration takes hold."

Wired Mr. W. B. Uihlein, industrialist of Mil-
waukee, Wis.: "Kindly forward me promptly dozen
copies of 1944 annual Statement to Common Stock-
holders of Collier County."
Wrote Mr. W. H. Wallace, Valuation Engineer
1Mississippi State Tax Commission:' "This is a re-
markable~ document, and one that I value highly as
a demonstration of what can be accomplished' by
an honest and competent County Board in attaining
the ideal in County administration and finance. I
doubt if there is another County in the United
States with a record so excellent. I am attending
conferences of tax officials in Washington and
Chicago soon and shall take your statement along
as I think it will be of considerable interest."
Wrote State Senator N. Ray Carroll, banker of
Kissimmee: "It is very gratifying to know the
Board of County Commissioners has again done
such a magnificent job, and I feel impelled to voice
my approval. Perhaps some day other Counties
will follow your example and do the work intended,
rather than play the game of politics, which seems
to be usual."
Wrote Mr. Roy D. Stubbs, prominent attorney
of Atlna Ga. enTde Sa emjen sB order ul and

missioners all over Florida adopted the same prac-
.Wrote Mr.' George K. Smith, industrialist of
Columbus, O., Secretary of a large Collier County
County Corporation: "LAs usual the Board has turn-
e'd in another remarkable performance."
Wrote Mr. T. T. Scott, banker of Live Oak, Fla.:
"I congratulate your Board on doing an outstanding
job, and am passing your statement on to our
County heads."
Wrote Mr. C. McDavis, President A. C. L. Rail-

the affairs of that Countyl'p
Wrote Col. Peter O. Knight, attorney and utility
management of Tampa: "LYour Board has done
remarkable work and I imagine you have read the
various complimentary editorials that have appeared
in the press of this State with reference to what
you have done for your County. All public officials
could do what you gentlemen have done, if they
would. Government is very simple if those in charge
of it perform their functions as they should and
with the same common sense and integrity with
which they perform their business functions; but
the truth of it is that, not many public officials do
Wrote Mr. J. L. Dart, President Florida Na-
tional Bank of Jacksonville: "I want to assure you
that it was a pleasure for us to bring to the at-
tention of the citizens of Florida, through this se-
ries of ads, the magnificent job, your Board has
accomplished and we are sincere'in our statement
that, if similar boards would follow your splendid
leadership, Florida would truly be a paradise."
Wrote Mr. W. A. Buckner, prominent attorney
and litterateur of New York City: "I am slo pleased
with this Statement and it is so remarkable that I
can use several additional copies to advantage here."
Wrote Hon. J. Edwin Larson, Treasurer of
Florida: "LI have analyzed the Statement with a

great deal of interest and again want to compliment
the Board upon a job well done for Collier County.
It is good to know that Collier County is -under
Such able management and direction."
Wrote Hon. Colin English, Superintendent of
Education of Florida: "I wish to congratulate the
County Commissioners and the people of Collier
County upon a most excellent condition which will
place you in a position to go forward in the post-war
Wrote IHon. J. M. Lee, Comptroller of Florida:
"As usual, I find this report most interesting and I
want to congratulate the Board and the people of
Collier County on your 100%/ tax collection. .
and I sincerely trust that oil may be found in vast
quantities at an early date. This would be a great
help, not only to Collier County, but to the entire '

upWrote Hon. Armstea Bro flierustc nf s
done it again! Congratulations upon the excellent
business management of the County's affairs. I
believe this is a world's record.

prem W te1Hon G11o Arer: "ur ss tement isI
Wrote H~on. Njathan Mayo, Commissioner of
Agriculture of Florida: "The wheel has spun again
for Collier County, with no blanks. I congratulate
your Board again on the remarkable condition of
Collier County and for the wonderful management
that makes such an extraordinary report-possible."
Wrote Hon. J. Tom Watson, Attorney General
of Florida: "LI have read your Statement with a
great deal of interest and want to congratulate you
upon the accomplishment of Collier County."
Wrote Hon. J. V. Knapp, Secretary Live Stock
Sanitary Board: "Your St~a~tement to Stockholders
is one -of the most amazing reports I have ever
read, particularly the record of payment sof taxes
for a period of 21 years."
Wrote Hon. George W. Whitehurst, Judge of
Circuit Court: "It seems to me that this novel
and altogether sensible practice of reporting an-
nually to ?the taxpayers by the County Board might
well be emulated by other Counties."
Wrote Mr. J. A. Charbonnet, realtor of New
Orleans: "If our cities and states especially were
to take care and eliminate 'preferred stockholders,'
as your Board so ably calls your taxpayers, all
would be common stockholders. It is a pity we have
not such Boards as yours running our Government."

Wrote Mr. M. D. Baer, Editor of the Railway
Dispatch, of Jacksonville: "It is a remarkable
achievement for governmental operation anywhere
in the Country and your Board deserves the highest
award of publicity as a guide for other political
office holders to follow."

Wrote Mr. E. A. Menninger, Florida publisher
of Stuart: "I can imagine Collier County becoming
more and more unpopular with the rest of the
Counties of Florida. It is positively disgusting that
you succeed in collecting 100%6 of your taxes year
after year! I am not sure whether you are trying
to shame us, get our goats or convince us that
Collier County has something the rest of us don't
have. In any event, we blush with shame and

weakly congratulate you on a record which may be
a reality for you but is just a dream for the rest of
Among editorials in the Florida press comment-
ing on our work favorably (none unfavorably has
appeared) are the following:
"A One Hundred Percent County," The Morn-
ing Tribune, Tampa; "Collier County Cares for Her
Own," The Reporter, Ocean Beach; "Collier County
Does a Good Job," The Daily Times, Tampa; "Col-
lier County Does a Good Job," The Journal, Pensa-
cola; "Collier County Does a Good Job," Florida
Highways, Winter Garden; "Collier Is the Darndest
County," The Farm Bulletin, Orlando; "Collier
County's Record," The Reporter-Star, Orlando;
"Collier County Tells the World," The News, Ft.
Lauderdale; "LFive Star County," The Record, St.
Augustine; "LHappy Collier County," The Herald,

News, Palmetto; "Where Taxpayers Own County,"
The Daily Tropics, Miami Beach; "LWorthy of Con-
sideration," The Floridian, St. Petersburg.

ttRussellinKay,ulem nnt caor1 nist, fa uardgiou
prominence in the following:
American Eagle, Estero; Arcadian, Arcadia;
Baker County Press, MacClenny; Bowhung Green
Exponent, Bowlimg Green; Bristol Free Press, Bris-
tol; Brooksville Journal, Brooksville; Clearwater
News, Clearwater; Crescent City Journal, Crescent
City; Dade City Banner, Dade City; Fort Myers
News-Press, Fort Myers; Florida Advocate, Wau-
chula; Gadsden County Times, Quincy; Hardee
County Herald, W~auchula; Hendry County News,
LaBelle; Highland County News, Sebring; Jackson-
ville American, Jacksonville; Jasper News, Jasper;
Key West Citizen, Key West; Lakeland American,
Lakeland; Melbourne Times, Melbourne; Miami
Post, Miami; New Port Richey Press, New Port
Richey; Palm Beach Sun, Palm Beach; Punta G~orda
Herald, Punta Gorda; Sanford Herald, Sanford;
Scenic Highlands Sun, Avon Park; Southwest Flori-
dan, Fort Myers; Sun-Tattler, Hollywood; ap
Free Press, Tampa; Tampa Post, Tampa;Tampa
Record, Tampa; Tarpon Springs Leader, Tarpon
Springs; Wakculla County News, Crawfordsville;
Winter Haven Herald, Winter Haven; Winter Park
Herald, Winter Park; Zepsyrhills News, Zephyrhills.
This Statement has been going to you for a
number of years and, during that time, we have
received several hundreds of commendatory letters
from you and from numerous other influential peo-
ple throughout Florida and other parts of the nation.
Also, during that time, practically every newspaper
and magazine in Florida has commented in news,
editorial or syndicated columns on the Statement---
always favorably.
have ever seen or heard came from Mr. Wlilliam H.
J~oubert of Gainesville, Fla., in the form of a "'Letter
to the Editor" which appeared in the Tampa Morn-
ing Tribune. Feeling that Mr. Joubert might not
have had .opportunity to read the Statement itself,
we sent him a copy and earnestly requested his
constructive criticism thereof. As the reply appeared
to be more critical of the opinion voiced by one of
your County's best friends relative to National fi-
nance (this opinion was very forcefully expressed
in a letter published in our November 1944 State-

e. Probably one of the most outstanding facts
of which we may boast is that no land. m Collier
County has reverted to the State or the Everglades
Drainage District for non-payment of taxes and that
the TOTAL sof all delinquent taxes for ALL years
since the formation of the County in 1923 amounts
to EXACTLY NOTHING--a tax collection of 100%
for 22 years.
Lest anyone think that the showing achieved
has been accomplished at the expense of the non-
paymng electorate, we hope that each of you may
visit your County, inspect the roads, public build-
ingfs, schools and other facilities for carrying out
County business, and the work being done for the
education, social betterment and welfare of the peo-
ple of Collier County. We have none of those archi-
tectural triumphs which grace many other counties,
but all of our public buildings and schools are ade-
quat naeaat, cen att31te oco plete an 3 te d
is staffed by excellent teachers who have enabled
all of our schools to be accredited in the highest
degree prescribed by the State.
We know you will be interested in news relative
to the development management of Humble Oil &r Refining Co., of
Houston, Texas, three wells, each of depth in excess
of 11,000 feet, have been drilled and the fourth is
momentarily expected to be brought in. All wells
are near State Road 164 in the general vicinity of
Sunniland, some 15 miles South of Immokalee and
a few miles west of the Everglades. Well No. 1
was the first to strike oil in Florida and is still
yielding about 20 barrels of oil per day. Well No. 2,
although showing a find of oil similar to that in
No. 1, was capped as a dry hole, the yield being too
small to be commercially profitable. The third well
was brought in several months ago and is yielding
about 150 barrels a day. It is hoped that the fourth
well will pump even greater quantities and will,
most important of all, yield important information
as to the probable location of a real oil field in Col-
lier County.
In this connection, the pioneer efforts in Florida
of your Board were successful mn securmng passage
through the Legislature of 1945 of two Acts--one
covering the Conservation, the other the Taxation
of oil mn Florida. With the entire support of the
Administration, the Conservation Act, alinost iden-
tical to that prepared by your Board, was passed
practically without amendment. The Taxation Act
proposed by your Board and recommended by the
Governor's Advisory Committee was not acceptable
to the administration in its entirety--chiefly that
portion which gave the County mn which the oil is
produced a portion of the tax collected--and was
finally passed only .after strenuous efforts of your
Board's representatives mn Tallahassee.
ofahe A i poesna severance 05d9'o din lieu
field area from additional taxation by the County.
Such is general custom and law in oil producing
States and is in our opinion fair and equitable.
However, to meet the great expense which will be
imposed on any producing County in providing po-
lice protection, additional school facilities and build-
ing roads in the oil field, your Board contended that
a portion of the severance tax collected by the State
Board set up for the purpose should be returned to
the producing County.
Sorely handicapped by the absence of our Sen-
abor, Hon. James A. Franklin, in the Army in Eu-

ment) than constructively critical of the Statement,
we have not followed further. We mention this be-
cause Mr. Joubert is the first and only person or
publication to comment unfavorably on the work of
your Board.
For the benefit of our new Stockholders, permit
us to repeat that portion of our 1944 Statement
tc hies tthhe hsigah lyseoso ourC Inane e and ta -
a. In 1928 our assessed valuation was $1,653,-
360; our outstanding indebtedness was $347,357.45;
our tax levy was $125,296.43.
In 1929 these figures were: Assessed valuation
$3,614,406; outstanding indebtedness $1,577,826.93;
total tax levy $405,225.99*

188n 1 40 othes gures wer e: sessed v lato
total tax levy $58,845.15.
In 1942 these figures were: Assessed valuation
$9,635,113; outstanding indebtedness $389,899.40;
total tax levy $69,815.47.
THIS YEAR these figures are: Assessed valua-
tion $10,287,164; outstanding indebtedness $184,000;
total tax levy $53,496.67.
b. When one considers that, in 1923, there was
not one inch of paved road in Collier County, no
permanent school buildings, no County buildings of
any kind, and today there are about 160 miles of
hard surfaced highway (80%/ of which was orig-
inally constructed by Collier County), about 57 miles
of improved County Highway, well equipped school
buildings throughout the County, and substantial
and modern Court House and Jail, it seems some-
what remarkable that the total tax bill today is only
about 40% of what it was 22 years ago when the
County was ~founded, and only one eighth of what
it was 15 years ago.
c. Years ago we definitely established a policy
of avoiding Federal aid. We take the position that
we can do lour work in our own way at our own
expense and far more economically than we could
through other agencies. We believe the results have
shown the wisdom of this policy.
d. As of October 15, 1945, all County and School
Board current bills were paid in full, neither interest
nor principal on outstanding indebtedness wras in de-
fault, and all County officials--the members of this
Board and of the School Board receive $6 per month
plus mileage for salary--all teachers, bus drivers
and all other employees had received their salaries
promptly and IN FULL. On that date, the County's
financial position was:
County Board cash in Bank at Evergflades $44,988.63
County Board invested in U. S. Bonds ...... $62,047.19
County Board with State Board of Ad-
ministration for Bond retirement -
purposes only ......................................... $24,467.51
Cash with State Road Dept. for road
purposes in Collier County only ...... $119,281.46
Cash with State Treasurer for restock-
ing game preserves with deer .:............ $3,680.00
School Board cash in Bank at Everglades $18,156.18
School Board cash in Tallahassee
(teacher's fund) ...................................... $7,522.00
School Board invested in U. S. Bonds ...... $10,000.00


rope but ably directed in the House by our Repre-
sentative, Hon. H. B. Kelley, and the late Senator
Harrison E. Barringer of our neighboring District,
we were able to convince a small majority of the
Senate that 100% of the House could not be wrong,
and sectrred the passage of our Act. Among the
chief provisions of the Act are:

a. Oil matters are to be handled by the State
Board of Conservation,
b. Two taxes--one a State excise tax and one a
County Excise Tax--on the production or severance
of all oil and gas produced are levied in the total
amount of 5% of the gross value thereof at the
point of production,
c. Of the total taxes levied and collected, 80%
is for the use of the General Revenue Fund of the
State, and 20% is for the use of the General Reve-
nue Fund sof the Board of County Commissioners
of the County in which the gas and oil are produced,
d. Prohibiting any other excise or license tax
being levied by any taxing authority on persons pro-
ducing gas and oil,
e. Fixing the expiration of the Act as June 30,

in contending for the return of 20% of the tax to

ehe pod cig 1 ount wl beb xsonesodent eothee 94

It was contended that, as in the case of the
State gasoline tax, the tax on gas andl oil should be
distributed on some basis more or less equally
among the 67 Counties of the State. And, the op-
position to our Act pointed out that, as regards the
tax on gasoline, Collier County had for years in the
Legislature and in the Supreme Court led the fight
for distribution on a certain basis among all the
Counties. While it is quite true your Board has
been foremost in obtaining a reasonable distribution
of the State gasoline tax among all the Counties, it
should be apparent to all who want to see that the
two cases are entirely different.

funds and felt that, instead of the return of gaso-
li e 1a e 11enetled inaour isnprselyt settaend Cunti -

lrgest in the entire Uniteud t~at East o~f thretMu
on the basis of mileage of State Highways in the
County, population and area--the same basis used
by the Federal Government in allotting Federal
funds to individual States.

In the other case, the State was taking from
the Counties their taxmng power over a, possible
great resource and returning to the producing Coun-
ty practically nothing (1/67th ~of 20% of the tax
collected) with which to meet the tremendous ex-
penditures which would be required in an oil field
for the addition of schools, police protection and
roads required. As stated, our Act was passed in
the House without a dissenting vote and by a small
majority in the Senate--to expire June 30, 1947.

The Lee Cypress Company, our second largest
taxpayer, continues cutting its vast stand of cypress
timber and estimates that, at the present rate of
cutting, the operation will continue for at least 25
years. Its local plant near Copeland operates as a
logging camp, employs about 250 people and ships
its logs to a large manufacturing plant at Perry, Fla.

The C. J. Jones Lumber Co.'s fine plant at
Jerome is cutting all the pine timber and a com-
parativelyi small quantity of cypress belonging to
the Collier Interests at the rate of one million feet
a month. It is thought this operation will not cut
out before 1956.
The commercial fish business is booming and
it is thought the 1945 yield will surpass in value and
quantity the 1944 output of more than 6Ya million
pounds. One half of this tremendous output is
handled at Everglades, about one third at Naples
and about one sixth at Collier City.
We fear that winter farming, which has been
severely handicapped by labor shortage since 1942,
will be again reduced this year for the same reason.
It appears doubtful that the pre-war record of 1650
carloads and 2100 truckloads shipped and 100,000
cases of canned vegetables will be equalled in the
near future.

have increased to about 6500.

coea or cnsdi ion hred 1sp rat and, uenmee r Hief
winter season in practically all lines of industry.
We had believed that the end of the war with con-
sequent shutting down of war industries would see
the quick return of our skilled and unskilled labor,
practically all of which decamped during the war.
.Such has not been the case, however, and it begins
to appear that, until wages comparative to those
paid by War Industry are offered, little labor may
be expected to resume its former work in this
Incidentally, the Florida Industrial Commis-
sion's last reports show that your County had no one
drawing unemployment compensation during Sep-
tember and October. Further, H-illsborough and

ber 29, the latter w th 846 claimants receiving $11,-

prons in mwo nterarby C uies reei qg amoeut2 0

1ags idusdt ie anj Inamorn hefo lbrCa god
In conclusion, permit us to reiterate that, while
we are proud of what we have been able to accom-
plish for you by keeping your County taxes at a
very low figure, we fully realize that, after all, our
work hsas been "primary school" only and that it
will be necessary for you to pool your brains and
influence with those of thousands of business men
like you throughout the nation in "university" fash-
ion to prevent the load of taxation becoming so
heavy as to cause national collapse and ruin.
With your continued help "Collier County Cares
For Her Own" will remain our motto and watch

State Millage Total Total
No. Total and Special Amount Payments % of Delinquent Amt. County Amount School Total
Tax Popu- School Assessed County School Taxes Through Taxes Taxes Outstanding Outstanding Outstanding
Year lation Pupils Valuation Millage Districts Levied Oct. 15, 1945 Paid Oct. 15, 1945 Indebtedness Indebtedness Indebtedness


1,682 168
2,277 236
2,888 365
399 -
4,792 514
5,082 664

5,005 675


63 1-2
63 3-4
63 1-2
58 1-2
100 1-2
97 1-4
45 7-8
63 3-8
61 5-8
87 1-8
33- 1-2
27 1-2
18 5-8
17 5-8
20 78
23 7-8


7 14
7 1-3
8 3-5
8 3-5
8 2-5
8 2-5
8 2-5
8 2-5
8 2-5



100.00 %
100.00 %

$g 0.00

$ 347,357.45


8 347,357.45
$ 184,000.00

Total delinquent taxes as of October 15, 1945.

NOTE* Although 1945 taxes are not due

until November 1, 194r5; about ~44% have already been paid. .

Lest there be some assumption by some taxpayers that some dis-
trict of the County has been favored to the detriment of others, we
state a number of comparisons which are believed to be typical and
which should satisfy any reasonable person. It is not possible in

a report such as this to cite any particular taxpayer, but if anyone
desire specific information concerning his taxes, it will be a pleasure
to us to afford explicit and detailed information.

The following general statements are given as being of probable interest and value:

1924 1939 1942 1945
Assessed Total Total Assessed Total Total .Assessed Assessed
County Valuation Mlillage Taxes Valuation Millage Taxes Valuation Valuation
Lee $7,476,509 70 7/8 $525,750.36 $ 3,175,488 48 3/4 $281,561.02 -
H-endry $1,756,820 42 1/4 $103,913.41 714,858 78 1/8 $F 63,298.56 -- --
Collier $91,766,440 63 3/4 $136,717.67 $51,880,766 20 7/8 $ 51,981.11 $g9,635,113 $g10,287,164

19 2 3 19 29 1940 19 42 19 4 5
Area Assessed Area Assessed Area Assessed Assessed Assessed
Community Acres Valuation Acres Valuation Acres Valuation Valuation Valuation
Everglades 320 .. $ 7,870 760 & 39,020 760 $ 95,195 $ 537,405 $ 559,842
Naples $ 111,130 5,180 $255,430 6,778 $348,865 $1,84~9,910 $1,968,048
Marco Island $ 31,850 $ 70430 $ 53,155 $ 304,767 $ 290,390
Chokoloskee . $ 1,370 $ 3,690 $ 6,790 8 ~44,480 $ 44,890
Copeland $g 5,210 d 34,750 $ 57,650
Ojchopee &
Birdon O 11,450 $ 69,070 $ 81,390
Immokalee 3 42,765 193,390 $ 173,83()
T. 51 Rl. 29
(Timbered) $ 54,400 $273,460 $b105,400 $ 527,000 $ 512,580
T. 53 R. 32
(Untimbered) 3 17,500 $ 28,080 $ 36,800 3 184,000 8 176,310
A hotel
at Naples $ 10,000 g 50,000 $ 50,000
at Evergladkes 3 -3,250 $16,250 $ 18,000
at Collier City .-.$ 1,700 $ 8,500 $ 8,500
A Golf Course
at Naples: 120 $ 2,400 $ 12,000 $ 12,000
at Everglades_ 60 8 5,650 $ 28,250 $ 6,000
Western Unioli iTel. COi~ 3 8,460 . 4,182 $ 24,503 $g 15,281
Inter-Coimty TelI.&Tel. Co. - $ 1,000 $86 2,520 $ 12,600 $ 22,701
A: Pdiwer Plant
at Naples $. : 500 $ 2,600 $ 20,000 $g 23,400
at Everglades $ 500 $ 4,000 d 20,900 $ 42,135

1 9 23 1929 1940 1942 1 94 5
Assessed Assessed Assessed Assesed Assessed
Railroad* Mileage Valuation Mileage Valuation Mileage Valuation Valuation Valuation
A. C. L.
Trackage 7.0 $ 27,000 76.26 $ 230,175 76.26 $ 55,546 $ 216,781 $ 202,835
Rolling Stock;, etc.. $ 1,000 $ 155,750 $ 44,414 3 177,592 $ 154,652

*Note: All assessments on railroads are fixed in Tallahassee and County officials have no control thereof.
With your continued help and backing, we shall make good our motto: "Collier County Cares for Her Own."

Very respectfully,
D. Graham Copeland, Chairman.

of. a seriesof .miadvertemnt ~abut Collier Conty-a~neample of the benefitsachieved
NO. for the taxpayers by outstandingly efficient public management.


Collier County, situated in extreme
has. accomplished one of the most re-
naement in the United Sta,.

towns an ~noi
only 5,082, Col
near-miracles in g
the last 21 years. ,,y
As an example o e benefits of
ment Collier County might well be
Legislature, by other Florida Countiesa
nation as a whole.
Here are a few typical facts: Since 1929
reduced from a high of $405,225, or $143
$50,402, or $9.90 per capital. Taxes since 19
levy amounted to $125,296, or $74.49 per capi
100% collected. Bonded indebtedness of Colli
been reduced from a high of $3,614,406 in 1
in 1944~. And even though the taxpayers of
considered the $50,979 tax levy of 1943 ast
management, the Collier County Board of
sioners succeeded in slashing another 1.1%
that figure when the 1944 levy was assessed.
All of this was accomplished while apr
and school construction and improvement was
.-and without Federal Aid because Collier Co/
pride in its slogan: "Coollier County Cares For
In subsequent advertisements we will discuss in Cozzism;
detail the various aspects of the Collier County Board court
of Commissioners' achievements in good management.

N:of. ra see of advertsements about Coi~er County--an example of the benefts achieved
NO. for the taxpayers by outstandingly efficient public management.


...Florida's Five-Star County!

*Few, if any, U. S. counties can equal the re-
markable record made by Collier County's able
group of Commissioners. During a period when
many officials argued that rising taxes were in-
evitable, Collier County's officials have steadily
ac. cut down their tax levies, but at the same time
'd have maintained a progressive program of high-
way and school construction.
*The example set by this group of county offi-
cers deserves not only the highest praise of the
taxpayers, but also the closest study by the 1945
Legislature and by other Florida Counties.
What good business in~anagement has been ac-
complished in Collier County can also be accom-
plished by good management in other counties.
p~i~ May the achievements of Collier--Florida's
a five-star county--inspire other Florida counties
.to follow suit.






rl I


NO. ~

of a series of advertisements about Collier County--an example of the benefits adlhieved
for the taxpayers by outstandingly efficient public management.

Not only has Collier County's effi-
clent public officials reduced county, in
debtedness from $4,6114,406 in 1929 to
$293,700 in 1944, but has also carried
out a progressive program of road -and
modern school building while doing so.
Not only did the officials reduce taxes
from $405,225 in 1929 to $50,979 in
1943, but they also sheared off another
1.1% to reduce them still further to $50,
402 in 1944.



Here is the kind of county thnanagement that gladdens the
hearts of taxpayers and that shows what can be done when
Boards of County Commissioners and Public Instruction apply
sound business management to their jobs.
Florida's 194~5 Legislature and Florida's other coun- .
ties might profitably study the operating methods of
Collier County with a view to applying them every-
where throughout Florida for the benefit of all citizens,
taxpayers and non-taxpayers alike. ri

Can County Government Be Efficient?

Take a Look at COLLIER County!

Tucked away in the southwest bulge of Florida is Collier County,
small ih population, small in wealth but so rich in efficient manage-
ment that it sets a shining example for other Florida counties.
Taxpayers elsewhere are accustomed to being told that rising
expenses make important tax reductions impossible . .but not
in Collier County.


i(4 of:seriest of advertisements about Collier County-an ~example of the bhenefits achieved
rlr .fr the taxpayers by outstandingly efficient public management.

COLLIER County Gives

taxpayers A Breakr!
r 'The ~taxpayers of Collier County, way down in south-
a~p i:- v :`est Florida, have had the unusual pleasure of discover-
~ ~..::::tl -'ing that there~ is such a thing as highly efficient county
Axeslrl; i. management.
::.~ Backt in 1929 Collier County's tax levy wyas -$405,225

~Iyear the county had~ a debt of $3,614~,406. These were
terrific loads for .a sparsely populated courity to carry.
,~iThen good business management entered thie picture in the
shape of: a serious-mindted, conscientious, efficient: Board
of County Coinmissioners, Board o~f Public Instruction,
County Clerk and Superinitendent of Public Instructions.
Taxes and debt began t~o go down immediately. Yet
~o~adinfildinig and a progressive school program were main-
tained. By 1944 Collier Cobunty's debt had been reduced
~~I:;:-.:tlo $293,700; its taxes to $50,402.
SRare, indeed, are~ similar records of accomplishment by
public officials. Collier County is an outstanding example
of efficient management--an example that the 1945 Florida
Leg~islatui~e and other Florida Counties could profitably
study with the view to applying these efficient methods
\\ 0~ g- for the benefit of all taxpayers.



Nb. ~of a series of-advertisements abour Collier C'ounty..-an example of the benekts a hieved
o. for the taxpayers ty ou~its.t'airidingly efficient public management.

All Florida Taxpayers Should Read
This Remarkable Public Document.;..

Collier County, way down in south-
west Florida, has long been renowned
for its efficient,~ business-like manage- slte~"
ment. Even in their policy of keeping c
bsnsthe taxpatY'kers informed about public tFtCtoP
busnes heCollier' County public .1 ch~~
officials are remarkable. ,c
Last November th~e Board of a.rRcouf~
County Commissioners issued a simple icoLL loplDA
comrmon-sense. report on county finan- .;*
cial matters. It was addressed to"Trhe ddf-**
Common Stockholders" -(Taxpayers) C,*
of Collier ,County.
This report the Commissioners
listed, among other things, these five
exceptional achievements:
1, Taxes reduced -from $405,225 in 1929 to $50,402 in 1944.
2. Reduction of outstanding .indebtedness from $3,614,406
in. 1929 to $293,700 in 1944.
3.- 100% collection of all delinquenrt tixes since 1923.
4. Refusal tq accept .Federal Aid because ~"Collier County
Cares For Her Own."
5.; Continued development of roads arid schools despite
tax, reductions.

*i. 1I lrs In .an agco~~e of rising taxes and public financial prob-
les Coler County stands out as a bright light
shining ... as a brilliant example to the 1945 Florida
Legisla ture and: other' Florida Counties for study and
I; for a plication of Collier County's methods of effi-
cient_ usmness management.


ND. ~of a series of advertisements about Collier County...-an example of the benefits achieved for the taxpayers by outstandingly

When true business efficiency is fou in public manager
ment, it is not an accident but the result o a sincere and thor-
ough application of good management me osby good busi-
ness men.
Collier County's magnificent record of r~~ucing taxes from
$405,225 in 1929 to $50,402 in 1944 and red' indebtedness
from $3,614,406 in 1929 to $293,700 in 1944 due to the work
of a remarkable group of county officials.
Although these officials seek no publicity, Irida owes them
a tbt of gratitude for showing what good couy management
T forethis bank bestows its warmest pr 'se for merito-
rious pui service on the Collier County Board. Commission-
ers compo of D. Graham Copeland, Deep LaChairman;'
W. L. Cla k~., Naples; R. A. Griffis, Marco; ahmWhid-
den, Immokl d J. M. Davidson, Everglades, n Ed Scott,
Everglades, Count lerk; on the Collier County Badof Pub-
lic Instruction cop dof F. J. Frankenhoft, Eve ds Chair-
man; Mrs. T. C. Ba f~S, Collier City and Mrs. W. .oy Smith,
Naples, and on Prof. En Bridges, Everglades, ntdet
of Public lustruction.
The Commissioners have complished their exc ~tional re-
sults by following a policy that i be summarized bfythus:
Complete anonymity of all me ~ers who are bu essmen
trying to perform a public service. Lo varies for Co Com-
missioners--$6 per month ($5 per mori for Board Public
Instruction members) plus mileage. Comp diacain fromn
politics. Utilization to the limit of all benef owed by lrd
law to counties. Refusal to take advantage of esof scled
assistance by Federal Agencies. 100% support fro hie txyers.
By following this policy Collier County
officials have succeeded in creating an exazm-
ple in good public management: that the .
might profitably study for the benefit of the ~:
state as a whole. ~


June 6, 1945.

Mr. Ernest Grah~anz,
Miami, Florida.

My dear Senator:

Upon my return here following the successful passage
of theso-called "Collier Coun~t~y" billss cvrn h
conservation and tliaxation of oil and gas, I wirish a~~g;ain'~
to extend to you my warmest thanks for' the generous
aid you gave us in securing passage of the Acts thru
a very hostile Senate.

Without a Senator of our owns I feel that we would have
been unsuccessful had it not been for the kindly and
valuable assistance you and a few other friends gave

Your thorough knowledge of th~e Senate and your intimate
association with the majority of the members of that
body and, particularly, with the minority who were
opposed to the Governor rendered it possible for us
to receive careful attention from the Senate, whose
members we found were always willing to listen to the
pleas of those who asked for nothing more than justice
and fairness.

AgEain, I wish to assure you that we feel your personal
help enabled us to bring the balance on an even keel
and, finally, to tip it in our favor

Collier County has always been your Friend and we want
you to know that we hope the time may came when we can
reciprocate your courtesy and to assure you that, ifs
in your opinion, that occasion should arise, it will
afford us real happiness to have you command us

With kindest personal regards,


December 30, 1944.

Mr. Ernest R. Grahanr,
Hialeah, Florida.

My dear Senator:

Thanks for your very kind letter of the
27th instant relative to our recent County
Financial report.

Such a report is not prepared without much
time and considerable expenditure of energy,
not to mention plugging away day after day
thru the years to make the basis a good one.

Such kind letters as yours makes us feel that
our job has been well done and no one can hope
for a finer reward than that.

I rarely come to M~iiami but the next time I
plan to be there, I shall be glad to wire you
and will be happy to discuss the proposed
school bill and water control bill with you,
as well as any other matter which may be of
interest to us.

Wi~th the hope that the New Ye~ar will be a very
happy one for you and will holding store for you
naught but happiness and the very best of good
health, I amn

D.Graham C v~eland.

_ _

December 2'1, 1964

Gr.l De Gr;1aha~m Copoland`

rOccr ::r, coplan~ds

I wantu to thank~i you f~or send~in: wrr your staterout~1
to the Connon Ut:ooltholders of Gollier Countly. ahis

that~ Col'lier Coun~ty r.0 ~~th boat Ianange~d country in the
State of Zflorida. If aneny of thie o~ther rgolntiels which~-
o liri t~o be unablJo to ourr th*or sola fnanrc~fiall
hd the ead3 kind~ of msaFEnaeEt 2 U1hink theQ iir LJO32lo
voutld b oveor.

Incidentlly, I wou~ld lit t9so disease w~Ith you 'uhe
pro~poood coho~ll bill waterol conr~rol b~il thato isn non-t
bolui; advocated througxout~ th< SOta If at; auy t~im
you1 ar coming to that a~nd have any spare thea, 'I wisch
yoru wosu~ ld~ drop a wise a day Bheadl. I would like, to
meets you inl Diant~B and~ disc~use these1 t~WO ~pdbos of'
logislatio bnb whc t~hinkr ar very likely to coma up*
Sinoro~lly y~ourol


~-"45'~"c~-~ 7




to th7e


wa There Are No Preferred 0-



Everglades, Florida,

November 1, 1944.



Board of County Commissioners

_ ~__


Everglades, Florida.
Novemiber 1, 1944.


In oiur 1943 report to you, we stated that your C~oulnty baJ
attained an all uime high in the matter of tsaiaion bl Collectinl
99.99b of all lar levies for all prior yeari. We' are glad` to advise
we have exceeded eten thiat rather fair record by making our tar
collectionss for all years since the formation of Collier Counry in
192. iut 109.Thiis represents only a small betterment but, a
we Irlive f'or perfection, you will probably, be pleased to know
that, In tau collection at least, w.e are perfect-1000r~i for 21 years
Then 100, we have again slightly reduced your taxes. For
1-, olud toa ntaoresl ar )0,-21 h as aa3bi~n jut 85)993 o

mailed our until rada\. so prompt are our large taxpayers that
27,2"65.99~. or 54%~. were: paid and discounted at 49ri as permitted
by law inl October.
You will note in the tabulations below that we carry a fairly
large cash reserve. A~s no bank is now paying interesI on depocsit =
we decided to take advantage of the provisions of existing State
law and to invest some of these funds in U. 5. Wanr Bonnds oi a
Series whiich may be sold on short notice. Acordingly, we now
carry as an investment at 25 f i interest P52.040l.04~ and, similarly,
your Board of Public Instruction has inves~ted $5,0010.00 surplus
in Ui. S. W;ar Bonds. As it is probable these funds will nor be
required to carry on your County's wo~rrk until neut summer, ve
figure we will earn for you about 51,0100.00) on there investments.
In this colnnection, we some times shudder when we ionjider
the question of how the U., S. Treasury w~ill manage to pay ;nter-
est on the National Debt of some $200 billion but optimists seem ~
to believe even thar stupendous lask wiUl be successluly accomplirh-
ed without too much leger de main. Pessimists, but, after all,
no one connected with your management has e\er been in th~at
ilass, and, probably like )ou, we lust hope for the best and exert
our utmost to keep your tases in Collier Counlty-the only taxes
we absolutely control-cut to the bone.
As usual, the response received from you to our Annual
Statement of November 1, 1943, was extremely gratifying. H5e
adopted your suggestion to the effect that w~e should undertake a
bit of education among: taking authorities of other Counties of Ib?
State. A copy; of our last report was mailed to? each member of
ithe State Lzeislature. ta Stale O~lficials andj ro a numiber of Florida
Daily and Weetkly Newspapers. The response wass flattering~ to
us and wre regret that lack of space does not permit us to seproduice
more than a few typical communications on the subject.

Wrote Col. Peter O. Knight, widely known corporation counsel
and utility magnate of Tamp~a, an old friend of ours: "I was so
interested in reading the report that I ha\e gone o\er it twice. A
moere remarkable or complete slalement to the owners of Collies
C-ounty could not have been made than has been made b~ ).ou as
Chairman of thle Board of Directors. That is w~ha~t he Boardl of
Commissioners of your County; really is.

"It is amazing to know that in these days of e;rravagannce,
vwarte. and incompetence, such a remarkable statements could be
made by the Officers in charge of your public affairs. A atr
of fact, isuch a storement could' be made by every country in this
Slnie if the Puiblic O3fflcias ls hving charge of heir affairj would
rake the same interest in them as has been taken b! the Co~m.
mission of Collier County.
"Commencing about the year 1922 (Co~llier County was
formed in 19231 in this State, we all began 10 bo~wl about the
necessity of abolishing all useless boards, bureaus and offices:
of the opposition to the creation of any more bureaus, offices, etc.;

the reduction of pulblic: expenditures, etc. To such an extent did
we spread this idea that it wa~S copied almost verbatim into the
National Democratic Platform of 1932. And, then, with the advent
of the New Deal, the whole Country went just to the opposite of
the common sense idea of the reduction of public expenditures,
until now (Nov~. 1, 194131 we blsve an annual expenditure of over
8100 billion. Of course any sane person can see that we are
rapidly approaching the Niagara Falls and, unless this idea is
haired and the siew~s of the public generally reversed, there is
nothing but disaster ahead.
"The ides of the United States, with 130: million people and
a National debt expecIed to) reach 5300 billion by the end of 19441,
holding an umtbreill o\er the rest ofI the W;orld of two billion
people is about as fantastic as moon-shooting would be."
Wrote Mrl. E. W'. Hutchings, General Mlanager of thre Lee
Cy-press Co., your County's second largest taxpayer: ''The more
one reads and studies your statement, the more one realizes that
it j~ust didn't happen.
"You have done a wonderful lob. If all Counties in the State
were run as well and- wiih as soundl judgment and principal as
Collier. the State would be many millions of dollars to the good."
W'e wvish to express our appreciation for the highly compli-
mentar); letters sent us by:
Adair, H. P., Attorne!, Jacksonville.
Alexander. W;. R.. Retired. bltarco.
Andre~ws. Charles O., U. S. Senate, Wlashington, D. C.
Austin, James A., Jacksonville.

Baer, hi. D. Journalijt, St. Augustine.
Baker, J. Ed., Journalist, Umarilla.
Baker, Lee L., Boaid Public Instruction, Clearwvater
Baker, WI. S., Supt. A. C. L. Railroad. Tampa.
Ball, Edw~ard G., Capitalist, Jacksonville.
Bilbo, Theodore G., U. 5. Senate, WSashington, D. C.
Brannen, Lynne, United Press Associarion, Tallahassee.
Briggs, S. F., !\lanufacturer, Hartland. Wis.
Brorein, Carl D., President, Peninsular Telephone Co., Tampa.
Brown, Armstead, Justice, Florida Supreme Court, Tallahassee.
Brown, W. hT., General Mlanaper, Public Commission, Orlando.
Buckner. W. A.. Corporation Counsel, New York.
Buford, Rivirs, Chiief Justice, Florida Supreme Court. Tallahassee.
Byrnes, James F.. Former Justiie U. S. Supreme Court. Wash-
inglan, D. C.
Cannon, Pat., Mlembcr of Congress, W!ashington, D. C.
Capp'er, Arthur. U. S. Senate, Wa'shington, D. C.
Carlton, Dovle E.. Former Gojrernor of Florida, Tampa.
Carroll, N~. Ray., Executive~ VP. Bank of Kiscsimmee.
Clarke. Omah A.. Merchant, Naples.
Cobb, Tyn, Jr., Journalist, Orlando.
Colee. Harold, Executivc V'-P.. Florida State Chamber or Com-
Colling. V'ivian, Adjulcant General, St. Augustine.
Cooper, J. Francis, State Represerative, Gainesville.
Crawford, Geo. GJ., Clerk Le-on County Board, Tallabassee.

Da\is. C. nlcD., President. A9. C3. L. Railroad, WFilmington, N. C.
Delano. Lyman, Chairman A. C3. L. Railroad, New York, N. Y.
Dell, J. Miasey, lbsjor, Gainesv~ille.
Dowda,~ Thomas D., State Representative, Pulnam County.
Dowvling. J. H., State Highway Engineer, Tallahassee.
Dresser, R. B., Capitalist, Providence. R. I.
Driggers, H-enry J., lklotor Vehbicle Commissioner, Tallahassee.
Edwards, WJ. T., Industrialist, Jacksonville.
Ellior. Geo. B., President, Atlantic Land & Imp. Co., Wilmington,
N. C.
Espenhain, Frank K'., Industrialist, Naples.

4 o, iM Y~

r -u'5

Fowler, Cody, Attorney, Tampa.
Franklin, J. A., Attorney, Fort M~yers.

Garrett, John WG., Capitalist, New York, N, Y.
Gillentine, J. S.. Fort Myers.
Graham, E. R., Stale Senator, Hialesh.
Graham, Ford M., Engineer, M~obile, Alabama.,
Gray, R. A.,' Secretary of State, Tallahassee.

Holloway, C. C., State Representative, ClearmonL.
Hanna, L. C., Grower, Lutz,
Hearin, J. L., Industrialist, Orlando.
Henderson, R. A., Attorney, Fort Mlyers.
Hendricks, Joe, M~ember of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Holland, Spesjard L., Covernor of Florida, Tallahassee.
Hutchings, E. Wt., MaInufacturer, Perry.

Kelly, H. B., Hotel Executive, Naples,
Kice, Mi. S., M~anufacturer, Birmingham, Mlichigan.
Killgore, John, Columnist, Tallahassee.
Knapp, J. V., Secretary, State Live Stock & Sanitary Board.
Knight, Peter O., Corporation Counsel, Tampa.
Krumbboar, Hugh, Industrialist, Plainfield, New Jersey.

Larson, J. Ed., State Treasurer.
Lee, P. J., General Freight Agent, A. C. L. Railroad, Tampa.
Leedy, L. C., Investment Banker, Orlando.
Leitner, Sumter, Asst. District Attorney, Arcadia.
Lindsey, O. G., Member State Road Department, Fort Lauderdale.
Livingston, Charles A., M~anufacturer, Chicago, il.
Lowenjtein. G., Mlanufacturer, Brooklyn, New York.

hlri, Jhn W4, txovero T paof Florida, Jacksonville.
Mlatthews, Eugene S., Mlember, Railroad Commission, Starke.
M~aybank, Burnett R., UI. S. Senate, Washington, D. C.
Mlayo, Nathan, Commissioner of Agriculture. Tallahassee.
Mlenninge~r, E. A., Journalist, Stuart.
.Mlilam, Robert L., Attorney, Jacksonville.
MIorris, Allen, Commissioner, Leon County*

Ogelsby, R. E., Banker, West Palm Beach.
Owens, James M., Tax Assessor, West Palm Beach.
Parker, Julius F., Tallahassee.
Patten, Geo. L., Secrelary,. Florida Railroad Commission.
Palterson, Geo. S., Mayor, St. Petersburg.
Pennekamp, John B., Editor, M~iami Herald.
Peters, C. W., State Representative, Miami.
Peterson, J. Hardin, Member of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Pettingill, Samuel B., U. S. Senate, Chicago. 111.
Powell, L. R., Receiver, S. A4. L. Railroad, Norfolk, Va.
Price, Emory, Mlember of Congress, Washington, D. C.

Rumley, Edward A4., Secy. Committee Constitutional Government,
New York.
Ruppert, Jacob, Capitalist, New York.
Scott, T. T., Capitalist, Live'Oak.
Sebring, H. L., Justice Supreme? Court, Tallahassee.
Shands, W. A., State Senator, Jacksonville.
Sheldon, Raymond, Stale Representative, Tampa.
Sherman, W. C., Industrialist, Panama City.
Sikes, Robert, Member of Congress, Washington, D. C.
Smith, Ellison D.. U. S. Senate, Washington, D. C.
Smith, George K., Manufacturer, Columbus, Ohio.
Sutton, John B., Attorney, Tampa.
Tennant, Mark L., Chairman, Everglades Drainage District
Terrell, Glenn, Justice, Florida Supreme Court.
Thomas, L. G., State Representative, Groveland.
Thomas, Elwyn, Justice, Florida Supreme Court.
Thompson, Leonard, K., Mayor, Miaemi.
Traer, Will M., Journalist, Jacksonville.

Uiblein, W. B., Maonufacturer, Milwaukee, WTis.
W'ard, C. Fred, State Representative, Winter Park.
Watson, J. Tom, Attorney General.
Welch. Hoke, Mlanaging Editor, Miami Daily News.
White, Geo. C., Auditor, Tallahassee.
W;illis, Bryan, State Auditor, Tallahassee.
Wiilloughby, J. E., Chief Engineer, A. C. L. R. R., Sarasota.
Williams, Ross, Circuit Judge, M~iami.

From many editorials and Columnist Columns in Florida
Ilewspapers, we quote only the following:

Fuller's Florida Letter Df 80nuay 3 19 1:
--Darndeat County. Collier County is the darnldest County
,ou ever heard of. Florida's first oil was found in that County
several months ago. People naturally expected a wild oil boom.
It didn't happen. The oil people already had leases on a mil-
lion acres surrounding the well. There was nothing to specu-
Inte on.
"'Cooller County was founded by Barron Collier, the Street
Car Advertising King. He died leaving splendid management
of his lands and County, D. Graham Copeland being now the
head man. Next to unified management, the biggest reason
for the County's success is absence of a myriad of over lapping
political units. Collier just doesn't bother to incorporate towns,
special Drainage Districts, etc., etc., like most Counties.
"Its current report to its 'Stockholders' (taxpayers) by the
County Board contains some astounding facts. For instance, the
1941 Legislature provided a liberal delinquent tax compromise
plan for Everglades Drainage District, which sprawls over 11
Counties and whose affairs had been in a tax and debt jum-
ble for a decade. While the other Counties went on wrangling,
in and out of Court, Collier Taxpayers 100%~ compromised their
taxes and drop them out of the way.

..The 19413 Legislature ordered Counties to foreclose every
niece of land tax delinquent for more than 2 years, take title,
e-ventuallr sell the land. Mlost counties are now running huge
advertisements of the delinquent properties. Collier isn't. It
doesn't have any tax delinquent land.

--What a County!"
Tfhe M~iami Beach Times wrote November 12, 1943:
"The County Commissionersj of Collier Counry ha\e started
:1 new innovation. In a brochure, setting forth the finances and
advantages of Collier County, we have an instance where for the
first time in our life, we find the Administrative officials of any
geographical division in this Country or any other that we know
of, openly and in public print, acknowledge that the taxpayer is
the owner of the County and not, as many officials of other
geographical divisions seem to think, thet servant of the officials
that they elected.

"All Hail, praire and commendation to these fair, open-
minded and Honorable Commissioners. Their example is worthy
of the emulation of every Administrative group, from Washing-
too to Podunk Hollow or Dog Palch. Thank you gentlemen and
congratulations to the people of Collier County, one of "the best
Colunries in the State, if not the Nation."

Said the St. Augustine Record in an editorial entitled "A4
Forlorn Hope", November 19, 1943:
''The County Commissionems of Collier County are gallant
ly leading an undertaking in which we firmly believe. Nonethe-
less, we fear taba they are backing a forlorn hope. They are
bucking human nature's propensity to 'grab' and either to beat
the other fellow to it, or at least get there just as soon to do
the grabbing. We fear the only way to stop the raid on the


Collier County News, Everglades.
Columbia Cazette. Lake City.
Dade City Banner, Dade City.
Daviona Beach Independent, Daytona Beach.
DeFuniak Springs Breeze, DeFumjak Springs.
Dunedin Times, Dunedin.

Everglades News, Canal Point.
Flagler Tribune, Bunnell.
Florida Advocate, W'auchula.
Florida Highw~ayj, Winter Garden.
Florida Poultryman & Stockman, Clermont.
Florida Public W'orks. *Jacksonville.
Fort Myer News-Press, Fort M\;yers.

Gadsden County News, Quincy.
Glades County Democrat, Moore Haven.
Haines City Herald, Haines City.
Hardee County Herald, Wauchula.
Hendry County News, LaBelle.
Hiahlander, Lake Wales.
Highlands County News, Sebring,
Hollywood Herald, Hollywood.
Holmes County Advertiser, Bonifay.

Jlasper News, Jasper.
Jackeonville American, Jacksonville.
Jacksonville Journal, Jacksonville.
Jackson County Floridian, M~arianna.

Key W~eit Citizen, Key West.
K~isimmee Gazetre, Kissimnmee.
Lake Wa8les News, Lake Wales.
Levy County Journal, Bronson.
Mlelbourne Times, Melbourne.
Mliami Beach Times, Miami.
Mliami Daily News, M~iami.
Mliami Herald, Mliami.
M~iami Post. Mliami.
Rlulberry Press, M~ulberry.
New Port Richey Press, New Port Richey.

Orange County Chief, Apopka.
Orland~o Sentinel, Orlando,

Palatka Daily News, Palatka.
Palmetro News, Palmneno.
Pensacola News, Pensacola.
Pensacola Standard, Pensacola.

Pranp riy Cu irm I an City.
Punta Corda Herald. Punta Gorda.
Redland District News. Homestead.
Safety Harbor Hersid, Safety H'arbor.
Sanford Herald, Sanford.
enut c s IFnodr diao F rt tlyer
St. Augustine Record, Sr. Augustine.
Stuart News, Stuart.

Tampa Free Press, Tampa.
Tampa Post, Tampa.
Tampa Record, Tampa.
Tampa Tribune, Tampa.
Tarpon Springs Leader, Tarpon Springs.
Titusville Star Advocate, Tirusville.

Volusia County M~irror, DeLand.

National Treasury will be to cut off the source. And politicians
see that isn't done.
**It seems that the Collier County Commissioners have done
an excellent job of managing the affairs of their County. They
have reduced indebtedness and slashed taxes. They adopted
some time ago the policy of avoiding Federal Aid. Co~llier Coun.
ry folks take the position that they can do their w~orke in their
own way) at their own expense far more economically Iban they
can through other agencies, and declare that the reslilts hlave
shown the wisdom of the policy.

"The Commissioners hare prepared a statement citing what
Collier County has done, giving its financial status, and a s
bopes and plans for postwar work, to be executed without a
raid on Washington.
"'This is unique. Practically every State, County and City
of which we have heard has its e!es on Federal funds, ihwih
to carry out post-war plans. We cannot see weeaNation
burdened with a colossal War debt can shovel out the funds
that Communities are counting on for post-war rehabilitation.
Collier County officials don't see where such lunds w-ill came
from either. These officials are determined to stay on their
own feet, and help Collier County to stay there, 100. Whether
they will have the courage to carry out their determination after
the grab is on, remains to be seen. It is natural that, so long
as the Federal Government says 'Come and get it'. officials of
States, Counties and Cities respond."
Wrote Russell Kay, Florida's well-known columnist, in Jan-
uary, 19413:
"A~n amazing document came out of Collier County not lans
ago in the form of a report and declaration of Policy by the
Board of County Commissioners.
"LPointing with alarm to the growing tendency on the part
of our local Governmental subdivisions to relinquish more and
more of their rights and priv-ileges and sacrifice the free and
sovereign control of their own affairs on the altar of greed and
selfishnjes, they propose the return of a sound policy of reason
and common sense,

"As did a tempted Christ on the mountain, Collier County
cries out:
'Get Thee behind me, Satan!' and wants nothing to do with
the glittering gold dangled so temptingly before it by a Federal
Government in the form of grants, appropriations and gratuities
to be matched by equal funds and spent with wanton reckless-

"A Congressional M~edal of Honor might well be placed on
the breast of each of the five patriots who signed tbe above
documents, for they, too, lead the fight against the evil forces of
madness and destruction.

Other Florida Newspapers which editorialized and flatter-
ingly discussed our Statement were:
American Eagle, Estero.

Abaurd I oudri 1, Auburndale.
Baker County Press, MacClenny.
Belle Clade News, Belle Glade.
Bradenton Herald, Bradenton.
Bristol Free Press, Bristol.
Brooksville Sun, Brooksville.

Clay County Crescent, Green Cove Springs.
Clearwater News, Clearwater.
Clewiston News, Clewiston.
Cocoa Tribune, Cocoa.
Community Review, Hialeab.

r "3

West Orange News, W'inter Garden.
Winter Haven Chief, WCinter Haven.
Winter Haven Herald, Winter Haven.
Winter Park Herald, Winter Park.

Zephythllls News, Zephythills.

For the benefit of our new srockholders, permit us to re-
peat that portion of' our 19413 Statement khich gives the hlgh
spots of our finance and ratation since the establishment of
Collier County in 1923.

a. In 1923 our asri-jsed \sluation w~as 11,653,360; aur ou~-
standing indebtedness w~as 5347,.357.415; our tax levy was $125,.

In 1929 these figures were: Assessed valuation $3,6141,406;
outstanding indebtedness $1,577,826.93; total tax levy) $405,225.99.
In 1940 these figures were: Aussesed valuation 11,886.17);
outstanding indebtedness 65391,515.15: total tax levy 858,8415,15.
In 1942 these figures were: Assessed saluation J'9,635,113;
outstanding indebtedness 5389,899.40C; total tax levy 669,315.47.
THIS YEAR these figures are: Asseassd valuation $10),061,
9141; outstanding indebledlness $293,70i0.14; total tax levy F50,.

b. Whed' one considers tbat, in 192j, there was not oine inch
of paved road in Collier County, no permanent school buildings,
no County buildings of any kind, and raday there are bout 160
miles of bard surfaced highway 180% of wbich was originally
constructed by Collier County), about 57 miles of improved
County Highway, well equipped school buildings throughout the
Counly, and substantial and modern Court Houje and Jail, it
seems somrewhat remarkable that the toral tax bill today is
only' about 14~0% of what is was 21 )ears ago when the County
was founded, and only doe eighth of what it was 14 years ago.
c. Years go we definitely established a policy of avoiding
Federal aid. We take the position that we can do our work
in our own way at our own expense and far more econmicali~lly
than we could thru other agencies. Wie believe the results have
shown the wisdom of this policy.

d. As of October 23, 1944, all County~ and School Board
current bills were paid in full, neither interest nor principal on
outstanding indebtedness was in default, and all County offi-
cils--the members of this Board and of the School Board receive
$6 per month plus mileage for salary-all teachers, bus drivers
and all other employees had received their salaries promptly and
IN FUILL. On thot date, the County's financial position was:

may boast is that no land in Collier County has reverted to the
State or the Evergides Drainage Disrrict for non-payment of
taxes and that the TOTAL of all delinquent taxes for ALL
pears since the formation of the County in 1923 amounts to
EXACTLY' NOTHING a tax collection of 100%o for 21 years.

Lest anyone think tbat the showing achieved has been oc-
complisbed at the expense of the non-raxpaying electorate, we
ic eilbt ienhg sf yuomayn vsit your C unty, inspect rthe oads,
County business, and the work being done for the education,
social betterment and w~elfare of the people of Collier County.
W;e have! none of those architectural triumphs which grace many
other counties, but all of our public buildings and schools are
adequate, neat, clean, attractive. complete. and fitted up in the
manner and style prescribed by State and School authorities. Each
school is well equipped and is staffed by excellent teachers who
have enabled all of our schools to be accredited in thle highest
degree prescribed by the State.

We know you will be inledestedl in news relative to the
development of your County. Since our 1943 report was issued,
a beginning bas been made in the development of two of what
appears to be the County's greatest potential resources. Under
the able management of the Humble Oil &r Refining Company of
Housron, Texas, oil was discovered near Sunniland last year.
While the first well, drilled to a depth in excess of 11,000 feet,
has a yield of insufficient quantity for profitable operation, that
wrell is Florida's first producing well. Other wells are now be-
ing drilled in an effort to tap w~hat is believed to be the under-
. lying oil stratum of great potentialities. In recognition of the
work of Collier County as regards the discovery of oil, Governor-
elect Alillard Caldwell has appointed the Chairman of your Board
as a member of an Oil Committee to formulate proposed drafts
of legislation on the Conservation and Taxation of oil for con-
sideration by the next Legislature.

begal' cutt g itP\ vt stn o y esssecomober laret Ia s gre
maining strand of cypress in the United State -at the begin-
ning of this year. It is estimered that, at the present rate of
cutting, the operation will continue for about 30 years.

Affiliates of the Collier Interests are now cutting their pine
limber at several mills which will not be cut out before 1956.
Despite labor shortages, the commercial fishing industry is boom-
ing and bringing to the County' the largest returns on record for
that industry.
Farming, despite being severely handicapped by labor short-
age, is on the up grade and plantings in the immoklee area,
where a ly-pe of sodl specially suited for growing tomatoes and
cucumbers has been located, have increased abour twuenty fold
in the last three years.

\Ve are proud of what we have been able to accomplish
for the County by reducing the heavy load of taxation you bear.
but we fully realize that, after all, our work has been ''primary
school" merely and that it will be necessary for you to pool your
brains wirb those of thousands of others like you throughout the
Country in ''university" fashion to prevent your load and their
load becoming so heavy as to cause total national collapse and

With your combined help "Collier County: Cares For Her
Own" will remain nailed to our masthead. That every County in
the Nation may adopt a similar watch word and make at good,
in our opinion, is the chief hope of the Taxpayers for the post-
war period..

County Board cash in Bank at Evecrglades........ .........
County Board invested in U. S. Bonds ......................
County Board with State Board of Administration
for Bond retirement purposes only ...................
Cash with Slate Road Dept. for road purposes in
Collier County only ................ ...... .............. ............
Cash with State Treasurer for reslocking game
preserves with deer ............... .........
School Board cash in Bank at Everglades........ ...........
School Board cash in Tallabassee (teacher's fund)
School Board invested in IJ. S. Bonds ...-............-.........

$ 5;,8019.16




e. Probably one of the most astounding facts of which we

state hIllillage Total Total
Total and Special Amount Payments % of Delinquent A~mt County Amount School Total
Tax Assessed County School Taxes Through Taxes Taxes Outsranding Outstanding Outstanding
Year Population Valuation Illillage Districts Levied Oct. 15, 1944 Paid Oct. 15, 1944 Indebte-dness Indebtedness Indebtedness


1,682 $1,653,360
2,277 2,306,841
2,883 3,:03,667
4,792 1,585,937
5,082 1,886,170

63 1-2
63 3-4
63 1-2
58 1-2
100 1-2
97 1-4
45 7-8
63 3-8
61 5-8
87 1-8
33 1-2
27 1-2
18 5-8
17 5-8
20 7-8
23 7-8


7 1-3
71 1-3

8 3-5
8 2-5
8 2-5
8 2-5
8 2-5




100.00% S
l100.00% o
100.00% r
100.00% t
100r 00%
100.00% ~
100.00% ~
100.00% o
100.00% c
54.00% '

$ 0.00


$ 34;,357.45

$ 0.00

3 347,357.45
$ 293,700.14

Total delinquent taxes as of October 15, 194~.

NOTE* Although 1944 taxes are not due until November 1, 1944; about 54%0 bave already been paid.

Lest there be some assumption by some taxpayers that some dis-
trict of the County has been favored to the detriment of others, we
state a number of comparisons which are believed to be typical and
which should satisfy any reasonable person. It is not possible in

a report such as this to cite any particular taxpayer, but if anyone
desire specific information concerning his taxes, it will be a pleasure
to us to afford explicit and detailed information.


The following general statements are given as being of probable interest and value:
1924 1939 1942 1944
Assessed Total lfatal A jsessed Total Total Assessed Assessed
County Valiuation M~illage Taxst \V..!unlion Il~illatge Taxej Valuationr Valuation
Lee 57,47:6,509 107.8 5525,750.36 5 ,7.8 8 .3 4 i-'81.561.02
Hendry 51,;56,820 42 1.'41 )103,913.411 ;14,.858 :8 18 s 63,"98.56 -
Collier f1,766,440I 03 3 41 '136,717.6; 1.! .016 20 2.8 51.481.11 Y9051 10,064,914

1923 1929 1940 1 9 42L 19441
Area AssesseCd Area Assessed rea Assesse Ass~essed Assessed
Community Acres V;aluation Acres V'aluation .1cres alaonValuation Valuation
Everglades 320 t 7,870 ;60 5 39,020r ;60 5 95,195 S 537,4105 S 529r,:46
Naples $Ill1,1301 5,180 '"55,4130 6.::8 )3418,865 5189,1 1,925,706
Alarco Island $ 31,850 3 70,330 $ 53.155 IS 304.767 ) 291,390
Chokoloskee $ 1,370 F 3,690 1 6,790 t 444.-80) 4 47,290
Copeland 5 5,210 f 34,750 I 36,830
Ochopee &
Birdon S 11,450 S 69,070n : 5,560
Immokalee ~3 4,765 ?5 193,390 $ 160,060
T. 51 R. 29
('Timbered) s 54,400 )273,460 $105,400 $ 527,000 $ 527,000
T. 53 R. 32
(Untimbered) 3 17,500 8 28,080 S 36,800) I 18-1,000 5 176,310
A hotel
at Naples 9 10,000 $ 50,0011 $ 50,000
at Everglades S 3,250 l 1.-,50 S 16,250
at Collier City S 1,700 S 3,500v S 8,500
A Golf Course
at Naples 120 S 2,400 9 2003 12,000
at Everglades 60 S 5.650 $ 28,"50 5 28.250
Western Union Tel. Co. ) 8,460 P 41,182 $ 21.50.3 $ 19,101
Inter-County Tel.&Tel. Co. b 1,000 ? 2,,520 $; 12605 22,701
A Power Plant
at Naples 3500 5 2,600 I 20.1:000 4 2o,gOg
at Everglades 3 500 P 4I.000 8 000 2ir90ir

192 3 1929 19410 19412 19 4 4
Assessed Arsessed A\srerild Assese~d Assessed
Railroad* Alileage :auaio ileage V3baluion illileage 1aluaron \'aluation Valuation
A. C. L.
Trackage 7.0 ) 27,00)0 76.26 5 230.175 76.26 a 55.5416 F 21h.781 5 "55,657
Rolling Stock, etc. $ 1,000 5 155,7501 5 -14,4-14 1 7,0 194,4578
S. A. L.
Rolling Stock, ela. $ 23,446 ? .7413 .9 33,085 *None
N.S. & G.
Trackage 12.05 35.1025 1205 i ;,036 `: 301.363 *None

*Note: All assessments on railroads are fixed in Tallahassee and County officials-bave no control thereof. S. A. L. and
N. S. 8~ G. Railroads removed tracks from Collier County in 1942.
With your continued belp and backing. we~ shall make good our monto. "Collier County Cares for Her Own."'

Very respectfully,

D. Graham Copeland, Chairman.